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ISO F ocus

The Magazine of the International Organization for Standardization
Volume 1, No. 8, September 2004, ISSN 1729-8709

Food and beverage
The flavour of Nestlé Efficacy in dental practice

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ISO Focus is published 11 times
a year (single issue : July-August). It is available in English. Annual subscription 158 Swiss Francs Individual copies 16 Swiss Francs Publisher Central Secretariat of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 1, rue de Varembé CH-1211 Genève 20 Switzerland Telephone Fax E-mail Web + 41 22 749 01 11 + 41 22 733 34 30

Comment Prof. Andras Salgó, Chair ISO/TC 34, Food products – The fruit of cooperation : better, safer food World Scene
Highlights of events from around the world

ISO Scene
Highlights of news and developments from ISO members

Guest View
Dr. Werner Bauer, Executive Vice President, Technical, Production, Environment, Research and Development, Nestlé


Main Focus

Manager : Anke Varcin Editor : Giles Allen Assistant Editor : Elizabeth Gasiorowski-Denis Artwork : Pascal Krieger and Pierre Granier ISO Update : Dominique Chevaux Subscription enquiries : Sonia Rosas ISO Central Secretariat Telephone + 41 22 749 03 36 Fax + 41 22 749 09 47 E-mail © ISO, 2004. All rights reserved.
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Food and beverage
• • • • • • • • • • • Ensuring integrity of the food supply chain Tracking food paths Detection of genetically modified organisms and derived foods Microbiological analysis of foods and animal feeding stuffs Cooperation works: uniting strengths for better standards Steamed or boiled ? Promoting the production and trade of rice Tracking fruit and vegetable products’ quality and safety Fresh, dry and dried fruits and vegetables Fats and oils for healthy living Comparing coffees Brewing the best tea standards

34 Developments and Initiatives
• Standards of practice in dentistry • A world of applications for gas calibration

ISSN 1729-8709 Printed in Switzerland Cover photo : PRISMA-Dia Agentur. Oil on canvas by Erik Slutsky, 2000
ISO Focus September 2004

39 New this month 41 Coming up

n recent years, multiple alimentary problems concerning human health (mad cow disease, Salmonella poisoning), the threat of starvation in certain areas, the worries connected with “ junk food ” and obesity, and the moral challenges involved in Genetically Modified Organisms, have contributed to bringing the issue of food safety into the limelight.

The fruit of cooperation : better, safer food I
Codex Alimentarius Commission is an intergovernmental body comprised of members that have the power to regulate the implementation of food standards and guides in their country. ISO, as a producer of voluntary International Standards, does not have such regulatory powers. However

ISO/TC 34, Food products, with its 13 subcommittees, has been working towards the goal of improving food quality and safety for several decades, and its portfolio of standards, adopted by many industries worldwide, has proved most useful in setting test methods, defining product specifications and providing the technical standards to ensure that food products conform to acceptable levels for human and animal health. Furthermore, in addition to the interest generated in the new horizontal standard now under development, ISO 22000, Food safety management systems, the work of the committee is expanding to tackle issues such traceability and detecting the use of GMOs. In today’s global market, to obtain optimal efficiency, it has become imperative to work not in isolation but in cooperation with the international agencies involved in this area. There is nothing new in this : ISO has had a long and harmonious relationship with Codex Alimentarius, a joint Food Standards Programme of the FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization) and WHO, aimed at protecting the health of consumers, ensuring fair trade practices in the food trade, and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

To obtain optimal efficiency, it has become imperative to work not in isolation but in cooperation with the international agencies involved
in the framework of good regulatory practice, as promoted at international and regional levels, International Standards and Guides are often considered most useful by regulators as effective and efficient tools to achieve important regulatory mandates, manage risk and address market failure. Using International Standards may help a regulator to achieve aims in public health and safety at less cost to manufacturers, consumers and the taxpayer. Using International Standards also assists countries to meet their WTO, TBT and SPS Agreement obligations. It had became clear that it would be useful to reinforce not only the harmonization of work between ISO and Codex Alimentarius and to deepen the collaboration but, more specifically, to inform Codex Alimentarius members about ISO activities and to spread the word of what ISO had done, was doing and was planning to do in the food product area. Thus it was particularly appreciated that, at the recent Codex Alimentarius meeting in Geneva in June

2004, ISO was invited to address the delegates and give an overview of ISO/ TC 34 work, of ISO’s activities and functions, including conformity assessment, that were of direct relevance to Codex members, and to look at where there could be synergies between the work of the two organizations. The questions afterwards suggested that this exchange had been a most fruitful and useful exercise, and laid the ground for yet deeper cooperation. We are at present examining in detail areas of cooperation that could be submitted to the Codex Alimentarius Commission to enhance the mutual coordination of work and elimination of any duplication of efforts. We are convinced that to reduce the number of food-borne illnesses and to avoid food scares, Codex Alimentarius and ISO need to cooperate yet more closely in support of each other’s work.

Prof. András Salgó Chair ISO/TC 34, Food products

ISO Focus September 2004


World Scene
WSIS agrees on roadmap to Tunis Summit
Some 425 representatives from government, international organizations, members of civil society and the private sector attended the first preparatory meeting of the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) in Hammamet, Tunisia, to discuss the roadmap for the Summit’s second phase in Tunis.

WTO examines conformity assessment
The World Trade Organization’s Technical Barriers to Trade (WTO TBT) Committee held a special meeting on conformity assessment on June 29, in Geneva, Switzerland. The meeting, which was intended to give Members an opportunity to have a more focused discussion on issues of conformity assessment, highlighting supplier’s declaration of conformity (SDoC), accreditation and various other aspects concerning Members’ approach to conformity assessment. ISO attended the meeting and, in the course of the discussions, highlighted the relevance of the CASCO “ toolbox ” for conformity assessment practices and recognition as well as the usefulness of ISO/IEC 17011:2004, Conformity assessment – General requirements for accreditation bodies accrediting conformity assessment bodies, and ISO/IEC FDIS 17050, Conformity assessment – Supplier’s declaration of conformity – Part 1: General requirements and Part 2: Supporting documentation. The WTO TBT Committee, at the end of the Third Triennial Review in November 2003, agreed on a work programme on conformity assessment. As part of this work programme, the Committee will organize in the future two workshops; the first on SDoC and the second on different approaches to conformity assessment. ISO has been asked to attend the events and give presentations on achievements and current developments in ISO on these issues. For more information:

Global Compact Summit fights corruption
More than 400 corporate executives, government officials and civil society leaders assembled at the UN headquarters on 24 June 2004 to take stock of the Global Compact and chart its future course. Introduced by the SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan in 1999 as an international initiative to advance responsible corporate citizenship, and launched operationally the following year, the Global Compact challenges world business leaders to “ embrace and enact ” the benefits of global economic development through voluntary corporate policies and actions. Currently, the Compact includes nearly 1 500 firms in some 70 countries. The one-day Summit saw a range of specific pledges being made, including defending human rights in conflict zones, ensuring decent working conditions and implementing “ no-bribe ” policies. SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan, who chaired the meeting, announced the adoption of a tenth Global Compact principle “ against corruption in all its forms.” Twenty major investment companies endorsed a Global Compact report and initiative on “ connecting financial markets ” to environmental, social and governance criteria, and agreed on steps to bring other actors in the financial world into agreement on how these factors would become standard components in the analysis of corporate performance and investment decision-making. The UN Global Compact was an important contributor to the ISO Strategic Advisory Group on Social Responsibility (SR) and to ISO’s international conference on the subject held in June 2004. For more information:

Focus on Russia’s oil and gas sector
Some 100 experts from the oil and gas industry gathered in Moscow, Russia to discuss standardization and certification for the sector in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP) Standards Committee Chair, Alf Reidar Johansen, and Technical Manager Don Smith spoke on the theme of “ Moving towards global standards for the oil and gas industry ” and encouraged the sector to make use of the new set of International Standards that is emerging from ISO and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). According to Messrs. Johansen and Smith, the OGP supports the development and use of ISO and IEC standards, which should be promoted and used without modification, wherever possible. International Standards developed by ISO and IEC reduce the need for company specifications and national regulations and facilitate trade across national borders, while achieving higher levels of safety through better design. OGP encompasses most of the world’s leading publicly-traded, private and state-owned oil and gas companies, associations and major upstream service companies. The ISO/OGP collaboration serves to help identify the standardization needs of the oil and gas industry and to help ISO gauge current and future market sector trends and conditions. For more information:

The focus of the preparatory process to the Tunis phase will be two-pronged : 1) provide solutions on how to implement and follow up the Geneva decisions (Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action) by stakeholders at national, regional and international levels with particular attention to challenges facing the least developed countries, and 2) complete the unfinished business in Geneva on Internet Governance and Financing. The role of International Standards in contributing to the development of a global Information Society was acknowledged at the first phase of the World Summit on the Information Society held in Geneva, Switzerland, in December 2003. The second phase of the Summit, which takes place in Tunis, Tunisia, from 16 to 18 November 2005, will measure progress to the ambitious goals set in Geneva. Hard work now lies ahead before the meeting to show that development of the Information Society is on the right path. For more information:


ISO Focus September 2004

President of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. processes. Institut national de la normalisation et de la propriété industrielle. Costa Rica and Mexico. when relevant. The group is expected to submit its final report in time for ISO’s Technical Management Board (TMB) meeting in February 2005. ISO’s work is increasing in scope to address new service sectors – including financial services – security. The seminar was organized by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI) and Iranian Society for Quality (ISQ). ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden made a speech on the theme of “ Certification and Conformity Assessment in the He highlighted ISO’s broad portfolio of standards for products. Tunisia on 28-29 June 2004. including by increased use of information and communication technologies. materials. Iran’s Minister of Industries and Mines and Dr. Tofigh. mass transportation. as well as to carry out in-depth studies in the areas of the built environment. Leonid Kuchma. conformity assessment. Jahangiri. information technology. Head of DSSU (State Committee of Ukraine on Technical Regulation and Consumer Policy). ISO Secretary-General meets with President of Ukraine ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden visited Ukraine from 14 to 16 June and had a series of meetings and presentations to Public Authorities and stakeholders. and stressed the importance of enhancing Ukraine’s cooperation with ISO that could contribute to expanding international trade and transferring advanced technologies and good management practices. He encouraged the public authorities and all other economic actors to increase their participation in international standardization which supported of their country’s economic competitiveness and social development. ISO member for the country. He underlined the relevance of the CASCO “ toolbox ”. Bryden also held meetings with Dr. Regarding plans to help developing countries. Concerned ISO committees are being solicited over the next few months to assist with the classification of their standards and current projects. production and. and addressed the strategic importance of International Standards as a tool for accelerating Ukraine’s social and economic development. Iranian Minister of Industries and Mines (centre) and Dr. Iran. He met the President of Ukraine.ISO Scene ISO’s high-level advisory group on security invites stakeholder input ISO’s high-level advisory group on security held its first meeting on 1 and 2 June 2004 in New York. Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine. Jahangiri. food safety and quality. USA. Mr. Quality management for the automotive industry Director-General of INORPI Saloua Ghedamsi (far right) with INORPI’s Training Officer Ben Farhart (far left) and seminar instructors Frédéric Paris and Raji Zouari. which have been implemented in the country recently. the ISO President said that ISO was carrying out specific actions and formulating further plans for assisting developing countries to increase awareness of International Standards and conformity assessment systems and to develop their standardization capacity. and freight containers. Ukrainian products on the way to the WTO and the EU ”. The group agreed to conduct a stakeholder outreach programme to invite suggestions for additional standards that may be needed. Bryden also held meetings with Leonid Shkolnyk. President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchna (2nd from right) and other Ukrainian officials met with ISO Secretary-General Alan Bryden. new technologies and good management practice to constitute a complete offering in support of sustainable development. quality and the environment. Some 650 participants from various sectors of industry attended a recently concluded seminar on “ Conformity Assessment and Product Certification ” held in May 2004 in Tehran. when it reviewed a draft inventory of relevant ISO activities and established a framework for classifying existing standards and ongoing work. ISIRI President and Deputy Minister of Industries and Mines (far right). Alan Bryden also met Nicolai Azarov. Mr. Alan Bryden with Dr. USA and Japan attended the two-day seminar on ISO/TS 16949:2002. The benefits of implementing a quality management system in the automotive sector was the subject of a seminar organized by the ISO Programme for Development and Training in Tunis. installation and service of automotive-related products. For more information contact : Virginia Gomez at gomez@iso. services. ISO Focus September 2004 Seminar in Iran on conformity assessment and product certification ISO President underlines diversity of ISO standards ISO President Oliver Smoot underlined the scope and breadth of ISO’s standards on the occasion of visits to ISO members in Turkey. President Kuchma highlighted the steady development of the Ukrainian economy as a result of the economic reforms. The seminar was hosted by INORPI. Deputy Minister of Industries and Mines and President of ISIRI. The seminar was designed to train quality practitioners on the implementation of ISO/TS 16949:2002 which defines the quality management system requirements for the design and development. the oil and gas industry. and Borys Paton. particularly its role in helping to ensure that conformity is assessed with methods and competence which may be appraised and accepted internationally. intelligent transport systems. He addressed an International Conference on “Provision of competitiveness of 3 . which specifies quality system requirements for suppliers in this sector. ISO member for Tunisia. and highlighted the growing use of ISO standards by public authorities to express requirements related to the assessment of compliance of products and equipment to regulations. Global Economy ”. Some 30 quality practitioners representing Tunisian suppliers of automotive components to the major car manufacturers in Europe. Ali A.

