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: 120104

url: www.ijcit.org or www.ijcit.uap-bd.edu 20

Abstract— Existing GSM networks are being replaced by

UMTS/3G networks to meet the increasing demand of wireless

communication services. In order to achieve the target capacity

and reduce the deployment cost of UMTS/ 3G, co-sitting

mechanism has been proposed and implemented throughout the

world. In this paper, a mathematical parameter, vocoder, has

been introduced in the existing equation to increase the pole

capacity. Proposed approach is justified by the result of 25%

increase in pole capacity.

Index Terms—GSM/UMTS co-sitting, network optimization,

pole capacity, radio network planning.

I. INTRODUCTION

The technological revolutions and enhancement of

wireless cellular communication lead to 3G system which

provides high bit rate with multi-service capabilities. A good

effort to be spent by the operators to build 3G cellular

networks with high system capacity by spending the lowest

possible cost. High quality performance with multiservice

capabilities is key features of 3G system. But, at present

2G/2.5G, comparatively with low capacity, low quality

services and low bit rate, cellular networks are being

extensively used throughout the world. Therefore, to

coordinate with 3GPP (3

rd

Generation Partnership Project)

standardization with low deployment cost, GSM/GPRS and

UMTS/WCDMA networks need be merged by sharing the

existing GSM network. And this sharing of basic core

network elements, network sites, antennas and modules are

known as GSM/UMTS co-sitting.

This co-sitting saves the operator major costs such as

establishment costs, maintenance costs, site rental and site

acquisition cost, etc. A complete study for coverage, capacity

and interference issues while reusing the GSM900/1800 sites

for UMTS900/1800 are done [1]. UMTS900 can also be

co-sited with GSM900 with limited data coverage [2]. In case

of UMTS2100, it will need more new UMTS sites due to

small coverage area as the signal is propagating by higher

carrier frequency. But it is shown that reusing of all existing

GSM sites with UMTS is not as satisfactory as the

performance of UMTS alone in terms of capacity and

coverage [3]. But, it is preferred that GSM cell site can be

reused in addition to adding new UMTS sites. How to

minimize the deploying cost of a UMTS network by reusing

the existing GSM sites, which provides the capacity of 40

users per cell using newly added UMTS sites, is shown in

[20]. This paper presents an optimum solution that provides

50 users per cell that is almost 25% more than that in [20].

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

UMTS radio network planning are basically depends on

coverage, capacity and quality of service. UMTS features

such as power control and handover are considerable aspects

for network planning. Considering important aspects,

mathematical optimization, heuristic analysis and

optimization models have been proposed. Network coverage

and capacity are important performance indicators which

depend on the traffic demand scenario of uplink or downlink.

Interference levels are functions of the emitted power which

depends on the mobile station positions. Optimization

models and configuration for the BS station are depends on

signal to interference ratio (SIR) for the uplink and downlink

[5] - [7].

Optimization models are relevant with the presence of the

asymmetric traffic for downlink direction [8]. Since

interference levels depend on the connections within a given

cell and neighboring cells, the SIR values and the capacity are

highly affected by the traffic distribution in the whole area.

Moreover, for the downlink and uplink direction more

optimization models are presented in [9] - [12]. The planning

phase of cellular networks provides the following kinds of

input information related to the service area: 1) a set of

candidate sites where BSs can be installed; 2) the traffic

distribution estimated by using empirical prediction models;

and 3) the propagation description based on approximate

radio channel models or ray tracing techniques. The main

Pole Capacity Enhancement Technique in

GSM/UMTS Co-Sitting Cell by Introducing

Vocoder Parameter

Md. Mahtab Uddin, Sabbir Ahmed, Md. Feroz Shah, Md. Ziaul Amin, and Md Younus Ali

Md. Mahtab Uddin is with the Electronics and Communication

Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,

Bangladesh (e-mail: muapu1@gmail.com).

Sabbir Ahmed is with the Electronics and Communication Engineering

Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208, Bangladesh

(e-mail: sabbir.ece07@gmail.com).

Md. Feroz Shah is with the Electronics and Communication

Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,

Bangladesh (e-mail: ferozshah22@yahoo.com).

