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of the

Apostolic Church



















& T.



Copyright, 191G, by


The above copyright



for the protection of articles copyrighted in the

United States.

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons,

New York, have the sole right of publication of Dictionary of the Apostolic Church in the United States and Canada.


It has

often been said

that the Dictionary of Christ
the Bible.







practical value than a Dictionary of


parts of the world has

come the request that what that Dictionary has done
should do for the rest of the






The Dictionary of the Apostolic



the answer.

It carries

the history of the Church as far as the end of
the Gospels, it


Together with the Dictionary of Christ and

forms a

complete and independent Dictionary of the



The Editor

desires to take the opportunity of thanking the distinguished
in this


Testament scholars who have co-operated with him

important work.



Allen (Willoughby Charles), M.A.
Principal of Archdeacon of Manchester Egerton Hall, Manchester author of The Gospel according to St. Matthew' in The International Critical Commentary. Anointing, Children of God, Gospels, Kingdom of God. Allworthy (Thomas Bateson), M.A. (Camb.), B.D. (Dublin). Perpetual Curate of Martin-by-Timberland, Lincoln Founder and First Warden of S. Anselm's Hostel, Manchester.
; ;

Brooke (Alan England), D.D.
Fellow, Dean, and Lecturer in Divinity at King's College, Cambridge Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of S. Alban's author of A Critical and Exegetical Com;

mentary on the Johannine Epistles. James and John, the Sons of Zebedee, John (Epistles of).

BuLCOCK (Harry),

B.A., B.D. Minister of the Congregational Droylsden, Manchester.

Church at

Ampliatus, Andronicus, Apelles, Aristobulus, Asyncritus, Epaenetus, and other proper names.

Anger, Care, Cheerfulness, Comfort, Commendation, Fool, Grief, and other

Banks (John



BuRKiTT (Francis Crawford), M.A., F.B.A.,

Professor of Theology in the Wesleyan Methodist College, Headingley,

author of

A Manual

of Christian


Christian, Contentment.

Hon. D.D. (Edin., Dublin, St. And.), D. Theol. h.c. (Breslau). Norrisian Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge author of The Gospel History and its Transmission.

Batiffol (Pierre),


Baruch (Apocalypse


Pretre catholique et prelat de la Maison du Pape, Paris auteur de Tractatus Origenis de libris scripturarum (1900), Les Odes de Salomon [\^\\), La Paix constantinienne et le Catholicisme (1914). Ignatius.

Burn (Andrew

D.D. Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield author of The Apostles' Creed (1906), The Nicene Creed (1909), The Athanasian Creed






Beckwith (Clarence Augustine),

A.B., A.M.,

Professor of Systematic Theology in Chicago Theological Seminary author of Realities of Christian Theology departmental editor of the Neio Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
; ;

Carlyle (Alexander James), M.A.,


F.R. Hist. Soc. Lecturer in Economics and Politics at University College, Oxford. Alms, Community of Goods.

Beast, Blindness, Fever, Gangrene,



Lamb, Lion.

Case (Shirley Jackson), M.A., B.D., Ph.D.
Professor of New Testament Interpretation in author of The the University of Chicago Historicity of Jesus, The Evolution of Early managing editor of The Christianity American Journal of Theology.
; ;

Bernard (John Henry), D.D.


D.D. (Aberd.), Hon. D.C.L. (Durham). Bishop of Ossory, Ferns, and Leighlin sometime Archbishop Professor of King's Divinity, Dublin, and Dean of St. Patrick's

Allegory, Interpretation.


Descent into Hades. (William Falconer), M.A., B.D. (Aberd.),


D.Phil. (Tiibingen). Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland at Methlick. Alexander, Crown, Desert, Gog and Magog, Israel, Jew, Jewess, and other

A. Gordon). Minister of the United Free Church at Perth. Divination, Exorcism, Lots.

Clayton (Geoffrey Hare), M.A.
Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge. Corinthians (Epistles to the), Eucharist, Love-Feast.


; ;;


B.A., Hon. D.D.

Clemens (John Samuel),

Faulkner (John Alfred),

B.A., B.D., M.A..

Governor of the United Methodist College at

Ranmoor, Sheffield. Bondage, Constraint, Day.



Professor of Historical Theology in Theological Seminary, Madison, N.J. Benediction, Doxology.


Feltoe (Charles Lett), D.D.
Rector of Ripple, near Dover sometime Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge author of Sacramentarium Leonianuin, The Letters and other Remains of Dionysixis of Alexandria. Akeldama, Candace, Chamberlain, Ethiopians, Ethiopian Eunuch, Judas
; ;

Cobb (William Frederick), D.D.
Rector of the Church of St. Ethelburga the Virgin, London author Origines of Judaicm, The Book of Psalms, Mysticism


the Creed.

Antipas, Balaam, Euphrates, Hymenaeus, Jannes and Jambres, Jezebel, and other


Cooke (Arthur William), M.A.
Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church at Wallasey, Cheshire author of Palestine in Geograjjfiy and in History. Elamites, Galilee.