Nestlé was founded by a German (Henri Nestlé) in Switzerland. has been one of the first companies to implement a Group-wide environmental management system. ISO Focus : A number of Nestlé employees provide expert advice to the work of ISO technical committees. and expanding meant going abroad. Werner Bauer began his career as a Professor at the Universities of Hamburg and Munich. Mr. impose excessive costs. the major companies. Between 1986 and 1990 he was Head of the Frauenhofer-Institute for Food Technology. all our factories worldwide use the “ There is not one Nescafé but 200 and this explains why very many consumers perceive Nestlé as a trusted local supplier of high quality food and beverage products. Bauer was then promoted to Head of Research and Development at Nestlé Headquarters in Vevey. a small country. even before its official publication. Production. a telephone number or a Web site on each of our products. criticize and ISO Focus : As today’s largest food and beverage company in the world. and from mineral water to coffee. traditions and ways of doing business. He moved to take over Technical Management of Nestlé South Africa and subsequently the management of Nestlé Southern and Eastern region. in some cases. knowing best the prevailing conditions in their industry. might either impose too many restrictions on the company’s ability to develop and expand and could. ISO Focus : To what extent does Nestlé use an environmental management system based on ISO 14001 ? How do you think acting sustainably positively affects the bottom line of companies ? Werner Bauer : Nestlé. Research and Development at Nestlé. Technical. Production. Mr. How does Nestlé manage to maintain a worldwide consumer base when traditions and tastes vary from one country to the next? What is the key ingredient to its success? Werner Bauer : There is no single ingredient to our success but many! The key is certainly our conviction that there is no such thing as a global consumer. Environment and R&D. such International Standards. D suggest and we make it easy for them by providing them with an address. which a global marketer has to understand and respect. render an important service both to ISO and to themselves. Nestlé produces a wide range of products from meals to chocolate. His interest in nutrition led him to accept the position of Head of the Nestlé Research Centre in 1990. a position he held for 7 years. he oversees the numerous factories and product development centres of the Nestlé Group. dealing with about 7 million spontaneous contacts per year. We encourage our consumers to comment. they contribute very effectively to enhance fair competition and – in many cases – to raise the overall level of quality. When applied to entire fields of activity. This could only be done by relying on the experience and knowledge of local staff and by adapting the products to local tastes. 2002 he has been in charge of Corporate Technical. How important is it for Nestlé to contribute to the development of International Standards ? Werner Bauer : International Standards are important for a good and efficient business environment.Guest View Werner Bauer r. but that consumers everywhere make their decisions in a given 4 ISO Focus September 2004 Photo : A. This is why there is not one Nescafé but 200 and this explains why very many consumers perceive Nestlé as a trusted local supplier of high quality food and beverage products. having actively contributed to the establishment of ISO 14001. In this position and amongst his other responsibilities. After completing his education in Chemical Engineering with a PhD from the University of ErlangenNürnberg. Today. Diglas . Maintaining that trust also means listening to consumers : today we have some 80 consumer services worldwide. Werner Bauer is Executive Vice President. if developed only by people outside the industry. On the other hand. based on the principles of ISO 14001.” cultural and ethnic context. Since May 1. We therefore believe that by providing expert advice to ISO technical committees and participating in the establishment of rules. Environment.

tally responsible company. non-official food safety standards currently appearing on the market. provides the basic knowledge in food science which is applied in the whole Nestlé Group. cocoa and chicory. manufacture. a company almost 140 years old. What benefit do you see here in terms of safety. The Nestlé plant science unit in Tours. has never been too keen on short term views and we are convinced that in the long run. communication and trade? Werner Bauer : We believe that ISO 22000 could contribute to reducing the number of individual. But Nestlé. But we have gone further and have invested significantly – way over what is legally required – into environmental technologies. especially in developing countries. our brands. lose some market share in the short term. therefore. Customers could concentrate their efforts on their specific requirements which may not be covered by the standard. but we also verify compliance with our NEMS through internal procedures. our staff and our customers. Photo : Nesstlé Research Center Photo : A. As all have been able to see the effect on our eco efficiency. which should limit and rationalize the number and “ Nestlé Environmental Management System ” (internally known as NEMS) to improve constantly on their environmental performance. Their variety and ever-increasing number is creating complexity and confusion in the food chain. which produce. and suppliers would have better harmonized requirements to follow. France. thus raising costs without bringing consistent reliability. Diglas ISO Focus September 2004 5 . handle or supply food. Certificates delivered on the basis of an internationally agreed standard would improve the relationship between suppliers and customers throughout the food chain. This is and undoubtedly will be an asset for our company. ISO Focus : ISO is currently in the process of developing a Food safety management systems standard (ISO 22000) for all organizations. studies plant species such as coffee. our policy will enhance our reputation as a socially and environmen- The Nestlé Research Center near Lausanne. We are fully aware that such investments increase our costs compared to our competitors and we know that we might. Switzerland. External bodies have certified some 30 of our sites worldwide according to ISO 14001. this system has been embraced by employees at all levels.

Nestlé would integrate such a standard in its Supplier Management System. Moreover. The Global Compact is a means for corporations to freely and publicly express their commitment to social responsibility. raises entirely different issues. it is the food safety management system that will be certified by a third party and not the safety of the product. What are your thoughts on the issue? Werner Bauer : A clearer definition of some of the terms used in the Global Compact might well benefit the application of these principles and secure a broader following. “ Nestlé. Therefore. said that ISO can be a key force in helping to realize the Global Compact Office’s hope that CSR initiatives will ultimately converge. Mr.Guest View scope of the assessments requested by their customers. 6 ISO Focus July-August 2004 Photo : Nestlé . Nestlé International Headquarters in Vevey. we are actively collaborating with our partners to ensure that this standard is reliable and takes into account all common food safety requirements. It is therefore vital to avoid simply designing rigid checklists that might well be irrelevant to some industries or regions. a company almost 140 years old. over and beyond national legislation and international conventions. it will be essential Photo : A. Diglas to prevent misleading communication about the certificates . Khaled Abu Osbeh. it should simplify our relationship with them and it should allow us to reallocate some of the assessment and monitoring resources from the scope covered by ISO 22000 to more Nestlé-specific expectations. All partners in the food chain could derive benefit from the implementation of ISO 22000. Switzerland. but that would allow self-appointed critics of corporations to launch their campaigns based on their own interpretation of some specific point. Turning it into an enforceable body of law. If ISO 22000 fulfils our expectations. no matter the size or activity of the certified operation or which kind of product is considered. As part of our supplier and co-manufacturer requirements. has never been too keen on short term views…” ISO Focus : At a recently concluded ISO conference on social responsibility. We are especially keen to obtain an action-oriented tool without useless administrative or paperwork requirements. But one should keep in mind that the Global Compact covers a very broad range of situations and that its practical application needs to take into account diverse starting points as well as social and economic differences and priorities. representative of the United Nations Global Compact.

ISO/22000.Ensuring integrity of the food supply chain by Jacob Færgemand. Danish Standards Association (DS) F ailures in food supply can be dangerous and cost plenty. WG 8. secretary of the WG. or in combination with other management system standards Photo : ISO such as ISO 9001:2000. Food products. is currently at the stage of Draft International Standard (DIS). with or without independent (third party) certification of conformity. The standard can be applied on its own. Food safety management systems. and Dorte Jespersen. It is expected to be available as an International Standard in 2005. ISO 22000 for food safety management systems is intended to provide security by ensuring that there are no weak links in the food supply chain. convenor and project leader of ISO/TC 34. What is the standard about ? ISO 22000 specifies requirements for a food safety management system in the food chain where an organization • needs to demonstrate its ability to control food safety hazards in order to consistently provide safe end products that meet both the ISO Focus September 2004 7 . Food safety management systems – Requirements throughout the food chain.

including processes for updating the system. additives and ingredients. Ireland and Australia. This was the reason why the Danish Standards Association (DS – submitted a new work item proposal for a food safety management systems standard to the secretariat of ISO/TC 34. This implies communication of the needs of the organization to both organizations upstream in the food chain and organizations downstream in the food chain. primary producers through food manufacturers. there is a need to harmonize the national standards on an international level. Producers of pesticides. As a result. fertilizers. Figure 1 : Example for communication along the food chain.ds. Who are the intended users? ISO 22000 may apply to all types of organizations within the food chain ranging from feed producers.” The number of national standards has led to confusion. transport and storage operators and subcontractors to retail and food service outlets – together with inter-related organizations such as producers of equipment. Food products. Consequently. adequate control throughout the food chain is essential. ISO 9001:2000 on quality management does not deal specifically with food safety. As food safety hazards may be introduced at any stage of the food chain. Primary food producers Regulatory authorities Food processors 2 nd food processors Wholesalers Service providers Retailers Arrows indicate interactive communication. such as Denmark. packaging material. manufacture. Food safety is related to the presence of and levels of food-borne hazards in food at the point of consumption (intake by the consumer). cleaning agents. developed voluntary national standards and other documents specifying auditable requirements for food safety management systems. many countries.Main Focus requirements agreed with the customer and those of applicable food safety regulations. Other supplying food chains Consumer 8 ISO Focus September 2004 . handle or supply food recognize the increasing requirement of customers for them to demonstrate and provide adequate evidence of their ability to identify and control food safety hazards and the many conditions impacting food safety. food safety is a joint responsibility that is principally assured through the combined efforts of all the parties participating in the food chain. as follows : • Interactive communication Communication along the food chain (see Figure 1) is essential to ensure that all relevant food safety hazards are identified and adequately controlled at each step within the food chain. and veterinary drugs Food chain for the production of ingredients and additives Transport and storage operators Producers of equipment Producers of cleaning agents Producers of packaging materials Crop producers Feed producers Why is it important now ? Organizations that produce. amongst others. Photos : ISO “ ISO 22000 specifies requirements for a food safety management system. Thus. the Netherlands. and • aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective control of food safety hazards. in 2001. What does it cover ? The standard will combine generally recognized key elements to ensure food safety along the food chain.

This provides maximum benefit for the organization and interested parties. and in 2002 sales director BVQI Denmark. graduated from Aalborg Technical University. Infrastructure and maintenance programmes are used to address basic requirements of food hygiene and accepted good practice of a more permanent nature. Working Group 8. using the hazard analysis to determine the strategy to be used to ensure hazard control by combining the prerequisite programmes and the HACCP plan. laboratory equipment and medical devices. and impact on the end product. prevent or reduce specified food safety hazards from the product. she is the secretary of ISO/TC 34.Communication with customers and suppliers. he has worked with Bureau Veritas BVQI Denmark as lead auditor ISO 9000 and HACCP (DS 3027) and hygiene inspector on BRC. “ ISO 22000 may apply to all types of organizations within the food chain. specific to the nature and size of the operation. ISO Focus September 2004 9 . Working Group 8. Denmark. • System management The most effective food safety systems are designed. What are the benefits for users ? The benefits for organizations implementing the standard include among others the following : • organized and targeted communication among trade partners . ISO 22000 will dynamically combine the HACCP principles and application steps with prerequisite programmes. Food safety management systems.” The standard will further clarify the concept of prerequisite programmes. whereas operational prerequisite programmes are used to control or reduce the impact of identified food safety hazards in the product or the processing environment. Since 1994. • Hazard control Effective systems that are capable of controlling food safety hazards to acceptable levels in end products that are delivered to the next link in the food chain require the balanced integration of prerequisite programmes 1) and a detailed HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) plan. He is responsible for Bureau Veritas BVQi activities worldwide on BRC inspection and HACCP certification on DS 3027. initiated the launch of ISO/TC 34. She is secretary of a number of national standardization committees in the areas of food. The HACCP plan is used to manage the critical control points determined to eliminate. About the authors Jacob Færgemand. she has worked with the Danish Standards Association (DS) as project manager. he became Food sector manager. Dorte Jespersen. 1) A prerequiste programme is a specified procedure(s) or instruction(s). graduated from the Technical University of Denmark in 1992. • resource optimization (internally and along the food chain) . need. These are divided into two subcategories: infrastructure and maintenance programmes and operational prerequisite programmes. will also assist in substantiating customer and supplier requirements with regard to their feasibility. He chairs the Danish food safety standardization group and. a chemical engineer. as determined during hazard analysis. Since 1994. an food engineer. The standard will require that such communication is planned and maintained. based on the information generated through systematic hazard analysis. ISO 22000 will take due consideration of the requirements of ISO 9001:2000 in order to enhance compatibility of the two standards and to allow their joint or integrated implementation. the working group he chairs. Furthermore. that enhances and/or maintains operational conditions to enable more effective control of food safety hazards and/or that controls the likelihood of introducing food safety hazards and their contamination of or proliferation in the product(s) and product processing environment. operated and updated within the framework of a structured management system and incorporated into the overall management activities of the organization. • improved documentation . In 1996. in 2001. Food safety management systems to develop ISO 22000.

The concept of traceability. Food products T he significant increase in the attention being paid to the concept of “ traceability ” and its introduction into the “ real ” world of chemical. By András Salgó. The deadline for comments is 3 November 2004. Denmark. • fills a gap between ISO 9001:2000 and HACCP . Tanzania. • all control measures subjected to hazard analysis . The following organizations have liaison status : Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the European Union (CIAA). and • suitable for regulators. “ The most effective food safety systems are designed. • valid basis for taking decisions . • control focused on what is necessary . rather than product approach . • provides potential for harmonization of national standards . of ISO technical committee ISO/TC 34. Switzerland. Republic of Korea. • provides a framework for third party certification. • increased due diligence . but its exact meaning has been open to varying interpretations. • more efficient and dynamic food safety hazard control . Netherlands. has been found useful for many years. Codex Alimentarius Commission. Thailand. • systematic management of prerequisite programmes . Australia. Denmark. operated and updated within the framework of a structured management system. ISO 22000 is expected to be available as an International Standard in 2005. What are the benefits for other stakeholders ? The benefits for other stakeholders may include : • confidence that the organizations which are implementing the standard have the ability to identify and control food safety hazards. The usual thinking is that 10 ISO Focus September 2004 Photo : ISO Tracking food paths . • widely applicable because it is focused on end results .Main Focus • better planning. and World Food Safety Organization (WFSO). the concept has only been partially applied. however. Sweden. Experts from the following countries are currently participating in the working group : Argentina. • contributes to a better understanding and further development of Codex HACCP . Italy. the standard adds value because of the following features : • international . microbiological or of any other measurements has been one of the most remarkable features of recent years. Greece. Poland. • food processors are waiting for this standard . CIES/Global Food Safety Initiative. and • saves resources by reducing overlapping system audits. • provides a reference for the whole food chain . USA and Venezuela. Germany. • auditable standard requirements . Status of the work The Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 22000 was issued on 3 June 2004. Chair ISO/TC 34. Japan. United Kingdom. with clear • system approach. The standard is being developed by working group WG 8. starting in physical measurements. Canada. France. The 6th meeting of the working group took place on 21-22 June 2004 in Copenhagen. Hungary. Indonesia. Food products.” Furthermore. In chemical. microbiological and related measurements. less post-process verification . Food safety management systems. Ireland. Belgium.

