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Abstract This is a technical document detailing a typical approach to Frequency Planning Process.
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1) Example (5.0) Automatic Frequency Planning (8.0) BSIC Planning (6.Frequency Planning CONTENTS Frequency Planning (1.1) Example (7.1) Example (6.0) Design Criterion (4.0) Frequency Channel Allocation (5.0) Frequency Re-use (3.0) Introduction (2.1) Frequency Hopping Techniques Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 7 Page 7 Page 8 Page 8 Page 9 Page 9 Page 10 Page 2 of 10 .0) Frequency Hopping (8.0) Co-channel Interference and System Capacity (4.
.Frequency Planning Frequency Planning (1.1) below. 45 MHz 45 MHz 880 890 915 925 935 960 GSM900 UPLINK E-GSM900 UPLINK 95 MHz 1710 1785 1805 GSM900 DOWNLINK Guard Band E-GSM900 DOWNLINK 1880 DCS1800 UPLINK DCS1800 DOWNLINK Fig.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0.0) Introduction: The Cellular concept is a system with many low power transmitters. we have: GSM 900 E-GSM 900 Fl(n) = 890 + 0. and nearby base station are assigned different group of channels so that the interference between base stations is minimised. each providing coverage to only a small portion of the service area. Each channel(carrier) in GSM system is of 200 KHz bandwidth.2*(n-1024) Fl(n) = 1710. and Fu(n) the corresponding frequency value in the upper band (Downlink). Each base station is allocated a portion of the total number of channels available to the entire system. The channel separation between Uplink and Downlink is 45 MHz in case of GSM and E-GSM and is 95MHz in case of DCS network.2 + 0.2*n Fl(n) = 890 + 0.1) Channels Assignment As shown the Uplink and Downlink band are separated by 20 MHz of guard band in case of GSM and DCS and 10 MHz in case of E-GSM. The channels assignment in case of GSM900.2*(n-512) 1 ≤ n Fu(n) ≤ 124 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45 0 ≤ n ≤ 124 Fu(n) 975 ≤ n ≤ 1023 512 ≤ n ≤ 885 DCS 1800 Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95 Page 3 of 10 .(1. E-GSM900 and DCS1800 (or GSM1800) is as shown in Figure-(1. which are designated by Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN). If we call Fl(n) the frequency value of the carrier ARFCN n in the lower band(Uplink).
S = 3 x 1 x 7 = 21 ARFCN or 21 x 0. Deciding a cluster size posses a compromise between capacity. assuming that all three sectors have same number of k channels. In GSM system a tri-sectored cell is assumed and the frequency plan is made accordingly. 4. The N base stations.2 MHz = 1. C. (2. Consider an example where k equals 1 that is one frequency per sector.2 MHz = 4. With a cluster size of 7 would require minimum spectrum of. If the S channels are divided among N base stations each having three sectored cell. as the cells are quite closely located hence re-use would pose a major problem. wherein each cell (sector) is allocated k channels. in which each frequency is used exactly once is called a Cluster.Frequency Planning Table (1.0) Frequency Re-use: One important characteristic of GSM networks is frequency planning wherein given the limited frequency spectrum available. A cell in a GSM system may be omni-directional or sectored represented by hexagons. spectrum allocated and interference. which collectively use the complete set of available frequencies.1) ARFCN Hence we have 124 channels in GSM900. the re-use of frequencies in different cells is to be planned such that high capacity can be achieved keeping the interference under a specific level. Adding one more frequency per sector would take the requirement to 42 ARFCN or 33% of total spectrum. consider a GSM system having S channels (ARFCN’s) allocated. can be used as measure of capacity and is given by. But here a big compromise is made on interference. or 12. A cluster size of 7 or 12 gives least interference frequency plan but as the cluster size is big enough hence re-use at far away distance hence lesser capacity and would also require bigger frequency spectrum. On the other hand a cluster size of 3 would require (k = 1). If the cluster is replicated M times then the total number of channels. C = M3kN = MS The Cluster size N is typically equal to 3.2 MHz of spectrum that is about 16% of total available spectrum in GSM900. Addition of one more frequency still results in about only 14% of spectrum required. To understand the frequency re-use planning. S = 3 x 1 x 3 = 9 ARFCN or 9 x 0. Studies have revealed that cluster size of 4 gives the best Page 4 of 10 .8 MHZ which is about 7% of total spectrum available. then the total number of available radio channels can be expressed as. 7. 174 channels in E-GSM900 and 374 channels in DCS1800. S = 3kN This explains N base stations each having three sectors and each sector having k channels.
