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Kong

**FPGA Implementation of the Ternary Pulse Compression Sequences
**

N.Balaji 1, M. Srinivasa rao2, K.Subba Rao3, S.P.Singh4 and N. Madhusudhana Reddy4

Abstract—Ternary codes have been widely used in radar and communication areas, but the synthesis of ternary codes with good merit factor is a nonlinear multivariable optimization problem, which is usually difficult to tackle. To get the solution of above problem many global optimization algorithms like genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, and tunneling algorithm were reported in the literature. However, there is no guarantee to get global optimum point. In this paper, a novel and efficient VLSI architecture is proposed to design Ternary Pulse compression sequences with good Merit factor. The VLSI architecture is implemented on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as it provides the flexibility of reconfigurability and reprogramability. The implemented architecture overcomes the drawbacks of non guaranteed convergence of the earlier optimization algorithms.

means that a code with high Merit factor is a good code while a code with low Merit factor is a poor code. Let S = [x0 ,x1, x2, x3 …..xN-1 ] be a real sequence of length N. The aperiodic autocorrelation function (ACF) of sequence S of length N is given as, ⎧N - k -1 ∗ ⎪ ∑ s n s n+k ; 0 ≤ k ≤ N -1 ⎪ n =0 A( k) = ⎨N+ k -1 ⎪ s s∗ ; - N + 1 ≤ k ≤ 0 ⎪ n∑0 n n -k ⎩ = (2) (1)

**Index Terms— Pulse compression, Ternary sequence, VLSI
**

architecture, Sidelobe energy, FPGA

II.

MERIT FACTOR (MF)

I. INTRODUCTION Pulse compression codes with low autocorrelation sidelobe levels and high merit factor are useful for radar [1], channel estimation, and spread spectrum communication applications. Pulse compression can be defined as a technique that allows the radar to utilize a long pulse to achieve large radiated energy but simultaneously obtaining the range- resolution of a short pulse. Theoretically, in pulse compression, the code is modulated onto the pulsed waveform during transmission. At the receiver, the code is used to combine the signal to achieve a high range resolution. Range-resolution is the ability of the radar receiver to identify near by targets. The main criterion of good pulse compression is the Meritfactor and discrimination. Merit factor is used to measure whether coded signal is a good or poor. This

Golay defined the merit factor (MF) as the ratio of mainlobe energy to sidelobes energy of Autocorrelation (AC) function of sequence S. The MF mathematically is defined as:

MF = 2

A(0) 2

∑| A(k) |

k ≠0

N -1

(3)

2

The denominator term represents the energy in the sidelobes. The merit factor MF must be as large as possible for good sequence.

III.

NON BINARY PULSE COMPRESSION CODES.

A. Polyphase Code Waveforms consisting more than two phases are called polyphase codes. The phase of sub pulse alternate among multiple values rather than 00 and 180 0. The sequence can be written as

Manuscript received December 30, 2007. N.Balaji is with the Electronics and communication Engineering Department, VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engg. & Tech., Hyderabad, India (phone: 040-23042759; fax: 040-23042761; e-mail: narayanamb@rediffmail.com). M.srinivasa Rao is with the Electronics and communication Engineering Department, VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engg. & Tech., Hyderabad, India (phone: 040-23042759; fax: 040-23042761; e-mail: srmudunuru@yahoo.com). Dr. K.Subba Rao is with the Electronics and communication Engineering Department, University College of Engg., Osmania University, Hyderabad, India (e-mail: kakarlasubbarao@yahoo.com).

φn =

2πi (n − 1) p2

(4)

Where p is the number of phases, n= 0, 1, 2 …...p2-1 and i= n modulo p B. Ternary Code Ternary Code is the code that can be used to represent information and data. However ternary code uses 3 digits for representation of data. Therefore ternary code may

