Basic Workholding Techniques

Hardinge Inc.
One Hardinge Drive Elmira, New York 14902 Phone: 800-843-8801 Fax: 607-734-3886 www.hardingetooling.com

Introduction
The "Basic Workholding Techniques" brochure is meant to be a resource for your tool box, your desk or your reference library. It contains basic material that will assist the new machinist or production engineer as well as the veteran looking for a source on practical workholding techniques. We hope that you find some new ideas to help you improve your productivity and make your job easier. If you find that we have omitted some material or if you have a better explanation of a particular process or idea, please let us know. A companion publication "Precision Length Control" (2285) will help you with length control techniques related to draw-in collets and step chucks. We hope you enjoy "Basic Workholding Techniques".

NOTE: Information in this document is subject to change without notice. In no event will Hardinge Inc. be responsible for indirect or consequential damage resulting from the use or application of any of the information contained in this document.

Table of Contents

3

Basic Collet Introduction

CHAPTER 1 Basic Collet Configurations ......................................................... 8 Basic Collet Introduction ............................................................. 9 Head Angles ................................................................................ 9 Lathe Collet Stationary Collet Tool Holder Collet Back Bearing ......................................................................... 9, 10 Stationary Screw Machine Collet .............................................. 10 Slot Design .......................................................................... 11, 12 Straight Relief Hole Tear Drop Relief Double Slot Angular Zig-Zag Reverse Tear Drop (Over-The-Shoulder Collet) CHAPTER 2 Draw-In Collets .......................................................................... 14 Push-Out Collets ....................................................................... 15 Push Sleeve (Stationary) Collets .............................................. 16 Toolholder Collets ..................................................................... 16 Actuating the System ................................................................ 17 Air-Operated Mechanical Closers ....................................... 17, 18 Pneumatic Closers .............................................................. 18, 19 Hydraulic Closers ...................................................................... 19 Machines Using Various Systems ............................................. 20 CHAPTER 3 Types of Collets ........................................................................ 22

Collet and Closer Systems

Types of Collets Concentricity and Spread

CHAPTER 4 Spindle Concentricity ................................................................ 25 TIR Spindle ............................................................................... 25 TIR Back Bearing ...................................................................... 25 Thread Run-Out & TIR .............................................................. 25 What is Spread .......................................................................... 26 Grind Outs ................................................................................. 26 Cam Grind ................................................................................. 27 Flat Grind .................................................................................. 27 Extra Spread—Over the Shoulder Collets ................................ 28 Formula—Maximum Opening for Over Shoulder ...................... 28 CHAPTER 5 Advantages of Hardened Collets .............................................. 30 Problems Caused by Improper Hardness ................................. 30 What Causes Collets To Wear Out .................................... 30 - 33 Wear: Illustrations of Causes .............................................. 31, 32 Wear: Multi-Spindle Automatics .......................................... 31, 32 Other Causes for Wear ............................................................. 33

Collet Hardness and Wear

................................................................................................................................................................ 56 ............................... 50 Smooth Bore ..... 53 Extended Nose Collet ............................................................................................................4 Table of Contents Materials Held by Collets Collet Capacity CHAPTER 6 Charts ...................................... 41 Extra-Extra Spread Collet .................................................................................... 52 Length of Bearing ................................................................................................................................ 51 Best Concentricity ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 46 Flat Serration ......... 42 Angular Slotted ............................. 54.............................. 47 Concentricity and Gripping Force CHAPTER 9 Order Hole (Collet Bore) ............................................................................. 36 .................................................................... 46 Tap Serration ..... 40 Collet Capacities ....................................................... 52 Best Concentricity ....................................................................................................... 50 Serrated Bore .......................................................38 CHAPTER 7 Chucking Diameter Chart .......................... 46 Saw/Buttress Tooth Serration ..... 43 Serrations CHAPTER 8 Reasons for Serrations ...... 53 Split Bearing . 50 Diameter of the Order Hole .................. 43 Zig-Zag Collet ................... 47 Disadvantages .................................................. 42 Four Split-Long Bearing .......................................................................................................... 47 Diamond Serration ........................................................................................................... 56 Cloverleaf Grind ........................................................................... 51 2nd Operation Work ........... 51 Ground Rod & Tubing .......... 51 Bar Work ..... 47 Hex & Square Serrated Collets ........................................................................................................ 51 Maximum Grip .................................................................................................................................................... 55 Micro-Finish of Order Hole ....... 47 Last Serration ........... 41 Undersize ......................................................................... 40 Oversize ........................................................ 52 Results of a Large Order Hole .......................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Short Bearing ............................................. 46 Circular Serration ......................................................................... 52 Results of Undersize Collet ........................... 53 Number of Slots ............................................ 40 Collet: Correct Size ............................................................................

..Basic Workholding Techniques 5 Expanding Collets CHAPTER 10 Expanding Collets ....... 80 Standard Master Collets & Pads ........................................................................................................... 93 Squirrel Cage ............................................... 76 Martin Pads .............. 99 ...................... 58 Preparing the Blank .... 72 Advantages/Disadvantages of Master Collets/Pads ........................................................................................ 89 Style "A" .............. 94................................................................................. 88. 67 Advantages .......................................................................................................... 98 Bar Stock Puller ........ 77 CT Collets & Pads ............................................................................................. 60 Styles Spindle-Mounted ....... 64 Master Expansion Collets ............................................................................................... 62................. 69 Small Diameter Work ............................................. 87 AF Adjustable ................................................................................................. 79 New Britain Collets & Pads .. 58 Reasons for Out-of-Round Blanks ..................74 Style S Pads .................... 74................................... 75 Martin Collets .. 97 Milled Through ................................... 63 Advantages .............................................................................................. 68 Special Comments .......................................................................... 90 Adjustable Feed Fingers Dial-Adjustable ............................ 65......................................................................... 68........................................................................................................................................ 72 Style S Collet ................................................................................................. 65 Parts .................................................................................. 63 Work Locating Stops ................................. 72 ............................................................................ 64 Special Considerations ................................................................... 78 CB Collets & Pads ........... 96 Brazed On .. 85................................................................... 92........... 95 Stock Saver ...................................................................................................... 84.............................................. 86 BX/DX Adjustable ..... 61 Basic Parts ............................. 72 Master Collets ........... 81 Manufacturing of Hex and Square Pads ........................................... 69 Master Collets and Feed Fingers CHAPTER 11 Major Classifications ..... 59..... 95 Solid Feed Fingers Standard Solid Feed Finger ................................................ 82 Master Feed Fingers Style "B" ................................................................... 69 Other Styles .............................................................................................................. 66 Collet Pads .

..................................................... 106 Vacuum ............................ 108 CHAPTER 14 Rotating Parts Loader .......................................................... 104 Pneumatic ............................................................. 111 ............ 105 Hydraulic .....................................................................6 Table of Contents Chucks vs....................................................... 103 Chucks Mechanical—Manual ....................................................................... 102 Collets .................................................................... 105 Electro-Magnetic .............. 106 Bar Stock Pullers Parts Loading and Unloading CHAPTER 13 Bar Pullers ................................................................................... 103 Reasons for Switching to Collets ................................................................... Collets CHAPTER 12 Reasons For Selecting Chucks ........................ 110................

Basic Workholding Techniques 7 I A R D N GE H CHAPTER ONE SI Z DE L E BASIC COLLET INTRODUCTION M O .

8 CHAPTER 1 Basic Collet Introduction THREAD KEYWAY HEAD ANGLE FACE R D I N GE HA CAPACITY HOLE BACK DRILL SI Z DE L STOP THREAD ORDER HOLE THREAD RELIEF BACK BEARING BEARING LENGTH LENGTH E 3 BASIC COLLET CONFIGURATIONS SPANNER WRENCH HOLE DRAW-IN COLLET OVERALL LENGTH STATIONARY COLLET SLOT SEAL HOLE BACK BEARING SLOT RELIEF SLOT PUSH-OUT COLLET M O PILOT DIAMETER SHOULDER FOR CAP HEAD ANGLE .

7° BACK BEARING Probably one of the least (but most) critical factors in close tolerance machining is the allowance between the back bearing of the collet and the spindle. As the collet is moved linearly. Sticking is not as much of a concern because the collet is not opened and closed during the production cycle. or mechanical closer. The amount of force is determined by the closing mechanism such as an air closer. THE HEAD ANGLE Lathe Collet Lathe collets generally have a head angle of approximately 10 degrees. The common names of the various parts of the collet are shown. milling machines and cylindrical grinding machines. When the head angle of the collet is less than 7 degrees it will have a tendency to stick (not open when the closing force is removed). 10° Stationary Collet High production machines use stationary collets.Basic Workholding Techniques 9 Basic Collet Introduction The collet is a workholding device that grips the workpiece or tool in a machine tool spindle. For more information see chapter 4. the collet will pivot or shift when tool pressure is applied to the part. hydraulic closer. The collet continues to close until it can no longer move. The basic collet is illustrated on the previous page. Their head angle is much steeper than lathe collets. causing excessive runout. The more common machines that use collets are lathes. When the clearance is too great. SPINDLE ANGLE BACK BEARING HEAD ANGLE . The collet is pulled or pushed into a mating taper in the machine’s spindle or tool holder. it closes down on the workpiece or tool. 15° Toolholder Collet Toolholder collets are made with less taper (7 degrees and lower) which gives them greater holding power. This helps eliminate sticking and aids in opening the collet. Excessive runout can be caused by a worn spindle back bearing or a worn collet back bearing. usually up to 15 degrees. page 25.

as do most screw machine collets.or 4-point out-of-round condition due to the distortion caused by spreading. Because this condition can cause sticking of the collet. concentricity is more difficult to obtain because there is a sleeve clearance as well as a back bearing clearance. which minimizes the clearance. When a collet requires an extreme amount of spread. assuring the best concentricity. With this style collet. .10 CHAPTER 1 Basic Collet Introduction Items such as the headstock center have their back bearings held extremely close (. Face of Spindle & Cap Nose Cap Sleeve Back Bearing Draw Bar Collet Back Bearing Labyrinth Seal Sleeve Stationary Screw Machine Collet With the stationary screw machine collet. additional clearance is allowed on the back bearing of the screw machine collets. the back bearing often develops a 3. it is important that the face of the cap is perpendicular to the spindle and that the face of the collet is perpendicular to the back bearing and the head angle.0002").

