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NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY

Prepared as part of the STATEMAP component of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey MAP 130MGEOLOGIC MAP OF THE BATTLE MOUNTAIN QUADRANGLE, LANDER COUNTY, NEVADA

40°45'00" R44E R45E Qf2a 40°45'00"
ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS OF THE HUMBOLDT RIVER, Meander-Belt Deposits

117°00'00"
Pleistocene)MOld alluvial fan deposits with fully smoothed, Davis, J.O., 1978a, Late Sehoo discharge of the Humboldt River: Stratigraphic archeology at the North

116°52'30"
Qe Qay2 12602-SD 40
Qao Valmy power plant, Humboldt County, Nevada: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Qf1 Qf2a Qe Qe Qay2 Qay1
REESE RIVER, AND ROCK CREEK dissected, and broadly rounded surfaces. Exposed at surface only v. 10, p. 386. Qm4 Qf2a Qao Dss Dss Dss
Dsc
Active and most recently abandoned meander belts (present to near fan heads. Surface expression similar to Qai, with dominant fine-grained Davis, J.O., 1978b, Quaternary tephrochronology of the Lake Lahonton area, Nevada and California: Nevada Qf2b Qay1 Qai Dsc 35
Alluvium of the Humboldt River, Reese River, Rock Creek, and related about 2,000 cal yr BP)MDeposits of modern and most recently eolian cover, and small, localized areas of desert pavement. Surface clasts Archeological Survey Research Paper no. 7, University of Nevada, Reno, 137 p. Qf2a Qe
Qf2/Qm4 Qay1 Qai
Davis, J.O., 1990, Giant meanders on the Humboldt River near Rye Patch Nevada due to catastrophic Qe Qay1 Qay2
overflow channels on active and abandoned floodplain terrace surfaces. abandoned Humboldt River meander belts. Composition ranges from well- have dark rock varnish. Soils typically consist of a 10- to 20-cm-thick Qf2/Qm4 Qay2 Qay2 Qay1
flooding: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 22, no. 7, p. A309. Qao

l
Dss
These deposits are divided into floodplain deposits and meander-belt sorted, cross-stratified lateral accretion deposits of sand and gravel to well- vesicular A horizon (Av), a 15- to 30-cm-thick unstructured eolian silt cap (A), Doebrich, J.L., 1995, Geology and mineral deposits of the Antler Peak 7.5-minute Quadrangle, Lander

l
Qf2/Qm4 Qe Qay2

l
deposits, although some overlap is present and many contacts are thus sorted, horizontally stratified vertical accretion deposits of sand and organic- a 20- to 40-cm-thick argillic horizon overprinted with Stage I CaCO3 (Btk), County, Nevada: Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 109. Qf2a Qay1

l
Elston, R.G., Davis, J.O., Clerico, S., Clerico, R., and Becker, A., 1981, Archeology of section 20, North
approximate or transitional. Active floodplains and abandoned floodplain rich mud. Surface typically has complex topography characterized by a very and a 50- to 100-cm-thick Stage III-IV CaCO3 horizon (Bkm); commonly, Qe

l
Valmy power plant, Humboldt County, Nevada: Social Sciences Technical Report No. 19, Desert Qf2a
l
Dss
terrace surfaces are generally flat, but local topographic irregularities related sinuous main channel interspersed among abandoned channels, floodplain upper soil horizons are erosionally stripped, especially on rounded surfaces. Research Institute, Reno, Nevada, 227 p. Qay2 Qai Dsc

l
Foster, L.J., 1933, Report on Humboldt River investigations, Nevada: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Qf1a Qf2b Qf1 E Qf2b
Qay1 Qay2 Qai Qay1
to incised channels, levees, and eolian dunes are common. Floodplain surface remnants, and ephemeral oxbow lakes. Local relief rarely exceeds 3 2500±70 yr BP Qe

l
Colorado, 116 p., 9 plates. Qf2a

l
deposits predominantly include valley-flat and backswamp deposits m except in areas influenced by channel straightening and check-dam Landslide deposits (Pleistocene)MLargely complex mixtures of rock Gilluly, J., and Gates, O., 1965, Tectonic and igneous geology of the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada: G Qe
Qai
Qe Qay1 Dsc

l
composed of unconsolidated, vertically accreted layers of fluvial mud and construction, each of which have enhanced historical channel incision. Qm1 avalanche and debris flow deposits composed of loosely U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 465, 153 p. Qai
Ql Qf2/Qm4 3190±40 yr BP

l
Hawley, J.W., and Wilson, W.E. III, 1965, Quaternary geology of the Winnemucca area, Nevada: University of Qe Qm2a Qf2a Qe Qay2
sand. Organic-rich mud is common. All but the youngest floodplain deposits meander belts include modern and a series of recently abandoned belts. consolidated clasts of basalt and andesite ranging from silt to Nevada, Desert Research Institute, Technical Report 5, 66 p. Qay1 Qay2
Qai Dss
are covered by a mantle of eolian silt and minor sand as much as 1 m thick, Three subunits of young belts are recognized (Qm1a, Qm1b, and Qm1c) angular boulders several meters across. Unit also contains partly House, P.K., Ramelli, A.R., Wrucke, C.T., and John, D.A., 2000, Geologic map of the Argenta Quadrangle, Qf2a Qe Qay1 Qao Qay1
Nevada: Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 2000–7, scale 1:24,000. Qe Qay2
although thicker deposits may occur locally. Older floodplain units are based on crosscutting relations among individual meander belts. disorganized and locally intact highly fractured basalt flows from the 70
Kittleman, L.R., 1973, Mineralogy, correlation, and grain-size distributions of Mazama tephra and other post- Qm2c Qf2b

l
generally flat and featureless and include a variety of undivided fluvial, escarpment east of the quadrangle. Qf2b Qe Qao
Qf2/Qm4
l
glacial pyroclastic layers, Pacific Northwest: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 84, p. 2957-2980. Qay1
Qay1 Qay2
l

eolian, and minor lacustrine deposits. In many cases, floodplain deposits Qm1aM(present to about 750 cal yr BP)MModern, active McKee, E.H., and Silberman, M.L., 1970, Geochronology of Tertiary igneous rocks in central Nevada: l

