Advancements in Noise Measurement

by Ken Wong, Senior Member IEEE R&D Principal Engineer Component Test Division Agilent Technologies, Inc.

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg
Page 1

May 21, 2008

Reproduced with Permission, Courtesy of Agilent Technologies, Inc. by Bob Laughlin.

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Objectives
Noise Figure Measurements
• • • • • • Y-Factor Cold source Noise Parameters Noise Wave Correcting for Source Impedance Mismatch Correcting for Receiver Mismatch and Noise

VNA Noise Figure Measurements
• • • • • Setup (S) Setting Input (Fwd) and Output (Rev) Powers Choosing Noise Bandwidth Setting Noise Averaging Factor Choosing the Receiver Gain Setting

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 2

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Objectives (cont) and Defense Symposium 2007
Calibration
• Noise Source Calibration (S) • S-parameter Calibration (S) • Noise Tuner Calibration (S)

Verification
• Mismatch Line • Amp Characteristics • Combined S11 • Combined Gain • Combined Noise Figure

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 3

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace EuMw 2007Days Workshop The Early Agilent and Defense Symposium 2007

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 4

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Agilent’s Noise Figure Legacy

340A 1958

8970 1980

8560/90 with NF 1995

85120 1999

SA with NF 2002

NFA 2000

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 5

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Definition
DEVICE

Sin Nin

Ga

Sout Nout

Sout = Ga * Sin ; N out = Ga * N in T =T + N add 0 T =T0 ( S / N )in N out N add F (noise factor) = = = 1+ Ga ∗ N in ( S / N )out Ga * N in
Ga ≡ Available Gain, NF (Noise Figure) ≡ 10*log10(F) dB
D. Vondran, “Noise Figure Measurement: Corrections Related to Match and Gain,” Microwave J., pp 22-38, Mar. 1999 Collantes, J. M., R. D. Pollard, et al. (2002). "Effects of DUT mismatch on the noise figure characterization: a comparative analysis of two Y-factor techniques." Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 51(6): 1150-1156.
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 6

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Definition in Terms of Noise Temperature
DEVICE

T0

Te, Ga

Nout

N in = k * T0 ∗ B ; N add = Ga * k * Te * B
T0 ≡ 290 K ; B ≡ bandwidth k ≡ Boltzmann's constant = 1.380 6505×10-23 joule/kelvin Te ≡ effective input noise temperature of device

N out Te = 1+ F= Ga * N in T0

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 7

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Figure2007 Effective Temperature Versus Symposium
1000.00

100.00

Te (K)

10.00

1.00 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

NF (dB)
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 8

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Parameters 2007 Definition In Terms Of Noise

is

2

Ys

Noisy two-port

is

2

Ys

en

in

Noiseless two-port

F = Fmin

⎛ Rn ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ Ys − Yopt ⎝ Gs ⎠

2

= Fmin

Γ opt − Γ s 4 Rn + Z0 1 + Γ 2 1 − Γ opt s

2

(

2

)
IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

IRE Subcommittee 7.9 On Noise: “Representation Of Noise In Linear Two-ports,” Proc. IRE, Vol. 48, Pp. 69-74, Jan. 1960
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 9

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Definition (cont) Noise parameters Workshop
Γ opt − Γ s 2 ⎞ 4 Rn ⎟ Ys − Yopt = Fmin + Z0 1 + Γ 2 1 − Γ ⎠ opt s
2

⎛ Rn F = Fmin + ⎜ ⎝ Gs

(

2

)

Fmin ≡ minimum noise factor Rn ≡ noise resistance
Yopt ≡ optimum input admittance Ys = source admittance Gs = real part of Ys Γopt ≡ optimum input noise match Z0 = reference impedance Γs = source match

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 10

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Ratio Noise Source ENR – Excess

346C 10 MHz – 26.5 GHz Noise source

⎛ Th − Tc ⎞ ENR ≡ 10 log10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ T0 ⎠
Th = Hot Noise Temperature Tc = Cold Noise Temperature T0 = 290 K Tc = T0 when noise sources are calibrated by reference labs.
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 11

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007Method Workshop Y factor Agilent
DEVICE

Thot Tcold

Te, Ga

Pout

Pout,hot=kBGa(Thot + Te)
Y= Pout ,hot Pout ,cold

Pout,cold=kBGa(Tcold + Te)
Te = Thot − YTcold Y −1

N out Te Thot − Y * Tcold = 1+ = 1+ F = G a * N in T0 ( Y − 1 ) * T0
Assumes ALL Reflections are the same.
“Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurements,” Hewlett-Packard Application Note 57-1, Palo Alto, CA July 1983
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 12

