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COPYRIGHT © 2012 IJCIT, ISSN 2078-5828 (PRINT), ISSN 2218-5224 (ONLINE), VOLUME 02, ISSUE 02, MANUSCRIPT CODE

: 120104
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Abstract— Existing GSM networks are being replaced by
UMTS/3G networks to meet the increasing demand of wireless
communication services. In order to achieve the target capacity
and reduce the deployment cost of UMTS/ 3G, co-sitting
mechanism has been proposed and implemented throughout the
world. In this paper, a mathematical parameter, vocoder, has
been introduced in the existing equation to increase the pole
capacity. Proposed approach is justified by the result of 25%
increase in pole capacity.

Index Terms—GSM/UMTS co-sitting, network optimization,
pole capacity, radio network planning.

I. INTRODUCTION
The technological revolutions and enhancement of
wireless cellular communication lead to 3G system which
provides high bit rate with multi-service capabilities. A good
effort to be spent by the operators to build 3G cellular
networks with high system capacity by spending the lowest
possible cost. High quality performance with multiservice
capabilities is key features of 3G system. But, at present
2G/2.5G, comparatively with low capacity, low quality
services and low bit rate, cellular networks are being
extensively used throughout the world. Therefore, to
coordinate with 3GPP (3
rd
Generation Partnership Project)
standardization with low deployment cost, GSM/GPRS and
UMTS/WCDMA networks need be merged by sharing the
existing GSM network. And this sharing of basic core
network elements, network sites, antennas and modules are
known as GSM/UMTS co-sitting.


















This co-sitting saves the operator major costs such as
establishment costs, maintenance costs, site rental and site
acquisition cost, etc. A complete study for coverage, capacity
and interference issues while reusing the GSM900/1800 sites
for UMTS900/1800 are done [1]. UMTS900 can also be
co-sited with GSM900 with limited data coverage [2]. In case
of UMTS2100, it will need more new UMTS sites due to
small coverage area as the signal is propagating by higher
carrier frequency. But it is shown that reusing of all existing
GSM sites with UMTS is not as satisfactory as the
performance of UMTS alone in terms of capacity and
coverage [3]. But, it is preferred that GSM cell site can be
reused in addition to adding new UMTS sites. How to
minimize the deploying cost of a UMTS network by reusing
the existing GSM sites, which provides the capacity of 40
users per cell using newly added UMTS sites, is shown in
[20]. This paper presents an optimum solution that provides
50 users per cell that is almost 25% more than that in [20].

II. LITERATURE REVIEW
UMTS radio network planning are basically depends on
coverage, capacity and quality of service. UMTS features
such as power control and handover are considerable aspects
for network planning. Considering important aspects,
mathematical optimization, heuristic analysis and
optimization models have been proposed. Network coverage
and capacity are important performance indicators which
depend on the traffic demand scenario of uplink or downlink.
Interference levels are functions of the emitted power which
depends on the mobile station positions. Optimization
models and configuration for the BS station are depends on
signal to interference ratio (SIR) for the uplink and downlink
[5] - [7].

Optimization models are relevant with the presence of the
asymmetric traffic for downlink direction [8]. Since
interference levels depend on the connections within a given
cell and neighboring cells, the SIR values and the capacity are
highly affected by the traffic distribution in the whole area.
Moreover, for the downlink and uplink direction more
optimization models are presented in [9] - [12]. The planning
phase of cellular networks provides the following kinds of
input information related to the service area: 1) a set of
candidate sites where BSs can be installed; 2) the traffic
distribution estimated by using empirical prediction models;
and 3) the propagation description based on approximate
radio channel models or ray tracing techniques. The main
Pole Capacity Enhancement Technique in
GSM/UMTS Co-Sitting Cell by Introducing
Vocoder Parameter
Md. Mahtab Uddin, Sabbir Ahmed, Md. Feroz Shah, Md. Ziaul Amin, and Md Younus Ali
Md. Mahtab Uddin is with the Electronics and Communication
Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,
Bangladesh (e-mail: muapu1@gmail.com).
Sabbir Ahmed is with the Electronics and Communication Engineering
Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208, Bangladesh
(e-mail: sabbir.ece07@gmail.com).
Md. Feroz Shah is with the Electronics and Communication
Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,
Bangladesh (e-mail: ferozshah22@yahoo.com).
Md. Ziaul Amin is with the Electronics and Communication
Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,
Bangladesh ( e-mail: ziaulece@gmail.com).
Md. Younus Ali is with the Electronics and Communication
Engineering Discipline, Khulna University (www.ku.ac.bd), Khulna-9208,
Bangladesh ( e-mail: younus_ece03@yahoo.com).



