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A Lebanese touch for
Your guide to Arab Cooking in...
Salads Appetizers Pastries Soups Rice Pulses & Grains
Vegetables Chicken Meat Fish Pickles Beverages
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Ib Arab Scientific Publishers Reem Bldg.Lebanon Tel & Fax : 961-1.(860138 .603118) Click here to continue .0 (c) Copyright 1996 : Arabization & Software Center P .Arabic Cooking® Version 1.net.Box: 13-5574 Beirut .Box: 13-5574 Samar Bldg.Lebanon Tel & fax: 961-1. Beirut ..785108 . Snoubra Mme Curie Str.811385) 1-212-478-2486 e-mail address:bchebaro.O.811373 ..arabpubl@dm. Ain Al-Tenah P .O.(785107 .
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Arabic Cooking® Version 1.1 or later * MPC .0 System Requirements: IBM® or compatible MPC or equivalent with: * 33 MHz 80386 or better * Minimum 4MB RAM * DOS® 6.2 compatible CD-ROM drive (2X or faster) * SVGA monitor / display minimum at 256 color 640x480 * MPC compatible audio board * Mouse MACINTOSH® or compatible System 7 software with over 30 MHz Processor. CD-ROM and audio capabilities Technical Notes for IBM® MPC AND MACINTOSH® Click here to continue .0 or later * Windows 3.
. Double click on SETUP EXE to begin installation procedure. DOS® . select your CD drive. The contents of the Arabic cooking is published to be read by the ADOBE Acrobat® Reader version 2. Windows® . Insert the Arabic Cooking CD into the CD-ROM drive. Using file manager. 3. This software installs the ADOBE Acrobat® Reader. and UNIX®. Technical Notes for IBM® MPC AND MACINTOSH® Click here to continue .1 and above on Macintosh® .0 General Installation Instruction: 1. 2.Arabic Cooking® Version 1.
Ib Technical Notes for IBM® MPC AND MACINTOSH® Click here to continue .Box: 13-5574 Samar Bldg.3..Lebanon Mon. Beirut . you can call our technical support department: Arabization & Software Center P . Snoubra Mme Curie Str.firstname.lastname@example.org If you encounter a problem.811373 .811385) 1-212-478-2486 e-mail address: bchebaro.Arabic Cooking® Version 1. .O.30 pm 961-1.(860138 .30 .Friday 8.
Adobe Reader and the Navigation within the Cookbook The book contents is divided into a number of chapters.. Glossary Provides comprehensive explanation of the various ingredients used in Arabic cooking Help Assists you with both your installation..0 Opening (title) Page Selection Menu Basics Introduces Arabic cooking requirements and knowledge base The Book Introduces the various sections of the book Index Accesses the various recipes by topics.Arabic Cooking® Version 1. Each chapter opens individually as a file. Adobe Reader may not open more than ten files at a time. Click here to continue .
This contains the ingredients of the recipe This indicates the preparation time.Arabic Cooking® Version 1. Clicking on this area will load the preparation page. italic. This is the picture of the recipe. Quick Introduction for IBM® MPC AND MACINTOSH® This is a general overview of the recipe Note: Underlined. and blue coloured words or sentences indicates that you have to refer to the basics section.0 The Main Page This area contains the title of the recipe. This indicates the number of servings. Click here to continue . This indicates the cooking time. This area contains the alternative spelling of the recipe in Arabic and in French.
0 The preparation Page This area contains the title of the recipe... italic. This is the picture of the recipe. .Arabic Cooking® Version 1. Clicking on this area will make you go back to the section index Quick Introduction for IBM® MPC AND MACINTOSH® This contains the steps for preparing the recipe Note: Underlined. and blue coloured words or sentences indicates that you have to refer to the basics section. Click here to exit.