Switzerland. quality or health problems can be avoided by using effective traceability systems. Clearly. or expected to be. and would help in the search in identifying the causes of nonconformities. since 1994. and is a member of Executive Committee of the International Association of Cereal Science and Technology. As part of the EU General Food Law regulation. among others. In January 2005. to increase. by chemical formulae. application or location of whatever is under consideration. to put in a system. in the withdrawal or recall of products. and has a post-doctorate in cereal chemistry and physiology from the University of Berne. application or location of whatever is under consideration. and any other substance intended to be. incorporated into a food product or feed. whereas the entity measured can be identified. the idea of traceability is not sufficiently widespread in the field of chemical. and investigation into the authenticity of food. These can be the effects of – and/or the follow-up of – Genetically Modified materials or ingredients. and suchlike measurements (in analogy with physical measurements) should be made traceable to the SI (Système international d’unités) unit of the amount of substance. The USA has also recently been considering the traceability issue. microbiological. Traceability is a useful tool – but insufficient in itself – to achieve food safety and other defined objectives in a management system. The intention of House of Representatives (2003) is : “ to improve the safety of meat and poultry products by enhancing the ability of Secretary of Agriculture to retrieve the history. About the author András Salgó. product tracing. He has a Ph. the relevant basic quantity in our international measurement system. Salmonella problems) have highlighted and confirmed that a lack of traceability measures and/or traceability systems can have very negative effects on food/ feed safety. a clear and generally accepted concept of traceability and the infrastructure to support such a concept are still missing. Dioxin. Where can traceability systems help ? Let us look at some important areas of food and feed production where sensory perception. and for other purposes. to put it in other words). new legislation for traceability will be introduced in the European Union (EU). E-coli. Article 18 contains specific requirements for traceability of food.” quantitative chemical. BUTE Budapest. is a chemical engineer who studied at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BUTE). 11 . It is the ability to trace the history. use and location of a meat or poultry product through a record-keeping and audit system. Major scandals in the last decade in different food and feed chains (BSE.D. or registered identification. is to define. which automatically means measurements of the amount of substance.” ISO Focus September 2004 “ Traceability is the ability to trace the history. Governments and consumers demand traceability Governments and consumer groups are increasingly pressurizing the food and feed supply chains to adopt traceability measurements. and to document food safety. microbiological. for instance. feed and food-producing animals. To support the current need for global measurement comparability. Chair of ISO/TC 34 and TC 34/ SC4. in cereal chemistry from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.One other meaning and aim of traceability (or. detection of the falsification of food products. biological and suchlike measurements. Cereals and pulses. and in achieving greater reliability of information and thereby contributing to a higher level of business efficiency. the appearance of “ new ” microbes. Traceability systems would be able to recreate the history of a product and to trace the destination in a food/feed chain. He has been Head of the Department Biochemistry and Food Technology.

and rapeseed (canola) are grown today. It is expected that the ISO standard will be finished by the end of 2005 and will be published in spring 2006. and South Africa 1). Photo : ISO and has reached the Committee Draft stage (ISO/CD 22519) and it is being circulated for voting. Other major countries where GM crops are grown include Argentina. quality. The future ISO standards being developed are of global relevance since they can contribute to facilitate international trade and services by providing an internationally consistent approach to the detection and analysis of GMO 12 ISO Focus September 2004 . This standard provides principles and guidance to establish a traceability system . Berlin. corn. parties. The United States accounts for almost two-thirds of bio-engineered crops produced globally. GM (genetically modified) varieties of soybeans. traceability can become a two-way exchange. We hope that the introduction and application of the new traceability standard will enhance the transparency of processes in the food/feed chain. Detection of genetically modified organisms and derived foods By Marianna Schauzu. • Procedures . • Definition of product(s) ingredient(s) to be traced . and will improve food safety as well as fair cooperation and communication between the different stakeholders in the food chain. The experience is interesting because it points to the possibility of viewing the traceability system not merely as a means to facilitate recalls nor purely as a system imposed by legislation. working group 9 has been taking into consideration the progress of the “ Traceability/ Product tracing ” project underway in the Codex Alimentarius Commission (under Swiss leadership).Main Focus A clear ISO role These trends and new regulations encouraged ISO/TC 34 to establish the WG 9 (under Italian leadership) in June 2001 with a view to elaborating a new work item proposal entitled Traceability in feed and food chain – General principles and guidance for system design and development. recall. ISO/CD 22519 is intended to be flexible enough to allow organizations to use it to achieve the specific identified objectives. history. enabling the feedback of information from retailers and consumers that could help the food trade and farmers gain commercial advantage. Rather. that has ISO 9001:2000 and ISO/DIS 22000:2004 as its normative references. and the ISO standard now being developed is harmonized with the Codex documents. The genes that have been introduced into these crops confer resistance to certain herbicides or produce toxins against specific insect pests. the future ISO 22519. enabling the feedback of information from retailers and consumers that could help the food trade and farmers gain commercial advantage. • Relevant steps in food chain . and is adopting the definitions used in ISO/DIS 22000. • Documentation. O n 25 % of the global crop areas. it is generic and therefore not related to specific needs. and scientific secretary of the German Advisory Committee for Novel Foods. cotton. Head of Center of Novel Foods and Genetic Engineering at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. Brazil. communication) . Traceability as a two-way exchange “ Traceability can become a two-way exchange. China. Canada.” The proposal. In the course of the development of the Committee Draft. origin. The elements of a system concept in food and feed chain traceability are the following : • Identification the specific objectives to be achieved (safety.

9 % 5 % (in top 3 ingredients) 3 % (in top 5 ingredients) 5 % (of GM soya or corn products) Australia & New Zealand Mandatory Sources : compiled from Agricultural Issues Center. (2003) Preview : Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic Crops : 2003. 14.10. food producers and analytical laboratories to respond to labelling provisions that numerous countries around the world have developed.Photo : ISO new legislation with extended labelling provisions came into effect 3). the OECD Task Force for the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds. Berlin. Other governments around the world followed the European Union example and have also developed labelling provisions for GM foods. partly in response to the public debate. With labelling requirements in place. ISAAA Briefs No 30. June 2004 . Official Journal of the European Communities L 268: 1-28. March 30. crop growers.2. Following a suggestion mainly from European Codex Alimentarius members. April 2004 . introduced mandatory labelling for foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) 2). Ithaca.isaaa. Reuters. 1830/2003. 2) Regulation (EC) No 258/97. the CODEX Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology and the COST Technical Committee on Agriculture. Official Journal of the European Communities L 43 : 1-7. In April 2004. or are now developing and will provide food control authorities with a tool to control compliance with legal requirements. Canadian Food Inspection Agency and International Trade Canada. She has been a German delegate to the European Commission’s Working Group of Competent Authorities and Food Assessment Bodies. Dr. Samples of international labelling provisions for GM foods Countries Argentina Canada United States Brazil China European Union Japan South Korea Taiwan Labelling Scheme Voluntary Voluntary Voluntary Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory % Threshold for Unintended GM Material Not applicable 5% Not applicable 1% 1% 0% 0. ISO Focus September 2004 Table 1. there was a demand for suitable means to control compliance. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 2004 13 .2003. derived foods. Genetically Modified Foodstuffs. and scientific secretary of the German Advisory Committee for Novel Foods. About the author Marianna Schauzu is Head of Center of Novel Foods and Genetic Engineering at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. March 2003 . Food Sciences and Biotechnology. UC Davis. However. the approaches taken in different countries towards GM food labelling differ greatly. the Codex Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived 1) James C. Working Group 11.1997 3) Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 and Regulation (EC) Nr. as shown in Table 1. the European Union (EU). Schauzu is Convener of CEN Technical Committee 275. NY (www. Labelling provisions When the USA first exported GM soybeans to Europe in 1996. This will enable affected stakeholders such as seed industries. ISAA.

searching for modified DNA sequences and/or new proteins resulting from the genetic modification is the preferred method of choice. Moreover. Figure 1 : Strategy of the detection of genetically modified material in foods Food sampling DNA extraction Protein extraction and immunoassay Qualitative PCR Quantitative PCR Detection of genetic modifications in foods The extensive knowledge of DNA technology that led to the construction of GMOs also allowed the development of very specific and sensitive detection methods.191. Figure 1 illustrates schematically the detection of GMO derived materials in foods.1. grains and meal.19/ GMOmethods. The extracted DNA is subject to either a qualitative or quantitative PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). A next step is the extraction of either protein or DNA from the sample under study. Chiba 14 -17 March 2000. 01/34 14 ISO Focus September 2004 Photo : ISO . The specificity of the PCR analysis relies on the binding of short oligonucleotides (primers) to the flanking regions of a DNA segment associ4) Report of the first session of the Codex Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology. A selection of validated methods was submitted for consideration to the Codex Committee on Methods of Analysis and Sampling (CCMAS) in 2002. however. The working group under the chairmanship of Germany compiled a list of analytical methods together with their performance characteristics and validation status through information reported by member countries. A major drawback of immunoassays is that detection and measurement may be limited due to low levels of protein expression and degradation associated with food processing. Protein Analysis Immunoassays are based on the specific binding of a protein to an antibody. They offer a high degree of automation and a high throughput of samples.htm). Starting point is a sampling strategy suitable to obtain a representa- tive sample of the goods under investigation. PCR Analysis Because of its sensitivity and specificity. In order to determine whether a food has been produced from a GMO. e.g. The extracted proteins are taken to an immunoassay.Main Focus from Biotechnology established at its first session in March 2000 4) a Working Group on analytical methods. the content of new proteins is not evenly distributed in all plant tissues. The methods are accessible via the Methods Database of the Joint Research Center of the European Commission (http://139. Immunoassays can. Codex Alimentarius Commission ALINORM . offer a test of considerable practical value for rapid field monitoring and testing of raw materials. the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which allows the exponential multiplication of a specific DNA fragment is currently the leading analytical technology employed in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of GMOs.

Figure 2: PCR-based GMO detection methods ated with the specific genetic modification. In order to bring together international efforts. terminators and marker genes. an ISO Working Group (ISO/TC 34/ WG 7) was set up in July 2000 within the frame of the Vienna Agreement of 1991. Since DNA is present in every cell of a GMO and the detection of only a short DNA fragment (50 – 100 bp) is sufficient to identify a genetic modification. i. After a comments resolution meeting held by CEN/TC 275/WG 11. The work programme decided by CEN/TC 275/WG 11 is based on the strategy of detection of genetic modified materials in Foods as given in figure 1. they are eventually published as EN ISO standards. ISO/TC 34/ WG 7 decided to take up future work on genetically modified seeds.Promotion Transgene Terminator Marker gene 5’ Screening Event-specific Construct-specific 3’ oped under CEN lead and commented by the members of ISO and CEN and afterwards pre-assessed by ISO/TC 34/WG 7. • Construct-specific methods target the artificial junction between two DNA elements. such as a promoter and the transgene.e. In order to control quantitatively. if agreed upon. PCR-based detection methods can be categorized into different levels of specificity (see figure 2) : • Screening methods may be applied as a first check for the presence of certain genetic elements that are common to many of the currently commercialized genetically modified plants. The CEN/ TC 275/WG 11 held its first meeting under German leadership in February 1999. where official GMO detection method development began in 1997. PCR-based detection methods are suitable to detect traces of specific DNA sequences even in highly processed foods. Standardization of Methods of GMO Detection Following a proposal from Germany. to check if a given labelling threshold is exceeded in a foodstuff. food industry. Draft standards are being devel- Photo © Caterpillar “ The future standards will help allow food control authorities to control compliance with legal requirements. Qualitative DNA detection methods provide either a ‘ yes ’ or ‘no’ response to the question whether GMO-derived DNA is present in the food sample under study. A first draft standard on Oilseeds and oilseed flours – Detection of genetically modified organisms by real-time quantitative PCR – Soybean (ISO/CD 24274) has been developed. analytical laboratories. • Event-specific methods are used to discriminate GMOs that share the same DNA construct by targeting the unique junction found at the integration locus between the inserted DNA and the plant genome. the ratio of genetically modified versus non-modified DNA is determined using a real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) system. that is not present in nature. the resulting final drafts are put up to a parallel vote and. Its members represent science. 5) published by CEN in March 2004 Photo : ISO ISO Focus September 2004 15 . It comprises the development of standards for • sampling strategies ( ISO 21568) • protein-based methods (ISO 21572: 2004: E 5)) • nucleic acid extraction methods (ISO 21571) • qualitative nucleic acid based methods (ISO 2169) • quantitative nucleic acid based methods (ISO 21570) • general requirements and definitions (ISO 24276). and food control authorities.” Since the work of CEN/TC 275 is restricted to foodstuffs. such as promoters. the CEN Technical Committee on Food Analysis – Horizontal Methods (CEN/TC 275) decided in June 1998 to establish a Working Group to elaborate standards for the detection of genetically modified organisms and derived foodstuffs (WG 11).

In these cases. and chair of ISO/TC 34/SC 9. and longdistance transport of products represent more risks in terms of food safety. Methods of functioning SC 9 has been managed by France (an AFNOR secretariat with a French chair) since its creation. a diversity of methods represents a potential trade barrier. This is particularly important nowadays. new processes with milder treatment to help safeguard taste. Some can cause even death of immuno-compromised persons. meningitis) when they are ingested by consumers with food. 16 ISO Focus September 2004 Photo : ISO Photo © ISO . he was at AFNOR. is an essential requirement of consumers. and prepared a PhD on interlaboratory studies in food microbiology. the microbiological methods which can be used worldwide are still based on classical Pasteur microbiology. where all parties can gather and agree. and secretary of ISO/TC 34/SC 9. All these aspects make it essential to develop reliable methods for checking the microbiological contamination of foods. coordinator of the European Community Reference Laboratory on Milk . It is thus not surprising that the standardization of microbiological methods is an important area of activity within ISO/TC 34. Chair. Others represent a significant danger for human health : pathogens as Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes are responsible for human illnesses (such as gastroenteritis. especially microbiology. ISO/TC 34/SC 9. on the ability of micro-organisms to grow in culture media : this being the case. and that a subcommittee has been set up entirely devoted to this field since the mid1970s – subcommittee SC 9. standardization by ISO represents the ideal tool for harmonization. that is. even for a few days. Between 1990 and1998. the micro-organisms having greater opportunities to develop in foods prior to their consumption. From1998. and therefore in an overall increase in costs. From a scientific point of view. 20 O- About the author Bertrand Lombard graduated from the College of Agricultural and Agro-food Sciences of Paris-Grignon. and some of them are very useful for producing foods (such as wine. such as neonates. and the blocking of imported products (by importers that do not recognize the method used by the exporter. It is thus obvious why food safety.(Participating) members. Microbiological methods Micro-organisms are present in many foods. for example).Main Focus Microbiological analysis of foods and animal feeding stuffs By Bertrand Lombard. It has 27 P. where the extended shelf life of foods. In addition. Potential trade barriers In the absence of any unique reference method for a given target micro-organism. in particular in terms of microbiological hygiene. obtaining a postgraduate diploma in spectrochemistry. in charge of standardization in food sector. he has been a scientist at the French Food Safety Agency (AFSSA). yogurt. cheese) by fermentation. a multiplicity of methods often results in a duplication of the analyses (by the producer and the customer). the result of an analysis is completely dependent on the method used (especially in cases of enumeration of micro-organisms). but harmonization of these methods is also required. can lead to considerable loss in market share. Microbiology. Not only are reliable methods in this field needed. AIDS patients and elderly people.