Fletcher (M. Scott), M.A.,

B.D., B.Litt. of King's College, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia author of The Psychology of the Aew Testament. Edification, Enlightenment, Exhortation.



(Henry), M.A. (Edin.), D.D. (Aberd.), D.Th. (Gen.), D.C.L. (Dunelm). Professor of Church History in the University of Aberdeen Senior Preacher of the University Chapel author of The Influence of the Scottish Church in Christendom, John Knox, Landmarks of Church History. Apphia, Archippus, Epaphras, Epaphro; ;

(David), D.D. Minister of the Church of Scotland at Urr.

Barnabas, Esdras (The Second Book Herod.


Garvie (Alfred Ernest), M.A.

(Oxford), D.D.


Principal of New College, London author of The Ritschlian Theology, Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus, Studies of Paul and his Gospel.
Evil, Fall,

Cruickshank (William), M.A., B.D.
Minister of the Church of Scotland at Kinneff, Bervie author of The Bible in the Light of Antiquity.


Gordon (Alexander
Professor of



Games, Jerusalem, Key,

Lamp, and other

Reid), D.Litt., D.D. in 31'Gill University, and of Old Testament Literature and Exegesis in the Presbyterian College, Montreal author of The Poets of the Old Tcs-tainent.


Judgment-Hall, Judgment-Seat, Justice,

Davies (Arthur Llywelyn), M.A. Simcox Research Student, Queen's


Gould (George Pearce), M.A., D.D.
Principal of Regent's Park College, London ; Ex-President of the Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland. Berenice, Drusilla, Felix, Festus, Lysias.






Moses, Enoch (Book

Dewick (Edward Chisholm), M.A.


Tutor and Dean of St. Aidan's College, Birkenhead Teacher of Ecclesiastical
History in the University of Liverpool author of Primitive Christian Eschatology.

Grant (William Milne), M.A.
of the United Free Church at Drumoak, Aberdeenshire author of The Religion and Life of the Patriarchal Age,


DiMONT (Charles Tunnacliff), B.D.

(Oxon.). Principal of Salisbury Theological College; Prebendary of Salisbury; Chaplain to the Bishop of Salisbury.

The Founders of Israel. Assembly, Building, Day-Star, Foundation, Genealogies, Gospel, and other

Grensted (Laurence William), M.A., B.D.
Vice-Principal of Egerton Hall, Manchester joint-author of Introduction to the Books of the Neio Testament.

Business, Labour.

VON DoBSCHUTZ (Ernst), D.Theol.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Breslau.

Colossians (Epistle to
(Epistle to the).






Grieve (Alexander James), M.A., D.D.
Professor of New Testament Studies and Christian Sociology in tiie Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Form, Friendship, Fruit, Image.


(James), M.A., D.D. (Aberd.). Minister of the Church of Scotland at Keithhall and Kinkell, Aberdeenshire.
Dispersion, Gentiles, Heathen, Libertines.

Griffith-Jones (Ebenezer), B.A. (Lond.), D.D.
(Edin.). Principal,

Duncan (James AValker), M.A.
Minister of tiie United Free Church at Lassodie, Dumfriesshire.

and Professor of Dogmatics, Homiand Practical Theology, Yorkshire

Canaan, Haran.

DuNDAS (William Harloe), B.D.
Rector of Magheragall, near Lisbum. Authority, Dominion.

Independent College, Bradford The Ascent through Christ, Types of Christian Life, The Economics of Jesus, The Master and His Method, Faith and Verifcation. Abiding, Abounding, Acceptance, Access, Account, Ansvyer.
autiior of



Hamilton (Harold Francis), M.A., D.D.
Ottawa, Canada

Maclean (Arthur

John), D.D. (Camb.), Hon.

formerly Professor in the

University of Bishoj)'s College, Lennox ville, Quebec.

Barnabas (Epistle


Handcock (P.S.P.), M.A. Member of the Inner Temple, Barrister-atLaw Lecturer of the Palestine Exiiloration

Bishop of Moray, Ross, and Caithness ; author of Dictionary of Vernacular Syriac editor of East Syrian Liturgies. Adoption, Angels, Ascension, Baptism, Demon, Family, and other articles.

Main (Archibald), M.A.
D.Litt. (Glas.). Minister of the


B.A. (Oxon.),

formerly of the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum author of Mesopotamian Archceology, Latest Light on Bible Lands. Dog, Eagle, Goat, Hospitality, Locust,



otiier articles.

Church of Scotland at Old Kilpatrick examiner in Modern and Ecclesiastical History and in Political Economy in St. Andrews University; meuiber of the Examining Board of the Church of Scotland.

HooKE (Samuel Henry), M.A.



Cymbal, First-Fruit, Harp.

Professor of Oriental Languages and Literature in Victoria College, Toronto.


(Fred. Shipley), M.A.


Heaven, Immortality, Lake of Fire.