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FILO PASTRY PEAS PEPPER PINE NUTS PISTACHIO NUT POMEGRANATE THICKENED JUICE PURSLANE RADISH RAISINS RICE ROMAINE LETTUCE ROSE WATER SAFFRON SESAME PASTE/ TAHINI SESAME SEED SEVEN SPICES SEVILLE ORANGE SHORTENING SHRIMP SPINACH SUGAR SUMAC SWEET PEPPER SWISSCHARD TARO THYME TOMATOES TOMATO PASTE TRUFFLES TURMERIC TURNIP VEGETABLE OIL VINE LEAVES VINEGAR WALNUT ZAATAR ZUCCHINI Select word to view glossary else Click here to exit .ALLSPICE ALMONDS ALUMINIUM FOIL ARTICHOKES BAKING POWDER BASIL BAY LEAVES BEETROOT SODIUM BICARBONATE BROAD BEAN/ FAVA BEAN BURGHUL CABBAGES CARAWAY CARDAMOM CARROTS CASHEW NUTS CAULIFLOWER CELERY CHESTNUTS CHICKPEAS CINNAMON CLOVES COARSE ROCK SALT CORIANDER CORNFLOUR COUSCOUS CUCUMBER CUMIN DANDELION EGGPLANT FLOUR. ALL PURPOSE GARLIC GINGER GOURD GROUND CHILIES HONEY JEWS MALLOW (MELOKHIA) KAHWA LEEKS LEMONS LENTILS LIMA BEAN/ BUTTER BEAN LOOMI MARJORAM MINT MISTICHA/ MASTIC MUSHROOMS NUTMEG OKRA OLIVES OLIVE OIL ONIONS ORANGE BLOSSOM WATER PARSLEY PASTRY.
A . ARTICHOKES Also known as globe artichokes. Commonly referred to as “bahar”.ALLSPICE Though it is a spice from the new world. They can be eaten either fresh from the cracked shells or roasted and salted. ALUMINIUM FOIL It is a special aluminium paper. allspice has been adopted in Middle East cooking for its similarity to the combined flavors of clove. The large flower buds of a type of thistle. gray-green flesh at the vegetable’s center the heart. pointed. prickly leaves conceal tender. ALMONDS ALMONDS are one of the most extensively used nuts in the world. The tightly packed cluster of tough. It protects from leakingor burning. Soft and thin used in wrapping cooking. cinnamon and nutmeg. grown primarily in the Mediterranean.
BASIL Related to the mint family and also known as sweet basil. Beetroot is usually baked or boiled whole and unpeeled as it loses its red juices if the skin is pierced. but turns pale brown when dried. BEETROOT A root vegetable which is a member of the beet family. it has long slender leaves of up to 2. and tender stems. B . The root shape may be globular. It may be eaten hot or cold as a vegetable on its own. It is bright green. they flavor simmered dishes.5 cm in length. dried leaves of the bay laurel tree. BAY LEAVES Whole. the color of the skin is dark purple-red and the foliage above ground is green. marinades and pickling mixtures. It is native to the Mediterranean region. as part of a salad or used in soups and savoury dishes.BAKING POWDER Powder used instead of yeast as a raising agent in baked goods. Pungent and spicy. Baking powder usually comprises two parts acid (cream of tartar) to one part alkali (bicarbonate of soda). cylindrical or conical.
Recipes specify which grade to use. Greek and Armenian food stores and specialty food stores. dried or canned form. It grows as a long green pod containing pale green. to make scones and cakes rise. Syria and neighboring countries. BURGHUL Hulled wheat. Bicarbonate of soda is an alkali. Available at Middle East. The broad bean is available in fresh. BROAD BEAN/ FAVA BEAN The seed of a dwarf climbing plant. steamed until partly cooked. such as soured milk or buttermilk. Native to Asia. B . dried then ground. the dried bean is cream or pale-brown colored.BICARBONATE OF SODA Combined with cream of tartar. Available in fine and coarse grades. oval-shaped beans which are best eaten when very young as a boiled legume. It has a nut-like flavor making it a popular food for those following natural food diets. It is widely used in Lebanon. the foundation of baking powder. often used with acids. A pinch of bicarbonate of soda added to the cooking water helps green vegetables to stay good in color.