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purpose of planning is then to select the sites where to install
the BSs taking into account different aspects such as costs,
signal quality, and service coverage [7]. Interference limits
the amount of traffic served by the system. The spreading
factor (SF), which is the ratio between the spread signal rate
and the user signal rate. In wireless environments, due to
multipath propagation, the interference of orthogonal signals
cannot be completely avoided [7].

For equal signal power and equal distance between
adjacent BS, a network will be uniform with uniform user
distribution. For non-uniform user distribution new cells
added in order to form hot spot areas [14]. For maximizing
network capacity a simultaneous optimization is done for the
pilot signal power and the BS location considering intercell
and intracell interference [14].

Coverage analysis, capacity evaluation, radio link budget
and finally estimation of number of BS sites are included in
the activities of practical UMTS radio network planning. The
coverage and capacity are related to each other whereas
coverage or cell range are depend on number of simultaneous
user a BS can cover. The operator’s link budget analysis tries
to meet a targeted cell load to minimize the number of used
BSs, and the targeted downlink cell load is depend on traffic
requirements [20]. Here dimensioning is done by based on
this UMTS property. Studies show that for stable network
operation, the downlink cell load should normally not exceed
70% of the pole capacity [15]. In some papers, it is 80% of
the pole capacity.

III. UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING
2G wireless networks, in particular the extremely
successful and widespread global GSM-based cellular
systems, are using throughout the world. The mobile
communications industry throughout the world is currently
shifting its focus from 2G to third-generation (3G) UMTS
technology. For this reason, mobile operators are investing in
the design and manufacturing of advanced mobile
internet/multimedia-capable wireless networks based on the
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). At
the same time, other wireless communication professionals
are becoming familiar with WCDMA radio technology and
are preparing to build and launch high-quality 3G networks.
Radio network planners are trying to deploy 3G services in
the 2G GSM system of the underlying WCDMA radio access
method. Some of the defining characteristics of 3G
multi-service radio networks are summarized in an abstract
setting, regardless of the particular incarnation of the
underlying 3G radio access protocol, such as WCDMA or
EDGE [4].
IV. MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION OF PROBLEMS
To suppress multipath, multiuser interference and
differentiate their own signal, user normally depends on
channelization and scrambling. Quality of service (QoS)
constraints requires the signal to interference ratio (SIR) to
exceed a minimum value which depends on the service
characteristics. The downlink SIR expression can be, in
general, expressed as [20]

SIR = SF
P
¡ece¡ved
σ
2
+ λI
¡n
+ I
out
(1)

Where, P
rcccIvcd
is the received signal power, σ
2
is the
thermal noise power, I
In
is the intracell interference
(interference within the same cell), I
out
is the intercell
interference (interference from neighboring cells), SF is the
spreading factor, and λ is the orthogonality factor (0.4 ≤
λ≤0.9). The downlink SIR expression can be further analyzed
and expressed for each user as:

SIR
k
=
SP .g
k,0
P
BS,k
c
2

gR,0
(P
E5
-P
E5,R
)+u
k
g
k,0
P
BS
≥ SIR
MS,k
(2)