Qm1a Qay
BEDROCK UNITS Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 81, no. 8, p. 2317–2328.

l
form relatively thin veneers over meander-belt deposits. Meander-belt meander belt of the Humboldt River. Age is difficult to Qf2/Qm4 Qai
Morrison, R.B., 1991, Quaternary stratigraphic, hydrologic, and climatic history of the Great Basin, with Qay1 Qai l
Ql

l
deposits include a complex assemblage of fine-grained vertical accretion determine, but it is known to have been the active meander belt in 1854 Qe Qf2a
emphasis on Lakes Lahontan, Bonneville, and Tecopa, in Morrison, R.B., ed., Quaternary nonglacial Qf2/Qm4 l l

l
(floodplain or overbank) deposits of mud and sand interspersed with coarser on the basis of General Land Office (GLO) Survey Maps. Maximum age Antler Peak Limestone (Permian and Pennsylvanian) geology; Conterminous U.S.: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North Qf2/Qm4
l
Qay2 Qao

l
l
America, v. K–2. Qd
channel and lateral accretion (point-bar) deposits of sand and gravel. based on assumption that unit is coeval with Qf1a, but is uncertain. l

l
l

Ramelli, A.R., House, P.K., Wrucke, C.T., and John, D.A., 2001, Geologic map of the Stony Point Qf1
l
Qd Dss

l
l
Deposits of mud and sand in oxbow lakes and cutoff channels are also Micrite dominated faciesMGray micritic limestone, sand and pebble Quadrangle, Lander County, Nevada: Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Map 131, scale 1:24,000.
l
Qao Dss
Qe l
Qay1
common. Young meander belts are conspicuous on aerial photographs and Qm1bM(1910 AD to about 750 cal yr BP)MMost recently micrite, biomicrite, and dolomite (Theodore and Jones, 1992). Stewart, J.H., and McKee, E.H., 1977, Geology and mineral deposits of Lander County, Nevada: Nevada
Qm1a
l
Ql l
Dsc
Qm1b PDam Bureau of Mines and Geology Bulletin 88, 114 p. Qai Qai l

l
topographic maps. They typically have complex surface morphology with abandoned meander belt of the Humboldt River, currently

l

l
Qf2b Qao
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Bard, E., Beck, J.W., Burr, G.S., Hughen, K.A., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., van der Qf2b Qf2b

l
local relief as much as 3 m associated with multiple, sinuous abandoned occupied by Rock Creek. The Humboldt River occupied this meander belt Siliciclastic-dominated faciesMPale-brown to gray-orange calcareous Plicht, J., and Spurk, M., 1998, INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000-0 cal yr BP: Qf2b Qf1 Qf2a l

Qf2b Qe
Qm2a
l

channels and adjacent floodplain surfaces. Old meander-belt deposits are until it avulsed approximately 30 km upstream at Dunphy Ranch during a shale, fine-grained calcareous sandstone, dolomite, and thin beds and Radiocarbon, v. 43, p. 1041-1084. Qf2/Qm4 Qao
Talma, A.S., and Vogel, J.C., 1993, A simplified approach to calibrating 14C dates: Radiocarbon, v. 35, p. 317-
l

easily distinguished in aerial photographs by the presence of multiple, large flood in February 1910. At that time, the Humboldt River reportedly nodules of chert (Theodore and Jones, 1992).

l
PDas 322. l

overlapping, meander-scroll patterns. They are, however, typically flat due to assumed the course of "Argenta Slough" (also called "South Channel" on Qay1 Ql l
Qm2c

l
Theodore, T.G., and Jones, G.M., 1992, Geochemistry and geology of gold in jasperoid, Elephant Head Qay1 l
Qe Qf2
Qd

l
burial by younger sediments (with a few exceptions). All but the youngest 1854 GLO maps; Foster, 1933). Maximum age based on assuming a area, Lander County, Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2009.
Slaven Chert (Devonian) Qf2/Qm4 Qe

l
Qd
l
Thomas, C.A., and Lamke, R.D., 1962, Floods of February 1962 in southern Idaho and northeastern Qai Qay1
meander-belt units include a variety of fluvial, eolian, and local lacustrine connection with Qm1a prior to 1910 AD. l

l
Nevada: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 467, 30 p. Qe
l

Qd

l
deposits (small playas and pans). In the following descriptions, ages are Zdanowicz, C.M., Zielinski, G.A., and Germani, M.S., 1999, Mount Mazama eruption; calendrical age and Qf2/Qm4

l
ChertMBlack to medium-gray thin-bedded chert in planar to wavy beds Qe Qf2a
reported in calibrated calendar years before 1950 AD (cal yr BP). See table Qm1cM(about 750 to 2,000 cal yr BP)MOldest abandoned atmospheric impact assessed: Geology, v. 27, no. 7, p. 621–624. Qm4 l
Dsc

l
l
commonly 2 to 10 cm thick in sections below and above sandstone (Dss). Qf2a Qai l
Ql
Qm1c Qf2 Qay1 Qao

l
1, the correlation diagram, and related references for corresponding 14C meander belt associated with Qf1, currently occupied by the Qf2a Qay2 Qd

l
Thin interbeds of black argillite and coatings of argillite on chert Qf2b

l
Qd Qe Qay2

l
l
years and additional information. Reese River. Age is uncertain, but belt is cut by Qm1b just north of the Dsc Qf2b Qd
l
Qay1
beds are considerably less abundant than normal for the Slaven.