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Calibration 2007 Actual Y factor Measurement

RECEIVER

Receiver Calibration

Thot Tcold
Γs(hot) Γs(cold) Γi(rec)

Te(R) Ga(R)

Nout(R)

Pout

F( R )

Γs

=

N out ( R ) Ga ( R ) * N in

= 1+

Te ( R ) T0

Thot − Y * Tcold = 1+ (Y − 1) * T0

Assumes Γs(hot) = Γs(cold)
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 13

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Actual Y factor Measurement
DEVICE RECEIVER

Thot Tcold
Γs(hot) Γs(cold)

Te(D) Ga(D)
Γi(device)

Nout(D)

Te(R) Ga(R)

Nout(all)

Pout

Γo(device) Γi(rec)

F( all )
F( device )

Γs

Thot − Y * Tcold = 1+ (Y − 1) * T0
= F( all ) − F( R )
Γo ( device )

−1

Γs

Ga ( D )
Γs
IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Note that
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 14

F( R )

Γo ( device )

≠ F( R )

Aerospace and Defense Symposium EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Assumptions 2007 Some Y factor Measurement

Γ s ( hot ) = Γ s ( cold )

F( R )

Γo ( device )

= F( R )

Γs

Ga ( device ) =
Notes:

N hot ( all ) − N cold ( all ) N hot ( R ) − N cold ( R )

True only if S11 and S22 are <<1

Ga (available gain) is a function of S11, S22 and Γs Γs ≡ source reflection of the incident signal

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 15

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium EuMw Examples OfWorkshop Measurements 2007 Four 2007 Agilent Y-Factor
What you want for good NF accuracy!
Noise source

On-wafer environment

Noise source

1 3

2 4 On-wafer multi-instrument (ATE) environment

Noise source

Automated multi-instrument (ATE) environment
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 16

Noise source

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense EuMwNoise Agilent Workshop 2007 Source Technique Symposium 2007 Cold

Ga

PN

FDut

Pn = 1+ kT0 BG a

Need to know gain very accurately Ga is a function of of S11, S22 and Γs
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 17

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMwNoise Agilent Workshop 2007 Figure Cal and Measurement Cold
kGB = k ⋅ Gain ⋅ Bandwidth

Calibrate

PN
T ~ 10,000K
Fr =

kGB =

Phot − Pcold Thot − Tcold

T = T cal

Thot − T0 1 ⋅ T0 ⎛ Pnhot − 1⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Pncold ⎝ ⎠

Measure
T = T meas
Γs

DUT
Γi(device) Γo(device) Γi(rec)

PN
1 Ga ⎛ P ⎞ ⋅ ⎜ n − Fr + 1 ⎟ ⎝ kGB ⎠
IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

FDut =

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 18

Aerospace EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Parameters and Defense Symposium 2007

is

2

Ys

en

in

Noiseless two-port

Γ opt − Γ s 4Rn F = Fmin + 2 Z o 1 + Γ opt 1 − Γ s 2

2

Noise figure varies as a Noise figure varies as a function of source impedance function of source impedance

(

)
IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Four noise parameters: Fmin, Rn, Γopt (mag), Γopt (phase)
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 19

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Definition Noise parameters Workshop

⎛ Rn F = Fmin + ⎜ ⎝ Gs

Γ opt − Γ s 2 ⎞ 4 Rn ⎟ Ys − Yopt = Fmin + Z0 1 + Γ 2 1 − Γ ⎠ opt s

2

(

2

)

Fmin ≡ minimum noise factor Rn ≡ noise resistance
Yopt ≡ optimum input admittance Ys = source admittance Gs = real part of Ys Γopt ≡ optimum input noise match Z0 = reference impedance Γs = source match

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 20

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace Definition and Defense EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop – Symposium 2007 Noise parameters
Noise Temperature

Tn = Tmin +

( RnT0 ) Ys − Yopt
Gs

2

Γ opt − Γ s 4T0 Rn = Tmin + Z0 1 + Γ 2 1 − Γ opt s

2

(

2

)

Tmin ≡ minimum noise Temperature Rn ≡ noise resistance T0 ≡ 290°K
Yopt ≡ optimum input admittance Ys = source admittance Gs = real part of Ys
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 21

Γopt ≡ optimum input noise match Z0 = reference impedance Γs = source match
IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Parameters
Fmin at Γopt • Plots of noise figure circles versus impedance (at one frequency) • Fmin is lowest noise figure and occurs at Γopt • F changes with Γ • F changes with device bias
Increasing noise figure

Increasing noise figure

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 22

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense EuMw 2007 Agilent parameters Symposium 2007 Measuring Noise Workshop

VNA

TUNER

DUT
Noise source

NFM

A. C. Davidson, B. W. Leake, et al. (1989). "Accuracy improvements in microwave noise parameter measurements." Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on 37(12): 1973-1978.