where harmonization with AOAC in the USA was realized. a reference method is still needed as an “ anchor method ” against which these alternative methods can be validated according to the protocol given in ISO 16140. • ISO 6579. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs – Protocol for the validation of national trade. needs reliable methods recognized at international level for the recognition of the validity of the risk analysis studies themselves. should be based. involving US and European laboratories. a standard dealing with the most common analysis of pathogen in food microbiology. after a long preparation process. These methods will be used in official controls. required for risk analysis. national or regional authorities define. • SC 9 is currently developing Guidelines on measurement uncertainty in quantitative microbiology. These microbiological criteria. AOAC recognized this ISO International Standard as an Official Method. as well as to environmental samples in the area of food production and food handling. and the newly created WG 2 on statistics. alternative methods. but also to animal feed. enabling the recognition of these controls within interPhoto © ISO Photo : ISO “ A multiplicity of methods often results in a duplication of the analyses. General standards are also prepared. broadly applicable not only to all foods. Use of ISO standards in food microbiology The public authorities in charge of protecting consumers’ health and ensuring that foods on the market are not harmful. and the Vienna Agreement is implemented in a very satisfactory way : most ISO reference methods are taken over as CEN standards (for pathogens. use of PCR in food microbiology. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs – Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. which have been validated. Finally. Further to this. which is to bring statistical expertise to SC 9 whenever needed. or a maximum tolerated number of micro-organisms per quantity of product) permitting the commercialization of foods without endangering consumer health.” The whole portfolio of standards prepared by SC 9 is used by accreditation bodies as a sound basis for accreditation of laboratories in the food microbiology sector. ISO Focus September 2004 17 . such as ISO 7218 defining general requirements and recommendations for microbiological examinations. viruses) are taken over as ISO International Standards. Here are just a few examples. as well as in a draft European Regulation on microbiological criteria. in 2003. given the scope of WG 6). Moreover. SC 9 currently comprises two working groups : WG 1 dedicated to meat and meat products (for the few standards specific to this food type).(Observer) members and 14 international organizations in liaison. validation of alternative methods. that they can use for their own checks that will therefore be more easily accepted by the public authorities. on risk analysis. and the first on this scale on a pathogen. both at national and regional level. was published in 2003. and CEN standards related to specific topics (such as quality assurance and performance testing of culture media. was revised in 2002. It includes performance data derived from an inter-laboratory trial organized at inter-continental scale. Here again. microbiological “ criteria ” (absence of a given micro-organism. based on the works of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH). and other risk management measures. the detection of Salmonella. the generation of epidemiological data. need reliable methods. Here again. An adhoc group is also currently reflecting on how to rationalize the preparation of standardized methods within SC 9. the food industry benefits also from standard reference methods. Given the strong relationship between the result and the method previously mentioned. ISO 16140. as well as on the minimum requirements for standardizing a method (in terms of validation). according to the principles laid down by CCFH. The objective is to standardize “ horizontal ” methods. More precisely. to illustrate recent and current work : • a standard establishing a protocol for the validation of alternative methods. This standard is a basis for accreditation of laboratories in food microbiology.. public authorities need reference methods which have been agreed at international level. a criterion is not fully defined unless a reference method is attached to it. ISO standards are indeed cited in several national regulations. established and agreed by experts. “ ISO standards are cited in several national regulations. if certain laboratories prefer to use alternative methods available on the market.” SC 9 has a close relationship with its mirror European standardization working group (CEN/TC 275/ WG 6).

and hence the price paid to the milk producer. Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measure- “ The alignment of technical content is achieved by the experts named by the member bodies of the two organizations all meeting in joint meetings. ISO/TC 34/SC 5 has taken over the pragmatic IDF procedure on developing methods. Director General of the International Dairy Federation 1) ooperation works and. Each body has striven to benefit from the other’s strengths. accepted the more formal. Food products. “ IDF has. 18 ISO Focus September 2004 . was achieved in 2001 and the two organizations are attacking the mountain of 162 standard methods of analysis and sampling. C Photo : ISO Cooperation in practice The interesting question for standardizers and those interested in understanding how cooperation can work will be “ How was this achieved ? ” Naturally there have had to be adjustments in the organizations’ procedures to achieve alignment but. step by step. if not exclusively. In the intervening period cooperation has become steadily closer so that now the stages in development are aligned between IDF and ISO/TC 34/SC 5 2). and identical texts are used for consultation of the respective membership and voting for approval for publication. 1 The International Dairy Federation is a body established in 1903 and funded by the dairy sector. between meetings. one addressed to ISO members and one to IDF members. saves work. whose work is largely. but also more transparent. accepted the more formal. of course. given the number of years that has passed. Each of them bears the logo of ISO and the logo of IDF. the body recognized by the WTO as the source of standards of identity for human foodstuffs in international trade. IDF has. but also as an unbiased and independent point of reference for the analysis of milk to determine its quality. 2 ISO/TC 34/SC 5. The work covers a major group of foods within the scope of ISO/TC 34. step by step. the Joint Action Teams (JAT) organize the interlaboratory studies to determine the precision of the methods demanded by the IDF and fulfilling the requirements of the ISO 5725 series. approval system of ISO. was set up in 1959 and has at present 19 ‘P’ (Participating) member countries and 31 ‘O’ (Observer) member countries.Main Focus Cooperation works : uniting strengths for better standards by Edward Hopkin.” comments and controlling the process of developing a standard. At the time of writing. 43 jointly published International Standards have appeared. Besides the technical input. and the steady evolution and improvement that is normal in bodies like ours it has been a relatively painless process.” ISO/TC 34/SC 5 and IDF have also each been able to see their work on methods of analysis and sampling of milk and milk products as part of a wider effort. Milk and milk products. Joint publication. orientated towards analysis and sampling of food commodities. In that time there have. but harmony has been a key factor in the success. An important factor has been the mutual respect that the individuals involved have enjoyed for the major part of the 40+ years of cooperation. For IDF it serves as support for the dairy sector’s effort towards the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. approval system of ISO and ISO’s system of handling ment methods and results. but it also takes work to achieve this aim. bears also the publication references of both ISO and IDF and has two Forewords. The cooperation goes back to 1961 when the FAO/WHO Joint Committee of Government Experts on the Code of Principles concerning Milk and Milk Products requested IDF (International Dairy Federation) and ISO and the US-based Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to get together to propose methods for adoption by the committee. In 2004 IDF has 41 member countries. the last logical step. in working. bringing all the experts named by the two organizations to participate in the work together in a large “ Analytical Week ” comprising up to 25 Joint Action Team meetings and involving over 150 participants every year. been changes of personnel. but also more transparent.

org About the author Edward Hopkin as been Head f IDF Secretariat ince 1989. He has thus known IDF-ISO cooperation from both sides. Time is also s when citing and checking the relev of texts to a specific purpose. In the first place. The original programme e aged completing joint publicatio all existing equivalent IDF and TC 34/ SC 5 International Stand within a relatively short time. Pricing follows the ISO system but each body follows its own conventions with respect to its own members and each body promotes the standards to its own “ constituency ”. it happened twice. ISO Focus September 2004 19 .Rationalizing the work Cooperation saves effort number of ways. involved to a large extent in United Kingdom participation in ISO/TC 34 and its subcommittees and working groups. this joint effort takes work. Cooperation has resulted in recognizing that a special effort is required to keep the procedures of development and consultation in step in the two bodies. SCHAIK@COKZ. EHopkin@fil-idf. A refined work alignment procedure between the secretariats of IDF and ISO/TC 34/SC 5 has been established and. Technical Programme Manager. mes a year to ensure advance in parallel in s. at jones@iso. the normal (joint) ISO and IDF process of a five-yearly review and. and a third category of those which. experts responsible for drafting. had only just appeared and would not require review until 2005. It must not be forgotten that. A systematic approach from the start identified the items that would progress rapidly because they were already close to completion or required only minor adjustment. notably on methods for food microbiology (ISO/TC 34/SC 9). te in interlaboratory studies and cor ing texts in the light of comments have to do these things once. rior to joining DF. effort is also sav the earlier stages of development. dy has striven om the other’s ngths. On the administrative side the two secretariats (IDF and ISO/TC 34/SC More ? Any reader interested to know more about IDF-ISO cooperation is welcome to contact the author. An alignment effort has also been undertaken by both secretariats with respect to other ISO work. the alignment of technical content is Photo : ISO The end-user benefits from our cooperation y p y member bodies of the two organizations all meeting in joint meetings. up to 2001. This level of effort ntinue until the entire ternational Standards k items has appeared n. if necessary. those that would need more work to complete. ISO/TC 34/ SC 5 Secretariat.” t standards lectronic means of provide the opporible arrangement for nd sale of the jointlyds. In “ bad old days ”. aving been at DF since 1979. revision of existing standards has to proceed. bearing in mind that production capacity is or Pauline Jones. when even the of consulting the respective bo members were not However. The arrangement or the physical proocuments at the ISO at and sale of standes to their respective customers. naturally. and new work items are being added in the usual way. Quite obviousl production of only one public per standard is less work than previous arrangement in which ISO and IDF produced a public separately and sold them around world. at the same time. Edward Hopkin worked t the British tandards Institution (BSI) for 13 years.

100 g paddy (rough) rice contains : • about 12 g water. People prefer highcost quality food with more protein and vitamins. • from the minerals : about 150 mg potassium. as the essential amino acids (that cannot be manufactured by the body) are present in it in the highest proportion and in the right ratios. the rice exports of China were barely higher than 1 % of its total production for both the years shown. Approximately 10 % of the carbohydrate content of rice is dietary fibre. white rice. Cereals and pulses The biological value of rice On average. husked. of course. 220 mg phosphorus and 120 mg sulphur. The vitamins and minerals are mainly present in the bran and embryo of rice . the proportion of starch content can reach 80 % in milled rice. With growing economic prosperity and urbanization. 120 mg magnesium. 30 mg calcium. the first of these is.3 million tons in 2002. and Latin America. 20 ISO Focus September 2004 . this latter has a role in the production of blood).Main Focus Steamed or boiled ? Promoting the production and trade of rice Rice production of the world There are over 7000 varieties of rice grown around the world on a wide range of ecological environments (from dry land to flooded land) varying climates (from tropical to temperate) and different soil types and associations (from saline soils along seacoasts to aluminium toxic uplands). and since 2000 it has decreased slowly.8 million tons in 1999 and 7. This unique grain helps sustain two-thirds of the world’s population as rice is the staple food in Asia. milled and broken rice) of Thailand was 6. The total exported quantity (paddy. to Australia. According to the database of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). its content drastically decreases. The marketable surplus of these countries is thus small: for example. rye and oats). which has the highest rice lands.3 mg B1. water dissolves the vitamins and minerals present in the husk and bran coat and carries them into the endosperm (inside part of the grain). rice is considered a luxury commodity. However. which usually commands a substantial price advantage over lower grades. which has the most productive.and the high-income Asian countries. during this treatment. At the same time. 70-75 g carbohydrate (starch and fibre) . rice. therefore during the milling or polishing process.7 mg niacin . barley.). the quantity of these nutrients is also drastically reduced. in the USA and some other countries rice is enriched with the above-mentioned nutrients and also with folic acid (among others. etc. such as fish. and therefore people who suffer from celiac sprue disease (faulty absorption of food) can consume it without any difficulty. However. rice is non-allergenic food as it does not contain gluten (in contrast with wheat. Rice is cultivated in more than 100 countries from Nepal. India and Indonesia account for three-fourths of world consumption. at low level of income. In addition. Secretary ISO/TC 34/SC 4. tradition holds it that “the precious things are not pearls and jade but the five grains ” . but during processing (husking. parboiling of the rough crop (the original purpose of this process was to loosen the husk) increases the nutritive value of the milled rice as. Thailand is the greatest exporter of rice. Processed rice contains fat only in trace amounts. meat and vegetables. • from the group of B vitamins: about 0. 8 g protein 2 g fat. To bring the nutritional value of the processed grain to the whole. The “ fuel ” from which the human body derives most of its energy is the carbohydrates. milling. The composition of rice protein is the best among cereals. China. but its consumption has also increased in Europe and also in North America in the last years. I n China. It has a reputation for high quality. Africa. per capita consumption has started declining in the middle. and it is practically free of sodium – also requirements for some types of diet. long-grain. trace amount B2 and 4. and rice contains a great amount of it. Photo : ISO By Martha Petro-Turza. The distribution of the rice (paddy) production of the world in 1999 and 2003 is shown in Table 1. between 1974 and 1999 the rice production of the world continuously increased (by 77 % overall) from 332 to 611 million metric tons. Asia is not only the greatest producer but also the greatest consumer of rice.

Food products. This standard helps to avoid litigation between seller and buyer originating in different results reached by different methods. The revised version of the former ISO 6647. However. is under development.77 31.00 * 0. details a method to standardize the determination of milling yield. Europe 3 238 858 0.00* 2003 amount (ton) 534 262 715 166 417 000 20 133 181 10 198 900 19 076 017 5 800 000 9 033 610 9 033 610 3 217 311 1 359 826 2 428 209 715 800 412 890 391 000 588 563 933 Source: FAO % 90. 1999 amount (ton) 554 627 820 200 403 308 22 078 704 11 709 700 17 726 090 5 816 960 9 343 954 9 343 954 % 90. including two for rice South America and four for all cereals. those relating to the maximum level of impurities) are defined more stringently.48 * 0.42 50.23 the world market. physical or chemical characteristics of cereals.53 Rice – Specification. there are standards containing recommendations for the storage of cereals.79 36.40* ard gives the definition of 21 terms relating to the processWorld total 610 878 901 100.82* 1. physical and chemand Caribbean ical specifications of rice.70 * 100. orgaCentral America 2 451 134 0.90 32.00 ing and the defects of rice to avoid misinterpretations. es the defect tolerances of the different rice categories and describes methods for checking how commercial products fulfil these requirements.13* 3.24 30. Brazil Table 1 : Distribution of the rice (paddy) production of the world in the years 1999 and 2003. There are 11 items in the work programme of the Asia subcommittee for the develChina opment of new standards for cereals. to ensure that results obtained by different operators using abrasive test mills are comparable.40 * 1. specifies a method for the evaluation of gelatinization time of rice kernel during cooking which is also an important parameter of rice quality.04* 2. To promote rice trade.40 noleptic. The standAustralia 1 389 800 98.15 * 3.07 94. methods for samRice producers pling. etc.00 Africa Egypt North America USA The most important rice standard is ISO 7301.Rice standards and requirements International Standards for rice are developed by ISO/TC 34. the requirements (mainly Photo : ISO ISO Focus September 2004 21 . Among the current 52 International Standards developed by this subcommittee. ISO 6646:2000.27 * 0. Cereals and pulses.53 100. but 31 others are applicable to this crop as well as to all other cereals.41 29. the milling yield is an important factor of the price.11* was developed to lay down Cuba (2003) the minimum requirements which rice has to meet in Oceania 1 412 341 0. The second edition of ISO 7301 was published in 2002. the standard also specifies what should be included in all commercial contracts. and compared to the first (published in 1988). conItaly 1 427 100 44.66 * 3. It Dominican Republic (1999) 566 501 23.61 53. a constituent of starch. Naturally. Evaluation of gelatinization time of kernels during cooking. Determination of amylose content.06* taining the general. three deal with rice solely.55 42. subcommittee SC 4. The majority of the latter standards specify methods for the determination of various impurities.53 100. Determination of the potential milling yield from paddy and from husked rice. This is a very important standard as it deals with the determination of amylose. ISO 14864:1998. ISO 7301 summariz* : expressed in the total production of the continent or the region.