The spice is bitter-sweet. A biennial plant. Eastern and Italian dishes and is also one of the ingredients in curry powder. C . and dried seeds. It comes in different forms: dried ground leaves. Ground cardamom is widely used in Scandinavian.000 years. The pods are cream-colored and the seeds inside are brownish-black. The seeds are sometimes used whole in pickling spice and marinades. including Iran and Turkey. CARDAMOM (Cardamon. Purchase from Middle East and Armenian food’s stores. very aromatic and has a slightly Lemony aftertaste.CABBAGES The hard. It has been used as a spice for 5. caraway grows up to 60 cm in height with feathery leaves and creamy white flowers. fresh tap roots. solid cores of green or red cabbages must be cut away before the cabbage can be shredded for cooking. Cardamum) Native to Asia and South America. Cardamom is the dried fruit of a plant (Elettaria Cardamum) belonging to the ginger family. CARAWAY Arabic : Carawiya Caraway is originally from the countries of temperate Asia.
CAULIFLOWER A vegetable which is a member of the cabbage family. Cauliflower may be eaten. For best texture. C . an antioxidant thought to play a role in preventing cancer. The curvaceous cashews have a distinctively mild delicate. eaten raw or cooked. flavor and nutritional value. fleshy white head of immature flowers fringed with green leaves. A good cauliflower should have a creamy-white head with a firm. tightly packed texture. used in vegetable salads or in cooked dishes.CARROTS This popular root vegetable. boiled or steamed. is an excellent source of vitamin A and betacarotene. It consists of a sturdy stalk topped by a closely-packed. CASHEW NUTS Arabic:Caju The fruit of the pear cashew tree. buy and cook them fresh. slightly sweet flavor and are used in sweet and savoury dishes. cultivated in tropical countries and grow profusely in India. Native to either the eastern Mediterranean or Asia.
closely packed at the base to form a heart.CELERY A vegetable native to many countries in its wild state. Dried chestnuts are becoming more readily available. with different kinds varying in size and color. It grows as a cluster of stalks or stems. knobby nut than a pea or bean. C . Being both nutritious and flavorful. it is used in many basic dishes in the Middle East. The color of the dried chickpeas is light brown and it looks more like a small. CHICKPEAS Native to Asia and widely cultivated at the Mediterranean region. opening out in separate stems with leafy tops and fibrous ridges running up and down the outside of each stem. these should be soaked overnight before use. The main use of it is as a dried pulse. The chickpea is a legume which contains only two or three seeds in each pod. CHESTNUTS More starchy and floury than most other nuts and lower in protein and fat. The natural color of stems and leaves is green.
It can be used for curing foods. COARSE ROCK SALT Coarse or crystal rock salt can be used in the kitchen or on the table. marinades. CLOVES Cloves are dried. sweet. cinnamon is made from the dried bark of an evergreen tree (cinnamo mum zeylanicum) belonging to the Laurel family and is available ground or in sticks (made from quills of rolled bark). stewed fruits.CINNAMON A spice native to the Far East. C . dark brown buds. Extensively used. cinnamon is said to be the world’s most important spice and its sweet. spicy and pungent flavor is pleasing in baked goods. The flavor of the spice is strong. rubbing meats and fish with it is an ancient technique. unopened. and hot winter punches. very aromatic and unmistakable.
It is made. it also makes a pleasing flavoring for cakes and biscuits.CORIANDER (Chinese Parsley) Fresh coriander (Cariandrum Satirum) looks like unwrinkled leaves of vivid green parsley and is much used in eastern Mediterranean. Also known as cornstarch. ripe seeds of coriander are exported from North Africa. COUSCOUS A North African cereal traditionally served with a lamb stew containing chickpeas.is used as a neutral. The seeds are relatively small and range in color from white to dark yellow. C . They are available whole or ground and the flavor resembles grated Lemon peel mixed with sage. basically. Asian and Japanese cookery. When ground. Although still made by hand in its countries of origin. Dried. from semolina which is rubbed between dampened hands to form the tiniest of dumplings. couscous is now available ready-prepared and packeted. CORNFLOUR This fine.flavoured thickening agent. about the size of seed pearls. powdery flour ground from endosperm of corn-the white heart of the kernel. the Balkans and South America. Coriander is used in curry powder and mixed pickling spice.
