High Rise Structures

A preview of design and structural concepts of high rise structures around the world

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures
The principal forces carried by a building are vertical in nature  However buildings are subjected to horizontal or inclined forces due to wind and earthquake  The effect of wind is more pronounced as the height of the structure increases

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures
The effect of wind will also change as per the surrounding conditions for example the effect on a building in the heart of the city surrounded by other buildings will be much less than a building in an open area.  The wind will impose a horizontal force on the structure.

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures The building can be imagined like a cantilever with one end fixed to the ground and the other free to move  The horizontal force of wind causes the free end to move causing swaying  The amount of swaying in some skyscrapers is so much that on windy days the occupants of the offices on the upper stories have to be given the day off because they become ‘sea-sick’  .

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures  a) b) c) d) The amount of swaying will depend on various factors such as Height of building Velocity and direction of wind Orientation of building with respect to wind direction Shape of building .

Special Design Considerations in High Rise structures • The building will thus have to be designed in such a way that it is stable for both vertical loads(dead and live loads) and horizontal loads (wind loads) Also the swaying will have to be kept minimal so that the regular functioning of the building is not hampered • .

Wind velocities .

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied

Effect of wind on buildings and how it is studied .

Systems of designing high rise buildings   Systems in steel Systems in Concrete .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL 1.    BEAM AND COLUMN FRAME Beam and column structural frame Entire Horizontal load carried by structural frame Joints between beams and columns were made rigid to carry bending stresses due to horizontal loads .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL COLUMN BEAM JOINTS MADE RIGID TO COUNTER ACT LATERAL LOADS LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND GRAVITY LOADS CARRIED BY BEAMS AND COLUMNS COLUMN BEAM FRAME INTERACTION .

VERTICAL SHEAR TRUSS  Horizontal load supported by system of vertical cantilever truss  Shear truss is located around lift and staircase .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL 2.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL SHEAR TRUSS LOCATED IN CENTRAL CORE OF THE BUILDING CARRIES LATERAL LOADS LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND GRAVITY LOADS CARRIED BY BEAMS AND COLUMNS SHEAR TRUSS FRAME INTERACTION .

 Example: Chicago Civic Centre . SHEAR TRUSS-FRAME INTERACTION  This system is the interaction of Column Beam Frame and Shear truss  This concept was developed by Dr. Fazlur Khan (Partner.Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL 3.Skidmore Owings and Merril)  Advantages : 1) Lateral drift or sway is reduced by 50% 2) Distortion of floors is less significant.

Systems of Designing High Rise Buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL SHEAR TRUSSFRAME INTERACTION Chicago Civic Center .

SHEAR TRUSS-FRAME INTERACTION WITH RIGID BELT TRUSS  All exterior columns connected to interior shear truss through horizontal belt trusses  Addition of belt truss increases the stiffness of the structure by 30%  Structural economy can be achieved  Neutralizes thermal movement effects on the exterior columns of the building  Example: BHP headquarters building in Melbourne .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL 4.

Melbourne SHEAR TRUSS LOCATED IN CENTRAL CORE OF THE BUILDING CARRIES LATERAL LOADS LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND RIGID BELT TRUSSES LOCATED ON THE OUTER PERIPHERY OF THE BULDING AND CONNECTED TO THE SHEAR TRUSS IN THE CORE GIVE ADDITIONAL STIFFNESS TO THE STRUCTURE TO COUNTER ACT THE LATERAL FORCES RIGID BELT TRUSSES AND SHEAR TRUSS .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL BHP head quarters.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL BHP head quarters. Melbourne .

Fazlur Khan in 1963 in the 43 storey Dewitt Chestnut Apartment Building in Chicago (which is in concrete)  Also for the 110 storied World trade Center Building in New York .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL 5. FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM  All column elements are connected to each other in such a way that the entire building acts as a hollow tube or rigid box cantilevering out of the ground  A system of closely spaced columns with deep spandrel beams at each floor creates an equivalent rectangular or square hollow tube with perforated openings  Used by Dr.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND CLOSELY SPACED COLUMNS AND DEEP BEAMS FORM A ENVELOP WHICH IS LIKE A PERFORATED TUBEWHICH IS CONNECTED TO THE INNER CORE CREATING A TUBE STRUCTURE FRAMED TUBE SYSTEM .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL WORLD TRADE CENTRE .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL WORLD TRADE CENTRE .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL DEWITT CHESTNUT APARTMENT BUILDING IN CHICAGO .