It is hoped that the new standard will be published in the first half of 2005. jasmine and waxy rice. she was the head of the Analytical Chemistry Division of the Institute. Secretary of ISO/TC 34/SC 3. As can be deduced from the above. China. The digestibility of the two starch constituents is different. Amylose is much harder to digest than amylopectin. Chair ISO/TC 34/SC 3. consumption of rice containing higher proportion of amylose raises the blood sugar level less than those containing higher proportion of amylopectin. while China. The ratio of these two constituents differs between the different rice varieties and determines the textural properties of rice when it is processed or cooked. About the author Martha Petró-Turza. and are very important commodities in the trade of most countries. the routine method. The world production of fruit and vegetables demonstrates a systematic growth which exceeded 480 and 840 million tones in 2003. Therefore. Over the last 13 years of this period. Uncooked grains with high amylose content look translucent while those with low amylose content look opaque. India. she worked as a researcher for the Central Food Research Institute.Main Focus Starch is the main carbohydrate of rice consisting of two different parts. graduated nd received her octor’s degree rom the Budaest Technical University. the second. In medium. and Sylwia Skapska. Food products. amylose and amylopectin. The new standard will consist of two parts. Fruit and vegetable products Production and trade F ruits and vegetables and the products derived from them are widely consumed all over the world. Photo : ISO Tracking fruit and vegetable products’ quality and safety Unquestionably. a hemical engieer. short. the amylose content of rice is a key factor in the selection of new rice varieties in breeding programmes. Brazil and the USA are the biggest fruit producers. India. Cereals and pulses. on the other hand. standardization of method(s) for the determination of amylose content of rice has great importance. Hunary. By Renata Jedrzejczak. USA and Turkey lead in the vegetables production. in Budapest. Between 1990 and 1995 she was the director of quality assurance of the Canning Research Institute. Since 1996 she has worked for the Hungarian Standards Institution as secretary of ISO Technical Committee TC 34. and its subcommittee SC 4. respectively. the first containing the reference method. A comprehensive interlaboratory study for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of these methods is going on under Swedish project leadership. Amylose is present in a higher proportion in long grain rice that when cooked becomes fluffy and “ stand-alone ”. amylopectin is the dominant element that makes these rice varieties more tender with a greater tendency to stick. Budapest. with a low tendency to stick. Between 966 and 1990. Among different species of fruits that 22 ISO Focus September 2004 . while total export and import values exceeded 150 billion USD.

vitamins. such as composition (sugars. C. a chemical engineer. Warsaw. cucumbers and carrots. ISO Focus September 2004 23 . Those. • determination of natural compounds. Their composition can be strongly influenced by the cultivar. circumstances. climate and origin. Vitamin A. They included canning. acids. nitrogen compounds and minor amounts of lipids. analyses performed in different countries have allowed tables of chemical composition of fruit and vegetables and their by-products to be drawn up which enables us to compare them and find out their alteration and the authenticity of the same products from different origins. sorbic. Consumption and nutritional value Fruits. The first group of standards concerns the analytical methods designed for checking the basic features of the products. transportation and storage. Fruits and vegetables provide an abundant and cheap source of many vitamins (e. magnesium. citrus fruits. play the crucial role in maintaining health and preventing some widespread diseases. D. From 1979 she has worked as a researcher for the Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology. she has been working as a researcher for the Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology. From1982. Unique vegetable products can be obtained by lactic acid fermentation. B2. packaging. Except for preserving the perishable crops. especially of most fruits. carotenoids and phenolic compounds exhibit an antioxidant activity. Some vegetables. They include 41 standards that cover the three main areas: Photo : ISO About the authors Renata Jedrzejczak.g.). K). Despite all differences. and the frequent need to store and spread out the surplus of a harvest over a prolonged period of time has brought about a number of processes which provide more durable and stable fruit and vegetable products. bananas and apples have shown the largest annual output. She received her doctor’s degree and at Lodz Technical University. and preparation of juices. processing. calcium. vegetables contain mainly carbohydrates. Quality and safety of fruit and vegetable products depend on many Controlling the quality and safety of fruit and vegetable products ISO standards for fruit and vegetable products are in the responsibility of ISO Technical Committee TC 34. Food products. the risk of contamination of environmental or processing origins as well as the multiplicity of authorized food additives has resulted in developing sophisticated analytical methods for controlling these factors. onion. Over the last 15 years. such as preservatives (e. vegetables and their products a day. and many other fruit and vegetable phytochemicals. cabbages. like garlic. graduated and received her doctor’s degree from the Warsaw Agricultural University. These standards allow a control of product authenticity and overall nutritious and commercial quality. benzoic.g. Fruit and vegetable products. vegetables and their products are one of the most important components of human diets. Fruit and vegetables products. Since 2001. while for vegetables – potatoes.are cultivated all over the word. Poland. Over many years. Fruit and vegetable products. Poland and in 2001 obtained the position of associate professor. she has been secretary of ISO/TC 34/SC 3. Fruits’ major constituents are sugars. onions. jams. and dietary fiber that are essential for human health. like conditions of cultivation of plant raw materials. subcommittee SC 3. drying. every product needs to keep to the quality stated in the appropriate international or national standards and regulations. C. like cancer and coronary heart diseases. she has been the head of the Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology Department of the Institute.g. B1. A. a food technologist. marmalades. jellies and purees. graduated from Gdansk Technical University. Over the last three years. formic acids. she has been Chair of ISO/TC 34/ SC 3. Warsaw. On the other hand. physical and biochemical properties. polysaccharides and organic acids. Poland. nectars. Sylwia Skapska. The second group of standards includes methods of determination of substances deliberately added to the product during the processing. E. she has been head of the Spectrophotometry Laboratory in the Department of Food Analysis of the Institute. tomatoes. minerals (e. content of ethanol. Since 1992. etc. contain substances of strong antimicrobial activity. • determination of contaminants and impurities. flavours) and quality indicators (pH. • determination of additives. E. potassium). processing can improve the nutritional value and increase the bioavailability of nutrients and the organoleptic qualities of some fruits and vegetables. freezing. That is why dietitians recommend eating at least 700 g of fruits. The short shelf life. horseradish. B6.

” The number of published ISO standards under the responsibility of the TC 34/SC 14 Secretariat stands at 69. IFRA . with the European Union its most important market for exports. Chair. terminology. lead. Thus. that have now reached the figure of 40. requirements for packaging. there are four projects underway in the SC 3 work programme concerning determination of heavy metals : cadmium. CAC (Codex Alimentarius Commission). in particular. 24 ISO Focus September 2004 . such as mineral and organic impurities. heavy metals (e. the warehouse. Turkey ranks third in the world as an exporter of fresh fruits and vegetables. methods of tests and analysis. as well as by scientific laboratories. ISO/ TC 34/SC 14 and Servet Atayeter. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). product specifications. sampling. with the advanced atomic absorption spectrometry methods. Exporters enjoy a close relationship with growers. The third group of standards is aimed at the detection and determination of different kinds of undesirable and harmful substances. UN/ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). cadmium) and micotoxins (e. The field of activity of ISO/TC 34/SC 14. OIV (International Vine and Wine Office). dry and dried fruits and vegetables (see opposite) looks on the surface somewhat “similar” to that of SC 3. Participation in ISO’s standardization work is therefore important to the country. Fresh. Because of the fast scientific progress. are paying special attention to International Standards to ensure their trade is as smooth as possible. dry and dried fruits and vegetables By Nevzat Artik. arsenic and tin. pears and peaches. IFU (International Federation of Fruit Juice Producers).g. more up-to-date techniques have to be introduced. and WCO (World Customs Organization) are in liaison with SC 3. patulin in apple products). Photo : ISO Fresh. packaging and processing firms. dry and dried fruits and vegetables. food controlling institutions. transportation. but in fact its standards almost exclusively concern product specifications and storage and refrigeration requirements. analytical standards need to be constantly reviewed and. Fresh. dry and dried fruits and vegetables. dry and dried fruits and vegetables T here is a growing interest in Turkey in the use of International Standards and in being involved in the development process of the standards on fresh.g. Currently 16 member countries actively participate in the work of subcommittee SC 3. Secretary of ISO/TC 34/SC 14. The scope of the subcommittee is : “ Standardization in the field of fresh. exporters’ unions and associations are involved in the standards development process. 41 countries have the status of observer members. new. All interested parties in the country such as public and private scientific laboratories. Turkish exporters. storage. SC 3 standards are mostly used by fruit and vegetable producers. processing and trading companies. if necessary.fragrance (International Fragrance Association). Only three SC 14 standards include test methods for dried apples. Eight international organizations : AOAC (AOAC International).Main Focus sulphur dioxide).

the transport and sale of the products in line with the qualitative requirements fixed by the purchaser . namely : The influence of standardization on production and marketing The safety of fresh food produce is becoming increasingly important in comparison to other processed food products by the fact of its very nature. The producer must constantly endeavour to adapt to market conditions. products normally move along through marketing channels whose operation has changed over the years. Faculty of Agriculture in 1988. and of cold-storing them (pre-refrigeration and conservation for varying periods in a normal or controlled atmosphere). and HACCP System Management. The tonnage withdrawn from the market as a result of the application of standardization would not at present seem to exceed 10 % of the tonnage harvested. ISO 9000/ISO 14001 Lead Auditor-Istanbul and Director of Quality-Konya between 1988 and 2002. is inspected more carefully by importer countries. Many standards exist for processed food as such foods do not deteriorate easily during storage and transport . Ankara University. Centralized marketing was only made possible by adopting uniform standards in line with the regulations in force in foreign markets. or the grouping of small consignments to/ from bigger and more homogeneous units which can meet a correspondingly big demand over a period of time. Food Process Design. of course. he has been Secretary of ISO/ TC 34/SC 14 since 1988. and has been Regional Director of TSE Antalya Branch since July 2002. graduated from Ankara University. sizing and presentation practices were therefore codified for common reference. where he has worked for 25 years. fresh produce. for instance. today. leading to quality grading for the market. Secretary of ISO/TC 34/SC 14. Servet Atayeter (PhD). The influence of standardization on the organization of trade On their way from centres of production to points of consumption.Our objective is : • to provide validated methods of analysis . For obvious reasons. ISO 9000 Food Quality System Education. with the product. storage and transportation of fruits and vegetables. sizing and packaging the goods. whether cooperative or private. These stations have two functions : • The technical function of sorting. and this triggers off the immediate result that any varieties of low market value will be eliminated. in the production areas. to offer a greater volume of products designed to meet the requirements laid down in the standards. He has worked as a Project Management of Food Quality Control. The best sorting. Dried and fresh fruit and vegetables. but this percentage varies. These changes are partly due to the application of standardization rules. At the same time. ISO 9000 Food Quality Control and a System Inspector. Nevzat Artık is at present Professor and Lecturer in the Food Engineering Department at Ankara University. • to facilitate international trade of fresh. The producer has also to realize that. or the possible holding of crops for short or longterm warehousing in order to even out the flow of consignments by eliminating excessive peaks which would bring down prices . dry and dried fruits and vegetables . After graduating from the Food Engineering Dept. ISO Focus September 2004 Photo : ISO 25 . and that the result of his efforts depends on the extent to which his production is adapted to market requirements. production techniques and marketing methods together with improved transport conditions and a more efficient use of cold storage were only developed subsequently. in order About the authors Nevzat Artık is Chair of ISO/TC 34. Turkey. The influence of standardization on producer market organization The scale and nature of packaging operations based on the requirements of standardization have made it essential to locate packaging stations. • to provide guidance and common terminology for the product specifications. the standardization of products begins when they are still on the tree or in the field. on the other hand. the spread of which has generally had several effects. He has worked in the Turkish Standards Institution (TSE) as a Technical Chief of International Affairs Department-Ankara. • An economic function which is a natural extension of the producers’ activity at the marketing stage – take. • to satisfy consumers requirements from the point of view of human nutrition .

it is necessary to ensure that the standards are taken into consideration. simultaneously. 26 ISO Focus September 2004 . providing 9 kcal/g compared with 4 kcal/g for protein and carbohydrates. marine and vegetable fats and oils. is responsible for the standardization of methods of sampling and analysis for animal. because homogeneous consignments can be delivered by complete lorry or wagon loads. By imposing a selection. the internal regulations of producers’ cooperatives fix prices for deliveries in the light of what the standards require. and Hans-Jochen Fiebig. Animal and vegetable fats and oils The influence of standardization on inspection of quality… As the organization of the fruit and vegetable market is based on standardization. fats and oils are major commodities of world trade with almost 40 million tonnes being shipped annually. to place orders in accordance with their requirements and with the stipulations laid out in the standards . so that business can be transacted at a distance from the goods or on the basis of samples . standardization tends to eliminate low-quality surpluses which devalue production and push down prices by their quantities. they are an important sector for the application of international standardization. and there is now a greater regional diversity of the production of all oilbearing crops. Consequently. In most countries. storage. it is essential that the quality control tests performed on a shipment of palm oil being loaded in Papua New Guinea are the same as those carried out when it is received in Europe. Consequently. Fats and oils for healthy living By John Hancock. standardization can be a means for effectively regulating trade. Standardization also plays a part in the economics of the market as a factor associated with all the forces which help to adjust supply to demand. since prices tend to follow the values of these goods to the detriment of better quality products. but the depreciation of the plant required by the different operations involved in standardization is a factor in the cost price of the product which must be taken into account. whose function may also be educative. F … and on cost and prices If products of a commercially unsaleable quality are removed from the market at the start. Thus. on a given market and at a particular time. • A speeding-up of trade transactions partly due to the more extensive and rapid information now available to traders that enable them. They also provide the essential fatty acids which are required for the maintenance of a healthy human body.” It is thanks to standardization that collective information – an important factor in the functioning of a market – can be provided in a useful form and exert its full weight. and thus. the selling of standardized fruit and vegetables can lessen. the cost of preparation. • A change in the relations between traders. • The development of the marketing of large quantities. fully refined seed oils or as cold pressed fruit oils. Chair. Standardization enables producers to charge different prices. Consequently the arrangements adopted in most countries have led to the establishment of inspection bodies. and the case for standardization is obvious. But fats and oils are also important raw materials for the food industry. handling and marketing will be charged only on those products which can be sold in normal commercial conditions. by using modern means of communication. Food products. by palletized load units or by containers. The surface area of the world being used to produce oils and fats is increasing with increased consumer demand. transport. and this principle is an incentive to produce goods of superior quality. and even halt. “ The standardization of products begins when they are still on the tree or in the field. They are used for direct consumption as edible fats and oils. Secretary. the falls in prices which occur when quantities of inferior goods arrive ats and oils are an important part of the human diet. depending on the qualities they offer.Main Focus • A geographical expansion of trade following the adoption of transport techniques whereby products can be protected over considerable distances and for periods which are sometimes very long . Furthermore. packaging. and this is reflected in a total worldwide annual production of 124 million tons. Subcommittee 11 of ISO/TC 34. whereby personal confidence in their business relations is partly replaced by the use of guarantees of a public or professional nature that the standards will be observed. ISO/ TC 34/SC 11.