James (John George), M.A.,


of King's College Theological Hostel and Lecturer in Theology, King's College, London formerly Tyrwhitt and Crosse Scholar in the University of Cam;

of Problems of Personaliti/, Problems of Prayer, The Coming Age nf Faith, The Prayer- Life.


Clement of Rome (Epistle
(Epistle to the),




(Epistle to

Cross, Crucifixion, Custom, Dream.

Jordan (Hermann), Ph.D.
Professor of Church History and Patristics in the University of Erlangen.


Stuart), M.A., B.D. Formerly Pitt Scholar and Examiner in Divinity in Edinburgh University and

Catholic Epistles, Epistle, Letter.


(Kirsopp), M.A. (Oxford), D.D. (St. And.). Professor of Early Christian Literature in Harvard University author of The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul.

Minister of the Churcli of Scotland at Aberdeen author of The Books of the Neio Testament.

Grace, Justification.


Acts of the Apostles, Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal), Luke.

Lambert (John C), M.A., D.D.
Fenwick, Kilmarnock
meiits in the

(G. Currie), M.A., B.D. Lecturer in connexion with the National Council of Adult School Unions ; formerly Professor of New Testament at the Yorkshire United College and Lancashire College.


author of The SacraTestament.



Antichrist, Body, Conscience, Flesh, Life

and Death, Light and Darkness, and
other articles.


(Robert), D.D. (Edin.).

Professor of New Testament Literature in Knox College, Toronto author of The Tests of Life : A Study of the First Epistle of St.

A.M., D.D. (Shailer), (Colby, Oberlin, Brown). Dean of the Divinity School, and Professor of Historical Theology, in the University of Chicago ; President of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America; author of The Messianic Hope in the Neio
Testament. Assassins, Judas the Galilaean.

John. Formalism, Covetousness, Generation, Glory, Hour.



LiGHTLEY (John William), M.A., B.D. Professor of Old Testament Language and
Literature and Philosophy in the Wesleyan College, Headingley, Leeds.

(Joseph Hooper), M.A. Hilgay, Downham Market Rector of formerly Fellow and Dean of Hertford College, Oxford author of The History of the Book of Common Prayer.


Mitchell (Anthony), D.D.
formerly Bishop of Aberdeen and Orkney Pantonian Professor of and Principal Theology in the Theological College of the Episcopal Church in Scotland. Hermas (Shepherd of).


Lofthouse (William



Professor of Philosophy and Old Testament Language and Literature in the Wesleyan College, Handsworth, Birmingham ; author of Ethics and Atonement, Ethics and the

Family. Conversion, Creation, Forgiveness, Free-


(Olaf Edvard), Dr. Theol. Professor of Theology in the University of


of the Will.

Commandment, Law.

Mackenzie (Donald), M.A.
Minister of the United Free Church at Oban Assistant Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Aberdeen,


Hon. D.D. (St. (James), D.Litt., And.), Hon. M.A. (Oxford). Professor of Church History in the United




Abstinence, Feasting, Harlot, Lust, and other


Historical New Testament, The inent : A Neio Translation.


of The Testa^

Gospels (Uncanonical).