Zig-Zag Slot . Relief Hole Slot with Relief Hole The relief hole is designed for flexibility in a collet requiring more spread than the straightslot shown above. octagon. Because of the high cost of the zig zag slot. The Straight. square. The angular slot prevents the corners of the stock from falling into the slots. and triangles) on their corners. A . There are slot variations. always consider the angular slotted collet first. instead of on the flats.510" when the bore is measured. Zig-Zag Slot The zig-zag slotted collet solves the same problem as the angular slotted collet but is used for stock under 1/4". or outside diameter. which require considerable spread. use the tear-drop slot for maximum flexibility.500" collet may spread to .Basic Workholding Techniques 11 Slot Designs Lets take a look at the slots in a collet. The corners of small stock may fall into the slots of the angular slotted collet. The secondary slot can be as narrow as . Tear-Drop Slot Double-Slot The double slot is used for small order hole collets where a standard slot would be bigger than the order hole. such as lathe collets. Slot with Relief Hole and Tear-Drop Slot are used to make the collet more flexible. This measurement is taken with the collet outside of the machine. Some of the more common ones are shown below. "Spread" is the amount a collet opens beyond the size of the collet. Double-Slot Angular-Slot Angular-Slot The angular-slotted collet is used when holding regular shaped polygons (hex. Straight Slot Straight-Slot The straight slot is the least flexible and is used for collets that have very little spread. making it impractical.005" wide. Tear-Drop Slot (Screw Machine Collet) Screw machine collets.

This practice will reduce the life of the collet but is necessary to be able to grip the part over a shoulder. such as those shown below. CAUTION: The amount the collet will open is controlled by the stroke of the collet closer. Other Slot Designs Other slot designs. . such as when using the over-the-shoulder collet. are used for special applications. Part of the requirement for greater flexibility needed for the over-the-shoulder collet can be achieved by increasing the number of slots. not only is the tear-drop relief slot used but the wall thickness is also reduced.12 CHAPTER 1 Basic Collet Introduction Over-The-Shoulder Collets When more flexibility is needed.

Basic Workholding Techniques 13 I A R D N GE H CHAPTER TWO SI Z DE L E COLLET AND CLOSER SYSTEMS M O .

. There are no other factors involved. The order hole of the collet must run concentric with its head angle and back bearing which also must be concentric with each other. it is drawn into the spindle angle. the Push-Out. To close the collet. The only moving part (other than the collet) is the draw tube.14 CHAPTER 2 Collet and Closure Systems Collet Systems There are three different types of collet systems— the Draw-In. and the Stationary. Concentricity depends on the accuracy of the spindle and the collet. Nose Cap Coolant Shield Collet Back Bearing Head Angle Spindle Draw Tube Collet Draw-In Collet The Draw-In collet is the most common and also the most accurate for holding concentricity.

In the past. The cap has an internal angle which mates with the front angle of the collet. the spindle and the cap. It is the build up of these tolerances which effects the total concentricity and accuracy of this system. All of these items require a tolerance when being manufactured. it is pushed against a cap which is threaded or bolted to the spindle. To close the collet. There are several items that affect concentricity: the collet. Other items that affect concentricity are worn caps and caps that are not square with the face of the spindle. .Basic Workholding Techniques 15 Spindle Back Bearing Nose Cap Push Bar Labyrinth Seal Push-Out Collet The Push-Out collet is becoming obsolete. The collet is closed by a forward force from the push tube. along with its locating shoulder. it was used in many manual turret lathes.

the cap and how it aligns with its locating shoulder and thread. the sleeve with its allowance. as well as the clearance between the spindle back bearing and the collet’s back bearing. Drill Stop Cap . This is possible because the face of the collet is located against the back face of the hardened spindle cap. This system is the least accurate when trying to hold concentricity because of the large number of parts involved.16 CHAPTER 2 Collet and Closure Systems Spindle Collet Back Bearing Face of Spindle and Cap Nose Cap Draw Tube Labyrinth Seal Sleeve Collet Push Sleeve—Stationary Collet The Push Sleeve system is the only system that allows length control of the workpiece. Note: There are collets designed for part length control that are available for other collet systems. The collet is closed with a sleeve which pushes against the angle on the collet causing the collet to close. There are even more parts in this system to affect concentricity: the collet. but not move longitudinally. Collet Toolholder Collet Assembly The collet is closed by tightening a threaded cap on the tool holder sleeve.

These were common on the first Hardinge Automatic machines. They were eventually phased out for the totally air-operated closers. Mechanical Collet Closer Mechanical closers are used on manual machines. but it is closed with a cam instead. they are seldom used on automatic machines. The following closing systems are used. Air-Operated Mechanical Closers are manual closers that have been fitted with an air cylinder to actuate them. Because they require human intervention to operate them.Basic Workholding Techniques 17 Actuating the System Each one of these collet systems require some means for opening or closing the collet. . The exception is the cam-operated machines which still use a mechanical closer.

18 CHAPTER 2 Collet and Closure Systems Pneumatic or Hydraulic Closers .

The pneumatic closer uses shop air pressure. When doing extremely heavy stock removal work. therefore any tool pressure that pulls on the workpiece could actually loosen the collet if its force is greater than the force created by the air pressure against the piston. The same size piston used on a pneumatic closer will now deliver 10 times the force. Hydraulic The Hydraulic and the Pneumatic closer systems look almost identical. Hydraulic oil is not compressible. The hydraulic collet systems cannot be used for delicate or thin-walled parts. the gripping pressures may not be adequate. usually 90 . whereas the Hydraulic closer pressures can be as high as 1000 PSI. therefore any pressures opposite the piston force should not allow the collet to open. The pressures cannot be turned down low enough to eliminate crushing the workpiece.100 PSI. .Air The Pneumatic closer allows the light chucking pressures necessary when gripping thin-walled parts or tubing. this system is most versatile.Basic Workholding Techniques 19 Pneumatic and Hydraulic Closers Pneumatic . Disadvantages: Air is compressible. The major difference is the pressure medium (hydraulic oil /air) and the higher pressures that are used. Disadvantages: Disadvantages include the added expense required for the hydraulic pump and sump. When doing precision work.

• Index . S. A.STATIONARY COLLET: • Brown & Sharpe • B.20 CHAPTER 2 Collet and Closure Systems Machines that use the various collet systems DRAW-IN COLLET: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acme Gridley Cone Davenport Euroturn Gildemeister Greenlee Grinder Collets Hardinge Lathe Collets Mill Collets National Acme New Britain Schutte Tornos Warner Swasey Wickman PUSH-OUT COLLET: Turret Lathes • Warner & Swasey • Jones & Lamson • Gisholt PUSH SLEEVE .

Basic Workholding Techniques 21 I A R D N GE H CHAPTER THREE SI Z EL D E M O TYPES OF COLLETS .

8. Pin Step Chucks (Dead Length) 46. Extra-Depth d. 14. Step Chucks a. 13. Driver Center 49. Dead-Length . Dead-Length® Collet 40. Shank 33. Hardened & Ground b. 4.22 CHAPTER 3 Types of Collets Types of Collets There are many types of collets available to the machine tool industry.Order Hole 39. Expansion Collet. 21. 7.Order Hole 38. 12. 1. 5. Dead-Length Step Chuck-Spider Stop . Emergency c. 6. Solid Extended Taper c. Male Headstock Centers 47 Female Centers 48. Extended-Taper Nose 31. Nylon Collet 36. 29.Collet type 44. 19. Contact Lens a. Closers for all Step Chucks e. 16. These same styles can be made for other types of collets. 27. Solid Collet 34. 9. Emergency 32. 25.Thru Hole 41. 22.Split . Master Expansion . 23. 28. 10. 24.Female 37. SURE-GRIP® Expansion Collets 50. Fractional sizes Decimal sizes Number Letter Metric sizes Special Accuracy (. Listed below are the styles available for 5C spindles. 3. Brass Collet 35.0002" TIR for 5C collets only) 4-Split Long Bearing (Drill Collet) Angular Slotted Zig-Zag Slotted Angular Hole Flat Face Taper Hole Short Bearing Long Bearing (5C ST & others) Bearing Relief Light Force Heavy Duty Stop Collets (SC) Blanks Serrated Hex Square Rectangular Special Shape & Extruded Octagon Eccentric Stepped Plug Chucks Extended-Nose 30. Dead-Length Step Chucks 45. 2. Morse Taper Collet . 20. 11. Extended Nose Step Collet b.Spindle mounted 43. Mill Arbor 42. 18. Threaded . 15. 26. Threaded . 17.Solid .