The reduction in the parameters of detection limits The use of high technology also means that detection limits for most parameters are reducing. After graduating and carrying out research in physics. and also restricting the use of these methods within the developing world. and the regulators are having to decide what levels of potentially harmful contaminants are acceptable. Phytosterols are the components not only in the new range of margarines but also milk and yoghurt that reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood. it is proving very difficult to replace the “ simple ” human eyeball. It used to be that if any amount of foreign chemical was found in a consignment of oil. The complexity of the methods. is a food chemist in the Institute for Lipid Research. Methods. ISO Focus September 2004 27 . particularly when this may vary with instrument manufacturer. It seems that most people want to eat more healthily but not change what they eat. and it would appear that analytical chemistry is now merely a branch of physics. which used to take up to a whole day. ISO rules require the stone to be turned over every five years. Within this role. for example. SC 11 also About the authors Hans-Jochen Fiebig. Secretary of ISO/TC 34/SC 11. Chair of ISO/TC 34/SC 11. These new techniques do have many advantages. where he is involved in issues related to methods of analysis for fats and oils. As more companies are producing this type of product. Gas Chromatography followed by tandem Mass Spectroscopy. he has spent over 25 years in the chocolate. he manages schemes which certify member laboratories and superintending companies to carry out contractual analysis and cargo surveying. The increasing cost and complexity of analytical equipment is restricting the availability of laboratories able to carry out the tests. it is equivalent to finding one blue soyabean in two shiploads of yellow soyabeans . If we convert the detection limit in this type of analysis into more practical terms. It is becoming more and more difficult to write down the exact details of the procedures. At the opposite end of the scale is low technology such as the automatic measurement of the colour of oils. The ability to determine smaller and smaller amounts of chemicals is giving problems to traders and regulators alike. A common feature across all areas of analysis is the increasing use of technology and instrumentation. and there is no doubt that we will have plenty of work to keep us busy in the future. then it was assumed to be contaminated and was rejected : “ if you could detect it. He is also the chairman of the German Fats and Oils Committee (GA Fett) of DIN and DGF (German Society for Fat Research). confectionery and edible oils industries. you could reject it ”. One of the latest work items of SC 11 concerns the measurement of phytosterols. This will lead to greater emphasis on the extraction and preparation phases of the analysis. is the Technical Manager of FOSFA International. which are the natural antioxidants in many vegetable oils. in other words. The analysis of dioxins is a case in point. finding 1 bean in 85 000 tonnes. which must be followed. SC 11 is also developing a better method of measuring tocopherols and tocotrienols. and There is still much to be done in the area of contaminants such as pesticides and dioxins. John Hancock. The new rule of thumb is that “ the time it takes to get a result is inversely proportional to the cost of the equipment ”. broking and supply chain services of oilseeds and oils and fats commodities. But as we all know. can now be performed within minutes. The development of functional foods Another interesting area for fats and oils is the development of functional foods. is also providing a challenge to the developers of new standards. one being the speed of analysis. and thus stop us going rancid. This is no longer the case. but there are also some disadvantages of these developments. which is part of the German Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food. These are being marketed as food supplements which can mop up the free radicals in the human body. one would expect that the methods of analysis are well developed and “ cast in stone ”.Complex analysis methods pose new challenges As oils and fats have been traded since long before Roman times. a contract issuing and arbitral trade association for companies involved in the trading. it is necessary to be able to measure the content of the effective ingredient within the product.

More collaborative trials are required SC 11 would like to increase the number of P-members (currently 17). with the current worldwide economic climate and the associated rationalization and downsizing of many companies. Nestec. Chair of ISO/TC 34/SC 15.Main Focus includes animal fats such as tallow and lard. Photo : ISO Comparing coffees Which standards for whom ? By Maurice Blanc. as more countries are increasing their production of fats and oils and oilseeds above the level demanded by domestic consumption. Green coffee – Defect reference chart. the core standard is ISO 10470. This means that the workload is falling on fewer active members. is a first step towards better harmonization between the different systems. It did not. for instance. 28 ISO Focus September 2004 . in Bordeaux (France) in October 2002 and in Cincinnati (USA) in May 2004. particularly in collaborative trials. The level of quality is only assessed by counting the defects. The previous version was too complicated. However. The recent revision of different ISO standards dealing with the quality of green coffee was driven by the importance of ensuring a sound trading system for this major commodity. This is determined by the presence of foreign matter or defective beans in a more or less large quantity. is the reference standard to define products and operations throughout the coffee production chain. from the farmer. there were about 25 attendees from 12 members bodies as well as liaison members. With greater disposable incomes in the more developed countries. An important standard on vocabulary (ISO 3509). This standard lists the different defects that can be identified in a coffee lot. Two major green coffee varieties are traded and different classification systems exist depending on the variety. Every actor throughout the supply chain would benefit from such harmonization. some of these new growing countries are not even Observer members of the Committee. the cooperative C offee export is a vital source of income for many countries. SC11 is a very active subcommittee and meets about every 18 months. For this purpose standard methods are required and SC 11 is happy to support this work by offering current and new ISO standards for adoption by Codex. Last but not least it should be mentioned that SC 11 has a good cooperation with the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Fats and Oils. where commodity standards for international trade for both fats and oils and margarines and fat spreads are developed. and also fish oils such as cod liver oil. Such a kind of quantitative impact only exists in classification systems developed by trading organizations. However. Coffee Scientific Advisor and International Regulatory Affairs. However. the description of a defect or the exact description of a technical term. we are finding that analysts no longer have the time to participate in ISO activities. The parallel existence of many different national and international classification systems makes comparison between the different coffee origins more complicated. by inserting qualitative and quantitative impact of the defects. The ultimate objective of an ISO standard. describing in detail the impact of every defect on the quality of the product. Coffee Several ISO standards on coffee have recently been fully revised. Referring to this standard avoids confusion when producers debate. the analysis of minor components which may be of benefit to the human body will again provide an interesting area for the future development of analytical methods. however. Green coffee is traded according to its quality. It may be timely to try to contact these countries and ask if they wish to join or change their status. address the impact in quantitative terms. At the last two meetings.

This revised ISO standard would be seen as a radical solution by part of the coffee world traditionally installed in familiar procedures. chicory and tea. Coffee. The role of an ISO committee or sub- committee should continue. Ideally this standard should be used to reconsider all existing green coffee classification systems. members of TC 34/SC15 should take the lead in promoting ISO 10470. As a result. Paris. In this context. ISO Focus September 2004 Photos : Nestlé 29 . There are also countries with a significant proportion of high-quality coffees. even after the adoption of the standard. an organization that studies the physiological effects that coffee has on the body. Close cooperation between producers and buyers Coffee trading is a multidimensional system. compromises were found. ISO plays a key role by proposing a manageable standard to the various national and international bodies responsible for coffee classification and commercialization. and chair of ISO/TC 34/SC 15. The actual low prices of coffee will trigger important modifications in the profession. However. This should decrease the excessive volume of coffee on the market and contribute to reaching a higher price level. The revision of the ISO standard has been done in this spirit.e. the system now designed is flexible enough to be applied in many situations. He was made head of a technological group active in the areas of coffee decaffeination and soluble coffee manufacturing. These coefficients have been determined to take into account the level of influence of every defect. This kind of visual tool can facilitate identification in case of doubt. the revised ISO standard suggests a weight approach i. Flexibility in the supply chain is of increasing importance. In addition. a non-normative annex presenting pictures of these “ Coffee vocabulary avoids confusion when producers debate the description of a defect or the exact description of a technical term. the consequences of the presence of each defect can be now assessed in a real quantitative way.or the mill cleaning the green coffee at origin to the trader.” defects has been developed. But because a stone is a stone whatever the size and the same for every foreign matter. mainly marketed in coffee specialty distribution channels. The coffee world is experiencing a difficult period characterized by overproduction and depressed prices. The classification systems applied by trade organizations is based on counting the number of defects. As regards coffee. As already mentioned. once the defects have been sorted they are no longer counted but weighed and the percentage of each defect is calculated. becoming head of a laboratory active in research in the non-volatile components area of coffee. It is expected that the standard can be used to negotiate any contract of purchase between a provider and a client. direct comparison between the various classification systems is almost impossible. the buyer and the user at the end of the chain. differing views proved a challenge in reaching agreement on the impact on quality of many defects. The International Coffee Organisation (ICO) also supports the approach taken into account for this revision. He participates in the main scientific and professional coffee associations such as Association of Soluble Coffee Manufacturers of the European Union and the Physiological Effects of Coffee. Efforts are made to avoid that sub-standard coffee enters the supply chain. These modifications should be associated with a greater importance given to cup quality of the products. What is new ? Legibility has been dramatically improved by introducing a simple and straightforward classification of defects in a limited number of categories according to their origin. Partners from the relevant sectors participated in the revision of these different standards. Impact on quality from the presence of foreign matter and defective beans is calculated for both loss of mass and sensorial concern after multiplying each percentage by specific coefficients. Certain defects considered important in one producing country are not so frequent in another. About the author Maurice Blanc is a chemical engineer. and others producing more for the mainstream channel. But flexibility means that a very transparent system exists and allows the coffee companies’ buyers more choice in obtaining the best possible quality and cup profile. Several international organizations were consulted during the revision and experts from a few major producing countries regularly participated in working committees. He is administrative secretary of the Association Scientifique International du Café. In order to develop a worldwide manageable system. For some particular defects. He joined Nestlé in 1968.

Later on. In the USA. India. Yunnan and the Yun-Gui plateau. The China jat is a bush which grows up to 2. (var. Bodhidharma. lore and legend intertwine to create a karma that resonates in every sip we take. coffee was destroyed by rust in the late 1870’s and tea was planted to replace it. Japanese legend tells of a Buddhist saint. Russia began cultivation of tea in 1847 and cultivation was established in Africa (Kenya. Tea cultivation quickly spread from China to Japan and was introduced to Java in 1648 by a German naturalist. soy sauce. somewhere is drinking a cup of tea every minute of the day. Subsequently tea was discovered in Assam in 1823 but its cultivation had to await another decade. were found in south-west China speading through Sechuan. how the tea trade came to work with ISO and independent researchers to develop International Standards so that everyone can be assured that they can enjoy a good cup of tea. Tea C hances are. The history of tea The story of tea is veiled in myths and history providing a romantic aura. The Tea Act of 1773 made law in Britain and its colonies included a tax that they refused to pay which resulted in the infamous ‘ Boston Tea Party ’ and the making of a nation of coffee drinkers. who fell asleep during his devotions to awake in distress and cut off his eyelids. or jat. Japan. rice. Over 3 million tonnes of tea is now produced in over 30 countries around the world to pro- 30 ISO Focus September 2004 . tea is now enjoyed by consumers all over the world. that someone. Modern cultivars are hybrids of these two varieties. The early plants. Tea consumption and the global economy The importance of tea both to the global economy and to the social order can be seen by the historical record. Tea established itself very early on as part of the fabric of Chinese life as is recognized by the ancient saying. Countries and Empires. There are two varieties of Camellia sinesis.Photo © ISO Tea – three leaves and a bud Main Focus Brewing the best tea standards By Andrew Scott. From these early beginnings in China. assamica). The Assam jat is a single stemmed tree which grows up to 18 m in height and less hardy. sinesis) and the India plant. the China plant. ‘ there are seven matters to the starting of a family’s life : fire wood. If tea is so common and traded as a commodity why do we need standards ? This is a short outline of the historical back drop for tea today. Chinese and Japanese mythology offer a number of accounts of the discovery of tea. Andreas Cleyer.75 m tall with many stems and is very hardy. vinegar and tea ’. (var. Later on in the century. Chair TC 34/ SC 8. China. the fortunes of the English East India company were involved with the tea trade from the 1700s for two centuries. this improves the yield and quality of the Assam jat whilst losing some of the hardiness of the China jat. Chinese folklore relates how the Emperor Shen Nung first tasted the delights of tea in 2737 BC. The delights of Sri Lankan tea have their roots in disaster. throwing them to the ground where they took root and grew into a tea bush. Its economic history is illustrated by the earliest tax on tea being imposed in 780 AD by Emperor Tih Tsung in the Tang Dynasty and was very unpopular. 206 BC . Early Chinese literature refers to tea in Shennong’s herbalist book where he describes how he found tea infusions to be a beneficial antidote to the noxious herbal concoctions he tasted in his search for medicinal plants (Han Dynasty c. or more correctly trees. Uganda and Malawi) in the early 1900s. Britain and Holland all involve international tea trade and its consumption.220 AD) and in Lu Yu’s scholarly tea handbook Ch’a Ching or Tea Classic written circa 780 AD. or jat. oil.

‘Longjing’ (Dragon Well) tea.ALL PHOTOS COURTESY TETLEY vide over 1000 billion cups of tea a year.” varies from country to country and can be below 1 kg per capita per annum or over 8 kg per capita per annum. Consumption Tea and International Standards Black tea growing at the Tata Tea estates in Munnar. in the main there are basic characteristics which can be measured to maintain the qualities we all expect. signifying the fundamental nature of tea’s universal popularity. Tea manufacture Green tea is predominantly made by hybrid plants from the China jat with a smaller more delicate leaf than those which produce black tea which are hybrid plants from the Assam jat. by young and old alike. International standards are vital to facilitate international trade in tea. One of the many challenges in developing standards for tea. Hot drinks represent about a third of all drinks consumed in the world and tea consumption is a quarter of all hot drinks. across a number of continents including Asia. In contrast. to ensure consumers’ expectations are met. The manufacture of tea differs in that for green tea. bringing innovative new tea products to Tetley markets across the globe. He has been a member of the BSI AW8 Tea Committee since 1991 working on the new standards to measure substances characteristic of tea (total flavonoids and catechins) to be published next year. is much less than that in the majority of the consuming countries and tea is plays an import part in their economy. sold and purchased tea of a quality which is expected from day to day and from year to year. 31 . Tea can be grown in some of the world’s remote locations. Below – Green tea growing near Hangzhou. in the main. The degree of industrialization in producing countries. in 1991. or without. He has recently been appointed Chair of the ISO/TC 34/SC 8 tea subcommittee to continue this work. although this is not always the case as can be seen in China and Japan. particularly in developing methods of analysis. however. is to ensure those who cultivate and manufacture tea can use the methods equally well to the sophisticated scientific laboratories About the author Andrew Scott is a biochemist with research experience in drug metabolism (doctoral studies at the University of Surrey supported by Glaxo) and food biochemistry (at the Chorleywood and Campden Food Research Association). tea leaves have natural variations due to climatic and agronomic changes . South India. He has been head of the company’s worldwide Research and Development department and now works with the Group Marketing Development team. Over one and a half million tonnes of tea is consumed outside the producing countries and this valued at over USD 16 billion in domestic consumption alone. milk. Drinking tea is enjoyed in over 100 countries around the globe with different styles of infusion. “ International standards are vital to facilitate international trade in tea. Africa and South America. to support the development of Good Manufacturing Practice for both black and green tea through minimum compositional specifications and to provide validated methods of analysis. now a subsidiary of Tata Tea Limited. This is made possible by treating the leaf with a heat process as soon after plucking as is practical. He joined The Tetley Group. to ensure consumers’ expectations are met. the leaves are plucked and processed without letting the leaf constituents combine and pursue chemical and biochemical reactions. Being from a plant. ISO Focus September 2004 Above – Black tea (left) and green tea (right) bushes. China the area famous for the. for black tea the leaves are plucked and then the leaves are macerated to allow the leaf constituents to mix and pursue chemical and biochemical reactions to create a range of liquors with a characteristic reddish-brown hue and taste which can be enjoyed both with. The billion dollar trade of tea between producing countries and consuming countries is therefore of major commercial importance and is also of key concern to many consumers. It is not surprising therefore that this major international trade in tea required some basic guidelines to ensure the producers and the consumers cultivated. but this is not a hard and fast rule.