co-channel interference cannot be combated by simple increase in carrier power.2 illustrates the frequency reuse for cluster size of 4. In a cellular system where the size of each cell is approximately the same. cluster size N and the re-use distance D. Outer Cell radius: Inner Cell radius: Re-use distance: R r = 0.2) 4 x 3 Re-use pattern (3. These cells are called co-channel cells and the interference between signals from these cells is called co-channel interference. Figure.3) explains the relation between the cell radius R. co-channel interference is independent of the transmitted power and becomes the function of the radius of the cell (R).5 x (3)1/2 x R. D = R x (3 x (i2 + j2 + ij))1/2 Page 5 of 10 .8 MHz that is about 19% of total spectrum available. co-channel cells must be physically separated by a minimum distance in order to provide sufficient isolation due to propagation. with k equal to 2 meaning two frequencies per sector gives.. S = 3 x 2 x 4 = 24 or 24 x 0. can be overcome by increasing the S/N ratio. and the distance to the centre of the nearest co-channel cell (D). where cells labelled with the same letter use the same group of channels. Unlike thermal noise which.(1.2 MHz = 4. To reduce co-channel interference.(1. B1 B3 D1 B1 D1 D3 D2 C3 A1 A3 A2 D1 D3 D2 C3 C2 B3 B2 C1 A3 A2 C2 B1 D3 D2 A1 C3 C2 D3 D2 C3 C2 B3 B2 C1 A3 A2 D1 B3 B2 C1 A3 A2 D1 B3 B2 C1 D3 D2 A1 C3 C2 D3 B1 D2 A1 C3 C2 B1 A1 A3 A2 D1 B3 B2 C1 B1 B2 C1 Fig. Here. Figure 1.0) Co-channel Interference and System capacity: Frequency re-use implies that in a given coverage area there are several cells that uses the same set of frequencies.Frequency Planning balance between capacity & interference. This is because an increase in carrier power increases the interference to neighbouring co-channel cells.
Where i and j are non-negative numbers. The reference interference ratio shall be for base station and all types of MS. To find the nearest co-channel neighbour of a particular cell..(1.41 dB Page 6 of 10 . the spatial separation between co-channel cells relative to the coverage distance of a cell is increased.for adjacent (200 kHz) interference . . N = (i2 + j2 + ij) D j i R r i D j Fig. By increasing the ratio of D/R.05 has defined the interference ratios for co-channel and adjacent channel cells. γ is the propagation index or attenuation constant with values ranging between 2 to 4. Thus interference is reduced due to improved isolation from the co-channel cells. (D/R) = 6 (C/I) (Note: C/I is in dB and should be converted to numeric values for calculation) Here.0) Design Criterion: An optimal frequency plan requires minimal interference between co-channel and adjacent channel cells. The relation between the re-use distance ratio D/R and the co-channel interference ratio C/I is as below. one must do the following: (1) move i cells along any chain of hexagons and then (2) turn 60 degrees counter-clockwise and move j cells. called the reference interference ratio. GSM Rec. γ (4.for adjacent (400 kHz) interference : C/Ic = 9 dB : C/Ia1 = .Frequency Planning D/R = (3 x N)1/2 The Cluster size. 05. This is illustrated in the figure above for i = 1 & j = 2 for a cluster size of 7.for cochannel interference .3) Re-use distance calculation. The actual interference ratio shall be less than a specified limit.9 dB : C/Ia2 = .
5) This gives (D/R) = 3.61 Hence a cluster size of 4 will satisfy our required C/I criteria rather if we back calculate for Cluster of size 4 then we get C/I of 19dB.75 3. N = (3.29)2 / 3 = 3.5 = 6 x 10.81 (D/R) = Antilog(1. γ (5.5 Log(D/R) = Log(64. TCH BCCH TCH Macro Cell Micro Cell Fig.5. The re-use may differ for both the groups. as little or no compromise is made for BCCH frequency interference whereas certain compromise could be made for TCH frequency interference.3) Frequency band allocation. In case where the network has Microcells then the total band allotted is divided for BCCH and TCH.75) = 1.0) Frequency Channel Allocation: In GSM systems we divide the total allocated spectrum into two sub-groups one for Control information with traffic referred to as BCCH frequency and other only for traffic referred to as TCH (or non-BCCH) frequency. This implies that the first adjacent channel should not be used in the same sector cell or the same base station. (4.81/3. With this we can back calculate the required cluster size from equation D/R = (3 N)1/2 as. inserting these values in equation (D/R) = 6 (C/I) we have.3) explains the concept.(1.78 = 64.Frequency Planning For the network planning purpose it is recommended that a value of C/I c ≥ 9 dB and the first adjacent channel C/Ia ≥ -9 dB.29. Page 7 of 10 .1) Example: As an illustration let us consider that we require to design a system with C/I of 12 dB and we have from field drive test results the value of γ as 3.. Figure (1. The number of channels in each group depends on the spectrum allocated and C/I criteria for re-use in each case. Typically a cluster size of 4 or 7 is considered for BCCH re-use whereas a cluster size of 3 or 4 is used for TCH re-use. (D/R)3. wherein each band is further sub-divided for Macrocellular & Microcellular applications.