Md. Ziaul Amin is with the Electronics and Communication

Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,

Bangladesh ( e-mail: ziaulece@gmail.com).

Md. Younus Ali is with the Electronics and Communication

Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,

Bangladesh ( e-mail: younus_ece03@yahoo.com).

COPYRIGHT © 2012 IJCIT, ISSN 2078-5828 (PRINT), ISSN 2218-5224 (ONLINE), VOLUME 02, ISSUE 02, MANUSCRIPT CODE: 120104

url: www.ijcit.org or www.ijcit.uap-bd.edu 21

purpose of planning is then to select the sites where to install

the BSs taking into account different aspects such as costs,

signal quality, and service coverage [7]. Interference limits

the amount of traffic served by the system. The spreading

factor (SF), which is the ratio between the spread signal rate

and the user signal rate. In wireless environments, due to

multipath propagation, the interference of orthogonal signals

cannot be completely avoided [7].

For equal signal power and equal distance between

adjacent BS, a network will be uniform with uniform user

distribution. For non-uniform user distribution new cells

added in order to form hot spot areas [14]. For maximizing

network capacity a simultaneous optimization is done for the

pilot signal power and the BS location considering intercell

and intracell interference [14].

Coverage analysis, capacity evaluation, radio link budget

and finally estimation of number of BS sites are included in

the activities of practical UMTS radio network planning. The

coverage and capacity are related to each other whereas

coverage or cell range are depend on number of simultaneous

user a BS can cover. The operator’s link budget analysis tries

to meet a targeted cell load to minimize the number of used

BSs, and the targeted downlink cell load is depend on traffic

requirements [20]. Here dimensioning is done by based on

this UMTS property. Studies show that for stable network

operation, the downlink cell load should normally not exceed

70% of the pole capacity [15]. In some papers, it is 80% of

the pole capacity.

III. UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING

2G wireless networks, in particular the extremely

successful and widespread global GSM-based cellular

systems, are using throughout the world. The mobile

communications industry throughout the world is currently

shifting its focus from 2G to third-generation (3G) UMTS

technology. For this reason, mobile operators are investing in

the design and manufacturing of advanced mobile

internet/multimedia-capable wireless networks based on the

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). At

the same time, other wireless communication professionals

are becoming familiar with WCDMA radio technology and

are preparing to build and launch high-quality 3G networks.

Radio network planners are trying to deploy 3G services in

the 2G GSM system of the underlying WCDMA radio access

method. Some of the defining characteristics of 3G

multi-service radio networks are summarized in an abstract

setting, regardless of the particular incarnation of the

underlying 3G radio access protocol, such as WCDMA or

EDGE [4].

IV. MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION OF PROBLEMS

To suppress multipath, multiuser interference and

differentiate their own signal, user normally depends on

channelization and scrambling. Quality of service (QoS)

constraints requires the signal to interference ratio (SIR) to

exceed a minimum value which depends on the service

characteristics. The downlink SIR expression can be, in

general, expressed as [20]

SIR = SF

P

¡ece¡ved

σ

2

+ λI

¡n

+ I

out

(1)

Where, P

rcccIvcd

is the received signal power, σ

2

is the

thermal noise power, I

In

is the intracell interference

(interference within the same cell), I

out

is the intercell

interference (interference from neighboring cells), SF is the

spreading factor, and λ is the orthogonality factor (0.4 ≤

λ≤0.9). The downlink SIR expression can be further analyzed

and expressed for each user as:

SIR

k

=

SP .g

k,0

P

BS,k

c

2

+λ

gR,0

(P

E5

-P

E5,R

)+u

k

g

k,0

P

BS

≥ SIR

MS,k

(2)

Where P

BS

is the total BS transmit power, P

BS,k

is the BS

transmit power allocated to mobile station (MS) k, g

k,0

models the path loss between MS, k and its BS which is

calculated according to Cost 231-Hata model [16], g

k

is the

intercell to intracell interference factor at MS k, and SIR

MS

is

the target SIR to achieve the required Quality of Service

(QoS) at the MS. Since the SIR depends on the received

powers, a power control mechanism is usually applied that

dynamically adapts the transmitted power of the BS for each

user to meet the required QoS [20].