part 1 to determine total polyphenol content and part 2 to determine catechins in green tea. prevent the sale of spent leaf and prevent the use of traditional adulterants. protection from moisture and taint together with the methods of test. This stimulated the need for a packaging solution to transporting tea around the world. which is increasingly becoming available. methods for sampling tea (ISO 1839). the tea committee was established and became part of ISO as Working Group 8 in the early 1970’s and was fully established as a subcommittee (SC 8) of TC 34 in 1976. China. The advent of bulk packaging and containerization meant that the traditional tea chests became less economically viable. constructed with materials which ensure adequate strength. but defines the material characteristics and performance characteristics by which alternatives can be evaluated and found acceptable. So. These methods are used everyday in the tea sales rooms for tea selection. and they were also not ideal for protecting tea from moisture and taint. In parallel with this work. and for a glossary of terms relating to black tea were established to aid a common language to be developed in the tea sales rooms. A major work programme was undertaken to develop a reference sack specification (ISO 9884-1) to provide standard dimensions for efficient use of container space. or in the dry mixes form which is available in countries where iced tea is very popular. for the preparation of liquor for use in sensory tests (ISO 7516). New international analytical methods The recent work programme has focussed on the development of compositional analytical methods for tea. the early tea scholar. This means that samples are distributed to agents and purchasers around the world to evaluate the organoleptic qualities of the tea to determine if it is suitable either for direct sale or for use in the familiar blends of tea we find on the supermarket shelves around the world. An ISO tea grading nomenclature system (ISO 11286) has also been established to define different sizes and grades of tea leaf which can be used as part of this evaluation process. The definition of black tea was developed and provided the basic specifications of extractable solids. the trade expectations are to promote good manufacturing practice. The statue of Lu Yu. valuation and purchase. The supporting work developing analytical methods for preparing samples and measuring moisture content. This established the basic parameters for good manufacturing practice for guidance with leaf plucking and tea sorting standards. The good work of the committee started to made early progress by publishing the black tea standard (ISO 3720) in 1977. The second part of the standard (ISO 9884-2) defines the performance specification for the sack. The analytical methods to support this specification have also been developed and validated by international ring trials with laboratories representing producing and consuming countries. In addition. This does not envisage that one sack should be used for the transport of tea. at the tea museum near Hangzhou. A method for measuring caffeine in tea and instant tea (ISO 10727) was originally published in 1995 and has been updated to improve the sensitivity for determinations in decaffeinated tea. quality conservation during economic transport and suitability of tea for high speed packing for attractive presentation in the supermarkets around the world. These methods form the basis of the international trade of tea and are used for auditing purposes and for resolving of differences of opinion. Standards developed in this way enable the tea producers to demonstrate that tea is of the quality to be enjoyed by consumers the world over. The next phase of work involved developing a standard for instant tea (ISO 6079) which is not only used for a more convenient way of preparing tea but is also a key ingredient in iced tea whether in the ready-to-drink form. fibre and ash. “ It is important to develop methods of analysis validated internationally for the measurement of flavonoid and flavanol levels in tea. Black tea is manufactured on a daily basis in season and a large volume of this production is sold at auction. fibre and ash content were developed and validated in ring trials with laboratories representing both producing and consuming countries provided the 7 analytical methods which established the means of measuring the basic tea parameters.” The importance of world trade in tea lead to the recognition in the late 1960s and early 1970s that standards for tea quality should be established to smooth the progress of trade and to ensure consumers’ expectations are met. The two most recently developed methods to determine substances characteristic of tea. 32 ISO Focus September 2004 .Main Focus used by the regulatory authorities in the highly consumer oriented countries. extractable solids. Tasting tea in the sales room at Tetley using ISO 7516 every day.

to facilitate the international trade in tea. that Dr Peter Collier. These standards were purified and circulated to the participants of the international ring trial together with HPLC columns filled with chromatographic material from the same batch so that quantitation could be verified and validated. leader of the Chinese delegation. China in October 2003. because it is thought to be useful as an additional constituent in tea which might benefit health and because it is also a potential authenticity marker for tea. Tea everyday at work with hydration. SC 8 which forms part of TC 34. So when you raise your cup or glass of tea to your lips. Germany. has diligently worked for nearly 40 years to provide 19 international standards and provide technical expertise and support to ISO to ensure consumer expectations are met. The challenges were greater when developing a method to measure catechins (flavanols) in green tea because pure. with Professor Luo (right). it could assist weight maintenance programmes and bone maintenance amongst other benefits. The work is not complete. if it helps The famous Longjing (Dragon Well) green tea. we are planning to develop a method for the analysis of theanine in tea and evaluate its use. introduce refinements to improve their application and internationally validate their use with the collaboration of over 20 laboratories representing both producer and consumer countries. verified chemical standards for accurate quantitation of the catechins are not commercially available. The working group including participants in the UK. recently appointed ISO/TC 34/SC 8 chair. China and initially Malawi who looked at a number of different methods of analysis to form the basis for measuring total polyphenols (flavonoids) in tea before basing its work on the method of Singleton & Rossi’s 1965 paper in the American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. This is not only for compositional analysis to support the black tea standard but also to ensure that the quoted flavonoid contents of teas is meaningful and can be used for comparative purposes by consumers. It has taken over 10 years to develop these methods. Scott (centre). The need for these methods was envisaged in the first edition of the black tea specification but it is becoming even more important because in recent years there has been an increasing interest in the health benefits of tea consumption. It is therefore very important to develop methods of analysis which are validated internationally for the measurement of flavonoid and flavanol levels in tea.are to be published in 2005. Achievements of TC 34/ SC 8 and the future The ISO Tea Committee. The results of measurements with these methods can now also be used by the leading researchers in the Dr. estimated to be worth over USD 25 billion. In addition. the trade and legislators alike. and with great pleasure. This work has enabled the calculation of relative response factors which means that any analyst can now quantify the levels of catechins in green and black tea without the need to purchase very expensive chemical standards which may vary in their purity. and her colleague Ms Guo (left) at the recent ISO conference at Hangzhou. long awaited by our Chinese colleagues. field who establishing the health benefits for consumers of tea. the two new compositional methods of analysis are ready for publication early next year and we are now ready to embark on the work to develop a green tea standard. and to provide the guidance and common understanding of good manufacturing practices for black and green tea. you can rest assured that many experts in the trade are working with the officers at ISO to ensure you enjoy a good “ cuppa ! ” ISO Focus September 2004 33 . China in October 2003. This valuable work means that the methods can now be used equally well by analysts in the producing and consuming countries without placing either at a commercial disadvantage. SC 8 Chair 1988-2003. So it was fitting. presided over the ISO TC 34/SC 8 meeting which confirmed the proposal to publish these two methods as ISO standards in Hangzhou. Scientific research and epidemiology studies are proposing that consuming tea may maintain a healthy disposition to reduce the likelihood of succumbing to the excesses of cardiovascular disease and some cancers .

” The inexorable aging of the population which is occurring in many Western and some other countries means that many people will maintain good health to the age of 85. A visit to the dentist is associated with the image of toothache and painful drilling and filling. In that year the FDI entered into a collaborative arrangement with ISO to foster the worldwide acceptance of standards for dental materials and devices. instruments. digestion) but also to psychological 34 ISO Focus September 2004 . but the majority will require at least some assistance for physical and mental impairment including dental rehabilitation. Most of us did not inherit that situation so there is still a high demand as well as an unfulfilled need in many countries for clinical dentistry. Yet the reality is that today’s dentistry provides pain-free restoration and preventive treatment. In 1920 a research group was set up at the US National Bureau of Standards in collaboration (in 1928) with the American Dental Association. About the same time the FDI recognized the need for internationally applicable dental standards and by 1958 had created nine FDI Standards that were based on American National Standards.Developments and Initiatives Standards of practice in dentistry Prof. This breadth of care stimulates an increasing need for standards of practice. more complex and has a vastly greater scientific base. metals and polymers began two centuries ago. If preventive oral care was initiated in childhood and continued by the adult. appliances and equipment. Modern dentistry is much greater in scope. After 1977 ISO/TC 106 assumed responsibility for dental materials. devices and equipment with the FDI being responsible for clinical and biological evaluations. instruments. A systematic and collaborative approach The development of dental materials technology and instrumentation for the fabrication of tooth restorations and dentures using ceramics. are the more than 700 000 dentists represented by the FDI (Fédération Dentaire Internationale) and its more than 150 constituent National Dental Organizations and the more than 4000 dental manufacturers represented by the International Dental Manufacturers and their constituent regional member associations. periodontal care. This led to the establishment of an ISO technical committee for dentistry (ISO/TC 106) in 1963. most notably for dental silver-tin amalgam which provided a durable filling material for the masses. By the middle of the 19 th century. most of us would have excellent teeth and would need only preventive care. Good oral health for general. This systematic and collaborative approach had a dramatic influence on manufacturers and the profession which was to extend world wide in the susequent decades. and that good oral health is essential not only to general health (mastication. Dennis C. adhesive aesthetic fillings. For most of us a visit to the dentist comes to the top of the agenda only when it is absolutely necessary. temporomandibular joint) health. Today’s general practice encompasses minimal tooth drilling. root canal therapy and minor surgery and implants. “ At present there are more than 100 dental bonding products on the market. In the last half-century. measurement of physical and mechanical properties to improve and standardize dental cements and filling materials was underway. effects have been noted as diverse as increased blood flow to the brain as a result of chewing and the findings of epidemiologists that expectant mothers with gum disease are more likely to deliver too early or to have babies that are too small. Chair. Smith. without consensual agreement on standards for practice the complex system of dental health care technology required to treat dental diseases in this population would be unable to function. In recent studies. The players in the dental standards area. ISO /TC 106. Further. The first specification for dental amalgam was published in 1927. The implications of these changes for dental practice and the utilization of dental biomaterials are clear. bruxism prevention) and functional (chewing. psychological and functional health It is now recognized that the mouth is an integral part of the body. I (appearance. Several other countries set up similar programmes involving testing and certification which came to fruition after the Second World War. to study and establish specifications for materials used in dentistry. Dentistry t has been said that no one on their deathbed said that they wished they had spent more time at the dentist. in addition to the millions of patients. dental practice has been transformed by dental research and evidence-based clinical practice and by the development of standards for dental materials.

1. where he graduted in Chemistry from he University of London. The denture framework held in place by screws into the implant posts. Front view of denture structure in the mouth. the increasing desire for cosmetic or aesthetic dentistry. Secondly. He has been involved in standards work for 40 years. there is the public acceptance and appreciation of the importance of good teeth to a youthful and aesthetic appearance. Thirdly. The upper jaw of a patient with 7 titanium implant posts embedded in the bone. led to recognition of the importance of biological evaluations also to assure safety and efficacy in dental practice. Philip Watson 35 Photo : ISO . Photos courtesy Dr. He btained his PhD from the University of Manchester. Firstly. 1. Dentistry. “ Innovations demand both new standards and the revision of existing specifications. 2. Thus. 3.The early work on ISO standards for dentistry was primarily concerned with physico-chemical characterizations of materials and their use as a basis for evaluation of fitness for practice. and began his career in dental biomaterials there. ISO/TC 106 has grown substantially as a result of the flood of new products and clinical techniques. This was accentuated by the introduction of legislative requirements for mandatory testing of dental and medical biomaterials in several countries. he moved to Canada to become Professor of Biomaterials and founding Director of the Centre for Biomaterials. mith was born n England. About the author Professor Dennis C. This necessity for biologic as well as physicochemical assessment has led to a much wider scope and area of responsibility for ISO/TC 106. the interest in oral hygiene and preventive materials such as toothpaste and other fluoride products. There are three main trends that have prompted new work. which involves minimal size fillings and tooth-coloured filling materials such as polymer-ceramic composites and ceramics. This is the most rapidly growing area: for example. the rapid development of new materials and techniques. the exponential increase in the use of titanium implants embedded in the jaws as a foundation for the replacement of a missing tooth or teeth ISO Focus September 2004 3. In 1969. beginning in the 1960s. at present there are more than 100 dental bonding products on the market. This includes also the incorporation of bonding systems that show adhesion to the tooth and so improve retention and reduce marginal leakage and staining. tooth whiteners and orthodontics. However. Fostering a youthful and aesthetic appearance Over the last two decades. and is Chair of TC 106. 2.

The responsibility was assumed by Canada. surgical instruments and materials. There are 150 published ISO standards relating to dentistry. The secretariat is located at the Canadian Dental Association in Ottawa with the support of the Standards Council of Canada.Developments and Initiatives so improving the retention of conventional dentures or avoiding such dentures altogether.” In addition to TC 106. Nathalie Martel can be reached at nmartel@cda-adc. which has been a member of the committee for many years. the standards reflect physico-chemical. Martel has a background in business administration and previously had experience with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the National Research Council of Canada. Implants may also be used as anchors for orthodontic “ Twenty years ago the average attendance at the annual ISO/TC 106 meeting was about 40 persons . Ms. and there is an ISO standard on clinical trials (ISO 14155 Parts 1 and 2). 2 shows the same teeth after the metal fillings have been replaced by tooth-coloured resin-ceramic composite materials. A major problem of course is the rapid turnover of commercial products. Narrower limits and upgraded values would be possible if there were more data from the clinical setting or from realistic clinical simulations. and surgical implants. mechanical and biological proper- 36 ISO Focus September 2004 Photo : ISO . BSI (United Kingdom) relinquished the secretariat of ISO/TC106. effort and contribution of the members of the technical committee towards the endeavours to maintain dependable standards of practice in a rapidly changing world. now it is about 300. D. Nath- 1. ISO/TC 106 has seven active subcommittees and 47 working groups. Dentistry after 30 years. In April 2004. about 20 other TCs are concerned directly or indirectly with healthcare technology. This brief account of ISO/ TC106 is not able to detail the technical complexity of modern dental standards but it is hoped that it does indicate the dedication. alie Martel has been appointed as the Secretary for the technical committee. ties of current materials known to be acceptable in practice. 1 shows two corroded and broken silver tin amalgam fillings. This is improving. Some estimate of the rapid growth can be gained from the fact that 20 years ago the average attendance at the annual ISO/TC 106 meeting was about 40 persons whereas now it is about 300. McComb). As a result of these trends. 2. there are many new work items and many innovations which demand both new standards and the revision of existing specifications. Lack of clinical performance data A considerable limitation to the existing standards is the lack of clinical performance data. A liaison is maintained with most of these committees. The total membership of the group is about 300. anaesthetic equipment. Those relevant to dentistry include : sterilization and disinfection. Nevertheless. (Illustrations courtesy of Dr. We need to identify test methods that detect early deterioration of materials under clinical conditions.

g.. Moreover. ISO Focus September 2004 Photo : Scott Specialty Gases 37 . occupational exposure .A world of applications for gas calibration By Theo Hafkenscheid. Chair. Analysis of gases. e. ISO/TC 158 set out upon its work programme under new Dutch chairmanship. at promoting a smooth and reliable worldwide transaction of industrial and other gases. the scope of our work appears restricted (preparation and use of calibration gas mixtures). alcohol tests.g. purity analysis of industrial gases. • for trade purposes. Although at first glance. the caloric value needs to be known to the permillage. and Ortwin Costenoble. the standards it develops have a big impact on a wide range of applications where accurate knowledge of gas mixture composition is required : • for demonstration of compliance with regulations. e. thereby. measurement of car emissions.. aimed at supporting the production of reliable gas composition data and. In the international natural gas market. • for environmental purposes. Dutch Metrology Institute “ Calibration of gas mixtures is of extreme importance in situations in which even the smallest deviations in measurements can have major consequences. ISO/TC 158 has produced guidance standards to describe generic methods for preparation of calibration gas mixtures and ways of calculating gas composition and the determination of uncertainty when measuring. tropospheric ozone precursors.g.g. stratospheric ozone scavengers. Our incentive for implementation Ten years ago. ISO/TC 158. measurement of compositions of natural gases. e. stack emissions. our market is limited specifically to the calibration of gas market. refinery gases.. four standards dealing with dated preparation methods were withdrawn. Secretary ISO/TC 158 ppearances can be deceptive.. verification and certification of gas mixture compositions . For all the applications highlighted above. Additional standards focus on quality control of gas analysis and handling of gas cylinders. Natural gas. measurements of air pollutant emission levels for the purpose of emission trading .” Over the years. e. Photo : TNO-NMI. monitoring of greenhouse gases. coke oven gases. as it concerns major quantities in which a small deviation may involve millions of dollars. All gas analysing equipment needs calibration: the use of calibration of gas mixtures is of extreme importance in situations in which even the smallest deviations in measurements A can have major consequences. the gas analysis vocabulary (ISO 7504) has been updated. Our work is mainly concerned with the calibration of gases and gas mixtures. • for industrial purposes. and some others transposed to ISO/TC 193. although the direct influence of what we do affects the whole gas market. on closer inspection.