l
Qm2c 3250±40 yr BP C

l
town of Battle Mountain, and it appears to be morphologically related to Thickness on the order of 300 m below sandstone unit and about 100 m in H 2210±40 yr BP l
Qay2
Qay2 Qay2 Qao
Floodplain Deposits Qf1b in the same general area. the quadrangle above sandstone, but chert above sandstone is lower part of Qf2b Qf2/Qm4 Qay1 Qay1
ContactMDashed where approximately located. Qe Qf2b Qf2b Qf2a
Qao Qay2 Qao
a much thicker section exposed north and northeast of quadrangle. Qe
Active floodplains and channels (present to about 2,000 Abandoned meander belts (about 2,000 to 5,600 cal yr Qf1 Qao Dsc
Qf1 Qm2 Paleomeander trace
Qm1a
Qf2a Qf1 Qay1 Qao
cal yr BP)MDeposits of fluvial mud and sand in frequently BP)MTypically less well-preserved abandoned meander belts of SandstoneMMedium to dark gray, fine-grained, laminated to cross Qf2b Dsc
inundated, low-lying areas near major channels and meander belts. Includes the Humboldt River. Evident in aerial photographs as complexly overprinted Qm2a Qay1 Qao Qay1
laminated. Commonly weathers reddish brown to yellow brown and locally to ? ? ? Qf2b Qm2c Qf2 Qf2/Qm4 Qf2/Qm4
Qay2
sloughs and overflow channels that connect active floodplains and meander meander scrolls except in the case of one particularly well-preserved belt. pale yellow, dark brown, medium gray, and black. Contains Qao
belts to widely separated parts of the valley bottom. Unit is composed largely Qm2 Typically overlain by coeval and younger floodplain deposits (Qf2a and Dss FaultMDashed where approximately located; dotted where Qf2a Qai
limestone 2 m thick near mountain front and north border of the Qf2a
concealed; query indicates distinct linear feature that is a possible Qf2

l
of well-stratified fine-grained vertical accretion (overbank) deposits of mud Qf2b) and minor eolian deposits. Composition ranges from sand- and gravel- quadrangle. Limestone is medium gray, massive to laminated, and contains Qf2a Qf2/Qm4 Qe

l
Qf2b
and sand. Dark gray deposits of organic-rich mud with abundant gastropod rich lateral accretion deposits to fine-grained vertical accretion deposits of fault trace; ball on downthrown side. Qf2/Qm4

l
10 to 90% sandstone in irregular masses. Limestone has yielded Qao
l

shells are common in areas immediately adjacent to active channels and fluvial mud and sand. Calibrated radiocarbon ages from Qm2 gravels and Qf2a Qe
Polygnathus serotinius and Belodella spp. conodont elements, together

l
l l l l l l l l l l Qf1a Qf1a Qai
low-lying backswamp areas. Unit also includes natural levees and local overlying Qf2a floodplain muds range from about 2,160 to 3,000 cal yr BP. Qf1 Qay1

l
considered to be at boundary of Early and Middle Devonian (A. Harris, Qao
Fluvial scarpMHachure marks on down dropped side, dashed Qm2a Qf1
splays of sand and minor gravel associated with significant overbank flow or written commun. 1998). Qf2 Qm4
breaches of artificial and natural levees. Deposition of Qf1 is known to have Qm2aM(about 2,000 to 2,300? cal yr BP)MA notably well- where approximately located. Qm4 Qe Qay2 Qay2
Qm2a References Qm2a

l
Qf2
occurred between the present and about 750–1,000 cal yr BP from the basis preserved, abandoned Humboldt River meander belt that Qf2b Qay1

l
l l l l l l l l l l l Qf2/Qm4 Qay2 Qay1
Qf2
l

of dated stratigraphy in the Argenta Quadrangle (House and others, 2000), traverses east part of the valley bottom along a northwesterly trend, Qm2b Qf2 Qe l
Qai
Qm1c
but may have begun as early as about 2,000 cal yr BP, when much of the generally parallel to the modern belt. Unit is the most well-preserved, Scale 1:24,000 Boundary of landslide depositMHachure marks on deposit side of l
Qe
boundary, dashed where approximately located. Qf2b Qf2 Qf2a

l
Qf2a floodplain terrace was abandoned. continuous, abandoned meander belt in quadrangle. Pristine morphology Qe
0 0.5 1 kilometer Qf2b Qf2
Qd

l
is a strong indication of channel avulsion (possibly co-seismic or flood- Qm1a 2550±60 yr BP Qay2

l
Strike and dip of beds Qm2b Qm4 Qay1
Qf1aM(present to about 750 cal yr BP)MDeposits of fluvial related). Qm2a is flanked by a Qf2a surface with an age range of 2,000 to D
Qf1a 0 0.5 1 mile Qf2b
mud and sand in low-lying floodplain and backswamp areas 2,300 cal yr BP (table 1, sample C), which approximates time of 20 Qf2 Qf2
Qf2a Qe
Inclined Qf2b Qay2
l

adjacent to active channels and meander belts. Qf1a comprises the lowest abandonment. In one location, the youngest Qm2a channel is cut into Qf2b
Qf2 Qf1

l
floodplain surface relative to active channels and meander belts and is underlying floodplain sediments dated at about 3,500 cal yr BP (table 1, 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 feet Qm1c Qm2a Qay1
l