Basic Workholding Techniques 23 HA R D EL I GE N CHAPTER FOUR S IZ D CONCENTRICITY AND SPREAD E M O .

TIR of the spindle angle If the spindle angle does not run concentric. Spindle Angle Back Bearing Head Angle . The Concentricity of the Spindle 1. There are many factors to be considered when trying to achieve the best concentricity possible.0 0 1 1" Concentricity Concentricity is measured by putting a gauge pin or ground plug in the collet order hole and measuring the Total Indicator Reading (TIR) of the pin’s runout with a .0001" dial indicator at a specific distance from the face of the collet.24 CHAPTER 4 Concentricity and Spread 0 . it is impossible for the collet and workpiece to run concentric.

The uneven forces on the collet leaves may cause them to break. b.Basic Workholding Techniques 25 1" 2. which will cause excessive runout. The parts manufactured with this collet will not be concentric with the chucking diameter. it will allow the back bearing of the collet to pivot. the pressures will be exerted on one leaf of the collet instead of all three. The thread must run concentric and square with the head angle and the order hole of the collet. b. If the back bearing of the spindle is worn. . Runout of the collet thread a. 1" 3. If these conditions are not met. TIR and wear on the back bearing a. The back bearing must also run concentric because it will affect the concentricity of the collet.

There is very little spread in a lathe collet. it will be softer than a standard collet because most of the case has been removed. the workpiece will very easily slide into the collet with plenty of room to spare. just enough to allow the workpiece to be loaded when the collet is opened. Too much spread makes it harder to close the collet. With other types of collets. This process is used when a quick turnaround is needed. Maximum stock removal is 1/64" on case hardened collets. reducing the gripping force on the workpiece. There is no limit to grinding the ID when thru-hardening steel is used to manufacture the collet.003" (minimum) oversize plug will slide through the order hole (bore). a .26 CHAPTER 4 Concentricity and Spread What is Spread? Spread is what puts the spring in the collet to help open it.Large Amount of Spread Lathe Collet – Very Little Spread Grind Outs Grind-outs are collets that have been finished and are then re-ground to a new larger size. it is the spread in the collet that opens the collet so that the workpiece can be loaded or unloaded. Screw Machine Collet . helping to eliminate chips which would cause runout. When the collet closer on a screw machine is opened. . This spring keeps the collet angle against the spindle angle. If more than a 1/64" is removed from the order hole. When a Brown and Sharpe style collet is not in the machine. such as lathe collets.

When this happens. collets are cam ground or flat ground (see illustration on next page). This allows the collet order hole to wear and still maintain a bearing between the center of each leaf and the spindle angle. 25C Collets (5C collets and standard lathe collets are not cam ground) The cam grinding process helps reduce sticking problems.Basic Workholding Techniques 27 NEW COLLET-NO CAM GRIND WORN ORDER HOLE . 16C. the collet is drawn further into the spindle seat. These two processes remove material from the slot area of the collet. M CA AT FL CAM GRIND FLAT GRIND . To help alleviate this condition. the bearing area shifts from a full bearing to a bearing on the edges of the leaf (see above illustration).NO CAM GRIND CAM and Flat Grind Screw Machine Collets. This edge bearing is most undesirable because it reduces the bearing (surface contact) between the spindle and the collet. As the order hole of the collet wears. 20C.

17633 X 5) 16C Collet = . They require special collet head angle designs. special slots and very precise heat treatment. • The Davenport automatic.100" larger than its gripping diameter. EXAMPLE: 16C Collet = 2 (Tan 10 degrees x stroke) 16C Collet = 2 (. • Collet closers with a 1/2" stroke and a 10-degree spindle head angle may use a special collet which can handle a part with a shoulder approximately . Don’t forget there will be some loss due to manufacturing tolerances.1762" (maximum difference in diameters) Over-The-Shoulder collets are special collets which are custom designed and manufactured for each part or family of parts. These are commonly called Over-TheShoulder Collets. then multiply the answer by 2.150" larger than the bore. There are restrictions on its use: • The collet closer must have enough linear stroke to allow the collet to open up sufficiently to clear the larger diameter.28 CHAPTER 4 Concentricity and Spread Extra-Spread Extra-Spread (Over-The-Shoulder) collets are used when gripping on a diameter that is smaller than the first area of the part which goes into the collet. with the special burring attachment. . To find the amount that a special collet can open in relationship to the stroke of the collet closer. uses pick-off collets which can handle a shoulder that is . multiply the tangent of the collet head angle by the maximum closer stroke.

Basic Workholding Techniques 29 HA R D EL NG I E CHAPTER FIVE S IZ D COLLET HARDNESS AND WEAR E M O .

Types of materials • Abrasive materials shorten life—Aluminum. The out-ofroundness causes irregular contact with surface of order hole. Take them out and clean them after each job.30 CHAPTER 5 Collet Hardness and Wear Advantages of Hardened Collets Hardened collets have a longer life than collets not hardened • • • The harder the surface. Carbon and Ceramics. When collets are not tempered properly will lose their spring. What Causes Collets and Pads to Wear Out? Poor housekeeping • Not keeping the collets & draw tubes clean. Collets that are too soft will wear out very quickly.wear resistance. Reduces downtime because there are less collet changes. the longer the life . . • Cast Bars—same as hot rolled stock. Surface condition of the material being gripped • Hot-Rolled Stock—it is rough with surface scale. • Not using seals with screw machine collets. Cast Iron. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY IMPROPER HARDNESS • • • Collets that are made too hard will be brittle and will break easily. Reduces the cost of running a job because fewer collets or pads have to be purchased.

Basic Workholding Techniques 31 Types of Machining Operations that may cause collets to break down: Heavy stock removal and heavy drilling may cause push back. May cause stock to slip which would cause wear. Heavy forming-cross slide tends to open the collet. Forming and drilling at the same time. .

a spindle drive system with adequate horsepower and torque. and proper feed rates and spindle speeds for the tooling and material selected.32 CHAPTER 5 Collet Hardness and Wear Types of Machining Operations that may cause collets to break down: Intermittent cuts can cause radial slippage. . Slippage can be overcome by using a properly designed workholding system which includes a collet that has the right head angle design. All of the illustrated applications are common machining practices. the proper serration and hardness. Uneven pressure on the leaves. a collet actuating system with adequate draw bar force. Out of Balance parts. cutting tools that are properly sharpened and centered.

Excessive tension on feed fingers. Bent feed tubes cause runout of bar and excessive wear on the leaves of the collet and feed fingers. You can push down on scale to check tension. • • • • .Basic Workholding Techniques 33 Other Causes for Wear Multi-Spindle Machines (Causes also related to single spindle machines) • The feed tube and the collet are not keyed together—this causes radial slippage when the collet opens and closes. This is hard to check. Crooked or bent bars put stress on one leaf of the collet or feed finger which causes slippage and loss of tension in that leaf. Dirty bars create a very abrasive action between the bar and the feed finger and/or collet. The tubes are bent due to running bent or crooked stock and with considerable use.

34 CHAPTER 5 Collet Hardness and Wear notes: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ .

Basic Workholding Techniques 35 HA R D EL NG I E CHAPTER SIX SI D Z MATERIALS HELD BY COLLETS E M O .

diameter varies considerably and they have a very rough surface finish None RECOMMEND Standard Standard Saw Tooth.—300 & 400 Series—some are hardenable and some aren't Marks very easily . corrosion resistant.36 CHAPTER 6 Materials Held By Collets Materials Held by Collets MATERIAL CARBON STEEL TOOL STEEL HOT-ROLLED SPECS.hardening Certain alloys can’t be cold drawn—hot rolling is less expensive than cold drawing PROBLEMS None None Stock is not round. Size variation Special-shape (Usually made using EDM methods) COLD-HEADED Part is cold-formed to near net shape—many are done from coil stock Serrated collet or Power Chuck SHEET METAL Punched from flat stock Standard & Serrated Standard. or 3-Jaw Power Chuck COLD-DRAWN Most common steel used for screw machine stock Special-shaped stock (Made by drawing thru a series of dies in a semi-molten state) Standard EXTRUDED In most instances cannot be held in a round collet—shape usually does not conform exactly to the print. Serrated. Steel Thru. etc. out-of-round. therefore actual samples of stock must be sent with the order Chucking diameters are not always accurate. nonmagnetic. etc. special-shaped & tapped hole Standard & Serrated SHEET METAL EXTRUDED Extruded thru several dies—such as a can shape Size variations & thin walled STAINLESS There are many different kinds—magnetic.

special-shaped & serrated Large variations— draft angle. Made same as cold Darwin steel—we use Nickel Alloy-Dura bar— can be hardened to 42-45 Rockwell “C” Made same as hotrolled steel Produces very fine grain iron—can be round or special-shaped Permold and sand castings PROBLEMS None RECOMMEND Standard & serrated IRON CAST BARS IRON CONTINUOUS CAST BARS IRON CASTINGS Scale. out-of-round Serrated Variation of chucking area Serrated and/or special-shaped 3-jaw power chuck. rough surface finish Easy to work— marks easily BRASS & BRONZE Cold-drawn bars BRASS EXTRUSIONS Near-net shape drawn through dies Requires special shapes BRASS CASTINGS Sand casting process— die-type castings Large variation on chucking surface.Basic Workholding Techniques 37 Materials Held by Collets MATERIAL IRON COLD ROLLED SPECS. serrated Standard & serrated— nylon for highly polished stock Special-shaped —need a piece of stock 8" long to use as EDM electrode 3-jaw power chuck. draft angles and rough surface finish Stock is abrasive— cutting tools wear fast ALUMINUM BARS Cold-drawn Standard .

special-serrated collets Special-shaped & sometimes serrated ALUMINUM DIE CASTING Much more precision than sand casting PLASTICS: Nylon® . will break if chucked too tight— powdery and abrasive— causes collets and the machine tool to wear out very quickly RECOMMEND Special-shaped ALUMINUM CASTINGS Sand casting process— die type castings 3-jaw power chuck. marks easily— much of this material is slippery—requires light chucking pressure Comes in cast bars castings and molds Very brittle. Near-net shape drawn thru dies PROBLEMS Requires special shapes—need a piece of stock 8" long which is used to make the EDM electrode Large variation on chucking surface. out-of-round.Bakelite® Acrylic® . good finish Size variation. soft. draft angles and rough surface finish Some variation on chucking surface.38 CHAPTER 6 Materials Held By Collets Materials Held by Collets MATERIAL ALUMINUM EXTRUSIONS SPECS.Glassfilled .Synthene® CARBON CARBIDE GRAPHITE CERAMICS Standard Standard .Delrin® Teflon® .