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 23

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop – S-parameters Noise wave representation
bn2

a1 b1
bn1

[S]

b2 a2

⎛ b1 ⎞ ⎛ s11 ⎜ ⎟=⎜ ⎝ b2 ⎠ ⎝ s 21

s12 ⎞ ⎛ a1 ⎞ ⎛ bn1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ s 22 ⎠ ⎝ a 2 ⎠ ⎝ bn 2 ⎠

⎛ b 2 b b* ⎞ cs12 ⎞ ⎛ cs n1 n1 n 2 ⎟ = ⎜ 11 Cs = ⎜ ⎜ b b* b 2 ⎟ ⎝ cs21 cs22 ⎟ ⎠ n2 ⎝ n 2 n1 ⎠

P. Penfield, Jr "Wave Representation of Amplifier Noise." IRE Transactions On Circuit Theory: Mach (1962) pp. 84-86 K. Hartmann, “Noise Characterization of Linear Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. cAS-23, No. 10, Oct. 1976, pp. 581-590 R.P. Meys, “A Wave Approach to the Noise Properties of Linar Microwave Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-26, No. 1, Jan. 1978, pp 34-37 S. W. Wedg ,and D. B. Rutledge (1992). "Wave techniques for noise modeling and measurement." Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on 40(11): 2004-2012.

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 24

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop correlation 2007 Measurement using (S) noise matrix
Noise output power from two-port is

Pout = kBGav (Te + T0 )
⎧ 1− Γ 2 T + Γ 2 X + ⎫ ⎛ kB s21 ⎞ ⎪ s s s 1 ⎪ Pout = ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎨ ⎜ 1 − Γ S ⎟ ⎪ 1 − Γ S 2 X + 2 Re ⎡ 1 − Γ S * Γ X ⎤ ⎬ ⎪ s 11 ⎠ ( s 11 ) s 21 ⎦ ⎭ ⎝ s 11 2 ⎣ ⎩
2

(

)

X 1 = bn1 = cs11 ,
2

X2 =

bn 2 S 21

2 2

=

cs22 S 21
2

,

* bn1bn 2 cs12 X 12 = * = * S 21 S 21

J. Randa, W. Wiatr, “Conte Carlo Estimation of Noise Parameter Uncertainties,” IEE Proc. Sci. Meas. Technology, Vol. 149, No. 6, Nov. 2002, pp. 333-337

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 25

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise correlation matrix (CS) in terms of noise parameters
2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 1 − s11Γ opt 4 Rn Γ opt (1 − s11Γ opt ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ F − 1 s 2 − 1 + 4 Rn ⎟ s21 ⎜ ( Fmin − 1) s11 − 2 2 ⎜ ( min ) 11 ⎜ ⎟⎟ Z0 1 + Γ Z 0 1 + Γ opt opt ⎜ ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎟ Cs = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎜ ⎛ ⎟ ⎛ 4 Rn Γ opt (1 − s11Γ opt ) ⎞ 4 Rn Γ opt ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ s21 ( Fmin − 1) s11 − s21 ⎜ Fmin − 1 2 2 ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ Z 0 1 + Γ opt Z 0 1 + Γ opt ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠

(

)

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 26

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw NoiseAgilent Workshop 2007 Measurement System New

Noise Receiver Inside

Noise Tuner

DUT

Noise Source
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 27

ADAPTER
IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and EuMw as Noise Tuner Defense Symposium 2007 2007 Agilent Workshop ECal
PNA-X varies source match around 50 ohms using an ECal module ECal can provide 7 impedance states

(Z1, F1), (Z2, F2), …

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 28

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Figure in PNA – contributions
Speed and accuracy –
• Single Connection S-parameters and Noise Figure • Fast Step Frequency Sweep • Complete Mismatch Correction