ISBN: 978-988-98671-8-8

IMECS 2008

1i has been used for performing mapping. Hence in this paper we proposed an efficient real time Hardware solution for identification of the Ternary Pulse compression sequences. For all these 3 sequences it calculates the sidelobe energy values. +1 and -1 we need to interface a little additional hardware to FPGA. and -1. This architecture generates 3 N N 2 The remaining hardware blocks are useful for computing. identifying and holding the lowest side lobe energy value of a Ternary pulse compression sequence. As the ternary sequence consists of 0. the proposed architecture can generate good Ternary Pulse Compression sequences with FPGA clock rate. To convert this representation of the sequence to pure ternary sequences of 0. The output register2 of figure 1 holds the good ternary pulse compression sequence.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol I IMECS 2008. ISBN: 978-988-98671-8-8 IMECS 2008 . eugenic algorithm and SKH (Simon-Kronecker-Hamming) algorithm. The targeted device was Spartan-3 xa3s1500fgg676-4 with detailed specifications at [12]. for the merit factor calculation of a Ternary sequence. From figure 5 it is seen that Ternary sequence based on the lowest sidelobe energy is 01000000011111110111111101010101110000010001011 101001101000001(10 0 1 -10 1 -1 1 10 10 0 -1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 0 0 0 1) and its sidelobe energy is 30. Technology.0 has been used. 2008. In order to reduce the computing time and complexity for larger sequences of length N. The sequence generator is a synchronous counter of length N which generates 3N sequences with 0’s and 1’s. For Behavioral simulation and Place and route simulation Modelsim6. These generated sequences are modified with the help of the sign conversion unit to get the Ternary Pulse Compression sequence elements. Polyphase. From the device utilization Summary the same Spartan-3 FPGA is useful for the implementation of higher lengths of the Ternary Pulse Compression sequence. Hong Kong also be called as 3-alphabet code. VI. 2 Ternary sequences of length N. The good 23-bit and 31-bit Ternary Pulse compression sequences implementation reports presented in figure 2 and figure3 respectively. Therefore meritfactor of this sequence is 20. With a little additional hardware. This code consists of 1. Proposed Architecture As the main lobe energy r (0) of a given Ternary sequence of length N is N from equation 3. The Hardware Implementation architectures for Pulse compression signal processing systems available in the literature have the capability of only the generation of pulse compression sequences with limited speed [10-11]. For lower sequence length the proposed architecture generate all the 3N sequences. identifies and holds the sequence with minimum sidelobe energy. Since Meritfactor is the main criterion for good pulse compression sequences. The signal design problem for radar application is suggested by sequences like binary. It is viewed as the problem of optimization [3-4]. From figure 4 it can be seen that ternary sequence based on the lowest sidelobe energy is 01110111010011010011010111110001010011111111110 000011001101011(-1-1-1-1-10110-1-111-101-101-11-11) and its sidelobe energy is 18. The proposed VLSI architecture for identification of the good ternary pulse compression is shown in the Fig (1). Xilinx ISE Foundation 9. This work was based on global optimization techniques such as genetic algorithm. But all these optimization algorithms have serious drawbacks of non guaranteed convergence. There has been extensive work on ternary sequences for obtaining good Meritfactor values [5-9]. sonar and system identification. ternary and quequenary sequences. The Synthesis tool was configured to optimize for area and high effort considerations. the sign conversion unit converts the bit ‘1’ to 01. 19-21 March. The behavioral simulation waveforms for the good 23-bit ternary Pulse compression sequence are shown in figure 4. tools and Results The architecture shown in figure 1 has been authored in VHDL for 16-bit and 32-bit Ternary Pulse compression sequences and its synthesis was done with Xilinx XST. the sequence generator of Fig(1) can be modified to generate k bits dynamically and remaining (N-k) bits will be the fixed bits which can be taken from an already identified best sequence of length (N-k). Therefore meritfactor of this sequence is 16. slow convergence rate and require large number of evaluations of the objective function. 0. Need for the Proposed Architecture The problem of obtaining long sequences with peaky autocorrelation [2] has long been an important problem in the field of radar. IV.0556. V. placing and routing. therefore the Ternary sequence having minimum sidelobe energy can be considered as the best Ternary Pulse compression sequence. ‘0’ to 00 and ‘-1’ to 11. +1 and -1. The behavioral simulation waveforms for the good 31-bit ternary Pulse compression sequence are shown in figure 5. identifies and holds the best ternary sequence among the 2N sequences. -1’s and 0’s. This sequence is represented by +1’s. we need to calculate the side lobe energy of a Ternary sequence.13333.

560 2% 1.453 0% 1. Hong Kong Figure 1. 2008.280 4% 1.711 114 66 out of 784 8% 51 22 out of 104 21% 3 out of 8 37% 107. Design Summary: Number of errors: Logic Utilization: Total Number Slice Registers: Number used as Flip Flops: Number used as Latches: Number of 4 input LUTs: Logic Distribution: Number of occupied Slices: Number of Slices containing only related logic: Number of Slices containing unrelated logic: Total Number of 4 input LUTs: Number used as logic: Number used as a route-thru: Number of bonded IOBs: IOB Latches: Number of MULT18X18s: Number of GCLKs: Total equivalent gate count for design: Additional JTAG gate count for IOBs: Timing Summary: Minimum period: Maximum output required time after clock: 0 869 out of 66. 19-21 March.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol I IMECS 2008.560 1% 280 589 1.746MHz) 6.711 out of 66.453 100% 0 out of 1.825 out of 66.141ns Figure 2: Design Implementation summary of the good 23-bit length Ternary Pulse Compression sequence.453 out of 1.015 3.560 2% 1. ISBN: 978-988-98671-8-8 IMECS 2008 .453 out of 33.168 5. VLSI architecture for the identification of good Ternary pulse compression sequence.442ns (Maximum Frequency: 183.