. Covenant. Deacon. Hair. Professor of Biblical Literature and English Bible in M'Cormick Theological Seminary.D. B.. Ear. Curse. James the Lord's Brother. Professor of the the Baptist College. of Christ Church. (London).D. of the Presbyterian Church Ireland at BallacoUa.). Fire. M. (Leipzig). M. (St. Atonement. Gifts.A. The Uplifting of Life . Apocalypse. Jailor. Holy Spirit. 1914. .A.zEon. and Edin.D. Morgan (William). VON Schlatter (Adolf). (Cantab.D. LL. Minister of the United Free Church at Inverness autlior of Jesus and Nicodemus. Plummer (Alfred).D. Destruction. Discipline. Bar-Jesus. Scott (Charles Anderson). ston. Ontario . of knowledge. Andrews). Manchester author of The Range of Christian Exjwrience.A. Pope (R. Cainites. Chicago. Rawdon sometime Senior Kennicott Sciiolar in the University of Oxford . Fore- Robinson (Henry Wheeler).A. Deliverer. and Theology of the New Testament in Westminster College..A. Principal. The Religious Ideas of the Old Testament. . Ebionism. B. .. (Wales). M. Ph. Queen's County. Eye. Gnosticism.D. Apollos. . and otiier works. M.A.A. . Book with the Seven Seals.D.D. Evan. INIinister S. Birmingham author of Miracles: An Outline of the Christian View. Aaron's Rod. Robertson (Archibald Thomas). Leeds. Professor of the Language. (Aberd. Professor of Interpretation of the New Testament in the Southern Baptist Theological MuiRHEAD (Lewis Minister of - D. D.A. Education. Handsworth. Ph. chester). A Critical Introduction to the New Testament. Didsbury College..D. author of Christian Baptism. Csesarea. Buffet.D. M. Minister of the Baptist Church at Manchester. New Testa- Seminary... Christian Life.. St. and Man- the University of Cambridge author of St. D. (London). D. Jude the Lord's Brother.M.A. Augustine. the Systematic Theology Wesleyan College. Professor of Platt (Frederic). Moss (Richard Waddy). Margaret ment.D.D. in Expediency. Bond. D. Asaph.). Late Master of University College. and other articles. nation.). Church of .D. and other NiVEN (William Dickie).A. Condem. Professor of Systematic Theology and Apologetics in Queen's Theological College. (London). Montgomery (W. Essenes. Rhuallt. D. Excommunication. D. editor of Effectual Words. Levite. and .A. D. Ky. A. Election.A. author of A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research.. Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church at Ilkley. Private Judgment. B. James (Epistle of). Gallio. Roberts (John Edward). MouLTON (Wilfrid Professor of J. (Cantab. LL.D. B. M. History in and Philosophy Religion Peake (Arthur Samuel).A. Debt.. Christianity : its Nature and its Truth. Anathema. Oxford author of The Problem of Suffering in the Old Testa. B. Litt.A. Headingley. (Oxon.D. . Conversation.A. Lecturer in Divinity in . and Tutor in Systematic Theology. Chain.. ). Age. Hand. Prayers ccnd Devotions. Broughty the United Free Church at Ferry author of The Terms Life and Death in the Old and ments. author of The Witness of Israel. Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church at Keswick autlior of Expository Notes on St.D.AUTHORS OF ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME Montgomery (William). Bishop.B. Adorning. Book of Life. Church. and other works. Head. NicoL (Thomas). Minister of the United Free Church at Blairgowrie co-examiner in Mental Philosophy in the University of Aberdeen. . The First Things of Jesus. Louisville. (Cantab.D. ' ' SiDNELL (Henry Cariss Jones). Oxford in Ordinary to H. Professor of Systematic and Pastoral Theology in the Wesleyan College. M. Professor of Divinity.D. D. Cambridge. Aaron. Assurance. Jude (Epistle of). Doctor. Abba.D. EmperorWorship. and other works. Reid (John). Robinson (George L. LL. Admonition.D. F. Professor of Biblical Criticism in the University of Aberdeen Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. .). author of 'Helu-ew Psychology in Relation Anthropology' in Mansfield to Pauline College Essays. New Testament Introduction and Exegesis in the University of Tubingen. KingKerr Lecturer for 1914. Aged. author of The Making of a Christian. Martin). M. Christology. M. B. M. Rylands Professor of Biblical Exegesis in the University of Manchester and Tutor in the Hartley Primitive Methodist College sometime Fellow of Merton College and Lecturer in Mansfield College. Beating.). M. Durham formerly Fellow and Senior Tutor of Trinity College. Christ. Apostle. gelist.. B. Aquila and Priscilla.. the King. The Christian Doctriyie of Man. Luke in The International Critical Commentary. Oxford author of The Gospel according to S. Sanday (William). Literature.A. M. in Judging. Feet.. Honour. Roberts (Robert). Ladj'' D.D.). The Eschatology of Jesus. Canon Chaplain Inspiration and Revelation. Paul's Epistles to Timothy and Titus. . Cerinthus. and other articles. M. and other works. .). Chastisement. articles.