Use of ECal or Compatible Impedance Tuner Embedding and De-embedding of Probes in OnWafer Noise Measurements Can Accommodate Coax Noise Source for On-Wafer Noise Measurements

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 29

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Calibration of the receiver

⎧ 1− Γ 2 T + Γ 2 X + ⎫ ⎛ kB S ⎞⎪ s s s 1 ⎪ 21 ⎜ ⎟⎨ Pout = ⎬ 2 2 * ⎜ 1 − Γ s S11 ⎟ ⎪ 1 − Γ S X + 2 Re ⎡(1 − Γ S ) Γ X ⎤ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠⎩ s 11 s 11 s 2 21 ⎦ ⎣ ⎭
2
i

(

)

5 unknowns, linear equation
Note: The PNA-X uses a different form of the above equation.

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 30

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Calibration of receiver Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop - solution of equations

Require Minimum Of 5 Equations To Solve Can Be Over-determined At Least One Measurement Must Be Made With Different Source Temperature Use Noise Source (Known ENR, Measure ΓCold, ΓHot) ECal Module Provides 7 Terminations

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 31

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Figure Mode Instrument Default Settings
S-parameter Mode Source Power Noise RF BW Noise IF BW 4 MHz 2 MHz Point to Point (1 = 10K) 30 dB ON -30 dBm

Noise Averaging

Noise Receiver Gain Factory Receiver Cal

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 32

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Figure Measurement Instrument Setup

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 33

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Measurement Softkeys Symposium 2007

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 34

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Set Up

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 35

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Up Noise Set Agilent Workshop

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 36

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Calibration Noise Figure Measurement

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 37

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Cal

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 38

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop S-parameters and Noise Calibrations

Noise Tuner

This step provides 2 of the five measurements required.

ADAPTER

Noise Source

Ph, Pc, Γh, Γc

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 39

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop S-parameters and Noise Calibrations

Noise Tuner

This step provides the rest of measurements required to calibrate the noise receiver.
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 40

ADAPTER

Γnr

Pnt(i), Γnt(i)

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop S-parameters and Noise Calibrations

S-parameter calibration completes the calibration sequence.

Noise Tuner

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 41

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Measurement of DUT
Known from Measured S-parameters

⎧ 1− Γ 2 T + Γ 2 X + ⎫ ⎛ kB S ⎞⎪ s s s 1 ⎪ 21 ⎜ ⎟⎨ Pout = ⎬ 2 2 * ⎜ 1 − Γ s S11 ⎟ ⎪ 1 − Γ S X + 2 Re ⎡(1 − Γ S ) Γ X ⎤ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠⎩ s 11 s 11 s 2 21 ⎦ ⎣ ⎭
2

(

)

4 unknowns, linear equation

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 42

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace EuMwS-parameters and Defense Symposium 2007 2007 Agilent Workshop Measurement DUT and Noise

Noise Tuner

DUT
Meas S-parameters Pout(i) @ each Γnt(i)

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 43

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop With On-Wafer Noise Measurement System Probes

Noise Tuner

FULL 2-port Cal

4
1-port Cal

Noise Source
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 44

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop 60 µm FET
Data sets offset by 1dB
N8975 Y-factor cold corrected

F (1 dB per division) 0

5

10

15

20

25

Frequency (GHz)

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 45

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Measurements Compared
10 20 18 8 16 14 Gain (dB) NF (dB) 6 12 10 4 NFA PNA/NF 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency (GHz)
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 46

8 6

2

4 2 0

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Figure Uncertainty Example (ATE Setup)
4.500

Amplifier:
Gain = 15 dB Input/output match = 10 dB NF = 3 dB Gamma opt = 0.268 ∠ 0o Fmin = 1.87 dB Rn = 12 – 33

4.000

Y-factor with noise source connected to DUT via switch matrix

0.75 dB
3.500 NF (dB)

0.5 dB

Y-factor with noise source directly at DUT input

3.000

PNA-X

0.2 dB

2.500

2.000 0.5 2.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 12.5 GHz 14.5 16.5 18.5 20.5 22.5 24.5 26.5

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 47

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Figure Uncertainty Example (Wafer Setup)
Amplifier:
4.500

1.1 dB
4.000

Gain = 15 dB Input/output match = 10 dB NF = 3 dB Gamma opt = 0.268 ∠ 0o Fmin = 1.87 dB Rn = 12 – 33

Y-factor with noise source Y-factor with noise source connected connected to DUT via switch matrix to probe via switch matrix