141ns Figure 3: Design Implementation summary of the good 31-bit length Ternary Pulse Compression sequence.217 out of 33.280 6% Number of Slices containing only related logic: 2.560 3% Logic Distribution: Number of occupied Slices: 2.217 100% Number of Slices containing unrelated logic: 0 out of 2. 19-21 March.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol I IMECS 2008.415 out of 66.746MHz) 6.677 out of 66. 2008.217 out of 2. ISBN: 978-988-98671-8-8 IMECS 2008 .217 0% Total Number of 4 input LUTs: 2.415 Number used as a route-thru: 262 Number of bonded IOBs: 82 out of 784 10% IOB Latches: 53 Number of MULT18X18s: 30 out of 104 28% Number of GCLKs: 3 out of 8 37% Total equivalent gate count for design: 147.560 1% Number used as Flip Flops: 378 Number used as Latches: 786 Number of 4 input LUTs: 2. Figure 5: Behavioral simulation result of a good 31-bit Ternary Pulse compression sequence.442ns (Maximum Frequency: 183.936 Timing Summary: Minimum period: Maximum output required time after clock: 5.682 Additional JTAG gate count for IOBs: 3. Hong Kong Design Summary: Number of errors: 0 Logic Utilization: Total Number Slice Registers: 1.560 4% Number used as logic: 2.164 out of 66. Figure 4: Behavioral simulation result of a good 23-bit Ternary Pulse compression sequence.

. The architecture implemented overcomes the drawbacks of non guaranteed convergence and slow convergence rate of the earlier optimization algorithmic based approaches for identifying the good ternary pulse compression sequences.1996. 1997 4/1-4/5 [11] Day.C. pp. Dr. R. Hong Kong VII. 10. “A real time digital signal processing solution for radar pulse compression” . Phys. O'Neill B.S. 1976.com/spartan3).k. Theory. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are thankful to Dr. K: “Ternary Pulse Compression sequences”. R. O'Neill. P.1953. “A Pulse compression Radar Signal Processor”... and VenkatRao. P. 1974.460-461 [6] Mohrir. 1996 32:1648-1649 [10] Day R. Electron.Sudhakara Rao Professors of ECE Department of VNR VJIET for their constant technical support and encouragement.IETE. V. Hoffman K H 1992 “Low autocorrelation binary sequences: exact enumeration and optimization by evolutionary strategies” Optimization 23: 369-384 [5] Mohrir.1333 for a 31-bit sequence length than the algorithmic based approach claimed in [8]. Mohrir. Int. Spartan-3 Field Programmable Gate array data sheets (http://www. 31.P.1998 6/1-6/5 [12] Xilinx.: “Ternary Barker Codes”.Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2008 Vol I IMECS 2008.381-398 [7] Moharir.. J. Germon R.R.M: “Eugenic Algorithm-based search for ternary Pulse compression Sequences”. Germon. In Communication theory (ed.IETE.S. J. It was also observed that the proposed architecture is giving good meritfactor values for higher lengths.Naidu. “S-K-H algorithm for signal design”.IEE Colloquium on Digital Filters: An Enabling Technology.1977 IT-23:43-51 [2] Barker R H. Maru V M. “Sieves for low autocorrelation binary sequences”. 11-19 [9] Moharir P S. (2). P. The authors are also thankful to the management of their respective organizations.42.xilinx.33-40 [8] Singh. Electron. B.) W Jackson (London: Butterworths).H. and Maru. Lett. IEE Colloquim on DSP Chip's in Real Time Instrumentation and Display Systems. J. Inf.Lett.C.. (4). digital systems”. From the above results it is clear that this architecture is giving better meritfactor of 16.. pp. (1).. [3] Bernasconi J 1987. Electron. pp.s. 41. J. (22).S. CONCLUSION In this paper we have proposed and implemented an efficient VLSI architecture for the identification of the good Ternary Pulse Compression sequences based on Meritfactor. Singh R.D. Wurtz D. IEEE Trans. “Low autocorrelation binary sequences: statistical mechanics and configuration space analysis”. “Group synchronization of binary ISBN: 978-988-98671-8-8 IMECS 2008 . 48: 559-567 [4] De Groot C.: “Signal design (sequences with prescribed autocorrelation)”. 19-21 March. pp.. Varma S. REFERENCES [1] Golay M J E . P. This shows the superiority of the architecture. 2008. 1985.

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