Qm2b Qe Qay1
Fossil localityMShowing U.S. Geological Survey collection number. Qf2
l

subject to frequent inundation. Composition is typically organic-rich mud sample H).
Qf2 Qf2
and interlayered beds of silt and fine sand. Gastropod shells are common CONTOUR INTERVAL 20 FEET 12602-SD Qm2a Qf2/Qm4 Qe
Qai

l
Qf2b
in organic mud. Locally, slightly sinuous to nearly straight channels and Qm2bM(about 2,300 cal yr BP to 3,000 yr BP)MComplex SUPPLEMENTARY CONTOUR INTERVAL 5 FEET

l
Qm 2b of multiple, overprinted meander scrolls crosscut by Qm and 14C sample location and associated age (see table 1) Qf2b Qf2b Qf2
Qe
Qay2
sloughs that parallel principal drainage courses are common on the 2a Qf2b Qm4 L Qay1
Base map: U.S. Geological Survey Battle Mountain 7.5' Quadrangle, 1985 K 4770±50 yr BP Qf2a 4930±50 yr BP Qai
floodplain surface. Age range of Qf1a is uncertain and is tentatively based typically overlain by Qf2a deposits. Surface topography is generally planar G Qf2a
3190±40 yr BP M 6580±60 yr BP Qf1a
on radiocarbon ages from the Argenta Quadrangle (House and others, due to younger alluvial cover, although buried meanders are evident in Qf2b Qf2/Qm4
Table 1. Radiocarbon Sample Information Qf2 Qay2
2000), where Qf1a deposits overlie a buried, organic-rich floodplain aerial photographs. Gastropod shells from a silt lens in cross-stratified Qm2a
Qf2a Qe
Qf2/Qm4
surface with an age of about 750 cal yr BP. Qm2b gravels obviously crosscut by Qm2a yielded an age of about 2,300 Sample Lab ID Material Depth (cm) Map Unit Sampled Unit1 Stratigraphic context 14C age (yr BP)2 Calibrated 14C age Qe
3 Qf2 Qf1
Qf2b Qm2b Qay1 Qay1
cal yr BP (table 1, sample B). (cal yr BP) Qm1a Qf2 Qf2/Qm4 Qf1 Qai
Qf1bM(about 750 to 2,000 cal yr BP)MA slightly higher (as Qf1 Qf2b
Qf1b Qm2c Qf2a
much as 1 m) floodplain surface typically found in direct Qm2cM(about 3,000 to 5,600 cal yr BP)MPoorly preserved A Beta-111353 soil 10 Qf2/Qm4 Qf2a Surface organic soil 2,120 ± 50 2,300–2,250 Qe Qf4 Qm1c Qf2b Qay2
Qm2c Qf1a
association with recently abandoned and infrequently flooded meander overprinted meander belts overlain by Qf2a and Qf2b deposits. below gravel pit spoils 2,165–1,955 Qf2a Qm2a Qe
Qf2b Qf2
belts Qm1b and Qm1c, and with other areas of moderately frequent, Presumably coeval with all or part of Qf2b. Qf2b Qf2a
widespread inundation. Composition is predominantly vertical accretion B Beta-154717 shell 210 Qm2b Qm2b Silt lens in bedded gravel 2,280 ± 40 2,350–2,300 Qf2b Qf2 Qf2b Qm2a Qay2
Qay1 Qay1
deposits of sand and mud, essentially the same as Qf1a. Qf1b can only be Older abandoned meander belts (late Pleistocene, 2,260–2,160 Qf2 2120±50 yr BP Qf2b
Qm4 Qf2a A
differentiated when adjacent to Qf1a because of slight topographic >10,900 cal yr BP)MAbandoned, complexly overprinted, large Qe Qf2b Qf2/Qm4 Qm4
C Beta-156257 soil 5–10 Qf2a Qf2a Near-surface organic soil 2,210 ± 40 2,330–2,120 Qm2a
separation, otherwise units are combined and mapped as undifferentiated meander belts (‘mega-meanders’) of the Humboldt River and Reese River. I
Qay Qe
Qf1. Qf1a and Qf1b may be partly coeval, although most of Qf1b is likely Characterized by considerably larger channel and meander dimensions than Qm2b 3250±50 yr BP
associated with older channels and meander belts. Holocene meander belts, indicating much higher streamflow in each river D Beta-118686 soil 10 Qf2a Qf2a Organic floodplain mud 2,550 ± 60 2,765–2,435 Qe Qay1
during the latest Pleistocene. Qm4 meanders of the Humboldt River are at surface 2,415–2,375 Qf2b Qf1
Abandoned floodplain terraces (about 2,000 to 5,600 cal clearly discernible in northeast and north-central parts of quadrangle, Qay Qf2a
Qf2b Qf2
Qf2 E Beta-118685 soil 10–20 Qf2a Qf2a Organic mud on crest of 2,500 ± 70 2,755–2,350 Qm2c
yr BP)MDeposits and surfaces of abandoned floodplains that are although they are almost continuously buried by as much as 2 m of younger Qay1 Qm1c
levee/fluvial ridge Qf4 Qf1a Qf2a Qf2b
rarely, if ever, extensively inundated by the Humboldt River, Reese River, or fluvial and eolian deposits (Qf2); most of surface is mapped as Qf2/Qm4 to Qf1a Qm4
Qm1a Qf2/Qm4
their tributaries. It is notable, however, that much of the undifferentiated Qf2 illustrate this relation. Gravel pits in this area exploit Qm4 gravels resulting in Qf2b
F Beta-129626 shell 130 Qm2b Qf2a Floodplain mud ~80 cm 2,910 ± 50 3,220–2,890
surface in and near the town of Battle Mountain was flooded by the Reese excellent exposures, and pits are thus mapped as Qm4. Small, widely above Mazama tephra Qf2b Qf2 Qf1
River in February 1962 (Thomas and Lamke, 1962). Qf2 deposits are dispersed exposures of Qm4 point-bar gravels occur locally, but are Qf2 Qf2b
Qf1 Qm2a
characterized by flat, featureless surfaces overlain by a mantle of eolian silt unmapped. Reese River Qm4 meanders are smaller than Humboldt River G Beta-154720 shell 200 Qf2/Qm4 Qf2a Floodplain mud and sand 3,190 ± 40 3,470–3,350 Qm2a 3960±40 yr BP
Qay Qe Qay1 J
and minor sand ranging from 10 cm to more than 1 m thick. In general, Qm4 meanders, but are notable because the modern Reese River does not below eolian veneer and Qf2
Qf1 Qf2a Qm2c Qf2
thickness of eolian deposits reflects relative age of the surface and is one have a meandering pattern in this area, except where it occupies an organic soil; above fluvial Qe Qf2b
criterion for differentiating subunits of Qf2. Thin interbeds of eolian silt are abandoned Humboldt River meander belt (Qm1c). Reese River Qm4 Qf2 Qf2b Qm2b
sand and gravel Qay1 B 2280±40 yr BP
Qf4 Qf1