3.500 NF (dB)

Y-factor with noise source connected to DUT input Y-factor with noise source 0.75 dB connected to probe input PNA-X PNA-X
0.3 dB

3.000

Amplifier:
2.500
Gain = 15 dB Input/output match = 10 dB NF = 3 dB Gamma opt = 0.268 ∠ 0o Fmin = 1.87 dB Rn = 12 – 33 Wave model correlation = 50%

2.000 0.5 2.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 12.5 GHz 14.5 16.5 18.5 20.5 22.5 24.5 26.5

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 48

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Verification approach
Need To Avoid Using An Active Device
– Cannot Guarantee Behavior Over Time – Dependence On Temperature – Noise May Be Injected Through Bias Supply

Use Mismatched Transmission Line, Passive Device
– Noise Parameters, Noise Figure Are Calculated From Sparameters – Can Cascade With Any Amplifier And De-embed

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 49

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007Transmission Line Characteristics Mismatch Agilent Workshop

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 50

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise wave representations
50 Ω 25 Ω 50 Ω

AMP

[TL], [CL]
anL a1L b1L bnL

[TA], [CA]
anA b2L a1A a2L b1A bnA

[TL]
⎛ a 2 nL CtL = ⎜ ⎜ b a* ⎝ nL nL

[TA]
* anAbnA ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎟ bnA ⎠

b2A a2A

* ⎛ a 2 anLbnL ⎞ ⎟ ; C = ⎜ nA tA 2 ⎟ ⎜ b a* bnL ⎠ ⎝ nA nA

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 51

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 S-parameters of Amplifier Measured Agilent Workshop

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 52

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Calculated vs. Measured Combined |S11| 2007

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 53

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Calculated vs. Measured Combined Gain 2007

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 54

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Calculated vs. Measured Combined Noise Figure

Uncertainty Bar k=2

Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 55

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense Symposium 2007 EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Additional References:
[1] D. Vondran, “Noise Figure Measurement: Corrections Related to Match and Gain,” Microwave J., pp 22-38, Mar. 1999 [2] Collantes, J. M., R. D. Pollard, et al. (2002). "Effects of DUT mismatch on the noise figure characterization: a comparative analysis of two Y-factor techniques." Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on 51(6): 1150-1156. [3] “Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurements,” Hewlett-Packard Application Note 571, Palo Alto, CA July 1983 [4] IRE Subcommittee 7.9 On Noise: “Representation Of Noise In Linear Two-ports,” Proc. IRE, Vol. 48, Pp. 69-74, Jan. 1960 [4] A. C. Davidson, B. W. Leake, et al. (1989). "Accuracy improvements in microwave noise parameter measurements." Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on 37(12): 1973-1978. [5] R.Q. Lane, “The Determination of Device Noise Parameters,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Aug. 1969, pp. 1461-1462 [6] P. Penfield, Jr "Wave Representation of Amplifier Noise." IRE Transactions On Circuit Theory: Mach (1962) pp. 84-86 [7] K. Hartmann, “Noise Characterization of Linear Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. cAS-23, No. 10, Oct. 1976, pp. 581-590 [8] R.P. Meys, “A Wave Approach to the Noise Properties of Linar Microwave Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-26, No. 1, Jan. 1978, pp 34-37 [9] S. W. Wedg ,and D. B. Rutledge (1992). "Wave techniques for noise modeling and measurement." Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on 40(11): 2004-2012. [10] J. Randa, W. Wiatr, “Conte Carlo Estimation of Noise Parameter Uncertainties,” IEE Proc. Sci. Meas. Technology, Vol. 149, No. 6, Nov. 2002, pp. 333-337 [11] E.C. Valk, D. Routledge, J.F. Vaneldik, T.L. Landecker, “De-Embedding Two-Port Noise Parameters Using a Noise Wave Model,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 37, no. 2, June 1988, pp 195-200
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 56

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008

Aerospace and Defense EuMw 2007 Agilent Workshop Noise Option Block Diagram Symposium 2007
Source 1
OUT 1 OUT 2 OUT 1

Source 2
OUT 2

24V DC

Rear panel Noise receivers

R1 A
35 dB 65 dB 65 dB

10 MHz 3 GHz

3 - 26.5 GHz

R2 B
35 dB

Test port 1

Source 2 Output 1

DU T

Source 2 Output 2

Test port 2

Noise Source
Advancements in Noise Measurement
By Ken Wong Page 57

IEEE IMS SCV Chapter Mtg May 21, 2008