The number of user in cell that are able to satisfy target SIR

is called user capacity and the maximum user capacity is

called the pole capacity. Assuming all users belong to the

same service class and ideal power control condition, the

downlink pole capacity can be calculated as [17]

K

poIc,ÐL

=

SP+xSIR

MS

( x+u

c¡

) SIR

MS

(3)

Thus, the pole capacity depends on the spreading factor (SF),

the target SIR (SIR

MS

), the orthogonality factor (λ), and the

average intercell to intracell interference factor (o

u¡

) which

varies from 0.1 to 0.8 depending on the cell range and the

path loss propagation model [18].

Inputs, outputs, objectives and constraints of the models

need to be identified to formulate GSM/UMTS co-sitting as

an optimization model. Here , we will assume the following

the input data : 1) A geographical area described by

cartographical information, and traffic demand derived from

its topographical information defined by a user density

distribution ρ(s), where s =(x, y) represents the coordinates of

a given point within the area, and N

u

represents the number of

users, 2) cost of deploying a new site which is greater than

the cost of reusing an already existing site by a pre-defined

factor that can be conﬁgured, 3) a set of BSs whose

cardinality is N

b

, among which n

ncw

are new BS sites

distributed arbitrarily between the N

]ìxcd

existing GSM sites

[20]. We use Lloyd method which finds the location of the

newly added sites in a way that minimizes the variance of the

users among the cells but in the iterations of the Lloyd

method, the fixed site locations are kept in their positions

which might affect the method’s convergence. A cell is

represented by the Voronoi region v

i

.

The GSM/UMTS co-sitting optimization problem is

solved by taking the pole capacity and the fixed site locations

into account. If the cell capacity increased then the overall

co-siting cost will be decreased.

The Lloyd method is summarized as follows:

COPYRIGHT © 2012 IJCIT, ISSN 2078-5828 (PRINT), ISSN 2218-5224 (ONLINE), VOLUME 02, ISSUE 02, MANUSCRIPT CODE: 120104

url: www.ijcit.org or www.ijcit.uap-bd.edu 22

1. Select an initial set of k points {z

i

}

k

i = 1

2. Construct the Voronoi tessellation

{V

i

}

k

i = 1

associated with the points {z

i

}

k

i = 1

3. Compute the mass centroids of Voronoi regions

{V

i

}

k

i = 1

found in Step 2; these centroids are the

new set of points and are computed as

T( z ) =

∫ sρ( s) ds

R

s∈V¡

∫ ρ( s) ds

R

s∈V¡

(4)

4. If this new set of points meets some convergence

criterion, terminate; otherwise, return to Step 2.

V. RESULT AND ANALYSIS

In this paper, two scenarios will be presented with uniform

and non uniform user distributions. This section presents the

results of the optimization problems considering the

following simulation parameters: Area A=10 km × 10 km

with N

u

=5000 users, and suggested K

poIc, ÐL

in [20]

K

poIc,ÐL

=

SF + zSIR

MS

( z + o

u¡

) SIR

MS

=

SF

( z + o

u¡

) SIR

MS

+

zSIR

MS

( z + o

u¡

) SIR

MS

=

SF

( z + o

u¡

) SIR

MS

+

z

( z + o

u¡

)

=

SF

( z + o

u¡

) SIR

MS

;

Here,

x

( x+u

c¡

)

< < 1;

From [21] for UMTS criteria,

N

poIc,ÐL

=

( 1-q

OH

)

W

R

b

L

b

N

t

, ∗v∗( x+u)

(5)

Here, p

0H

= overhead channel power = 25% = 0.25; which

has a large effect on WCDMA cell.

E

b

N

t

, ≈ SIR

MS

;

w

R

b

=

Chìp Rutc

Bìt Rutc

= SF;

Replacing these relations in (5)

N

poIc,ÐL

≈

( 0.75) SF

SIR

MS

∗ I ∗ ( z + o)

;

=

0.75

v

∗

SP

( x+u) SIR

MS

(6)

Comparing (5) and (6)

K

poIc,ÐL

=

0.75

v

∗

SP

( x+u

c¡

) SIR

MS

(7)

Here;

V = voice coder parameter = 0.6; SF ≈315; λ= orthogonality

factor = 0.4, α

av

= interference factor = 0.55, SIR

MS

= 7dB =

5.01

Now, putting these values in (7)

K

poIc,ÐL

= 82.72 ≈ 83.