Where P
BS
is the total BS transmit power, P
BS,k
is the BS
transmit power allocated to mobile station (MS) k, g
k,0

models the path loss between MS, k and its BS which is
calculated according to Cost 231-Hata model [16], g
k
is the
intercell to intracell interference factor at MS k, and SIR
MS
is
the target SIR to achieve the required Quality of Service
(QoS) at the MS. Since the SIR depends on the received
powers, a power control mechanism is usually applied that
dynamically adapts the transmitted power of the BS for each
user to meet the required QoS [20].
The number of user in cell that are able to satisfy target SIR
is called user capacity and the maximum user capacity is
called the pole capacity. Assuming all users belong to the
same service class and ideal power control condition, the
downlink pole capacity can be calculated as [17]

K
poIc,ÐL
=
SP+xSIR
MS
( x+u

) SIR
MS
(3)
Thus, the pole capacity depends on the spreading factor (SF),
the target SIR (SIR
MS
), the orthogonality factor (λ), and the
average intercell to intracell interference factor (o

) which
varies from 0.1 to 0.8 depending on the cell range and the
path loss propagation model [18].
Inputs, outputs, objectives and constraints of the models
need to be identified to formulate GSM/UMTS co-sitting as
an optimization model. Here , we will assume the following
the input data : 1) A geographical area described by
cartographical information, and traffic demand derived from
its topographical information defined by a user density
distribution ρ(s), where s =(x, y) represents the coordinates of
a given point within the area, and N
u
represents the number of
users, 2) cost of deploying a new site which is greater than
the cost of reusing an already existing site by a pre-defined
factor that can be configured, 3) a set of BSs whose
cardinality is N
b
, among which n
ncw
are new BS sites
distributed arbitrarily between the N
]ìxcd
existing GSM sites
[20]. We use Lloyd method which finds the location of the
newly added sites in a way that minimizes the variance of the
users among the cells but in the iterations of the Lloyd
method, the fixed site locations are kept in their positions
which might affect the method’s convergence. A cell is
represented by the Voronoi region v
i
.
The GSM/UMTS co-sitting optimization problem is
solved by taking the pole capacity and the fixed site locations
into account. If the cell capacity increased then the overall
co-siting cost will be decreased.
The Lloyd method is summarized as follows:
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1. Select an initial set of k points {z
i
}
k
i = 1

2. Construct the Voronoi tessellation
{V
i
}
k
i = 1
associated with the points {z
i
}
k
i = 1

3. Compute the mass centroids of Voronoi regions
{V
i
}
k
i = 1
found in Step 2; these centroids are the
new set of points and are computed as
T( z ) =
∫ sρ( s) ds
R
s∈V¡
∫ ρ( s) ds
R
s∈V¡
(4)
4. If this new set of points meets some convergence
criterion, terminate; otherwise, return to Step 2.

V. RESULT AND ANALYSIS
In this paper, two scenarios will be presented with uniform
and non uniform user distributions. This section presents the
results of the optimization problems considering the
following simulation parameters: Area A=10 km × 10 km
with N
u
=5000 users, and suggested K
poIc, ÐL
in [20]

K
poIc,ÐL
=
SF + zSIR
MS
( z + o

) SIR
MS


=
SF
( z + o

) SIR
MS
+
zSIR
MS
( z + o

) SIR
MS

=
SF
( z + o

) SIR
MS
+
z
( z + o

)

=
SF
( z + o

) SIR
MS
;
Here,
x
( x+u

)
< < 1;

From [21] for UMTS criteria,
N
poIc,ÐL
=
( 1-q
OH
)
W
R
b
L
b
N
t
, ∗v∗( x+u)
(5)

Here, p
0H
= overhead channel power = 25% = 0.25; which
has a large effect on WCDMA cell.
E
b
N
t

, ≈ SIR
MS
;
w
R
b
=
Chìp Rutc
Bìt Rutc
= SF;

Replacing these relations in (5)
N
poIc,ÐL

( 0.75) SF
SIR
MS
∗ I ∗ ( z + o)
;
=
0.75
v

SP
( x+u) SIR
MS
(6)
Comparing (5) and (6)
K
poIc,ÐL
=
0.75
v

SP
( x+u

) SIR
MS
(7)

Here;
V = voice coder parameter = 0.6; SF ≈315; λ= orthogonality
factor = 0.4, α
av
= interference factor = 0.55, SIR
MS
= 7dB =
5.01


Now, putting these values in (7)
K
poIc,ÐL
= 82.72 ≈ 83.
And, number of user is 60% of the pole capacity;
So, number of user = 49.80 ≈ 50.