D. Stevenson (Morley). St. Ciirist . Jupiter.D. Longsuffering. The Text New Testament.A. Conspiracy. Church of England at Hudderstield formerly Hebrew Tutor and Cunningham Fellow. Wells (Leonard Vicar of epigrapha.). Paul's Fight for Galatia.D.D. South Shields . Apostolic Constitutions. Lucius. (Leiden). author of Music in the Church.). Acts of Thomas ' in Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal). Minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Church at Burnley.A. (Oxon. Ph. Londonderry Cunningham Lecturer author of Hebrew Ideals.D.A. Oxford .D. Diana. and Rector of Preban and Moyne. D. Clean and Unclean. Amen. Church author of The Apocalypse of Jesus. A Ambrosiaster. author of St. LL. M. Oxford Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of Peterborough. Alban). Didache. King of Kings and Lord of Lords. Colours. Luke. Kindness. Dates.D. Love. Judaiz- and Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland at Bearsden Examiner for the Church History Scholarships of the United Free Church of Scotland.A. D.. . Minister of the United Free Church at Duthil (Carr Bridge). D. of St. Consecration.D. Domitian. other works. New College. N.. Spooner (William Archibald). Michael's College. Divisions. Watt Finisher. Professor of Hebrew and Biblical Criticism in the M'Crea Magee Presbyterian College. Edinburgh. Areopagite. Watkins (Charles H.). (Hugh).). B. M. Author ing. ledge. B. D. LlandafF. Brethren.. M. Minister of the Church of Scotland at Haddington (First Charge) . Canon of Liverpool author of Handbook to the Gospel according to St. M. Canon . Canon of St. ZWAAN (J. Hypocrisy. . Circumcision. Hellenistic and Biblical Greek. Warden of New College. of Church. Regius Professor of Humanity and Lecturer Minister of the Presbyterian in Mediaeval Palaeography in the University of Aberdeen . . B. Vos (Geerhardus). King. D.D. Babbler. DE). Ferns.A. The Captivity and Pastoral Epistles. of the Presbyterian England at Cambridge. M.A. (Edin. ' Abraham. Willis (John Roth well). and other articles. Dioscuri. formerly Professor of New Testament Greek and Exegesis in Mansfield College. Contribution.Th. SOUTER (Alexander). Tod (David Macrae).D. Calf. 11^ THIS VOLUME Thumb (Albert). M. and . author of Study of . Subwarden B.D.D. Heresy. Charles Haley Professor of Biblical Theology in the Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church at Princeton. Angels of the Seven Churches. Minister (Aberd. B. Joy. St. Caligula. Baal.. Holiness.D. Collection.J. Minister of the Baptist Church at Liverpool Lecturer in the Midland Baptist College and University College. Aidans.D. Idolatry.. Galatia.. Nottingham . Fast (The). . Elements. and Canon of the Know- Augustus.. subeditor of the Oxford Apocrypha and Pseud- Stewart (Robert William). Lord. Foreruimer.). Historical Theology in the M'Cormick Theological Seminary. Zenos (Andrew C). Professor of Comparative Philology in the University of IStrassburg author of Handbook of tlte Modern Greek Vernacular. M. AUTHOES OF ARTICLES Smith (Sherwin). and other articles. Principal of Warrington Training College Hon. Strachan (Robert Harvey).. Aidan's.A. (Cantab. Faith.D. Professor of Strahan (James). Goodness. Holy Day. . Blessedness. Caesar. M.Litt. ...Sc. Citizenship. B.A. M. Brotherly Love. Faithfulness. B. The Book of Job.A. B. of WoRSLEY (Frederick William). Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Groningen. Alpha and Omega.A. M. Oxford Hon. Ignorance.A. Chicago. Stewart (George Wauchope). Ambassador. Damaris. D. B. Abomination.


1 P. series. Am = Amos. = and following verses or pages. = . Mal = Malachi. pi. and 2 To = To bit. = Assyrian.. Sir = Sirach asticus. 1 Mk = Mark. Neues Testament. = quod vide. IIab = Habakkuk. 1 Jn. TR = Textus V. Ps = Psalms.S. Pr = Proverbs. = German. LXX = Septuagint. Co. EVV = English Version.. Jude. manuscripts. 2 Ti = l and 2 and 2 Timothy. Ezk = Ezekiel. n. articles. Col = Colossians. Neh = Nehemiah. 2 Th = l Thessalonians. Est = Esther. Assyr. Est Old Testament. Heb. Dt = Deuteronomy. Tit = Titus. Lk = Luke. Bab. RV = Revised Version. New Mt = :Matthew. = Rhemish New Testament. 2 Mac = l and 2 Maccabees. m. = fragment.v. Sem. Jg = Judges. Ti. Jer = Jeremiah. = verse. about. Testament. iSIan = Prayer of Manasses. 1 Chronicles. Eng. sing. VSS = Version. = Latin. =varia . Received Text. Pr. c. = singular. Is — Isaiah. =new OT = OId q. Ch. Lat. Testament. = Arabic. Jth = Judith. Eph = Ephesians. Ex = Exodus. Vg. Ja= James. =note. Arab. Hag = Haggai.S. variant reading. niarg. La = Lamentations. ff. 2 Co 1 and 2 He = Hebrews. 1 Esther. 1 K. = Targum. = Greek. = article. MSS = manuscript.LIST OF ABBEEVIATIONS I. of. 1 Mac. Bel = Bel and the Dragon. /Vpp. 2 Jn. artt. qq. Vulg. = plural. v. Ph — Philippians. Versions. Ec = Ecclesiastes. and 3 John.= Vulgate. = French.s. ed. Zec = Zechariah. = Babylonian. see. 2Es=l Esdras. fol. = translated. = Hebrew. = edited. II. 1 S.= contrast. = English. Zeph = Zephaniah. = Semitic. 2. =and following verse or page. Apocrypha. Pliilem = Philemon. from. VS. Es.. Ca = Canticles. —circa. = Sanskrit. translation. ct. = Appendix. Eth. = margin. Lv = Leviticus. art. Ru = Ruth. rt. = folio. Fr. AV AVm NT = New N. Jl = Joel. Books of the Bible Ad. Corinthians. 3 Jn = l. RVm = Revised Version margin. A.v. = compare. 2P=1 and 2 Peter. General lit. EV. Nu = Numbers. = Authorized Version margin. = Anglo-Saxon. = Additions to Gn = Genesis. which Rliem. = literalljs literature. Ezr = Ezra. Ob = Obadiah. Job. tr. Targ. 1 1 Th. Dn = Daniel. Jos = Joshua. f. Testament. edition. Syr.l. 2S = 1 and 2 Samuel. Jn = John. Mic = Micah. Ro = Romans. Skr. lectio. = Syriac. Three = Song of the Three Children. Ac = Acts. Germ. 2 K = l and2King. Sus = Susanna. Gr. = Ethiopic. Wis = Wisdom. fr. qiice vide. Rev — Revelation. Hos = Hosea. 2 Ch = l and 2 Jon = Jonah. Nah = Nahum. AT = Altes Testament. MS. Gal = Galatians. or Ecclesi- Bar = Baruch. Receptus. Versions. = Authorized Version. = root.