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL 6.  The diagonal members themselves act as columns and do not develop tensile stresses.  Efficiency of the structure is very high (Same amount of steel used in 35 story column-frame building is required for a 100 story building with column diagonal truss tube)  Example: 100 story John Hancock Building in Chicago . COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE  Columns are widely spaced but are connected by diagonal members which makes the structure act like a tube.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL LATERAL LOADS DUE TO WIND DIAGONAL MEMBERS ADD TO THE STIFFNESS OF THE STRUCTURE AND MORE EFFICIENT USE OF MATERIAL IS MADE COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE .

JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING IN CHICAGO .

JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING IN CHICAGO .

JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING IN CHICAGO .

     BUNDELED TUBE SYSTEM Framed tube and diagonal truss tube is used in combination to create larger tube envelop In buildings with larger floor area interior columns also take part in resisting lateral forces First building to use this system is the 110 storey Sears Roebuck Headquarters Building in Chicago also called as ‘Sears Towers’ and is one of the tallest buildings in the world Designers Skidmore Owings and Merril This system allows termination of each module at different levels without loss of structural integrity .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL 7.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN STEEL BUNDELED TUBE SYSTEM .

Chicago .Sears Roebuck Headquarters Building.

Chicago .Sears Roebuck Headquarters Building.

SHEAR WALL  The horizontal shear due to wind and earthquake is resisted by a solid RCC wall which is designed as a vertical cantilever beam  Shear walls are located at lift or staircase enclosures or an external blank wall 1. .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE BEAM COLUMN FRAME  Same as that in steel structures 2.

Fazlur Khan .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE 3. SHEAR WALL AND FRAME INTERACTION  The Shear wall acts in conjunction with the frame structure increases the efficiency of the structure in resisting horizontal loads  Example Burnswick building (1962) designed by Dr.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE
Burnswick Building

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE
4. FRAMED TUBE  Same as that in steel structures 5. TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM  This is a combination of the framed tube concept with the shear wall frame interaction concept  Exterior columns are spaced very closely (1.8m) and act together with rigid shear wall core enclosing the central service core area  Example the 52 story one shell plaza building, Houston , USA the building uses light weight concrete

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE
5. TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM- ONE SHELL PLAZA

TUBE IN TUBE SYSTEM.Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE 5.ONE SHELL PLAZA .

BUNDELED TUBE SYSTEM: Systems similar to steel structures Example: One Magnificent mile building .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE 7.

COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE: Principal same as that used in John Hancock tower only in this case in concrete .Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE 6.

Systems of designing high rise buildings SYSTEMS IN CONCRETE Onterie centre in Chicago 6. COLUMN DIAGONAL TRUSS TUBE: Principal same as that used in John Hancock tower only in this case in concrete .

USA Date: 1959 to 1964 Building type: Mixed use residential and offices Construction system: Concrete Two towers of 60 stories each . Illinois. Chicago       Architect: Bertrand Goldberg Location: Chicago.Marina City Towers.

Marina City Towers. Chicago      450 apartments in upper 40 stories Parking in lower 20 stories with space for 450 cars Since the residential level started from the 21st story it provides magnificent views of the city for the apartments The services are housed in a 35feet cylindrical core The form of the building is cylindrical with petal type shape for the balconies .

bowling alleys. restaurants. Chicago      Other elements of the ‘City within a city’ are 16 story office building 1700 seat theatre 700 seat Auditorium Stores. skating rink. gymnasium. swimming pool. a marina for 700 small boats and a sculpture garden .Marina City Towers.

Chicago .Marina City Towers.

Chicago .Marina City Towers.

Apartments Concrete of high strength M62 is used RCC peripheral frame with interior steel columns steel slab system with concrete topping Designers : Loebl. Dart and Hacker . Offices. USA Height 262 m Mixed use building with Mall. Schlossman.Water tower Place       Designed in 1975 in Chicago.

Water tower Place .

ONE MAGNIFICENT MILE BUILDING • • • Chicago USA 1983 SOM building Concept of Sears towers Bundled tube concept only in this case in concrete .

THE ONTERIE CENTER Chicago USA 1985 • SOM building last works of Dr. Fazlur Khan • Concept of Column diagonal truss tube as in John Hancock centre only in this case in concrete • .

SOUTH WACKER DRIVE      1990-Chicago USA 295m height high strength concrete of M80 and above used Structural system : combination of RCC and steel Use of PT slabs Shear wall frame interaction .

China 421m height RCC and steel .JIN MAO BUILDING • • • Shanghai.

PETRONAS TOWERS Kuala Lumpur Malaysia • Tallest building in the world • 452m height • Combination of RCC and steel • .