This is 25% more than that of using with voice coder
parameter.
VI. UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING WITHOUT
CO-SITTING

We got these Figures by using voronoi tessellation where it
use Lloyd method.

Fig. 1. Optimal output locations of BSs without co-sitting for uniform
distribution of users.

Fig. 1 presents the output locations of BSs for the uniform
distribution of users, that is ρ(s) = 1/A; where A is the area to
be covered. It is obvious that every BS is covering the same
area since the user distribution is uniform [20]. Monte-Carlo
simulations are used, where in each simulation 5000 users are
uniformly distributed across the planned network, to evaluate
the average power transmitted foe each BS. Results show that
the average powers of the BSs are nearly equal. These results
are comparable to [14], which showed that for a uniform
distribution of users, the network layout is uniform with
nearly equal pilot powers.

Fig. 2 presents a Gaussian distribution of users where
output locations, assuming a hot spot model and the user
density, are densely situated at the center area and decreases
along the way to the border area.
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Fig. 2. Optimal output locations of BSs without co-sitting for Gaussian
distribution of users.






Fig. 3. Input locations of BSs including 50 fixed GSM (marked with squares)
and 125 arbitrary BSs (marked with triangles).


Boundary considered Gaussian distribution is given by [20]
p( s) =
1
√2no
2
exp( ( x −p)
2
+ ( y −p)
2
) / 2o
2


Where, µ = 5000 and σ = 1500. In this case, the areas of the
cells are no more equal; the cell radius varies from few
hundred meters to kilometers and this corresponds to typical
UMTS cells that vary from few hundred meters in urban
areas to several kilometers in rural areas [1].
So, the cell range depends on the user concentration within
an area, where each cell is covering nearly the same number
of users that is 60% of the pole capacity [20].




Fig. 4. GSM/UMTS co-sitting shows optimal output locations of BSs (total
of 125 BSs with 39 re-used GSM sites) for uniform distribution of users.

VII. UMTS RADIO NETWORK PLANNING WITH GSM/UMTS
CO-SITTING
For uniform user distribution, the GSM cell range is
assumed to be around 900 m. Therefore, around 50 GSM BSs
would be required to cover the simulated area [20]. Fig. 5
shows input of 175 BS locations where 50 uniformly
distributed GSM sites and 125 arbitrary sites.
To satisfy the confinement of the optimization problem
125 out of 175 BS are required where 39 GSM are reused
which is around 78% of the existing GSM sites (the
remaining 86 sites are all newly deployed UMTS sites). In
Fig. 6, there are 175 BS locations that include 50 normally
distributed GSM sites in addition to 125 arbitrary sites where
the inputted and optimized output locations of the UMTS BSs
are considered for Gaussian distribution of users.
Due to the Gaussian distribution of users over the
considered area, the density of the output UMTS sites
(co-sited and new) is highest at the area center and decreases
along the way to the boundary area.
Fig. 5. Input location of 50 fixed GSM (marked with squares) and 125
arbitrary BSs (marked with triangles).
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Fig. 6. Optimal output locationof BS (total of 125 BSs with 38 re-used GSM
sites) for GSM/UMTS co-sitting considering Gaussian distribution of users.
VIII. CONCLUSION
Finally, we have presented a mathematical optimization
model to increase the pole capacity of the system ensuring
that every UMTS BS is covering a given percentage of the
downlink pole capacity. The percentage of GSM site reuse
depends on their number and their locations, and it will be
better to reuse all the sites.

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