C<S'£'i = Corpus Script. 1883). (Buhl).r= Biblical World. in Geschichte (?^P=Geographie des alten Palastina G5= Golden Bough (J. 5 j. JA = Journal J"i?Z. Latinarum. Latinorum. Grimm-Thayer = Grimm's Gr. of Biblical Literature. the Semites (W. of the Bible. Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (Edersheim). iVii'Z=Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift. iir. of the Bible (5 vols. CjE = Catholic Encyclopedia. Z>5 = Dict. R.-Eng. Monatsschrift fiir Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums. ZDMG J'<?P — Jewish Quarterly Review. ThT =Theo\. fiir kirchl. P^P= Palestine Exploration Fund. ^i?i = Encyclopaedia Biblica. MG WJ= CIA = Corpus Inscrip.4T2 = Keilinscliriften und das Alte Testament' . Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. . of Mythologie. Asiatique. //S'5= International Science Series. Wissenschaft. PEFSt = Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement. ^JP= History of the Jewish People (Eng. 5'P^ = Sacred Books of the East.4Z'^ = Zimnierii-Winckler's ed. J'TA5'< = Journal of Theological Studies. £Gr= Expositor's Greek Testament. ^i2£' = Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 1902-03. Sxp = Expositor. Frazer). Z)C(? Diet. of Greek and Roman Geography. (r(?iV=: GGA =:Gottingische und rora. C/G = Corpus Inscrip. J'PrA = Jahrbiicher fiir protestantische Theologie. 5/=Hibbert Journal. OrjC=01d Testament in the Jewish Church (W. ^iJP^ Hastings' Bible. Biblique. = Revue Archdologique.Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. ^JPA = American Journal of Philology. Pauly-Wissowa = Pauly-Wissowa's DCA = T>ic\. c7P5' = Journal of Roman Studies. ff£'=Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius. ^5= Acta Sanctorum (BoUandus). Thayer. Wissenschaft.Z'— Theologische Litteraturzeitung. BA PP = Revue of the Archfeology. = Oxford English Dictionary.. 5"/= History of Israel (Ewald). TAZ. Zeitschrift fur Theologie und Kirche. Z(7P^= Literarisches Central blatt. tr. Single-vol. Grsecaruin. Encj'clopedia. Smith). Roscher=:Roscher's Ausfiilirliches Gelehrte Anzeigen. C/i = Corpus Inscrip. iV^TZ(r = Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte (HoltzOJS'Z' mann and others). to Literature of the (Moffatt). TU=Texte und Untersuchungen. J"^. ^jBIF=Archiv fiir Religionswissenschaft. ZJ'Fr= Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Theologie. 5i = Banipton Lecture. Eccles.LIST OF ABBKEVIATIONS Bibliography . Tylor).). Realencyklopadie. C^i2= Church Quarterly Review. Memoirs (S/v GJV). of Greek and Roman Antiquities. EEG = Revue des PGG' = Religion griech. = Journal WH and Studies. . of Christian Biography. ^iV"= Historia Naturalis (Pliny).K'/P= Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. of Christ and the Gospels. JE = Jewish. Z)C£ = Diet. ZA'H^X = Zeitschrift ZNTW ZT^= (Schrader.S'^ Texts Tijdschrift. Nachrichten der konigl. of Survey of Eastern Palestine. of Greek and Roman Biography. New Testament LT = JBJ"=Bellum Judaicum (Josephus). Lexikon der Robertson P^P = Revue de I'Histoire des Religions. (775= Corpus Inscrip. ^Z>5 = Hastings' Diet. Semiticarum. und Gegenwart. Dictionary of the ^^P=. = I>'ict. — 'Diet. of Christian Antiquities. of the preceding (a totally distinct work). ir^(T = Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte. C^= Contemporary Review. Schaff-Herzog=The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia (Eng. G. Smith). A. Wissenschaft und kirchl. DGEG=:T)ict. BS = Religion Smith). =Studien und Kritiken. etc. III. GJ'F'=Geschichte des jlidischen Volkes (Schiirer). Leben. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. PC= Primitive Culture (E. J'P/i = Journal of Philology.S'= Journal of Hellenic Studies. r. tr. fitudes Grecques.). ZATW = Zeitschrift fiir die alttest. /CC= International Critical Commentary. = PP = Polychrome Bible. of PEE).K'. = Westcott-Hort's Greek Testament. Society of Biblical ExpT= Expository Times. 5^G^Z = Historical Geography of the Holy Land (G. = Zeitschrift fiir die neatest. Lexicon of the NT. ^J"rA = American Journal of Theology. 5' JFP = Memoirs of Survey of Western Palestine. HL = Hibbert Lecture. Wetzer-Welte = Wetzer-Welte's Kirchenlexikon. P/SP^ = Proceedings DGRA DGBB EBr = Encyclopajdia Britannica. Atticanim. B. ^GG=Abhandlungen der Gottinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. of iSB^ pr=Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften. jLAr=Introd. tr. iV(?G = Nachrichten der konigl. = Realencyklopadie fiir protestantische TheoPP£' logie und Kirche.