CUCUMBER A vegetable (Cucumis Sativus) which is a member of the marrow family and native to Asia.000 years and was introduced to China some 2. Some types of cucumber are suitable for use in pickles but most are best eaten raw in a salad or on their own. dusky. It has been grown in India for over 3. small. green or yellow-green. refreshing. The flesh is very pale green in color. Sold either as whole. They may also be cooked and used in some recipes. popular in cuisines of its region of origin. usually narrowing to a short “handle” at the stem end. crescent-shaped seeds. The Skin of most kinds is thin. or ground. C .000 years ago. CUMIN Middle Eastern spice with a strong. aromatic flavor. but very watery. Different varieties vary in length from a stubby 10 cm /4 inches to well over 30 cm / 12 inches with a diameter of about 4 cm /1 1/2 inches. may be smooth or rough and is generally ridged lengthwise. The Cucumber is the fruit of a creeping plant and the Western salad variety is tubular in shape. There is a soft central core which may have edible seeds. crisp.
The leaves can be used in Salads or as a vegetable and the root can be cleaned. D .DANDELION A plant (Taraxacum Officinale) which grows wild all over Europe and Scandinavia. dried and roasted and made into a natural coffee substitute without caffeine.
EGGPLANT Variety of eggplant distinguished by its long. E . slender form. Asian eggplant generally has a finer flesh fewer seeds than the larger. rounder varieties.
this bleached and blended (hard and soft wheat) product is available in all supermarkets.FLOUR. F . ALL PURPOSE The most common choice of flour for making pastries and quick breads.
GARLIC A herb valued since time immemorial. GINGER The rhizome of the tropical ginger plant. Whole ginger rhizomes. G . Ground. dried ginger is easily found in jars or tins in supermarket spices section. GOURD The fruit of trailing plants of the Cucurbita family. squash and vegetable marrow varieties. Ginger pieces are available crystallized or candied in specialty food shops. Extensively cultivated world wide and also found wild. many gourds are inedible but the family also includes pumpkin. The flavor is strong. penetrating and is something of an acquired taste. which yields a sweet. may be purchased fresh in a supermarket or vegetable market. garlic (Allium sativum) is said to have been given to men building the Egyptian pyramids to keep them healthy. the herb is a perennial member of the onion family and grows in bulbs. commonly but mistakenly called roots. strong-flavored spice. each containing individually wrapped cloves.
although almost all dried chili can be ground and used as a pure powder. For a home-made mixture. experiment with herbs and spices. G .GROUND CHILIES Many commonly available chili powders are blends of a number of spices and seasonings.
syrup like substance produced by bees from flower nectar. such as clover and orange blossom. taste and aroma of the blossoms from which it was made. sweet.HONEY The natural. are lighter in color and better suited to general cooking purposes. Milder varieties. H . honey subtley reflects the color.
wash well. are stripped from the long stalks and used as a pot herb for a soup of the same name. The herb has the viscous properties of okra and it is favored more for this then for its flavor. Jew’s mallow sometimes makes its appearance in Western city markets during late spring and summer. J . Dried jew’s mallow is available at Greek and Middle East food stores. Strip leaves from stalks.Jew’s Mallow (MELOKHIA) A secondary source of jute grown in Egypt and India. 4-8 cm (1 1/2-3 inches) long. drain and shred very finely. In Egypt the younger shoots are harvested and the oval leaves. using about 500g (1 lb) leaves in place of the 1 1/2 cups dried leaves.
with raps in between. know the right coffee talk-murrah for sugarless coffee. K .KAHWA (Turkish Coffee) In the Middle East every household has its rakwi (long-handled coffee pot). Traditionally few drops of orange blossom water would be added to individual taste. Stir sugar in water over heat until dissolved and boiling. mazboutah for medium sweet and hilweh for very sweet. add a level teaspoon sugar for medium sweet. stir well and cook until foam rises to the top of the pot. Add 1 heaped teaspoon pulverized coffee (usually a dark roasted coffee) for each cup water. To each Arabic coffee cup measure of water. Coffee is always served in tiny. bowl-shaped cups. Heat twice more. Pour immediately into the cups. cardamom pods are ground with the beans (3 or 4 with each 250g or 8 oz beans). a heaped teaspoon for very sweet. To impress your Arabic host or your guests. To flavor the coffee. The pot is removed from the heat and the base rapped on a flat surface to reduce foaming.