T33N
Qf2b

T33N
common in floodplain sediments beneath the surficial eolian mantle. meanders are discernible through a cover of Qf4 floodplain alluvium and Qf2b
Qay
Organic-rich sediments and gastropod shells are common, but are most eolian deposits, and are thus mapped as Qf4/Qm4 (see discussion of Qf4). H Beta-156256 soil 5–10 Qm2a Qf2a Exhumed organic soil in 3,250 ± 40 3,570–3,380 Qf2b Qm2a
Qf2
typical of Qf2a. Qf3 deposits directly overlie Qm4 gravels in two gravel-pit exposures near abandoned channel Qay1 Qf2b Qf1b F 2910±50 yr BP
Qay Qe Qf2 Qf2a N 8700±40 yr BP
North Battle Mountain. A sample of organic-rich mud from base of Qf3, 1 m Qf2b
Qf2 O 9500±40 yr BP '
Qf2a (about 2,000 to 3,500 cal yr BP)MA generally flat below Mazama tephra and immediately above meander-belt sand and gravel I Beta-113529 shell 35 Qf2/Qm4 Qf2a Base of organic mud 3,250 ± 50 3,580–3,365 Qm1c Qf2b Qf2 Qf1 A
Qf2a Qe Qf2b Qf2 Qf2a
floodplain surface that typically flanks abandoned meander belt yielded an age of about 10,900 cal yr BP (table 1, sample O), indicating a layer above Mazama tephra Qf2
Qay1 Qm1a Qf2
Qm2a, and buries older belts Qm2b, Qm2c, and Qm4. Surface has a latest Pleistocene minimum age for Qm4. Qm4 is likely correlative to deposits Qf2b Qf1 Qm4

T32N
J Beta-154716 shell 60–100 Qf2/Qm4 Qf2b Base of organic mud 3,960 ± 40 4,520–4,290 Qf2 Qf2b