Basic Workholding Techniques 39 CHAPTER SEVEN COLLET CAPACITIES .

002 to -. there is full bearing along the angle and the circumference of each segment of the collet where they mate with the spindle angle (seat). The result will be good concentricity and excellent holding power. Hardinge collet engineering has developed a chart (above) of suggested stock sizes that an order hole can handle. hole size Same as order hole size .002 to -.002 to -.001 Hole size FOR BEST CONCENTRICITY .001 +.002 to -.002 to -.001 under the order hole Same as the order hole — There are many discussions as to how much variation in stock size a collet can handle. .001 +.001 Under order hole size Same as order hole size Order hole ORDER HOLE GROUND TO .001 +.40 CHAPTER 7 Collet Capacity Chucking Diameter COLLET 5C Standard 5C Standard 16C Standard 16C Standard Screw Machine Screw Machine Master Collets ORDER HOLE Fractional Decimal Fractional Decimal Fractional Decimal — ACCEPTABLE BAR SIZE +.001 +.002 to -.001 under the order hole Same as the order hole .001 under the order hole Same as the order hole .001 +. This refers to bar stock or chucking diameter.001 Under order hole size Same as order hole size . Correct Collet Size When the collet is the proper size for the workpiece.001 Under order.

There will be line contact at the center of the leaf. The turned diameters may not be concentric with the bar or chucking diameters. The turned diameters may not be concentric with the bar or chucking diameters. This can help with bar push-back because the more tool pressure exerted on the bar the tighter the collet becomes. . The edges of the slots will bite into the workpiece and may cause damage or mark the bar.Basic Workholding Techniques 41 Collet is Oversize If the collet is oversize as shown above. and the machined diameters can be out-of-round. The part may pivot around the point of contact when excessive chucking pressure is NOT applied. Collet is Undersize If the collet is undersize. the contact will be at the head of the head angle on the spindle angle and the order hole. the part may pivot at the line of contact.

Those with under 1/16" order hole are two-split.42 CHAPTER 7 Collet Capacity .100" on the diameter.050" Max. As the length of the bearing in the order hole gets shorter. Long-Bearing Collets Four .split collets are also called “5ST Collets” or “Drill Collets”. Extra. Extra-Spread Collets The shoulder normally cannot be larger than the chucking diameter by more than . the collet can be made to clear larger diameter shoulders. Four-Split. The various styles are: • • • • Number sizes Letter Sizes Fractional from 1/64 to 1-1/16" (5C collets) Decimal (special order) HA R D IN GE . They come standard in various sizes for the 5C style spindles.

square. and other eccentric stock with corners that would normally fall into the slots of the angular slotted collet. The zig-zag slotted collet has the following characteristics: • The slots are double-cut with the zig-zag EDMed (Electrical Discharged Machine) as the second slot • The parts are gripped by the outside diameter of their corners • They are used for high-production loading by eliminating the need for orienting the part with the shaped hole of the collet • The Zig-Zag overlaps even in the relaxed (open) position so that even the corners of the smallest stock cannot get into the slot • Expensive . hex. The angular-slotted collet has the following characteristics: • The slots are normally cut on a 7-degree angle instead of straight • The parts are gripped by the outside diameter of their corners • They are used for high production loading by eliminating the need for orienting the part with the shaped hole in the collet • Greatest use is for carburetor needle valves Zig-Zag Slotted Collets These are special-order collets that are used to grip small diameter triangular. square and other eccentric stock with corners that would normally fall into the slots of the collet.Basic Workholding Techniques 43 Angular-Slotted Collets These are special-order collets that are used to grip triangular. hex.

44 CHAPTER 7 Collet Capacity notes: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ .

Basic Workholding Techniques 45 CHAPTER EIGHT COLLET SERRATIONS .

Tap Serration Tap serrations are used on pads with small holes that are impractical to groove and broach. . This is the best all-around serration.46 CHAPTER 8 Serrations Serrations Why do we use serrations? ? • Better gripping pressure by concentrating force in a smaller area • Reduces push-back of stock under the load of cutting • Reduces spinning or rotation of the stock • Under a heavy cut they may help prevent stock from "walking out" of the collet • Maximum contact area when gripping irregular surfaces such as hot-rolled & cast bars Standard Flat Serration Increases gripping pressure but does not score the workpiece when using the correct closing pressure. Circular Serration Circular serration is used to increase the gripping pressure but not bite into the workpiece as much as other serrations would.

Basic Workholding Techniques

47

Sawtooth/Buttress Serration
The grooves and broach have the same shape as a buttress thread. This helps prevent both push-back and radial slipping of the workpiece. The sawtooth serration is the best design when doing heavy forming and/or drilling. This serration is designed to bite into the stock or workpiece.

Diamond Serration
The grooves and broach have a 90degree “V” shape. This serration is designed to bite into the stock.

Hex and Square Collet Serrations
Circular serrations are used on Hex, Square and Polygons.

Additional Information
If the last serration is less than one full serration in length, the last groove will not be cut. This makes for a stronger area and eliminates chipping out of the serrations when loading bars.

Disadvantages of Serrations
Serrations may score the stock or workpiece, and generally cost more than smooth pads or collets. Additional information in the following chapter.

48

CHAPTER 8 Serrations

notes:
_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Basic Workholding Techniques

49

CHAPTER NINE

CONCENTRICITY AND GRIPPING FORCE

They are used for cast or hot-rolled stock which is usually out-of-round and has a rough surface finish. They achieve a full bearing on a finished part. or ID of the collet comes in many different surface finishes. Smooth Bore Most lathe collets are smooth bore. diameters and bearing lengths.50 CHAPTER 9 Concentricity and Gripping Force Chucking Surfaces The Order Hole The bore. Let's take a look at these aspects. order hole. Serrated Bore Serrated Bore gives maximum gripping force when doing heavy machining operations. . The serrations will bite into the material and reduce slippage and push back. They are typically less expensive than serrated collets and are used whenever the stock surface cannot be marked.

and needed best concentricity. . but the stock actually measured .497 decimal collet. Exact Size or Slightly Under The order hole should be exact size when running ground rod or tubing.497.Basic Workholding Techniques 51 Diameter of the Order Hole For Bar Work Small Order Hole The order hole should be smaller than the bar stock size for maximum gripping. Exact Decimal Size (3 decimal places) The order hole should be exactly the same size as the bar for best concentricity and least possibility for marking the stock. Decimal-size order holes are made to the exact three place decimal size. you should purchase a . If you were running 1/2" stock.

the following happens: • Less gripping force due to line contact at center of leaves • Diameter runout • Radial marks on the chucking diameter Undersize When the order hole is smaller than the part chucking diameter. the holding power will be greater.52 CHAPTER 9 Concentricity and Gripping Force Holding Power When Doing Chucking Work Exact Size For best results without marking. . For Best Concentricity When Holding Any Workpiece The order hole should be exactly the same size as the workpiece's chucked diameter. the following happens: • Distortion of the part • Diameter runout • Linear marks on chucking diameter BUT. resulting in: • Full bearing on chucking diameter • The best concentricity possible Oversize When the order hole is larger than the chucking diameter. the order hole should be exactly the same size as the stock.

• A short bearing would be used to clear threads on a part. the shorter the bearing length. you're using the wrong machine tool. CAUTION: Extended-Nose Collets Extended-nose collets are used to extend the part out far enough to clear tooling interferences.Basic Workholding Techniques 53 Length of Bearing Short Bearing • The smaller the order hole. Extended-nose collets should only be used for the lightest of cuts. mainly due to the length of the grinding wheel used during manufacturing. Many Davenport and Brown & Sharpe collets come standard with split bearings. Concentricity is difficult to hold using this style collet. • Special over-the-shoulder collets have very short bearings to allow for maximum opening with minimum collet stroke. . This creates what is called a scissors grip on the part which is very unstable. the collet will bellmouth. If you need an extended-nose collet for normal machining. The threads could be damaged with a standard collet. Because the griping area of the collet is substantially forward of the head angle. Split-Bearing (Bearing Relief) • Improves gripping pressure with the same amount of force. This collet is easily damaged by applying moderate closing forces.