There are several main types of lentil. The juice. When cooked. are easy to purÈe when cooked and are a popular ingredient in many Mediterranean and Asian dishes. L . and about 2. curved leaves which open out towards the top. Lentils are high in protein. LEMONS This citrus fruit is almost unpalatable when raw. LENTILS It is a legume which grows as a pod on a branching plant from which the bean is extracted. The leek grows as a multi-layered cylinder of tightly packed. Although the natural color is green. have a pleasant flavor. flesh and skin are valuable flovouring. the bean is then dried and used as a pulse. it is the mildest and sweetest of the onion family and may be eaten on its own or used in savoury dishes. the acidic juice can also be used as a cooking agent.LEEK A vegetable which is a member of the onion family. is a brown-skinned bean with the casing removed. bright orange variety. the leek is earthen-up to blanch the stem to a very pale green or off white. but its kitchen uses are many. with some of the fibrous green top removed. Its size is 20-25 cm long. often sold as a split lentil. it may also be bought in the unskinned state as a brown lentil.5 cm diameter. The tiny.
they must be pierced with a skewer or fork on each side so the cooking liquid can travel through the lime to take the flavor. buttery color although some kinds have a very pale shade of green. L . LOOMI (Dried Limes) They are necessary flavor additive to gulf cooking and are also used in Iran and Iraq. All varieties of butter bean must be boiled briskly for the first 15 minutes of cooking time to destroy harmful toxins found in the outer skin which can prove very dangerous to the human body. The name “butter bean” is derived from its pale. While the Gulf cooks use Loomi either whole or powdered. Butter beans have a good texture and flavor and are suited to many savoury dishes. All types have the kidney shape. they are only used whole in Iran and Iraq. the bean is dried and used as a pulse. Ready-cooked beans are sold in cans.LIMA BEAN/BUTTER BEAN For export purposes. When using them intact.
From ancient times it has been used as a chewing gum. MINT Arabic: (Naahnah) These herbs grow in temperate zones of the world and bear deep green leaves with an unmistakable strong and tangy scent and flavor. with most of the world’s supply coming from the Greek island of Chios.MARJORAM A herb native to Western Asia and to Mediterranean. The powdered resin is used to flavor sweet breads. The graygreen leaves are dried and are slightly aromatic with minty overtones. In Egypt a small piece of misticha is often added to boiling chicken to remove unwanted flavors. MISTICHA / MASTIC Arabic: (Mistiki) Misticha is a resin from a small ever green tree. M .
We used mainly button mushroom in our recipes. cultivated or dried.MUSHROOMS Wild. M . Mushroom take well to most cooking methods : sautÈing. baking and microwaving. braising. They are also delicious uncooked. the mushroom is a versatile and flavorsome ingredient.
whole. May be brought already ground or. for fresher flavor. N .NUTMEG Arabic: Jawzat Al Teeb Popular baking spice that is the hard pit of the fruit of the nutmeg tree.
it is an angular pod tapering to a point. Okra is also available dried. Good-quality cured olives are available in ethnic delicatessens. Sold in ethnic delicatessens. vinegar’s and oil-to produce results generally more sharp tasting than ripe black olives.OKRA Arabic : Bamia Also called ladies’fingers and gumbo. and while it is used for these properties in western cooking. though a brief blanching will firm the vegetable. canned and frozen. specialty-food shops and well-stocked supermarkets. GREEN OLIVES: Olives pickled in their unripened. The vegetable has viscous properties. seasonings. black olives are cured in various combinations of salt. If you like the glutinous texture. OLIVES BLACK OLIVES: Through the Mediterranean. Young okra are preferred. the preparation of the vegetable in the Middle East is so devised that these properties are lessened. O . brines. green state and cured in brine-sometimes with seasonings. vinegars and oils to produce a range of pungently flavored results. then do not use the vinegar treatment. Native to Africa. specialty-food shops and well-stocked supermarkets.