8^) preserves it earlier tradition (Nu 17^** . the medium of access on either side. of all men. or Levitical (7"). not only were the priests gathered together into an embodied unity in him. p. from which. those of A. In the Christian thought of the apostolic age all these functions pass over to Jesus Christ. Works. of which only the germ and promise are to be found in Aaron. Yet such was the lofty position of Jesus. cf. and such was His consciousness. may be put. DICTIONARY OF THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH AARON. (He 9'). In function Aaron stood between God and the congregation. Davidson and B. Westcott. 1 K An . Christ was thought of. — Aaron's rod mentioned only — in He 9*. As the representative of God. an attempt was made to trace differences as well as correspondences. 1872] . esp. is W. and what God has devised and does with a view to human redemption. yet His priesthood is distinctly of a higher and eternal order (5*). specially of them that believe' (1 Ti 4'"). on Hebrews. Aaron in EDB. He bestows gifts upon men (Eph 4^). he was represented to be the NT — of a long line of high priests. In the consecration of the high priest the supreme act was anointing with oil (Lv 8^^). Luke (Lk P. and in his personal history very little interest is taken. representing each to the other. vii. Wesley. indeed. 43 . indicating his qualification to communicate God's decision on matters that tran- embodiment final of priestly ideas and Christ as their expression. ' ' human wit and through him and his order the blessing of God was invoked. art. he wore the sacred Urim and Thummim in the pouch of judgment upon his heart (Ex 28^**). as in the passages that speak of Christ as our Advocate with God. but as invested with higher qualities.I . I. ' ' ' God and enriching them with every spiritual ing. and purified the sanctuary itself from any possible defilements contracted through the sina of its frequenters (9^^*^. with modifications emphasizing their ethical efiect and the intrinsically spiritual benefit that follows. on the very eve of His priestly sacrifice. and Comm. though his successors were probably not all in the direct line of descent. [London. to the work done by Him as representing men. By name Aaron is mentioned in the only by St. J.) also Phillips Brooks. Moss. 3. the channel of Divine grace and of human prayer and praise. 2. wliere the phrase things pertaining to God covers both sides of the relations between God and man. so He is the High Priest. A. nor to the necessity of repeating the one great sacrifice (9^*). On the other hand. Wickham (Westminster Com. DCG and JE. In this typical relation between Aaron as the first . Between God and man He stands continuously. as well as of His priestly rank and sympathy. B. One of the most general statements is He 2". R. See art. both were appointed S'*) yet to the priesthood of Christ no Aaronic (7"). — 273. or legal (9^) measure 1. In regard to vocation. communicating to them the will of scended . Peake {Century Bible). nor in efiiciency to the treatment of offences that were chiefly ceremonial or ritual (9^* "). specifically appointed such (Ex 28"-) in confirmation of the status already allowed him in Arabic usage (Ex 4") . so He represents to man what God is in relation to human sin. but in his annual approach to God he brought a sacrifice even for the 'ignorances' of the people VOL. as representative of God. 1883. they found it convenient to claim relationship with him (Ezr 2^'^-). Melchizedek. As He is the Saviour. That continued to be the case in the apostolic period and it became a familiar thought that the high priest was a type of Christ. and. just as He offers His sacrifice to God in the stead of man. E. See. I consecrate myself ( Jn 17^^). bless- He is not only the Eevealer of the Father but. which locates the rod in the ark. He fitly represents all men before God. and gradually the conceptions involved in high-priesthood were identified with the name of Aaron. promoting their interests and completing their deliverance from sin. F. Much the same is the case with the great passage on mediatorship (1 Ti 2^). On the one hand. S. Ac 7^) and by the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews (5* 7" 9^). that He could say. who was viewed as the antitype of all true sacerdotal persons and ministries. Lv 16^^). though prominence is given. He was a man like Aaron (2^^'-)> capable of sympathy both by nature and from experience (4^'') . not as identical with His prototype. cf. C. further. ' ' Literature. OfBcially. by God (He .. AARON'S ROD. the designation Messiah ('anointed one') arose. Sermons in English Churches. In virtue of His immanence as God. limited neither to an earthly sanctuary (9^). while for those who have put themselves into a right attitude towards Him He acts as Paraciete (1 Jn 2^).