T32N
generally thin cover (5 to 20 cm) of eolian sediment and is topographically of more well-preserved mega-meanders described downstream by Elston Qay1 Qf1
overlying similar, buried Qf2 Qf2
separated from Qf1 surfaces by as much as 1.5 m. In aerial photographs, and others (1981) and Davis (1978a), who attributed them to Late Sehoo Qf2b Qf2b Qm2b Qm2b
organic mud Qay1 Qf1
parts of underlying meander belts are discernible through the relatively time (about 10,000 to 8,800 cal yr BP; see Morrison, 1991) on the basis of Qf2b Qf2b Qf2b
Qf2b Qf2b
thin and discontinuous eolian cover. In some cases the contact between geomorphic, archaeological, and stratigraphic relations. However, Qm4 Qf2b
K Beta-154718 shell 100–130 Qf2b Qf2b Base of floodplain silt 4,770 ± 50 5,600–5,450 Qay Qm2c Qf2b Qf1
Qf2a and adjacent, abandoned meander belts is arbitrary. Radiocarbon meander dimensions are not as large as those described by Davis (1990) for Qf2
5,400–5,330
ages from shells and organic sediment from uppermost beds of organic- features near Rye Patch Reservoir. Qe Qf2b Qf1
Qf2b
rich floodplain mud in Qf2a range from about 2,060 to 2,600 cal yr BP. Qm1c Qf2b
L Beta-154715 shell 100 Qf2b Qf2b Base of floodplain and 4,930 ± 50 5,740–5,590 Qf2a Qf2a Qf2b
Locally, Qf2a is a relatively thin deposit of floodplain mud and sand that TEPHRA DEPOSIT Qf2 Qm2a Qf2a
eolian silt above Mazama Qf2b Qf2b
disconformably overlies Qf2b. In northeast part of quadrangle, Qf2a tephra and cemented Qay1 Qd Qm1a
Qf2 Qf2a
includes several sinuous, narrow ridges that stand as much as 2.5 m Mazama tephra (about 7,630 cal yr BP)MFine-grained, sand and gravel Qf1
Qtm* Qf4 Qf1
above surrounding floodplain and are composed of organic-rich deposits rhyodacitic volcanic ash from Plinian eruption of Mount Mazama Qf2 Qf2a
of mud and fine sand with abundant gastropod shells. These features (Crater Lake), Oregon (Kittleman, 1973). Determination based on M Beta-154719 soil 140–150 Qf2b Qf3 Surface of buried organic 6,580 ± 60 7,580–7,410 Qf2 Qf2b
Qay Qf2
occur in association with Qm4 deposits where they generally follow petrographic similarity with known samples (Davis, 1978b) and bracketing mud Qay1 Qf2a
paleochannel traces. Origin of these deposits and associated landforms radiocarbon ages from this quadrangle and the adjacent Stony Point Qf2a Qm2c Qf2
Qm1b Qf1
is uncertain. They may be natural levees that flanked an older, obscured Quadrangle (Ramelli and others, 2001). Age determination (7,627 ± 150 cal N Beta-156641 soil 115 Qm2b Qf3 Below Mazama tephra 8,700 ± 40 9,760–9,550 Qd Qf2a Qf2a Qf1
meander belt (Qm2b?), or they may reflect accretion of fluvial and eolian yr BP) based on Zdanowicz and others (1999). Tephra occurs as a thin (5-20 and one buried surface with Qf2b
pavement characteristics Qf4 Qf1a Qf1 Qm2a
sediments onto relatively densely vegetated, moist areas associated with cm), conspicuously white horizon in some cutbank and gravel pit exposures. Qm1c
*Exposed only in cross section A-A’. Qf2 Qf2a
groundwater in underlying Qm4 gravels. A radiocarbon age from organic Qay1 Qay1
mud near the crest of one ridge (table 1, sample E) is consistent with O Beta-156642 soil 200 Qm2b Qm4 Below Mazama tephra at 9,500 ± 40 11,070–10,950 Qf2a Qf1b
base of 60 cm floodplain 10,840–10,830 Qf2b
ages from other organic mud layers and gastropod shells in younger EOLIAN DEPOSITS Qf2
Qf4
Qf1a
mud deposit. Immediately 10,800–10,660 Qf1a Qm1a
Qm2b gravels (table 1, sample B) and isolated Qf2a floodplain deposits Qf2a
above lateral accretion Qf2 Qf2a Qf2b Qf2a
(table 1, samples A and C). Eolian dunes (present to late Pleistocene)MDunes Qay Qf4/Qm4 Qf2b
Qd sand and gravel Qf2a Qf1
composed of fine to medium sand. Generally a few tens of Qf2b Qf2
Qf4 Qd Qf2 Qf2a Qf1
Qf2bM(about 3,500 to 5,600 cal yr BP)MA flat, generally centimeters to a few meters relief above adjacent surfaces. An extensive field 1 Qf2a
Qf2b Discrepancy between map unit and sampled unit indicates complex subsurface stratigraphic relations (e.g., burial or interbedding) or stratigraphic discrimination in
featureless floodplain terrace with a thicker (as much as 1 m) of stabilized dunes overlies large parts of the Reese River floodplain in west Qf4 Qf2a
outcrop too fine to map accurately. See unit descriptions and cross section for further clarification. Qf2b
and more continuous mantle of eolian silt and fine sand than Qf2a. part of quadrangle (see discussion of Qf4). 2 Qf4
Qm1b Qf2b
Uncalibrated radiocarbon age in years before 1950. Qm2c Qf1
Qay1 Qf2b Qf2a
Conspicuously white in aerial photographs. Qf2b terrace surfaces range 3
Calibrated age in calendar years before 1950 AD (Stuiver and others, 1998; Talma and Vogel, 1993). Calibration of conventional radiocarbon ages sometimes results in Qf1a Qf1 Qf2
from 0.5 to 1.5 m higher than Qf2a. Qf2b deposits have fewer and less Other eolian deposits (present to late Pleistocene)MFine- Qay
more than one age range because of variability in atmospheric 14C content over time. Qf1
Qe Qd Qf1a Qf2a Qm1c
distinct organic-rich beds and fewer gastropod shells than Qf1 and Qf2a grained eolian and reworked eolian deposits composed of
Qe Qf4 Qf1
deposits. In many exposures, Qf2b is composed of 1.5 to 2.0 m of predominantly silt and fine sand that mantle parts of lower piedmont and Alluvial deposits of the Humboldt River, Reese River, and Rock Creek Eolian deposits Piedmont and Bedrock units Qf2
interbedded fluvial (dominant) and eolian sediments immediately floodplain surfaces. As much as 2 m or more thick on distal parts of some Qf2
Floodplain deposits Meander-belt deposits slope deposits Qf2 Qf1b Qf2b
overlying Mazama tephra (Qtm). In adjacent Stony Point Quadrangle, alluvial fans. Extensive eolian deposits in north-central part of quadrangle Qd Qf2b Qf2b
0 0 0 Qm1c
some Qf2b exposures contain beds of reworked tephra up to 1.5 m thick overlie Qf2b floodplain surfaces. Mantles of eolian silt and fine sand are Qm1a
overlying a clean tephra bed as much as 10 cm thick (Ramelli and others, common on all but the youngest and most active alluvial surfaces, but are Qf1a Qd Qf4 Qm1a
2001). At two sites on opposite sides of the floodplain, gastropod shells mapped only where they constitute significant surficial deposits. Qm1b Qf1b
Qf1
Qf1a Qf2b