The oil is a good source of mono saturated fatty acids.OLIVE OIL A golden-green oil with a rich and fruity flavor. Native to Asia. Available at Middle East and Greek food stores. Chemists (druggists) sell a concentrated essence. O . use in drops rather than the teaspoon or tablespoon measures given. if this is all you can obtain. it is used for general cooking and frying purposes. Yellow onion is strong in taste and available year round. sliced or whole. in other areas. it has been a kitchen ingredient for thousands of years. Types of onions used: Yellow onions. In Latin countries. ORANGE BLOSSOM WATER A fragrant liquid distilled from orange blossoms and used to flavor syrups and pastries. The best is known as virgin oil and comes from the first pressings of small. Spring onion should have firm bulb and green stem. ripe black olives from Mediterranean and Balkan countries. ONIONS Finely chopped. it is generally reserved for salad dressings and mayonnaise. the onion is one of the most useful vegetable flavorings available to the cook. spring onions.
FILO Pastry Tissue-thin sheets of flour-and-water pastry used throughout the Middle East as crisp wrappers for savory or sweet fillings.PARSLEY A nutritious herb. which has a superior flavor. Usually found in the supermarket frozen-food section. PASTRY. or purchased fresh in Middle Eastern delicatessens. P . packed with trace elements and vitamins. It is bright green when fresh but turns a greenish-brown when dried. There are two main types in common use: curly (Petroselinum Crispum) and Flat-leafed (P. sativum). Parsley grows worldwide and is used both in cooking and as a garnish. There is also a third type which has a fern-like appearance. The fragile sheets. As you work with the filo. which generally measure 25 by 35 cm. keep the unused sheets covered with a lightly dampened towel to keep them from drying out. must be separated and handled carefully to avoid tearing. defrost frozen filo thoroughly before use.
is best purchased as whole pepper corns. with the husks removed before drying. to be eaten whole and unshelled. older peas should be cooked. inedible lining. BLACK PEPPER : Pungent black pepper corns derive from slightly underripe pepper berries. P . Peas are particularly well-suited to freezing and are also processed and sold in cans. lightly boiled or used in cooked dishes. whose hulls oxidize as they dry. fibrous. PEPPER Pepper. There are many varieties and all are sweet and best when the pea itself is relatively small. possibly native to northern India. Peas grow in an elongated flat pod or shell which becomes tabular in shape as the peas inside swell and mature. Most pea pods are sold at 7.5-10 cm/3-4 inches long and about 1 cm/1/2 inch wide. Dried peas are available as pulses in the form of whole green peas and as yellow or green split peas. It is now cultivated worldwide except in tropical and sub-tropical regions.PEAS (Garden Pea) A vegetable (Pisum Sativum) which grows as the fruit of a climbing plant. the most common of all savory spices. Both pod and pea are green in color and the pod has a thin. to be ground in a pepper mill or coarsely crushed as needed. The pods of some varieties such as mange-tout do not have an inedible lining and these are picked before the pea seed has developed. WHIT PEPPER : Milder white pepper corns come from fully ripened berries. Fresh young peas may be eaten raw by themselves or in a salad.
If fresh pomegranate juice is not available. ivory-colored seeds extracted from the cones of a species of pine tree. the nuts has a subtle taste and aroma and are related to the cashew family. Use 3-4 teaspoons dibs roman in 1 cup water for 1 cup pomegranate juice. still in their shells. place a handful of seeds at a time in a muslin bag and squeeze juice into a bowl. POMEGRANATE THICKENED JUICE To juice the fruit. They are expensive and generally available roasted and salted. creamy-colored shells which split naturally at one end. Freeze in ice-cube trays. available at Middle East food stores. use pomegranate molasses or syrup. then pack cubes in plastic bags and store in freezer.PINE NUTS Small. Italy and the USA Peridot green in color and uniquely bright. They are the seeds of fruit grown on a small tree and have pale. P . with a rich. these are also grown in other areas of the Middle East. PISTACHIO NUT Native to Syria. They have many culinary applications and need blanching to remove their skins. dibs roman. slightly resinous flavor.