54 CHAPTER 9 Concentricity and Gripping Force Number of Slots No Slots • • • • • • Plug chucks and blank collets Used for arbors and fixtures Taper-hole collets .Morse. 2 Split Drill 5CST TWO SPLIT ANGULAR Three Slots Three slots are most common. They are usually used for Round. B&S Headstock centers Stub arbors Headstock mill drivers Two Slots Two-slotted collets are used for special applications. Hex and Square collets. ROUND SQUARE HEX . It is the most accurate design for centering a workpiece.

Basic Workholding Techniques 55 Four Slots Four slots are used on larger collets to reduce closing pressure and are very common for square and rectangular collets. SQUARE HEX RECTANGULAR More Than 4 Slots More than four slots are used on larger collets to reduce closing pressure. 9-SPLIT 6-SPLIT Crimping 8-SPLIT . special collets and other special applications. for crimping collets.

56 CHAPTER 9 Concentricity and Gripping Force Micro-Finish of the Order Hole (Bore) Machined—lathe bored Emergency style are usually bored by the operator. Chucking force is increased. Grind Grinding is the most common method for finishing the order hole. Edges of the slots do not bite into oversized stock and they help eliminate marking on nominal stock. Used on hot-rolled stock. Extremely Small Stripper Collet Capsule Collet Clover Leaf Grind—Special Process The order hole is cleared at the slots using an end mill or grinding wheel. • Collets used on extremely high-speed machines where operating parts must be super-finished. • Capsule collets that require a very fine surface finish. • Workpieces that cannot be scratched. • Stripper collets used to pull the workpiece off a die. Lap—Hone—Polish • Extremely small collets that are too small to grind. . Special applications collets and brass collets are usually bored for the customer.

Basic Workholding Techniques 57 EXPANDING COLLETS .

each one having their strengths as well as weaknesses. True. If it is not round. the section to be machined should not be inside the collet or under the jaws of the chuck unless it is round. this is not the case. there may be considerable distortion of the bore when it is removed from the workholding device. there are certain machining practices that have to be adhered to when doing the first operation on the workpiece. Preparation of the Blank Many people feel that as long as the part has a hole. most of us hope that the part has a hole in it. It has long been known that using an expanding collet is the most accurate way to hold a workpiece. When machining the bore. There are many different styles of expanding collets. it can be held accurately using an expansion collet. where extremely close length and concentricity tolerances are required. Unfortunately.58 CHAPTER 10 Expanding Collets Expanding Collets When doing secondary work. .

Out-of-Round Part (Collet shown open) 2. Prior to boring the part. the bored hole will also be out of round after removal from the collet. 1. .Basic Workholding Techniques 59 If the outside diameter of a solid blank is out-of-round. the outside chucking surface must be round within a tolerance that is less than the desired bore tolerance. Finish Bore (Rounds out) 4. Collet released (OD returns to original shape and ID follows) A precision bore is required when gripping the part with an expansion collet. Rough Bore (Material flows into hole) 3. and that diameter is chucked using a collet or step chuck.

Blank ID out-of-round 3. the resulting hole will generally have the same out-ofroundness the blank or drilled hole had. Tubing or Drilled Hole 2. 1st bore not round due to uneven tool pressure When boring a part which will be held on an expansion collet. When only one boring operation is done. Chucked ID forced round 4. Distortion after removal . Turned If the bore to be gripped by the expansion collet is out-of-round. it will be forced round by the closing pressure. The bore will then return to its original out-of-round condition which in turn will make the outside diameters also go out-of-round.60 CHAPTER 10 Expanding Collets BORE H AR D I N GE SI Z SI Z DE L E E 1. Finish bore truly round 2. Any outside diameter turning work accomplished while being held by the expansion collet will be round until it is removed from the expansion collet. 1. M O 3. it should always be rough bored and then finish bored.

Spindle-Mounted Expansion Collet This system can only be used on Hardinge-style thread or taper-nose 5C spindles. Styles There are many different styles of expanding collets. while holding with an expansion collet.Basic Workholding Techniques 61 By now you have probably gotten the message. “If you want to do precision work. CAUTION: Do not use on Hydraulic Collet Closers with 5C spindle adapters. . The assembly will be damaged and will be unsafe to use. Let’s start out with a precision style. the spindle-mounted expansion collet assembly.” Work done on the outside diameters will not be any better than the tolerances and condition of the inside diameter being located on. the bore you are locating on must also be a precision bore.

62 CHAPTER 10 Expanding Collets Basic Parts of the Spindle-mounted Expansion Collet Locating Face 1. The 5C-version can handle work with bores from 1/2" to 3". It has a locating face that is square with the spindle centerline. There is a locating face which must be perpendicular with the collet diameter. The Spindle Mount The spindle mount bolts. threads or is taper-locked onto the spindle nose of the machine. 2. Locating Face 3. The draw collet does not have a head like a regular collet. Draw Collet Draw Plug . It has an ID taper which accepts a draw plug. Its only purpose is to center the draw plug in the spindle and to connect the collet to the collet closer. The clearance between the spindle back bearing and the draw collet’s back bearing is much less than a standard collet. The Draw Plug Assembly The draw plug assembly consists of the draw plug with an angle which mates with the collet’s ID angle. The screws are used to center the collet and force it against the locating face of the spindle mount to square the collet up. The Collet The collet is usually four-split. hardened and ground. This feature allows the assembly to hold part concentricities to within . The collet is held in and adjusted to center with four adjusting screws. This plug mounts into a draw collet and is pulled pack by the collet closer. The draw plug expands the collet as the draw collet is closed (pulled into the spindle).0002" TIR.

Work Locating Stops for different applications .Basic Workholding Techniques 63 4. Machineable Work Locating Stop (Backing Plate) This part is bolted to the spindle collar and machined by the operator to conform to the locating point of the part. Two common problems when NOT using a backing plate are chatter and taper on the turned diameters which. many times. are caused by deflection of the collet. It gives greater stability to the collet and helps eliminate any flexing of the collet by supporting the workpiece.

64 CHAPTER 10 Expanding Collets Advantages of the Spindle-Mounted Expansion Collet • One of the most accurate expansion collets available • Gives dead length control. there is no guarantee on collets smaller than 1/2" • Collets are available to a 3/8" minimum diameter . therefore.0002" concentricity between the bore and turned diameters (the blank must be good to start with) • Can be used for large diameter work • Custom collets can be made with extra long bearings • Custom backing plates for complex datum surfaces • Longest life—hardened & ground • Soft blanks available for machine-in-place applications Special Considerations • • • • • Long set up time—10 to 30 minutes Requires skilled personnel Collet can be destroyed if collet is closed without a part on it 1/2" collets and above are guaranteed to have runout Special collets as low as 5/16" with a special draw plug and adapter can be easily destroyed by a careless operator. even without a backing plate • Can hold .

These pads can be removed and saved for use on the same part at a later time. . There are two exceptions to doing this: • The pads must go back on the same master collet in their original position • The TIR tolerances cannot be critical Parts of the Master Expanding Collet 1. It mounts directly into the spindle and uses interchangeable pads which are machined by the operator to fit the part. This assures very close tolerance capabilities. The Body The allowance between the body and the spindle back bearing is extremely close (much closer than a collet). The master collet is part of the body and is very large. It does not require a spindle mount.Basic Workholding Techniques 65 Master Expanding Collet 5C & 16C collets—Collet-style This expansion collet can be mounted in any machine or workholding device that uses 5C and 16C collets. The leaves of the collet have holes threaded in them to accept interchangeable collet pads. giving extremely good stability.

.66 CHAPTER 10 Expanding Collets 2. in turn. Spring The spring pushes against the back of the master collet body keeping the head angle in contact with the spindle angle at all times. This cuts down on the deflection normally associated with draw plugs. The Draw Plug The plug is very large in diameter. 4. 3. pulls the draw plug against the collet angle. chips would get behind the master and cause runout of the master collet. Without this spring. this part goes back with it. Keyed Special Thread The draw plug is thread into this part. When the closer pulls back. The threaded part pulls away from the body which. closing it.

ensuring the best TIR possible. They are bolted to the master collet leaves. The pads will then be ground on that body. Instead of a set ring going over the OD of the pads. The pads are then machined to the exact bore size. A limit ring (the ring used for set up) is placed around them and the collet is very lightly closed. When purchasing these collets. you must also purchase the master collet body. The 3" aluminum pads are for large diameter light work.Basic Workholding Techniques 67 Master Collet Pads Pads are made from steel (2" capacity) and aluminum (3" capacity). A cap is placed over this pilot. These pads are bolted to the master collet with six screws. hardened and ground collets should be used. The steel pads are the standard pads. using just enough pressure until the ring cannot be turned by hand. there is a pilot on the front of the pads. . LIMIT RING Hardened and Ground PADS For high production runs. The collet is very lightly closed and the pads are machined to the size of the part within a few ten thousandths.

This eliminates the space in the slots. pads can be remounted without re-machining • Pads can be re-machined for a smaller diameter workpiece • Concentricity is excellent because pads are machined in place • Small hole chucking—.68 CHAPTER 10 Expanding Collets Advantages of Master Expanding Collets • Can be taken from the lathe to a milling fixture without the need for special spindle fixturing • For noncritical work.250" diameter to a depth of . allowing a smaller chucking diameter to be turned.250" • Part length control Normal Slots in Master Pads Pads held in step chuck for re-machining Pads have been re-machined round . Scissor gripping of part may occur.100" diameter chucking is possible Hold the pads in the customer-bored step chuck and re-bore the back counterbore. Special Comments—Scissor Gripping This type of expansion collet is designed for light chucking only for small diameter work. especially when using 3" aluminum pads. GOOD GRIP Turned with set-ring to exact size of bore POOR GRIP Turned undersize or without set-ring .