Natural gas. A variety of subjects will be addressed in parallel sessions. secretary of ISO/TC 158. to be held between 6 and 8 October 2004 in the RAI congress centre in Amsterdam that is to be addressed by Mr. we solved the ultimate problems and made the final touchups on a work programme that started in 1994 and consisted of a revision of all the TC’s standards and the addition of four guidance documents. and still are. the International Gas Analysis Symposium and Exhibition. Hafkenscheid is an expert in quality assurance/quality control of measurements of gases. laboratory workers and calibration gas users meet each other with a focus on international standardization. avoid the risks of producing quality data that are not sound. Rein Willems. President Director of Shell Netherlands. to highlight and show off our rejuvenated standards. compound-oriented methods for gas analysis. Mr. Ukraine. the European Committee for Standardization. Air quality. with a focus on air quality monitoring. and cooperation with other ISO technical committees working on gases. chair of ISO/TC 158. Analysis of gases.Developments and Initiatives Our “ library ” currently consists of 19 standards and technical reports. Additional standards enhance quality control and the handling of products. immediately taking care of the Secretariat of ISO/TC 158. Analysis of gases. starting a process of consultation with CEN. At the symposium. sampling guidance and new applications of gases. has a background in analytical chemistry and a PhD in physics and mathematics. unique in the gas and calibration world. gaseous fuels and calibration gases. ISO/TC 158 work in the future is likely to be mainly in producing technical specifications and informative standards. ISO/TC 158 offers its support to other TCs dealing with analyses of gases and gas mixtures. such as trace elements. Photos : TNO-NMI. to have its standards adopted as European standards. Obviously. ISO/TC 158 is ready for new challenges. This has become a regular event. The event is also used to test new standardization ideas in – and to extract new directions for standardization from – the work field. providing input aimed at the accurate measurement of specific gas mixture compositions. As a consequence. we finalized the work of four of our six working groups. With the Kiev update of our programme.and off-line analyses. TC 158 standards have now become normative references in many standards devoted to the applications mentioned above. Only a few amendments and a technical report were added to our work programme. Dutch Metrology Institute About the authors Theo Hafkenscheid. We will discuss all existing and upcoming ideas and requests from standard users. to act as a generic starting point for the development of more specific. and ISO/TC 146. To bolster the incentive to users to implement its standards – in particular. This explains the interest of the subject and why we have organized an international symposium. When ISO/TC 158 met in a plenary session in April 2004 in Kiev. LPG. active in other standardization committees. alternative fuels and natural gas. and has 20 years of experience in various standardization committees and working groups. where researchers. ISO/TC 158 members have been. All players meet in Amsterdam In Kiev. Ortwin Costenoble. experts from all over the world will assemble to exchange knowledge on the latest developments. on. industrials. He joined The Netherlands Standardization Institute (NEN) in 2000 as a standardization consultant. and ensure smooth and reliable worldwide transactions in industrial and other gases. has a background as a materials engineer. He is also involved in (mainly European) projects in petroleum. the Netherlands. such as in ISO/TC 193. He is a senior scientist at the Mass and Chemistry department of NMi van Swinden Laboratory. to the new European Union member states – the TC is currently 38 ISO Focus September 2004 .

Year of transition for ISO 9000 and confirmed growth for ISO 14001 The ISO Survey of ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14001 Certificates. ISO/TC 22. ISO/TC 26. ISO/TC 67. ISO/TC 28. Paints and varnishes. The ISO Standards Handbook : Corrosion will prove a useful tool for designers. when the total was 167 210 in 134 countries and economies. Copper and copper alloys. and on the environment so that the avoidance and control of corrosion are of the utmost importance.New this month Circumscribing a scourge : corrosion The corrosion process is the starting point – or the catalyst – for a number of industrial failures. The 2003 total represents an increase of 332 915 (+ 200 %) over 2002. 1) ISO Standards Handbook. ISO/TC 44. Petroleum products and lubricants. when the total was 44 388 in 98 countries and economies. The ISO Standards Handbook : Corrosion will prove a useful tool for designers. many other ISO technical committees have developed specific standards related to the phenomenon: ISO/TC 17. ISO collects the survey data from disparate sources and cannot guarantee their quality and accuracy. it adapts itself insidiously to environmental conditions. that takes the lion’s share. as a public information service. the first year for which the survey recorded ISO 9001:2000 certifications. which is now in its 11th year. ISO Focus September 2004 The ISO Standards Handbook Corrosion 1) gathers together into one volume 56 International Standards for corrosion and corrosion protection mostly prepared by ISO/TC 156. and causes great damage and considerable loss of income. technologists. Failures due to corrosion impact on health and safety. Plain bearings. is devoted to this subject. corrosion as a process is no longer just a build-up of layers of rust on the surface of metal as a result of water vapour and salt action. and for all those dealing with corrosion protection in different branches of industry. ISO/TC 114. petrochemical and natural gas industries. 2004. The survey provides the following principal results for 2003 : ISO 9001:2000 Up to the end of December 2003. 39 . ISBN 92-67-10395-4. Materials. engineers. at least 500 125 certificates to the ISO 9001:2000 quality management system standard had been issued in 149 countries and economies. Horology. accidents and catastrophes (Bhopal. In English. Corrosion of metals and alloys (38 standards). ISO itself does not perform certification to its ISO 9000 and ISO 14001 management system standards and does not issue ISO 9000 and ISO 14001 certificates. Road vehicles. So important are the preparation and protection of steel substrates that the whole of Volume 4 of the ISO Standards Handbook. for instance). technologists. which was a year of transition for ISO 9000 and confirmed growth of ISO 14001. which each year provides a panorama of certification to ISO’s well-known quality and environmental management system standards. equipment and offshore structures for petroleum. But. showing just how prevalent this scourge is. It carries out The ISO Survey. 930 p. ISO/TC 79. Like a virus. Light metals and their alloys. and ISO/ TC 123. However. Steel. 1st ed. Corrosion. has just been published revealing the worldwide situation at the end of 2003. ISO standards have a very considerable and significant role to play in preventing it arising and halting its progress. as well as day-to-day problems. Under modern industrial conditions. Corrosion is the physicochemical interaction between a metal and its environment that results in changes in the properties of the metal. engineers. estimated at 3 % of GNP in developed countries. Welding and allied processes. the survey is eagerly awaited each year since it provides a unique indicator to the worldwide implementation of ISO’s management system standards – although organizations may also implement and benefit from the standards without seeking certification. The 2003 total represents an increase of 455 737 (more than ten times higher) over 2001.

However.” The number of ISO 9001: 2000 certificates shows an increase of 332 915 over 2002. Previous survey editions are also posted on the site allowing comparison of data from the first survey in January 1993. A second evolution is that several major global industries are implementing quality management system requirements that incorporate ISO 9001:2000 with additional ones specific to their sector. the report includes world totals by industrial sector. each of which previously held a separate certificate. This is the case of organizations operating multiple sites. The 2003 total represents an increase of 16 621 (+ 34 %) over 2002. ISO 9001:2000 became the only ISO 9000 standard for accredited certification recognized by ISO and the International Accreditation Forum (IAF). at least 66 070 certificates to ISO 14001 had been issued in 113 countries and economies. ISO 9002 and ISO 9003 standards. These include ‘late starters’ in the transition process who were unable to complete it by the deadline. However. two weeks after the transition deadline. ISO intends to improve and refine the modalities for the collection of data for the 2004 edition. although the partial figures obtained indicate that the phenomenon is growing. ISO states that this increase has to be qualified “ apparent ” because not all survey sources were able to supply 1994 version figures. multiple-site certificates. Examples are ISO/TS 16949:2000 (automotive). ISO qualifies this. including world. Consequently. In addition. This reduces the number of “ pure ” ISO 9001:2000 certificates. A considerable amount of free information on ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 is available on ISO Online. stating : “ The 11 % of non-ISO 9001: 2000 certificates identified by the survey at the end of 2003 cannot be taken as a final measure of the transition. and also includes organizations that. This 11 % includes organizations that have made the transition since the deadline. this evolution may actually be increasing the number of ‘ ISO 9001:2000 ’ certified organizations because ISO 9001:2000 is incorporated within sector-specific documents that are being cascaded down the global supply chains of important sectors comprising many thousands of supplier companies. the survey identifies two developments in particular as being responsible for reducing the worldwide total of certificates. The ISO Survey of ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14001 Certificates – 2003 (ISBN 92-67-10393-7) is also available as a combined report and CD-ROM.New this month ISO 14001 The increase in the number of certificates in 2003 to the ISO 14001 environmental management system standard is the largest so far recorded in the nine surveys in which ISO 14001 has been included. This evolution affects multinational companies in particular. and the worldwide total of ISO 9000 certificates (old and new versions). single-site certificates to single. when the total was 49 449 in 117 countries and economies. Its complete extent is unknown. due for a re-certification audit in 2004. Up to the end of December 2003. the 500 125 total of ISO 9001:2000 certificates was equivalent to 89 % of the 2002 world total of 561 747 of ISO 9000 (old and new versions) certificates. having deleted these from their databases. replacing them by sectorspecific certification. At the end of 2003. that have now rationalized their certification programme as they made the transition and obtained a single ISO 9001:2000 40 ISO Focus September 2004 . in particular to obtain a clearer picture of single multiple-site certificates as well as of certification to other ISO management system standards. while the CDROM also provides country-by-country breakdowns by industrial sector. One is the evolution from multiple. shows an apparent increase of 6 238 – from 561 747 to 567 985. Following the 15 December 2003 deadline for transition from the 1994 versions of the ISO 9001.” It has not been possible to analyze precisely the impact of the above factors. regional and country breakdowns. certificate covering multiple sites. the survey adds : “ Paradoxically. The principal survey findings are provided free of charge on ISO’s Web site. or are still to do so during the course of 2004. decided to make the transition by this date. TL 9000 (telecommunications) and ISO/TS 29001 (oil and gas). In addition to the categories of data listed above.

Corrosion of steel can be prevented by various procedures – most effectively. ISO’s Standards Handbook on Corrosion is now available. international viewpoint set in the business context. The fruits of the thought. “ to pro- Measurement of water cycle components. by coating systems. Paints and varnishes – Corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paint systems (in eight parts) contains all the important information on the protection of steel structures against corrosion by coating systems. is to prepare the necessary standards. the potential for ISO standards to develop tools to assist in attaining greater global security is also the subject of a report from ISO’s highlevel advisory group on security. debating about both what has happened over the year since the General Assembly in Argentina in 2003 and what is in the pipeline today. and the damage it causes is very considerable. ISO 12944. members and stakeholders. but a vital component in social and technical fields as well. reflection and consultation Developments and Initiatives Business excellence.Coming up on the part of its stakeholders were condensed into a “ global ” vision for the coming five years that is being considered at the General Assembly. Main Focus Global relevance and global strategies “ Global ” is not only a very concrete concept in the business context of today. In the standards area. Though the phenomenon has been growing exponentially over last decades. Through the wide variety of options of design of steel structures. The role that standards can play in assuring global security and ISO’s current and potential involvement is to be the theme of a talk at the General Assembly. “ global ” has been an issue affecting many or most of the major issues currently on the table. Corrosion protection of steel structures. Software and system engineering. Corrosion has a voracious appetite. Measurement of the components of the water cycle therefore require to be measured to universally acceptable methods and the function of ISO/TC 113. The broad lines and thinking behind the Plan are highlighted in this issue of ISO Focus. ISO/IEC 15288. From a summary of a vast body of systems thinking about products and services. where it is difficult to operate effectively without taking the global factor into account. the notion of “ global ” will be especially present at the ISO General Assembly this month. have wider scopes of operation and draw on suppliers offering a greater diversity of technology than ever before. and has culminated for the first time in a single. Systems engineering – System life cycle processes is an ambitious standard from ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 7. their range of application is vast. and that same water may eventually move to any other part of the earth through the water cycle. The 2004 event in Geneva. that is conducting a stakeholder outreach programme. best practice has been progressively refined and formalized. ISO Focus takes a look at the standard’s potential. The global relevance of standards has been a topic of discussion for some time – ensuring that the standards ISO produces are good for use through the world. Between May and October 2003. Water in a stream knows no jurisdictional boundaries. ISO’s Technical Management Board has developed a Policy Statement giving the theory and practice behind the term of “ global relevance ” . vide a basis for international trade in system products and services ”. it is a key element to ensure the effectiveness of the use of standards and to help avoid raising “ technical barriers to trade ”. ISO explains why these represent important notions for members and standardizers to keep constantly in mind. ISO organized a consultation of ISO members and stakeholders and of ISO’s major international partners to collect suggestions and expectations regarding ISO’s strategy. ISO Focus September 2004 . neither local nor national. Hydrometry. ISO Strategic Plan 2005-2010 – Standards for a Sustainable World. To emphasize the importance of this aspect of International Standards to standardizers. too are today’s patterns of trade. Global. commonly accepted. leading to products and services that can be more complex. followed by a case study in maritime and multi-modal transport .

the revised ISO 14001* and ISO 14004*.. .org * Already available as FDIS (Final Draft International Standards) ... .the environment is global.Whether it’s Autumn or Spring in your region. 1 1400 ISO ISO 1 4004 Coming this Winter (or Summer).. The global EMS standards. www.