And, number of user is 60% of the pole capacity;

So, number of user = 49.80 ≈ 50.

This is 25% more than that of using with voice coder

parameter.

VI. UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING WITHOUT

CO-SITTING

We got these Figures by using voronoi tessellation where it

use Lloyd method.

Fig. 1. Optimal output locations of BSs without co-sitting for uniform

distribution of users.

Fig. 1 presents the output locations of BSs for the uniform

distribution of users, that is ρ(s) = 1/A; where A is the area to

be covered. It is obvious that every BS is covering the same

area since the user distribution is uniform [20]. Monte-Carlo

simulations are used, where in each simulation 5000 users are

uniformly distributed across the planned network, to evaluate

the average power transmitted foe each BS. Results show that

the average powers of the BSs are nearly equal. These results

are comparable to [14], which showed that for a uniform

distribution of users, the network layout is uniform with

nearly equal pilot powers.

Fig. 2 presents a Gaussian distribution of users where

output locations, assuming a hot spot model and the user

density, are densely situated at the center area and decreases

along the way to the border area.

COPYRIGHT © 2012 IJCIT, ISSN 2078-5828 (PRINT), ISSN 2218-5224 (ONLINE), VOLUME 02, ISSUE 02, MANUSCRIPT CODE: 120104

Fig. 2. Optimal output locations of BSs without co-sitting for Gaussian

distribution of users.

Fig. 3. Input locations of BSs including 50 fixed GSM (marked with squares)

and 125 arbitrary BSs (marked with triangles).

Boundary considered Gaussian distribution is given by [20]

p( s) =

1

√2no

2

exp( ( x −p)

2

+ ( y −p)

2

) / 2o

2

Where, µ = 5000 and σ = 1500. In this case, the areas of the

cells are no more equal; the cell radius varies from few

hundred meters to kilometers and this corresponds to typical

UMTS cells that vary from few hundred meters in urban

areas to several kilometers in rural areas [1].

So, the cell range depends on the user concentration within

an area, where each cell is covering nearly the same number

of users that is 60% of the pole capacity [20].

Fig. 4. GSM/UMTS co-sitting shows optimal output locations of BSs (total

of 125 BSs with 39 re-used GSM sites) for uniform distribution of users.

VII. UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING WITH GSM/UMTS

CO-SITTING

For uniform user distribution, the GSM cell range is

assumed to be around 900 m. Therefore, around 50 GSM BSs

would be required to cover the simulated area [20]. Fig. 5

shows input of 175 BS locations where 50 uniformly

distributed GSM sites and 125 arbitrary sites.

To satisfy the confinement of the optimization problem

125 out of 175 BS are required where 39 GSM are reused

which is around 78% of the existing GSM sites (the

remaining 86 sites are all newly deployed UMTS sites). In

Fig. 6, there are 175 BS locations that include 50 normally

distributed GSM sites in addition to 125 arbitrary sites where

the inputted and optimized output locations of the UMTS BSs

are considered for Gaussian distribution of users.

Due to the Gaussian distribution of users over the

considered area, the density of the output UMTS sites

(co-sited and new) is highest at the area center and decreases

along the way to the boundary area.

Fig. 5. Input location of 50 fixed GSM (marked with squares) and 125

arbitrary BSs (marked with triangles).

COPYRIGHT © 2012 IJCIT, ISSN 2078-5828 (PRINT), ISSN 2218-5224 (ONLINE), VOLUME 02, ISSUE 02, MANUSCRIPT CODE: 120104

Fig. 6. Optimal output locationof BS (total of 125 BSs with 38 re-used GSM

sites) for GSM/UMTS co-sitting considering Gaussian distribution of users.

VIII. CONCLUSION

Finally, we have presented a mathematical optimization

model to increase the pole capacity of the system ensuring

that every UMTS BS is covering a given percentage of the

downlink pole capacity. The percentage of GSM site reuse

depends on their number and their locations, and it will be

better to reuse all the sites.