Basic Workholding Techniques 69 Special Comments—Small Diameter Work When doing small diameter work. overtightening the collet can permanently deform the pads. 1 1 SMALL DIAMETER Ratio 1 : 1 OVER TIGHTENING of small diameter work deforms pads Other Styles of Expansion Collets Double-angle expansion collets Hydraulic expansion collets Hydraulic expansion arbors Push-style expansion collets . Heavy tool pressure can deflect the collet. The backing plate used with the spindle mounted expansion collet eliminates the problem.

70 CHAPTER 1 Basic Collet Introduction notes: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ .

CHAPTER 11 MASTER COLLETS AND FEED FINGERS .

72 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Master Collets and Feed Fingers Master Collet Major Classifications Name Standard Masters Style "S" Martin Master CT (2 Holes in Pads) CB (1 Hole in Pad) New Britain Master Manufacturer All Hardinge Hardinge/Patented design Somma-Balas All All Obsolete Feed Finger Classifications Name Style "B" Adjustable Tension AF Adjustable Dial Adjustable Style "A" Style "PB" Manufacturer Hardinge Hardinge Hardinge Somma/Balas All Somma/Balas (Obsolete) Standard Feed Finger Classifications Name Solid Feed Fingers Squirrel Cage Setters Spiral Slot Manufacturer All All Setters Master Collets Master collets are available for automatic screw machines. Most can be replaced from the front of the spindle. which only takes a few minutes. The standard master collet still requires the collet to be removed when replacing the pads. Advantages of Master Collets over Solid Collets • Purchase masters only once • Pads are 60% less expensive than solid collets. and the Martin Master originally patented by Balas. square. while masters are roughly 30% more expensive than solid collets • Pads are available in different materials as a "special" • Pads are available in hex. The collet no longer has to be taken out of the spindle of the machine when changing to another size bar. turret lathes and most of the newer CNC lathes. due to this requirement. The two major players are the Style "S" originally patented by Hardinge Inc. They were developed to reduce set up time. The following pages show illustrations of each style collet and pad along with the advantages and disadvantages of each. This style is not very popular. and special shapes • Pads require less shelf space than collets • Many different machine masters use the same size pads • Emergency pads are less expensive than emergency collets • Hex and square pads are more accurate than hex and square solid collets .

There are no threaded holes to get damaged. Trouble-free dovetail anchor section Dovetail Pad has full bearing on the stock. Mating dovetails anchor the pad and clamp together independent of the collet. Independent clamp slides freely in and out of master collet. Clamp Pad With Clamp Independent clamp is a self-contained unit which slides into the master. No threaded holes through pads to reduce bearing surface. Also there are no tapped holes in the master collet. The clamp cannot be loosened by vibration. The dovetail anchors pad in place. therefore no reduction of precision bearing surface. .Basic Workholding Techniques 73 Style "S" Master Collet and Pad Features There are no holes in the collet head angle.

• If clamp screw is stripped or damaged they can be removed without damaging the collet or the pad. Disadvantages • Clamps can come out of collet when being stored and are easy to lose.74 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers The Shoulder Takes the Thrust There can be no strain on the clamp or clamp screw due to impact of the bar striking the back of the pad. • No uneven wear caused by holes and slots. Additional Style "S" Advantages • No holes or slots in the head angle of the collet. Collet Pad The clamps stay with the collet when stored. This gives the collet maximum bearing surface between the spindle and head angle. With the Style "S" there is no strain on the clamp or clamp screw. Bar Stock Collet Pad Rear Shoulder Bar Stock Front Shoulder Rear Shoulder takes Endworking Thrust Endworking tools exert a tremendous amount of pressure. • The pads are interchangeable without removing the master collet from the spindle. High spots left after use of other masters will reduce head angle bearing when using solid collets. • Clamp screw threads and wrench sockets can be stripped due to overtightening. thus affording positive pad location and accurate work. All of the end thrust is being absorbed by the pad shoulders in the recess of the collet. • No threaded holes in the collet to be stripped or damaged. This is because the clamp is secured to the pad only. . The force is absorbed directly by the pad shoulders in the recess of the collet. Martin Masters require a set of clamps with each set of pads.

hex. therefore less storage area is needed for style “S” in comparison to Martin Pads. Disadvantages—none . No other front-loading pad can make this claim. • Dovetail anchor securely holds pads in place when bar is loaded. • Pads are available in standard sizes up to the rated capacity of the machine. • Available in round. • Available in English and metric sizes. square and special-shapes to rated capacity of the machine.Basic Workholding Techniques 75 Style "S" Pad Advantages • Easily inserted and removed without taking the master collet out of the spindle. They cannot be dislodged. • Pads gives maximum gripping surface no matter what size. • Hex and square and special-shaped pads run more concentric than solid collets.Emergency Style Bronze Carbide Impregnated Nylon • 60% less expensive than purchasing solid collets. • Available in serrated or smooth to the rated capacity of the machine. • Dovetail design pulls pads into the pad seat. • Available in the following materials: – – – – – Hardened Steel Steel . • No threaded holes in the pad that can be stripped or damaged. • Clamps not fixed to pads.

Collet Tapered Screw Pad Clamp Clamping cross section Advantages • The collet does not have to be removed to change pads. Disadvantages • Loss of bearing surface when mated to spindle due to slots for clamps.76 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Martin® Master Collets The Martin Master has a slot in the face of the collet. • Pads can be knocked loose when loading a new bar. . The pad is held in the collet using a square lug that is threaded into the pad. • These collets not stocked in all sizes—may require a special order. This creates high spots on the spindle angle and causes solid collets to have very poor bearing to the spindle angle. through the head angle. • Clamps and pads loosen very easily. • Uneven wear caused to the machine tool spindle due to slots in collet. • Clamping the pads into the collet may distort the head of the collet. Each lug has a taper-threaded lockingscrew which clamps the pad to the collet.

• Due to the lack of popularity. Advantages • Easily inserted and removed without taking master collet out of the spindle. • More space is needed to store Martin pads because the clamp stays with the pad. Disadvantages • Machine capacity sizes are not available as standard pads because the clamp would protrude into the bore.” • When locked. the stock is not as complete as with the Style “S. Depending upon the machine.Basic Workholding Techniques 77 Martin® Master Pads Collet Tapered Screw Pad Clamp Clamping cross section The Martin Master pad has a square lug threaded into its side with a taper threaded hole in the lug for tightening it into the collet slot. • Clamps stay with the pads and cannot be lost. EXAMPLE: Maximum size standard pad for a 1" Acme is 15/16". they are not drawn back into the pad seat. between 1/16" to 1/8" is lost from its maximum capacity when using these pads. .

Advantages • Pads can be removed without removing the collet from the machine. the screws take all the shock. • Can be loaded without taking collet out of the spindle. Pad Disadvantages • Flaring of set screw detentes due to over torquing of the set screws. This allows chips to get behind the shoulder of the pad. Pad Advantages • No clamps to lose.78 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers "CT" Style Master Collets Collet Cone Point Set Screw Pad Clamping cross section Each pad is locked into the collet using two set screws (cone point) locating into detentes in the shoulder of the pad. • Pads can be easily stored because there are no clamping lugs. • Pads can be locked without the set screws being seated in the detentes on the shoulder of the pad. Disadvantages • Tapped holes for locking screws can be damaged by overtightening which can destroy the collet. . causing the pads to loosen up.no holes thru pads on large capacity sizes. • Expensive to manufacture due to special needs of set screw location area. The threaded holes are in the face of the collet. • Full bearing surface . • Subject to cracking and/or chipping if shoulder is not properly heat-treated. • Can be dislocated when loading a new bar. • When loading new bar stock. This collet was used as original equipment on National Acme machines.

. The back shoulder has a back taper which helps lock pad in place. This collet was used as original equipment on National Acme Machines. • Can be loaded without taking collet out of the spindle. allowing chips to get behind the shoulders.Basic Workholding Techniques 79 "CB" Style Master Collets Collet Cup-Point Screw Pad Clamping cross section The collet has one locking screw (cup point) per pad. • Pads can be easily stored because there are no clamping lugs. causing the pads to loosen. Advantages • Front-loading collet does not have to be removed to replace pads. Pad Disadvantages • Flaring of set screw detentes due to over torquing of set screws. • Subject to cracking and/or chipping if shoulder is not properly heat-treated. Disadvantages • There is no way to make certain the pads are lined up with the set screw before tightening. which can destroy the collet. • Locking screws stay in the master collet—no clamps to lose. • Tapped holes for locking screws can be damaged by overtightening. • The screws take all the shock when loading new bars. • Any misalignment of the screw or detente in the pad will cause it not to seat properly. • Can be easily dislocated when loading a new bar. • Expensive to manufacture due to special needs of set screw location. • Full bearing surface—no holes through pads on large capacity sizes. Pad Advantages • No clamps to lose.

. Pad Advantages • Locking mechanism stays with pads and cannot be lost. the collet can be permanently damaged. Two locking screws are in each pad which locks against a detente in the collet back seat. • No tapped holes in the collet. Advantages • Front loading—collet does not have to be removed to replace pads. • Some bearing loss due to holes for seals. • The cutting pressure and load is against the set screws.80 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers New Britain Master Collet (O B S O L E T E) Collet Cone Point Screw Pad Clamping cross section The collet does not contain the lock screws. Disadvantages • If the set screws are over-torqued. Pad Disadvantages • Cutting thrust is against the set screws rather than the full back shoulder.

