Mechanism of infection & avenues of penetration

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The infection of plant pathogen leads to actual entry of the plant pathogen in the host, its establishemnt inside hoe & its sucessive multiplication & spread. When a pathogens comes in contact with the host & if the envimental condition if favarable for the pathogen to germinate & produce infection chain, that leads to disease development & ultimate the spread of the pathogen in population. Pathogenically the honeymoon or is a process or the chain of events by which disese development take place. The event leads to infection can be broadly classified under three catagories. : (1) Prepenetration 2) Prepenetration 3) Post penetration or further colonization of infected plant by the pathogens. Prepenetration : In case of Prepenetration the pathogens spore land on

the host tissue, & if suitable moisture & temperature & nutrients is present the spore will germinate to produces the germ tube which grow on the host surface. In most of the fungi ( generally necrotrophs the mycelium will aggregate together on the host tissue before causing actual infection to the host. After germination of fungal structure & its growth on host surface the germ tube or mycelium produce the approsorium the organ of attachment & set to produce the infection to host, by producing the infection thread or peg. Penetration in the host: The fungal pathogen entres inside the host either by active penetration or by passive penetration. The active penetration by dissolution of cell wall or by applying mechanical pressure to the host tissue. The passive Prepenetration is through the natural openings of the host.

In case of active penetration the once the approsorium produced on the host tissue, form the aprosorium the infection pegs are produced now the pathogen enters by two way i) by applying mechanical pressure to the host tissue & for the infection peg inside the host ii) the pathogen produces the various cell wall degrading enzymes like peetinase, cellulose hemicellulase that degrade the host cell wall & maceate the host tissue & the host tissue & the pathogen enters inside the host. In certain cases the pathogens use both mechanical pressuren enzme production to enter inside the host tissue, with the entry inside the host the pathogens starts invading the host tissue & starts establishing itself inside the host. Post penetration the host: one the pathogen entres inside the entres inside the either though active or passive penetration made, the pathogens starts growing inside the host tissue & drive the nutrients form the host cell & reproduce to spread the propagales in the population. The post penetration of the pathogen can be grouped in various ways I) localized-small necrotic lessons b) Extensive blotch, streaks or strips 3) Extensive rotting of entire organs 4) Pathogen may restricts itself at one place & produces the enzymes that kills the host tissue in advance. The host colonization may be ectophytic where the mycelium grows on the host tissue & produces haustoria for absorbing thenutrients form the host cells (Powadry mildew fungi). The host colonization may be endophytic where the myceluim of the pathogen grow inside the host tissue may be intercellular, intracellular or vasular & derive nutrient from host cells. In case of bacterial pathogens, entry of bacteria is by passive penetration i.e. penetration through the natural opening for the vius &

mycoplasma they have to take aid of the insect vector, nematodes to assess entry inside the host tissue. The virus & mycoplasma plant pahtogen can also be transmitted by means of grafting & budding, dodder, fungi, nematode. The nematode feeds directly on the host tissue with the help of style produces toxin that produces malformation in the host tissue. Passive penetration of pathogens through natural openings (Or avenue of panetration of plant pathogens. ) The penetration of the pathogen may take place trough several avenuses depending upon the nature of parasite.

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