1) Example: As an example consider C/I criteria of 12 dB for BCCH then the cluster size of 4 gives the better result whereas if the C/I criteria is 9 dB for TCH. signifying at any given point there can be maximum of 8 operators in an area. (6.(1.Frequency Planning (5.4) below illustrates the case of 3 x 3 re-use pattern for TCH.1) Example: Page 8 of 10 . The NCC and BCC have values ranging from 0 to 7.1) illustrates the case 4 x 3 re-use pattern for BCCH and the figure (1. The principal for allocation of the BSIC is the same as for the RF carriers but at cluster level rather than cell level. This will eliminate the possibility of incorrect cell identification and will allow the evolution to future cell architecture.0) BSIC Planning: In addition to the assignment of frequency group to a cell. The figure (1. The BSIC is a two-digit code wherein the first digit is indicates NCC (Network Colour Code) and the second digit indicates BCC (Base Station Colour Code). where the NCC is fixed for an operator. The BCC defines the cluster number which means a group of 8 clusters carry unique identity which are re-used for another group of 8 clusters and so on. In case of DCS1800 where a large band of spectrum is available the BCCH and TCH re-use can be kept the same. The concept can be understood in the following example. Set BCCH TCH1 TCH2 A1 1 22 43 B1 2 23 44 C1 3 24 45 D1 4 25 46 E1 5 26 47 F1 6 27 48 G1 7 28 49 A2 8 29 50 B2 9 30 51 C2 10 31 52 D2 11 32 53 E2 12 33 54 F2 13 34 55 G2 14 35 56 A3 15 36 57 B3 16 37 58 C3 17 38 59 D3 18 39 60 E3 19 40 61 F3 20 41 62 G3 21 42 63 (6.4) 3 x 3 re-use pattern. A1 A3 C1 C3 C2 B3 A1 A3 A2 C3 A2 C3 B1 B2 A3 C1 C2 A3 C1 C2 B3 A1 A2 C3 A1 A2 C3 B1 B2 A3 C1 C2 A3 C1 C2 B3 A1 A2 C3 A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2 Fig. gives the cluster size of 3.. a Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) must be assigned in association with the frequency group. A1 1 A1 13 B1 2 B1 14 C1 3 C1 15 D1 4 A2 16 A2 5 B2 17 B2 6 C2 18 C2 7 A3 19 D2 8 B3 20 A3 9 C3 21 B3 10 C3 11 D3 12 BCCH TCH For DCS1800 planning with cluster size of 7 the frequency grouping is as follows.
Frequency Planning Assume a network with 100 base stations each having three sectors. AFP is of immense help and provides guidelines in the cases where frequency assignment is required for big complex network. AFP (Automatic frequency planning) works on complex algorithm whose calculations are based on the interference table data. It should be noted that since BSIC are defined at cell (sector) level.5) BSIC 7 re-use cluster plan.5) below. This method is called Slow Frequency Hopping Page 9 of 10 . however the advanced AFP tool based on complex algorithm is provided as an optional feature. The BCCH and TCH share the same re-use plan 4 x 3. Basic frequency planning tool is a standard feature of all available planning tools. Which means we have cluster of 4 base stations. The reason being as BSIC is used for cell identification hence cells with same BCCH frequency but different BSIC can be easily discriminated by the MS. It allows human interaction at certain points such as assigning penalties to different clutter types or allowing interference results to be neglected especially in coverage boundaries of the network.0) Automatic Frequency Planning: Automatic frequency planning is an feature offered by the planning tools to speed up the work of channel assignment and presents more reliable frequency assignment to sites. Hence seven clusters form a group and hence we have 25/7 that is 3 groups of 7 clusters plus additional 4 clusters which form part of the 4 th group. Represent a cluster of 4 sites each having 3 sectors 62 62 67 61 66 65 62 63 61 64 66 65 67 61 64 64 62 63 63 66 65 67 61 64 63 Fig. which gives us clusters starting from number 61 to 67. and in all we have 100/4 = 25 clusters. field strength grids and an optional demand density grid (or traffic distribution table).-(1. The reuse of these 7 clusters group for BSIC numbered from 61 to 67 is shown in the figure (1. (7. hence there are every possible chances that the three sectors within the same site can have different BSIC.0) Frequency Hopping The principle of Frequency Hopping used within GSM is that successive TDMA bursts of a connection are transmitted via different frequencies-the frequencies belonging to the respective cell according to network planning. (8. Assume NCC code allocated is 6.
• The interference level is different on different frequencies.Frequency Planning (SFH) since the transmission frequency remains constant during one burst. since • Short term fading is different on different frequencies. a separate document will be written concentrating on Frequency Hopping Techniques in near future. (8. In contrast to Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH) where the transmission frequency changes within one burst. The effect of frequency hopping is that link quality may change from burst to burst. They are. Page 10 of 10 . The results of frequency hopping are improvement in the received quality in fading situation and interference averaging.1) Frequency Hopping Techniques: The hopping techniques can be broadly classified into two main categories. • Base band Hopping • Synthesised Hopping As Frequency Hopping is a subject in it self. ie a burst of high BER may be followed by a burst of low BER.
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