The collet must be removed from the machine spindle to change the pads. . The resulting high spots make other style collets perform poorly. • Firmly held into the master collet. • The hole in the collet bearing angle causes uneven wear of the spindle. • Threaded holes remove bearing area on larger capacity pads.Basic Workholding Techniques 81 Standard Master Collet Collet Locking Bolt Pad Clamping cross section A screw goes through the head angle of the collet and into the side of the pad’s shoulder. • Screw can be sheared when loading new bar stock. Advantages • Once the collet is purchased. the pads are less expensive than solid collets. These collets are available for all style machines. Pad Advantages • Considerable savings over the price of solid collets. Disadvantages • Must remove the collet to replace the pads. • Screws can shear when pad is hit when replacing bar stock. Pad Disadvantages • Must remove collet to change pads.

If you are considering precision work and are going to grip on the flats of the hex or square stock. . switch to a master collet with hex pads and they will clean up correctly. always use Style "S" master collets and pads.82 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Hex and Square Pads Masters are Better Than Solids Hex and square pads run much more concentric than hex and square solid collets. making it easier to load the part and hold them concentric. The alternative to gripping on the flats of any polygon is to grip on the OD (corners) using either an angular-slotted collet or a zig-zag slotted collet (see chapter 1). Therefore. The corners will not fall into the slots. Solid collets will not run as true. if the corners of your hex stock do not clean up all the way around the part.

Basic Workholding Techniques 83 MASTER FEED FINGERS Chapter 11 Continued Master feed fingers come in several styles from nonadjustable to fully-adjustable. The storage requirements for the pads are less than the area required for storing solid feed fingers. The main reason for buying master feed fingers is to reduce expense as compared to the cost of solid feed fingers. .

Below is a review of the Style "B" in greater detail. The pads & feed finger design is the most stable on the market today. They were designed to take the abuse of your roughest operator and still give you the precision your machine tool requires. Style "B" Features: No Screw or Pins to Hold Pads in Place Three Pads Several Standard Shapes PAD BAR STOCK PAD HA R D I N G E Heat Treated for Tension Only Pad diameter controls different tensions Full Bearing on the Bar Stock .84 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Style "B" Master Feed Finger The Style "B" Master Feed Finger & Pads are the most practical feed finger for high production bar machining.

• Pads stocked in round. • Full bearing on the stock. • Special feed fingers are made for rectangular.Basic Workholding Techniques 85 Additional Advantages • Pads cannot come loose. Maximum hardness possible which gives maximum life. • They are not adjustable. Pad Advantages • Heat treated for hardness only. Many decimal sizes are also stocked. • Cheaper than solid feed fingers. hex. other polygon shapes and extruded stock. Pad Disadvantages: None . • Normally stocked in 1/64" sizes. Disadvantages • Centrifugal force at high speeds can cause feed fingers to loose gripping force. • Pads come in many different materials. • Quick changeover using Hardinge-designed wrenches. square. • Take up less storage space than solid feed fingers.

polished and plated stock. • The best choice for stainless steel. • Hard Pads—61-63 Rockwell “C” scale. These will eliminate scoring. • Long wearing and reasonable abrasion. switch to bronze pads) Bronze • Used for ground drill rod. • Only recommended when cast iron pads score the stock—bronze pads have a shorter life. (If nickel scores. • Greater life than bronze because they are harder. aluminum. aluminum. polished and plated stock—help eliminate scoring. .86 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Materials Used for Standard Stocked Pads Hardened Steel • Used for hot-rolled and cold-drawn steel bars. Nickel Cast Iron • Used for brass. brass. Nylon • Used on chrome-plated and highly-polished stock.

ADVANTAGES • • • • • Tension can be adjusted. . Takes standard “B” pads. The sleeve locks against the feed tube. DA2 and 9/16 Cone. Positively locks against the feed tube. Loss of tension due to centrifugal force is reduced. The collet takes standard style “B” pads. This feature eliminates the possibility of having it loosen up.Basic Workholding Techniques 87 "BX" and "DX" Adjustable-Tension Master Feed Finger Adjusting Sleeve Body Pad The Style BX & DX feed finger has a sleeve that is moved to increase or decrease the tension on the pads. Adjustment is approximately 1/64" on diameter. DISADVANTAGES • Only available for B&S 00. 0.

Advantages • Can adjust for different size stock—a full 1/32" adjustment from the rated size down. – Better finish on part because of less bar whip. • Adjustable tension on the stock.7 pound increments. – More tension can be achieved using this feed finger than with any other feed finger produced. – Extremely light tension for thin wall tubing and delicate stock. The feed finger has a support bushing in the back to eliminate bar whip within the feed finger.88 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers "AF" Style Master Feed Finger Adjusting Cap 13/16 Support Bushing Pads The "AF" Style Feed Finger uses inexpensive pads which are adjustable in 5 . They are adjustable for different tensions and stock sizes. – Eliminates feed hang ups. whether master or solid finger. – Eliminates the need for decimal or metric pads and pads in 1/64" increments. No screws are used to hold the pads. • Feed bushings are used to control bar whip. 13/16 .

not just one drawer.Basic Workholding Techniques 89 Pad Advantages • Same master feed finger pads can be used for many different machines using the same style feed finger. Pad Disadvantages • Cannot go under or over the rated capacity of the pad. which results in reduced inventory. • One tool cabinet drawer can hold hundreds of pad sets and still only weigh a few pounds. The same quantity of pads of any other type would take two or three tool cabinets. . and much less expensive than solid feed fingers. • Cannot go to the maximum capacity of the machine. • Pads will break when used without the support bushing. • AF Pads are less expensive than style “B” pads. an AF6 pad for a 1" Acme feed finger has a minimum capacity is 3/8". For example. If you wanted to feed a 1/4" bar. • Some people feel it is difficult to change pads. • The Model 3A AF pads cannot be used under 3/16". another style feed finger would have to be used.

. • Pads less expensive than solid feed fingers. • Thrust supported by shoulders. • Pads are tricky to install. Advantages • No pins or screws used to hold pads into place. the pads can be knocked loose.90 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers MODEL "A" MASTER FEED FINGER The pads are held in a groove with a shoulder locating the pad on both ends. Disadvantages • When loading bar stock. One key holds one pad in place which eliminates rotation of the other pads.

Basic Workholding Techniques 91 notes: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ .

92 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Other Adjustable Feed Fingers Dial-Adjustable Master Feed Finger By Balas Rear Support Bushing 10 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 4 8 Inner Master Outer Sleeve 20 1 2 3 .

A wrench is required to spread the master collet for pad insertion. There are numbers on the master body that indicate whether the tension is being increased or decreased. Carbide pads available for maximum wear resistance. Wrenches are used to hold one member from turning.Basic Workholding Techniques 93 2 3 4 8 The dial adjustable master uses style “A” pads. The same wrench is used to adjust the outer sleeve. . • The same problem as with all adjustable masters—too many pieces. The outer sleeve is turned counterclockwise to adjust for more tension on the inner master. The body also accepts a rear support bushing. • Size restriction—maximum capacity of machine cannot be utilized. It has a master body which accepts the pads. Will not lose setting because feed tube locks against outer sleeve. Minimally affected by centrifugal force. Disadvantages • Outer assembly must be removed to change pads in the master’s body. Advantages • • • • Tension is adjustable by hand.

They are swagged to size against an undersize plug and then heat treated. . but not a Master) Whack it here with a hammer ANVIL Cross Section and Adjustment Method The squirrel cage-style feed finger has slots like a cage.94 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Squirrel-Cage Feed Finger (Adjustable.

Adjustable. Concentricity problems after adjustment. Not affected by centrifugal force as much as masters with pads or solid feed fingers. Disadvantages of Squirrel-Cage Feed Finger • • • • Crude adjustment—“whack it” with a hammer. No precise way of telling what the tension is on the finger or a way to make certain that each leaf has the same tension. No moving parts. .Basic Workholding Techniques 95 Advantages of Squirrel-Cage Feed Finger • • • • Inexpensive. Tension life is short. Stock-Saver Feed Finger Whack it here with a hammer ANVIL ANVIL Stock-Saver Feed Finger (squirrel cage -style) Same as the squirrel-cage but it has two adjustable areas—one in front and one in the middle of the finger.

Requires considerable storage space. Disadvantages • • • • • • • Expensive if more than one is ever purchased. Require finger for each size stock. Entire feed finger must be replaced when worn. Tension controlled by heat treatment. Non-adjustable. Expensive because it requires additional feed tubes for each size stock. .96 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers Types of Solid Feed Fingers Standard Solid Feed Finger Advantages • No moving parts. • One costs less than a master.

Disadvantages • Requires changing the "feed tube/finger" combination for each change in bar size. Instead of threads. .Basic Workholding Techniques 97 FEED TUBE BRAZE FEED FINGER Brazed On / In Style Feed Finger The brazed style feed finger is used when overcapacity stock is to be fed through an oversize collet. there is a machined diameter. The two are then brazed together. The feed tube threads are removed to the machined diameter on the special feed finger. Advantages • Allows feeding of oversize stock not possible with standard feed fingers.

When using a “milled-thru” 1/4" feed finger. One feed finger can do the work of several.98 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers "Milled-Through" Solid Feed Fingers The "milled-thru" feed finger accepts rectangular. a feed finger or pad would be needed for each size. but because of the small amount of bearing surface. all of these pieces of stock can be handled by the same feed finger with a considerable dollar savings. . Example: When there are four different flat stock jobs to run. and 1/4" x . 1/4" x 9/16. 1/4" x 3/8".744. square and hex stock that has a thickness equal to the milled slot. Suppose we have four pieces of flat stock: 1/4" square. A 1/4" hex could be fed. feeding problems may result.