REFERENCES

[1] ECC Report 82, “Compatibility Study for UMTS Operating within the

GSM 900 and GSM 1800 Frequency Bands,” tech. rep., May 2006.

[2] H. Holma, T. Ahonp¨a, and E. Prieur, “UMTS900 Co-Existence with

GSM900,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, April 2007.

[3] C. M. H. Noblet, R. H. Owen, C. Saraiva, and N. Wahid, “Assessing

the effects of GSM Cell Location Re-Use for UMTS Network,” 3G

Mobile Communications Technologies, March 2001.

[4] J. laiho, A. Wacker, and T. Novosad, Radio Network Planning and

Optimization for UMTS. John Wiley & Sons, LTD, 2nd ed., 2006.

[5] E. Amaldi, A. Capone, and F. Malucelli, “Improved models and

algorithms for UMTS radio planning,” IEEE Vehicular Technology

Conference, October 2001.

[6] E. Amaldi, A. Capone, and F. Malucelli, “Optimizing base station

siting in UMTS networks,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference,

May 2001.

[7] E. Amaldi, A. Capone, and F. Malucelli, “Planning UMTS base station

location: Optimization models with power control and algorithms,”

IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 2, no. 5, pp.

939–952, September 2003.

[8] E. Amaldi, A. Capone, F. Malucelli, and F. Signori, “Optimization

models and algorithms for downlink UMTS radio planning,” IEEE

Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, March 2003.

[9] A. Eisenbl¨atter, A. F¨ugenschuh, T. Koch, A. M. C. A. Koster, A.

Martin, T. Pfender, O. Wegel, and R. Wess¨aly, “Modelling feasible

network configurations for UMTS,” Technical Report ZR-02-16,

Konrad-Zuse- Zentrum f¨ur Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB),

Germany, March 2002.

[10] A. Eisenbl¨atter, A. Fu¨genschuh, H.-F. Geerdes, D. Junglas, T. Koch,

and A. Martin, “Integer programming methods for UMTS radio

network planning,” WiOpt’04 Workshop, March 2004.

[11] E. Amaldi, A. Capone, and F. Malucelli, “Radio planning and coverage

optimization of 3G cellular networks,” Journal of Wireless Networks,

vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 435–447, August 2008.

[12] J. Yang, M. Aydin, J. Zhang, and C. Maple, “UMTS Base Station

Location Planning: a Mathematical Model and Heuristic Optimisation

Algorithms,” IET Communications, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1007–1014,

October 2007.

[13] K.S. Gilhousen, I.M. Jacobs, R. Padovani A.J. Viterbi, L.A.Weaver

and C.E. Wheatley, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,”

IEEETransactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp.

303–312, May 1991.

[14] R. G. Akl, M. V. Hegde, M. Naraghi-Pour, and P. S. Min, “Cell

placement in a CDMA network,” IEEE Wireless Communications and

Networking Conference, September 1999.

[15] MOMENTUM Project, “IST-2000-28088,” Retrieved

from:http://momentum.zib.de.

[16] Blaustein Matha, Radio Propagation in Cellular Networks. Artech

House, Boston-London, November 1999.

[17] H. Holma and A. Toskala, WCDMA for UMTS. England: Wiley,

2000.

[18] K. Sipil¨a, Z. C. Honkasalo, J. Laiho-Steffens, A. Wacker, “Estimation

of Capacity and Required Transmission Power of WCDMA Downlink

Based on a Downlink Pole Equation,” IEEE Vehicular Technology

Conference, May 2000.

[19] Q. Du, V. Faber, and M. Gunzburger, “Centroidal Voronoi

Tessellations: Applications and Algorithms,” SIAM Review, vol. 41,

no. 4, pp. 637– 676, March 1999.

[20] Lina Al-Kanj, Zaher Dawy, and George Turkiyyah," A Mathematical

Optimization Approach for Radio Network Planning of GSM/UMTS

Co-Siting," IEEE ICC 2009.

[21] Air Interface Cell Capacity of WCDMA Systems -

80-W0989-1-Revision B-May 22, 2007.

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