?
from base of Qf2b yielded ages of about 5,500 and 5,600 cal yr BP (table 1,000 Qay Qf1b
1,000 Qf1 Qf4
Qf4
Qf1b
1, samples K and L). PIEDMONT AND SLOPE DEPOSITS Qf1b
Qf1b Qm1c
Qf1b Qf1b
Qd
Prominent buried floodplain surface (about 7,600 [pre- Coarse-grained alluvial fan deposits originating from Sheep Creek Range Qf1b
Qf3* Qf1

?
Mazama] to 10,900 cal yr BP)MDistinct, composite floodplain and Battle Mountain, and various landslide deposits originating from west 2,000 2,000
Qf1b
deposit of the Humboldt River often directly overlain by Mazama tephra escarpment of Sheep Creek Range. Alluvial fan deposits are typically Qm2a
Qf4
(Qtm) and burying cross-stratified coarse sand and gravel of Qm4. Qf3 is angular to subrounded, poorly to moderately sorted, and poorly to Qf1a Qf1a
Qf1a
Qm2b

?
0.5–1 m thick and is exposed only in gravel pits and cut-banks in map area. moderately stratified. Surficial deposits contain large amounts of fine-grained Qf2a Qm1c
Unit includes as many as four thin beds of organic-rich, dark gray to black eolian or reworked eolian material (predominantly fine sand) principally 3,000 Qd Qe Qay1 Qf2
Qm1b
mud and sand and one or two thin, interlayered beds of yellowish-tan eolian derived from adjacent Humboldt River floodplain. A dominantly eolian deposit 3,000
Qd Qf2
Qm1a
Holocene

silt. The same stratigraphic relation of tephra overlying organic-rich mud was caps all but the youngest alluvial gravels and thickens from a few tens of
described in Winnemucca area by Hawley and Wilson (1965) and in Valmy centimeters at fan heads to a few meters on distal parts of fans. Fan deposits Qf2 Qm2 Qay
area by Elston and others (1981). Unit is typically cut by Qm2b and Qm2c flanking Sheep Creek Range consist of pebble to boulder gravels derived 4,000
Qay1
Qm1b
gravels and overlain by floodplain and eolian deposits associated with units from Miocene basalt and andesite sequence exposed at top of escarpment Qm2c Qf4 Qf4
QUATERNARY

4,000
Qf2a and Qf2b. A buried, organic-rich floodplain surface (uppermost Qf3) east of quadrangle and Paleozoic rocks (Devonian Slaven Chert and minor Qf2b Qai Qd Qf1
directly beneath Qf2b at a depth of 1.5–1.75 m yielded an age of about 7,500 Cambrian and Ordovician Valmy Formation) that crop out along west slope of
1

5,000
Calibrated yr BP

cal yr BP (table 1, sample M). Ages of about 9,650 and 10,900 cal yr BP range (Ramelli and others, 2001). Fan deposits flanking Battle Mountain Qf1
Qai Qf1a Qf1a Qf1
QUATERNARY

were acquired from organic sediment in middle and immediately below the consist of pebble to cobble gravels derived from Eocene and Oligocene
14
C yr BP

base of unit, respectively (table 1, samples N and O). rocks (Caetano Tuff and granitic intrusions) and Paleozoic rocks (primarily
Holocene

5,000
*Exposed only in cross section A-A’. Pennsylvanian and Permian Antler Peak Limestone, but also including Qay Qf4/Qm4 Qf1 Qf1a
6,000 Qe
Cambrian Harmony Formation) (Stewart and McKee, 1977; Theodore and 14 Qay2 Qf4
10,000 C yr BP
Older abandoned floodplain terraces (late Pleistocene, Jones, 1992). Landslide deposits range in composition from poorly sorted, Qai Qf1a
Qf4
2

>10,900 cal yr BP)MAbandoned floodplain terrace of the Reese angular boulders to debris flow deposits of silt, sand, and boulders.
6,000 Qf1
River preserved along south and west margins of Holocene floodplain. Qf4 7,000
terrace forms an extensive surface at lower end of Reese River Valley and Active and most recently abandoned alluvial fans and channels Tephra deposit Qf2
just beyond confluence of Reese River and Humboldt River valleys along (present to late Pleistocene)MYoung, coarse-grained alluvial Qay1
Pleistocene

Qay Qtm
northeast flank of Battle Mountain. Buried paleomeander traces are clearly fan and ephemeral stream deposits. 7,000 Qai Qay1 Qay1
discernible in aerial photographs (mapped as Qf4/Qm4) over large parts of 8,000 Qai
A Qd
terrace. Outer margins of terrace are commonly blanketed by a mantle of Qay1M(present to middle Holocene) Alluvial fan and ephemeral stream Qf3
eolian silt and fine sand as much as 1 m thick. Extensive fields of low, deposits with surfaces characterized by fresh to subdued bar- Qao Qay
Qay1 8,000 Qay1
stabilized dunes composed of fine to medium sand occur on interior parts of and-swale morphology. Slightly inset below adjacent older Qf1
Qf4 terrace. Dunes have a generally linear, but irregular morphology and surfaces at fan heads, but have minimal topographic separation at mid-fan 9,000 Qf1
Qf4
exhibit a distinctive ‘fuzzy’ texture in aerial photographs. Locally, eolian and distal locations. Surface clasts have weak to incipient rock varnish. Qf3 Qd
Ql Qai Qay
mantle may be several meters thick and is mapped separately (Qd) where it Soils are typically A-C profiles with a 0- to 5-cm-thick Av horizon
Qe Qf1b
is particularly extensive and obscures underlying floodplain and (vesicular A) and a 30- to 50-cm-thick Bk horizon (Stage I CaCO3 with
10,000 9,000 Qay1
paleomeander morphology. Gravel-pit exposures in Qf4 deposits near south noncontinuous clast coatings. Qay1 also includes local sandy, ephemeral Qay1
UNCONFORMITY Qf2
PENNSYLVANIAN