See section on parts loading–chapter 14. Every size bar or workpiece requires a separate feed finger. .Basic Workholding Techniques 99 Round Shank Threaded Adapter Feed Finger Bar / Stock Puller—Feed Finger Style The feed finger style bar puller is used for pulling bar stock and also loading and unloading workpieces.

100 CHAPTER 11 Master Collets and Feed Fingers notes: _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ .

COLLETS .Basic Workholding Techniques 101 CHAPTER 12 JAW CHUCKS VS.

102 CHAPTER 12 Chucks vs. . • Customer has the facilities to machine chuck jaws for complex shapes but does not have them for machining collets. • Eliminate large inventory of collets. Reasons for Selecting a Jaw Chuck • Variation of chucking diameter greater than the collet's limits. • Cost of a collet for a short run job. • Parts too large for the collet capacity of the machine. • Delivery time for a new collet for a short run job. machinists have debated which was the best device for holding a workpiece or tool. Throughout the years.or 4-jaw chuck. • Machine does not have collet or step chuck capabilities. • Non-symmetrical work requiring a 2. • Rough chucking surfaces such as castings. We will then finish out the chapter by describing each style of jaw chuck. Collets The collet and jaw chuck are the two major methods for holding workpieces or tools on a machine tool or fixture. Let's take a look at many of the different applications for each method of workholding. Collets Chucks vs.

001" increments (5C's). The working portion of the collet is completely enclosed and cannot expand at high spindle speeds. decreased the overhang by 6 inches. replace the spindle once. One Shop's Reason For Switching to Collets One shop with two machines started out with jaw chucks on their CNC slant bed lathes. They then changed to collets and step chucks. rebuild the jaw chuck three times. • Life of a hardened and ground collet is much greater than machined chuck jaws. which eliminated major wrecks. • Less chance of expensive wrecks. • Part tolerance or a long-run job dictate a collet to reduce downtime and the necessity to re-bore the chuck jaws. Most chucks extend from the face of the spindle between 4 to 6 inches. replace the jaw chuck twice. Their down time was substantially reduced. which increased the gripping forces. .Basic Workholding Techniques 103 Reasons for Selecting a Collet • Maximum gripping force—most critical on long overhang. • Collets are available in . plus expend many man hours repairing the machines due to jaw chuck interference related wrecks. not counting the length of the jaws. • Inexpensive precision workholding device—less expensive when using pads. Within one year they had to replace the turret assembly twice. • Special-accuracy collets are available in hardened and ground styles for super-precision chucking. • Best TIR because there is no overhang. and reduced spindle tooling interference problems. • Centrifugal force does not cause problems with collets or step chucks that use closers. increased their ability to hold close tolerances.

104

CHAPTER 12 Chucks vs. Collets

Types of Spindle Chucks
• Mechanical (manual-operated) • Pneumatic (air-operated) • Hydraulic • Electro-Magnetic • Vacuum

Mechanical (manual-operated)

3-Jaw Universal

2-Jaw Universal

4-Jaw Universal

4-Jaw Independent

Pie Jaw

• Comes in many versions—the most common are shown above. • Inexpensive. • Uses a key wrench to tighten and loosen workpiece.

Basic Workholding Techniques

105

Pneumatic (air-operated)

• Allows for lighter gripping pressures than hydraulic chucks. • Smaller sizes can have accuracy very close to precision collets. • Air cylinder is usually mounted at the rear of the spindle with a draw tube running through the spindle. • The air cylinder can also be part of the chuck. This style chuck is usually longer in length than the rear-mounted cylinder chuck which increases the TIR problems. This style is usually heavier, which puts more weight on the front of the spindle. • Some air chucks actually use the draw bar of the collet closer. These chucks usually have a thru-hole capacity equivalent to the collet capacity of the machine tool. • The internal construction of the chuck can restrict the maximum RPM it can be run. • Precision air chucks usually cannot be run faster than 3,000 RPM. The exception is the small 3" air chucks which can run at 5,000 RPM or higher.

Hydraulic Chucks

• Much greater gripping pressures than air chucks. • The hydraulic cylinder may be either at the rear of the spindle or built into the actual chuck. • Thin-wall tubing and delicate parts cannot usually be run with hydraulic chucks because the chucking pressure cannot be reduced enough. • Weighs more than air chucks creating additional spindle loads.

106

CHAPTER 12 Chucks vs. Collets

Electro-Magnetic Chucks
• Normally used for flat magnetic steel and iron parts—if surface is flat, there will be no chucking distortion. • Expensive. • Cannot be used for nonmagnetic materials. • Requires special electrical rotating connection. • Requires a large power supply. This type of chuck uses an electric-powered magnet which consumes large amounts of DC (direct current) power. A power supply is required to change the normal AC (alternating current) to DC. Because of the amount of current that is required, a rather larger power supply is required.

Vacuum Chucks
• • • • • • Will hold all types of material with even chucking pressures. No distortion caused by chucking if the chucking surface is not distorted to begin with. Requires a separate vacuum pump. Expensive. Materials to be chucked cannot be porous. There are universal rotary vacuum chucks that have vacuum ports that can be turned off or on to conform to the chucking surface area. • There are special techniques for holding bandsawed blanks for the first operation.

Basic Workholding Techniques 107 CHAPTER CHAPTER 14 13 BAR STOCK PULLERS .

CAUTION: Stock should never extend beyond the end of the machine tool spindle unless supported with a “Non-pusher” style bar feed tube. The unit can also be mounted parallel to the centerline of the spindle as well as perpendicular to it. This makes it less costly to use than the feed finger style. Uses spindle liners for precision parts with no whip. A large diameter and/ or a long length of bar will require considerable tension.108 CHAPTER 13 Bar Stock Pullers Bar Pullers There are several different style bar pullers on the market. The two most common are the feed finger style and the two-finger style. forcing the fingers to spread apart. usually from stock. The bar puller feeds onto the bar. These feed fingers can be acquired for all nominal sizes. the part has to be cut off approximately 1/2" from the face of the collet. Both Styles Feature • • • • • Up to 1-5/8" stock. Two-Finger Style The two-finger style is universal. One puller will handle stock from 1/8" to 1-5/8" and larger. without slipping. Feed Finger Style The feed finger style consists of an adapter that fits in the machine's turret. Can pull short or long bars. or similar device. The special feed finger threads into the adapter. and can be held in either a round shank or square shank holder. (Hardinge-brand bar puller) Can pull up to 12 foot bars when using a "non-pusher" type bar support. Inexpensive. . There must be enough tension on the fingers to be able to pull the bar out. The bar puller functions the same way that a feed finger works in an automatic lathe. after the collet is open. When using a bar puller.

Basic Workholding Techniques 109 CHAPTER 14 PARTS LOADING AND UNLOADING .

per OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) regulations. . Feed Finger Style Parts Loader Solid Tube Parts Loader Holds part with friction from the “O” ring.110 CHAPTER 14 Part Loading and Unloading Parts Loading and Unloading Aids Let's consider that we have a good operator but we want to assist him to increase his productivity by reducing potential scrap due to human errors. but only if the machine functions have been completely stopped. This device should be spring-loaded to hold the part against the shoulder in the collet as it is closing. These devices can be loaded by hand.

A wire basket held by the turret or cross slide. Can load round parts without scratching. Parts Unloading Aid Spring Ejector Stop A spring ejector collet is used to eject the part into a parts catcher.Basic Workholding Techniques 111 Rotating Parts Loader • • • • Can load parts that are not round. To load parts that are not round or parts that cannot be scratched. a special step chuck or driver plate is needed. . Requires special collet for each part. The parts catcher can be an air-operated parts chute. Many times these are arranged to automatically dump their contents at the return of the slide or index of the turret.

O.Hardinge Workholding Products ® Swiss-Type Collets & Guide Bushings: Brochure #2283 Sure-Grip® Expanding Collet Systems: Brochure #2270 Collets for Automatics: Brochure #2287 The Hardinge Advantage: Brochure #2327 HQC® Quick-Change Collet Systems: Brochure #2339 Spindle Tooling for Manual and CNC Lathes: Brochure #2348 Precision Tool Holding Systems & Mill Tooling: Brochure #2350 Toolholder Collets.com your online purchasing source for workholding Hardinge Inc.hardingetooling. Litho in USA © Hardinge Inc. New York 14902-1507 USA Brochure 2316B Part No.hardinge. One Hardinge Drive P. HA B-0009500-2316 October 2002 To order in USA: 800-843-8801 To order in Canada: 800-468-5946 All other calls: 607-734-2281 Fax: 607-734-3886 Internet: www.com All specifications subject to change without notice. Bushings & Round Shank Holders: Brochure #2351 HCAC™ Collet Adaptation Chucks: Brochure #2352 Machine Tool Products Overview: Brochure #1190 Sure-Grip® 3-Jaw Power Chucks for All Brands of Lathes: Brochure #2357 Worldwide Manufacturer of Machine Tools and Workholding/Industrial Products Sure-Grip® Chuck Jaws for All Brands of Chucks: Brochure #2358 www. Box 1507 Elmira. All marks indicated by ® or ™ are trademarks of Hardinge Inc.hardingeworkholding.com www. 2002 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful