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Chapter 7 Acids and Bases

Most of materials are from the textbook “Chemistry for Changing Times 10th edition Hill/Kolb”, unless otherwise stated.

Ionization
• When a compound breaks apart in aqueous solution HCl(aq) → H+(aq) + Cl–(aq) NaOH(aq) → • Common property of both acids and bases • Also occurs with some salts NaCl (s)→

Acid • • • • Causes litmus indicator dye to turn red Tastes sour Dissolves active metals to produce H2 Reacts with bases to produce water and salt Base • • • • Causes litmus indicator dye to turn blue Tastes bitter Feels slippery on skin Reacts with acids to form water and salt .

Common Acids and Common Bases Acids Bases Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases • Acid: molecular substance that breaks up in aqueous solution into H+ and anions • H+ : “hydrogen ions” or “protons” • (Ex) -HNO3(aq) → H+(aq) + NO3–(aq) - .

Arrhenius Theory of Bases • Base: releases OH– ions in aqueous solution • OH– : hydroxide • (Ex) -NaOH(aq) → Na+(aq) + OH–(aq) - Limitations of Arrhenius Theory • H+ does not exist in solution • More likely to find H+ attached to H2O – H3O+ • NH3 is a base – Does not contain OH– .

Brønsted–Lowry Acid–Base Theory • Acid: proton (H+) donor HCl + NH3 → NH4+ + Cl– • HCl donates a H+ to NH3 – H+ does not exist by itself • (ex) - Brønsted–Lowry Acid–Base Theory • Bases: accept a proton H2O + NH3 → NH4+ + OH– • NH3 accepts a H+ from HCl • (ex) - .

Acidic Anhydrides • React with water to form acids • Typically are nonmetal oxides CO2 + H2O → SO2 + H2O → Basic Anhydrides • React with water to form bases (ex) O2.+OH• Typically are metal oxides CaO + H2O → MgO + H2O → .+H2O →OH.

Strong and Weak Acids • Strong acid: acid completely reacts with water – Completely ionizes in water • Weak acid: acid reacts only slightly with water – Partially ionizes in water • Common strong acids: HCl. H2SO4 • Most other acids are weak acids Strong and Weak Bases • Strong base: base completely ionizes in water • Weak base: only slightly ionizes in water • Common strong bases: NaOH and KOH – True for most Group 1A and 2A hydroxides • Common weak base: NH3 . HNO3.

NH3(aq) + HCl(aq) → .NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → .NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → .Amphiprotic • A substance that can either donate or accept a proton • H2O most common amphiprotic substance • Reacts with base: H2O + NH3 → • Reacts with acid: H2O + HCl → Neutralization • Reaction of an acid and a base • Acid + base → water + salt (ex) .KOH(aq) + HNO3(aq) → .

pH Scale • • • • Typical values range from 0 to 14 pH = 7 : pH > 7 : pH < 7 : pH in Common Solutions .

02 100 pH = -log[H+] 2x100 .0001 0. pH Calculations Concentration of Acid (Molarity) = H+ moles/liter = [H+] 1 0.pH Calculations pH means to represent the concentration of H+ in solution pH = –log [H+] Need to learn to convert an exponential value into a log value! pH: about [H+] pOH:about [OH]*In pure water at 25oC [H+] = [OH].1 0.2 0.00001 0.000001 2 0.=1 x 10-7 moles/liter.01 0.001 0.

Case studies 1.0 x 10-5 M? 2.5 • Acid rain: pH < 5. What is the pH of a solution that has a hydrogen ion Concentration of 1.6 • Caused by acidic anhydrides released from burning fossil fuels • Involves both air and water pollution . What is the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution That has a pH of 4? Acid Rain • Normal rain: pH 5.6–6.

CaCO3 • Effective • Should not be used for long periods of time 3. Al(OH)3 • Similar behavior to CaCO3 4. May contain one or combination of the following bases NaHCO3 • Baking soda • Safe and effective • Not recommended for people with high blood pressure 2.Stomach Acids • Stomach excretes HCl – Aids digestion of food • Hyperacidity: too much HCl – Caused by emotional stress or overindulgence • Remove excess acid using a base – Principle behind antacids – Too much base may give alkalosis Antacids • 1. Mg(OH)2 • “milk of magnesia” .

S. – Used to make fertilizers – Found in car batteries • HCl – Muriatic acid – Removes rust from metal – Removes lime from fixtures Bases in Industry • NaOH – lye – Found in household cleaners • CaO – Lime – Used to make mortar and cement .Acids in Industry • H2SO4 – Leading chemical product in U.

Bases. and Health • Concentrated acids and bases are corrosive poisons – May break down fabric or skin – May release heat • Strong acids break down proteins – True for dilute solutions Acids and Bases in the Body • Stomach acid – Aids digestion – Neutralized before entering rest of digestive system • Blood – Maintains narrow pH range – Required for normal functioning of body .Acids.