PURSLANE (Common Purslane. fleshy leaves which. Purslane is also used as a flavoring and can be dried. are suitable for use in salads. when young. P . It has green. The flavor is mild but sharply distinctive and the texture is slightly sticky. Green Purslane) A herb-type plant (Portulaca oleracea) which probably originated in Asia and is found both wild and cultivated in many parts of the world.
polished. R . For baking. Crisp texture. White. moist climate and is cultivated in parts of North America. ground. Varieties include longmedium and short grain. flour and wild. parboiled. regular-milled. RICE This cereal lives in a warm. Africa. and strong or mild flavor. Australia and Southern Europe. Risotto. Patna. but we used red redishes. Basmati. popular as a snack on their own. It has a high starch content and is easy to digest. Carolina. RAISINS Variety of dried grapes.RADISH Native to southern Asia. use seedless dark raisins or golden raisins (sultanas). flakes. Asia. There are many varieties of radishes. Brown.
pale-green leaves characterized by their crisp texture and slightly pungent flavor. rose water is used for both savoury and sweet dishes. Rose water is available at Middle East and Greek food stores. when using a new brand add cautiously and taste to judge how much is required. R . As the strength varies according to the quality. ROSE WATER Distilled from fragrant rose petals. Also called Cos Lettuce.ROMAINE LETTUCE Popular variety of lettuce with elongated.
It takes the stamens almost a quarter million blooms to produce 500g of saffron. SESAME PASTE / TAHINI (Taheena. Tahina) A Middle Eastern sesame seed paste similar in consistency to mayonnaise and used in the preparation of hummus. Pound threads in a mortar and soak in liquid specified to bring out the fragrance and color. S . Tahina by itself is spooned on to small plates in the same way as hummus. The seeds are used on breads and cookies and for tahini. garnished with a sprinkle of olive oil. SESAME SEED Pale cream seeds of a plant widely grown in tropical regions.SAFFRON Arabic: Zaaffaran It is the world’s most expensive spice. Sesame seeds are oily and highly nutritious and used since ancient times in the Middle East. The use of saffron originated in Asia Minor in ancient times. Buy a reliable brand as there are cheaper versions sold which are not true saffron. black olives and chopped parsley and eaten with pieces of pitta bread as an appetizer.
the flavor is not quite the same. Shortening is butter that has been melted to remove the water and milk solids. 2. pour through a sieve lined with muslin. introduced to the Mediterranean earlier than the sweet orange.SEVEN SPICES It is a combination of seven Lebanese spices which can be purchased at any Middle Eastern store. SHORTENING While gee can be used in place of shortening. leaving pure butterfat. It is about 7.Slowly pour the melted butter into a bowl leaving the milky solids behind. 1. S . When completely melted. it is not eaten as a dessert fruit but used in conserves such as marmalade and also to add piquancy to meat dishes. SEVILLE ORANGE The fruit of an evergreen tree native to South-East Asia.5 cm/3 inches in slightly darker coarser skin.Melt the butter over low heat without stirring. Alternatively. Because of its sharpness. remove the foam from the surface with a spoon. which has a much higher burning point: 180∫C (350∫F). after skimming.
crushed red berries of a species of sumac tree. in several changes of water. raw shrimp (prawns) are usually sold with heads already removed but the shells intact. rather lemony in flavor. SUMAC The dried. SUGAR We used coarse granulated table sugar. to eliminate all dirt and sand. SPINACH Be sure to wash thoroughly. S . unless otherwise specified. It is advisable that sumac be purchased at Middle East and Armenian food stores. also known as crystal sugar. It has a pleasant sour taste.SHRIMP Fresh.