edge of quadrangle contain several meters of cross-bedded gravel with channels that drain piedmont and floodplain surfaces. Overlap assemblage Qf4/Qm4
Qf4/Qm4 Qf4 Qf2
PERMIAN/

interbedded sand lenses overlain by bedded fluvial sand and silt overlain by 20 Qf1
50–100 cm of eolian silt. Generally correlative to Qm4 deposits of the Qay2M(early Holocene to late Pleistocene)MAlluvial fan deposits with PDam Qai Qm2 Qf2
11,000 PDam PDas Qay Qf1 Qf1a Qm2
117°00'00"

116°52'30"
Humboldt River. fully smoothed surfaces generally inset slightly below adjacent 16 Qf2
Qay2 Qm4 Qf2 Qay1
older surfaces at fan heads, but have minimal topographic Qf4 10,000 Qay
Qf2
Qf1a Qd
Qf2
30 Qf2
Pleistocene

separation at mid-fan and distal locations. Surface clasts have moderate UNCONFORMITY Qf2
Primary mapping responsibilities: Qay1 Qay PDas Qay1 Qf1 Qf2
to dark rock varnish. Soils typically consist of a 5- to 10-cm-thick Av 12,000 Upper plate of the Qf2
House: Quaternary river deposits; Ramelli: Quaternary piedmont and
slope deposits. Fieldwork done in 1997-2001. (vesicular A) horizon, a 10- to 20-cm-thick Bw (cambic) horizon, and a 50- Notes Roberts Mountains thrust
DEVONIAN

Qay
Wrucke: Paleozoic bedrock. Fieldwork done in 1996-1997. to 100-cm-thick Bk horizon (Stage I CaCO3 with continuous coatings up
1
Real years derived from calibration of 14C ages.
2 14
40°37'30" R44E R45E 40°37'30"
C year scale is nonlinear due to variations in atmospheric 14C content over time.
to 1 mm thick).
Office Review by: John Bell (NBMG), Christopher Henry (NBMG), Jerry
Dsc Dss
Miller (Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, N.C.), Ted Theodore Inactive alluvial fan-terraces (late Pleistocene) Intermediate-age A A'

GEOLOGIC MAP OF THE BATTLE MOUNTAIN
(USGS, Menlo Park). feet meters
alluvial fan deposits with fully smoothed surfaces having minimal 4,515
Field Review by: John Bell (NBMG), Jon Price (NBMG). Qai
topographic separation from adjacent Qao surfaces. Surface Gravel pit
First edition, first printing, 2001 dominated by fine-grained eolian material, but small, localized areas of
Qf1 Qm2b
Qd

QUADRANGLE, LANDER COUNTY, NEVADA
Printed by Bear Industries, Sparks, Nevada desert pavement comprise a small percentage of surface. Surface clasts Qf1 D
A 1375
Edited by Dick Meeuwig have dark rock varnish. Soils typically consist of a 10- to 20-cm-thick Av 4,510 C Qf2b Qf2a
J Qf2b H
Cartography by Robert Chaney and Susan Tingley (vesicular A) horizon, a 15- to 30-cm-thick unstructured A horizon (eolian l l l l l l L I Qtm F
Qf4 Qtm Qm2a Qf2a Qm2b
cap), a 20- to 40-cm-thick Bt (argillic) horizon which is typically overprinted B
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
l l l l l l l l l l l l

Geologic mapping was supported by the U.S. Geological Survey ? Qf2a Qtm N
with Stage I CaCO3 (Btk), and a 30- to 60-cm-thick Stage II+ to Stage III G Qf3 Qf3
STATEMAP Program (Agreement No. 1434-HQ-97-AG-01766). National Humboldt River Qf3 ? ? O
CaCO3 horizon (Bk or Bkm); locally, upper soil horizons are erosionally 4,505 Qf2 Qf1a ? ?
Science Foundation, Hydrologic Sciences Program (grant EAR-9996284). Qm1c
stripped, especially at remnant edges.
Qf1b
P. Kyle House, Alan R. Ramelli, and Chester T. Wrucke
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

Older inactive alluvial fan-terraces (late to middle? M Qm4
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Qf1a
Qf3 Qm1a ?
University of Nevada, Mail Stop 178 4,500 Qm4 ? vertical exaggeration = x200.
Qf1
2001
Reno, Nevada 89557-0088 Qf1 ? 1. Selected 14C samples shown to best illustrate stratigraphic framework
? and are not necessarily on cross section alignment; sample labels
(775) 784-6691, ext. 2, ? Qm4
l l l l l l
Buried soil
keyed to table 1.
www.nbmg.unr.edu; nbmgsales@unr.edu Qm4 2. Thickness of Mazama tephra bed is slightly exaggerated. F 14
C Sample
4,495 1370