SWISS RE BUILDING LONDON Architect: Norman Foster .

CITY CORP BUILDING   The tower elevated ten stories above street level to fulfill a "spiritual" request .

Most of the building's load (half the gravity and all the wind load) is directed to the trussed frame on the outside of the tower.5-foot columns and a central core. The four columns were originally designed to stand at the building's corners.Standing at the corner of 54th Street and Lexington Avenue in Midtown Manhattan since 1862. The first was that a new church would be built in place of the old with "nothing but free sky overhead" and the second demanded the erection of a plaza under the tower to continue the church's tradition of hospitality. but this design would have interfered with the new church's desire for a "free sky. . The area opened below was designed as leisure space for pedestrians and workers. The core carries the remaining gravity loads. In 1970. To accommodate these demands." Structural engineer Le Messurier decided instead to move the four columns closer to the structure's center. Peter's Lutheran Church controlled nearly 30% of the square block that developers considered ideal for Citicorp Tower. the tower was elevated ten stories above street level on four 17. thus clearing space for the church under the corner of the building. the church congregation agreed to sell this property under two necessary conditions. St.

Emery Roth & Sons Structural Engineer: Le Messurier Consultants. Office of James Ruderman Services Engineer: Joseph R.3 million sq. Material: Steel Cladding: Aluminum. Ft. USA Height: 279m/915ft Stories: 59 Use: Multiple Area: 1.CITY CORP BUILDING   Citicorp Tower            Location: New York. New York. Loring & Associates Developer: Citibank . reflective glass Completed: 1977 Architect: Hugh Stubbins and Associates.

a revolutionary system was designed in the building's crown on the 63rd floor. The damper reduces swaying of the building by up to 40%. .CITY CORP BUILDING To reduce swaying of the structure in heavy winds. A tuned mass damper (TMD) consists of a 400-ton concrete slab that counteracts swaying much like a shock absorber.

CITY CORP BUILDING .

CITY CORP BUILDING .

retail. Lee Construction period: 1999-2004 Worlds tallest building Height: 508 meters Uses: Communication.Y. restaurant. fitness centre Materials: Glass.TAIPEI 101 TOWER • • • • • • Architect: C. library. Concrete. conference. observation office. and steel .

They reach the 89th floor in 39 seconds  800 ton ball shaped damper to reduce swaying  .TAIPEI 101 TOWER Foundation: Mat foundation on RCC piles of 1525mm diameter  Eight super columns: high strength box columns filled with high fluidity concrete  New technique which is going to adopted for high rise structures  Diagonally braced frames for wind and earthquake loads  61 elevators  2 elevators are the fastest in the world with speed of 1010 m/min.

TAIPEI 101 TOWER .

TAIPEI 101 TOWER .

TAIPEI 101 TOWER .

TAIPEI 101 TOWER .

and life is art. and most importantly. music. Fazlur Rehman Khan (1929-1982)  “The technical man must not be lost in his own technology.” .Dr. He must be able to appreciate life. drama. people.

THE FUTURE-MILLENIUM TOWER JAPAN ARCHITECT: NORMAN FOSTER    Tokyo. Japan 841m height Conical shape most stable for horizontal forces .

Although the building's shape resembles the bundled tube concept. The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures. The building sits on a concrete and steel podium with 192 piles descending to a depth of more than 50 metres (164 feet). Structural system: buttressed core Structural material : steel. RIBA Design Partner at Skidmore Owings & Merrill LLP. concrete – REF: http://www. Burj" is Arabic for "Tower". The exterior cladding is of reflective glazing with aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins of stainless steel. Smith.emporis. Designed by Adrian D. FAIA.BURJ DUBAI Burj Dubai became the world's tallest high-rise building on July 24. 2007. it is structurally very different and is technically not a tube structure.com .

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eface.Look at the edge (uppermost right corner) of the picture.in . you can almost see the turn of the earth The persons who are working on the upper most Girders can see the ‘ROTATION OF EARTH’ Ref: http://www.

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eface.in . And because people cannot easily walk down 160 flights of stairs.The Burj Dubai has been designed with highly fire-resistant concrete corridor walls and slabs. Ref: http://www. pressurized. Certain elevators will function in emergencies to allow a controlled evacuation. air-conditioned waiting areas are located every 25 floors to allow evacuees the chance to stop and rest.

Baker. Structural Designer Partner. Architect William F.architecture. Skidmore Owings & Merrill LLP Ref: http://caf.DESIGNERS OF BURJ DUBAI Adrian D.org . Smith.

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