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Functions of Arguments  Propose  It means to offer as true a proposition – a statement with a predicate ascribing a property or characteristic to a subject.

– Shakespeare wrote Macbeth. – Nero played the harp while Rome burned. – Jose Rizal was executed in Luneta Field. – The 30th of December is the date of Rizal’s execution.  Prove – provide proofs about any claim.  Persuade – to sufficiently convince that the claim is valid and true. Argument is an instrument for persuasion  To persuade is to induce or influence by argument, entreaty or expostulation into some mental position such as a determination, decision, conclusion, or belief.  Rational persuasion not an extra-rational means of persuasion. Conditions for a rational persuasive arguments  The terms and statement must be sufficiently perspicuous  Clear in presentation and expression of thought  Free of vagueness and ambiguity  Example of ambiguous statement I do not approve of the cooking of missionaries. The teaching of religion in public schools is unacceptable.  The premises are acceptably true

 Premise set must be factually accurate, or are undisputed common understanding, or when there is a consensus among appropriate authorities accepting the truth of the propositions. Jose Rizal wrote the Noli Me Tangere. (facts) If there is smoke, there is fire. (common understanding) Vitamin E decreases the risk of heart attack. (consensus)  The premises are relevant to the conclusion  Matters at issue in the conclusion must be directly logically connected to those in the premise set. All human beings are rational. Socrates is a human being. Hence, Socrates is a rational human being.  Whereas: All human beings are rational. Socrates is a human being. Hence, all human beings are mammals.  The premises provide sufficient ground to establish the truth of the conclusion  Whether the premises of an argument provide sufficient support to the conclusion depend on the factors relevant to that argument. These include:  Type of argument

granted that. in view of the fact that. For. as a result. inasmuch as. we may infer. as shown by. given the fact that. for. I conclude that. therefore. Extent of the claims of the premises and the conclusion  The terms of the premises and the conclusion Types of Non-argumentative Discourse – – – – – Reports Unsupported statements of belief or opinion Conditional statements Illustration Explanation Commonly Used Indicators  Conclusion Indicators Accordingly. may be deduced from . in consequence. as it is implied by. follows from. as. so. which entails that. hence Commonly Used Indicators  Premise Indicators Since. consequently. because. the reason is that. it follows that. thus. as indicated by. which means that. thence. which shows that. Seeing that.