sea kale Beet) A vegetable (Beta vulgaris) which is a member of the Beetroot family cultivated for its greenery rather than its root. The leaf is green and its wide stalk is normally white but red varieties do exist. SWISS CHARD (Leaf Beat. oval leaves which are wide and thick-veined and best harvested before maturity to eliminate stringiness. flavorful supply. spinach-like flavor. Buy in small quantities from shops with high turnover. S .SWEET PEPPER Arabic: BIHAR HOLOU Powdered spice derived from the dried pepper. to ensure a fresh. mild and hot forms. Swiss chard may be cooked and eaten whole but more often the green leaf is stripped off and used separately from the white stalk. available in sweet. The leaf is best steamed. It grows as a cluster of stalks topped with crinkly. as overcooking destroys the mild.
meat. small-leafed herb used fresh or dried as a seasoning for poultry. Commercially. round with flattened tops and bottoms or pear-shaped. TOMATOES The fruit of a branching plant (Lycopersicum esculentum) native to South America. but turning red or yellow with maturity. It is a large. soft and edible seeds. seafood or vegetables. The tomato grows as a hanging fruit. Tomato may be eaten raw by itself or in Salads and it is used in numerous cooked dishes where it adds a distinctive flavor.TARO Arabic: Kolkas There are species of colocasia native to tropical Asia and Africa. heating destroys the toxicity. starchy tuber with side tubers or corns. clean-tasting. THYME Fragrant. T . The taro is toxic if eaten raw. initially green in color. The thin skin encloses a pulpy flesh with a central core of small. The size when ripe varies enormously with type and the fruit may be spherical. the tomato is suitable for canning whole or turning into juice.
tinged purple or green at its crown. as well as adding flavor to many soups. It is usually available in tubes or cans. and are gathered in the autumn. Generally cooked by boiling. TRUFFLES The king of wild mushrooms.TOMATO PASTE A concentrated paste made from Italian plum tomatoes which is widely used in Italian dishes. around the roots of certain oak trees. T . Choose smaller turnips that feel heavy for their size and firm to the touch. creamy white root vegetable. earthy-flavored ground spice that. TURNIP Small. Wild truffles grow underground. truffles have an incomparable flavor. are most common. Cost varies from year to year. with firm. stews and casseroles. braising or stewing. which look much like small lumps of coal. and prices are prohibitively high. pungent yet slightly sweet flesh. TURMERIC Pungent. Black truffles. like saffron. adds a vibrant yellow color to any dish. sauces.
VEGETABLE OIL This is an oil obtained from blending a number of oils in various proportions. Vinegar is used for pickling. Always adjust the seasoning accordingly when using preserved vine leaves. in various sauces and salad dressings. It may contain coconut or palm oils. about 50 %. VINE LEAVES A familiar and popular wrapping. cider or malt. produced by fermentation of grapes. malt contains a little less. V . Cider vinegar has an acetic acid content of 50-60 %. and as a condiment. Blanching before stuffing is imperative: fresh leaves need their slight bitterness subdued. these have a pleasant lemony tang and are suitable for many cooking methods. and leaves packed in brine are very salty. containing varying amounts of an acetic acid. sour liquid. Vegetable oil has little aroma or flavor. making it popular as a all-purpose culinary oil. which are high in saturated fats. and types and quantities are not necessarily given on the label. VINEGAR A sharp.
garnishing and in sweets.WALNUT It is known from millions of years. The outer layer should be removed then cooked in-order to remove the inner layer. Used extensively in cooking. grounded or flaked. W . It is available in the market: chopped. It grows mainly in Mediterranean areas. SautÈ walnut with oil or butter until golden.
thyme and sumac. sweeter flavor than larger types of marrow. The flesh is crisp and watery and there is a central core of edible seeds. It usually has a milder.ZA’ATAR SEASONING Dry blend of roasted sesame seed. boiled. Z . available in Arabic specialty shops. wild marjoram. ZUCCHINI A vegetable (Cucurbita pepo) which is a small variety of the marrow family with a dark green skin. The terms courgette (French) and Zucchini (Italian) are used interchangeably for these varieties of small marrow as there is no English equivalent. baked or fried. It is best at about 10 cm/4 inches long and may be eaten raw or steamed.
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