' but adds that Paul will not allow even one word of prayer in a foreign tongue without adding an instant translation .' and it is employed in this sense in Job 31'-. Abaddon is represented as one of the lower divisions of Sheol and as being the abode of the wicked and a place of punishment. St. The Cross in Tradition. being the first word of the Lord's Prayer. the lowest part of Gehenna. Father remarks that the peculiar sacredness of association belonging to the first word of the Lord's Prayer in its original tongue supplies a far more probable account of its liturgical use among Gentile Christians.' term meaning destruction. Pr 15^^ 27-". p. added to it the Greek equivalent but he supports an alternative theorj. but is used as the personal designation in Hebrew of a fallen angel described as the king of the locusts and the angel of the abyss. Moss. who. again.a ABADDON before the ark. perhaps in the actual words used by our Lord Himself. It is found only in three passages in the NT. in each case Mk subjoined to 'A/3^a. At first it was distinguished from Gehenna. cit. CZaravas. Outside of the Apocalj-pse the name Abaddon has hardlj^ any place in English literature. 'to perish'). in DCG. In later Heb. however. as a vocative. Its use. The context of each passage where 'Abba. viz. as a place of loss and deprivation rather than of the positive suffering assigned to the latter. and concentrating into this word of all vvords such a depth of meaning. while the Pauline passages do not recall Gethsemane. but is rather an original formula. on the ground. Gram. is not a Hebraism. Abaddon or Apollyon was often identified with Asmoditjus. e. whose conception of Apollyon. Father' is found appears to prove that the Greek addition is not merely the ' Thayer. [The use of 6 naTr^p.). they suggest the Lord's Prayer as current in the shorter form.— The word is ' ' ('AttoXXi/wj'. as suggested by the passage in Mk. but to the fact that the early Christians. LiTERATiRE. later form of d7r6XXi//aO a Gr. art. usingfamiliarly both lan^ua^es. in HDB f.' F. 'dbhadh.. even of non. . combating Zahn's theory that Aramaic was the language of St. also Maclean. Moulton (op. but 'Abaddon' in Job 26®.] Lightfoot on Gal 4'' argues that the bilingual expression is a liturgical formula originating with Hellenistic Jews. U^\ Ro 8'S Gal 4« . though devotional intensit.V. Paul's prayers a theory based on the Apostle's 'Abba.g. or literally with the transverse beam of the cross.Jewish descent. Kvpie). In either case the object was to secure a standing witness to the validity of ' ' AEBA nominative with the article.edeppL-rivevonei'ov. Thus Sanday-Headlam — . 10). fied as a branch of the almond tree . and an examjile of that verbal usage whereby the same idea is conveyed in ditierent forms for the sake of emphasis. In Job 28--. verb (dvoWvw. see W. when Sheol had come to be recognized as a sphere of moral distinctions and consequent retribution. as Lightfoot thought. ' the evil spirit of To 3® but this identification is now known to be a mistake.' is a liturgical formula (2) that the duality of tlie form is not due to a Hebraistic repetition for the sake of emphasis. Hallelujah.' ' LXX ' . that a proper name appears to be required for giving vividness and Etymologically the word is an abstract point. and is simply an expression of importunate entreaty. 23) suggests that the phrase is due to the shorter or Lucan form of the Lord's Prayer. 14^^ is due to the or eoTt fj. AV in each case rendering 'destruction. has become familiar through the use made of it in the Pilrjrini's Progress by Bunyan. while conveying intensity to the expression. and further refers to the Welsh use of Pader as a name for the Lord's Prayer. S*"). Kvpie. Peter might have added in his preaching custom to be perpetuated bj^ the Evangelists. while clinging to the original word which was consecrated by long usage. the double form is due to the fact that the early Christians were a bilingual people and the duplication. Ps 8S'i. 'Abba. in HDB [s. Jewish and Christian fancy has been busy with it. as stated by the Revisers in their Preface. for ax and its various forms . of NT Greek.v. History. personified side by is personified in OT is concerned. just as Rev 6^. C. It seems probable (1) that the phrase. dead.) of the Roman Catholic 'saying Paternoster. on Job 26''). W. such as. name with the personal ending uv. AtdjSoXos). coupling a He Hellenistic rendering with the Aramaic Abba. and notwithstanding the evident suggestions of its derivation (from Heb. was held in special veneration. argues that the absence of such a phrase as 6 icrnv. J.]. apparently led him to form from the corresponding Gr. he quotes Rev 9'^ : the claims of the Aaronic priesthood (so Clement. but an emphatic vocative not unknown to classical Greek and common in the NT nearly sixty examples of it are found in NT see Moulton. for 'father' (see Dalman. and that some among His disciples caught and transmitted the same habit. the whole expression being a title of address. Father. — Abba word is the emphatic form of the Aram. But in the Rabbinic teaching of a later time it becomes the very house of perdition (Targ. and both ' ' . word by the writer of Rev. Seymour. § 43). R. Edinburgh. the connota-_ tion of the word does not appear to advance beyond that of the parallel word Sheol in its older meaning of the general dwelling-place of all the dead. while Apollyon. p. 6 irar-qp is Thus.vv. 1906.' whose name in the Greek tongue is said to be Apollyon.' where the terms are ditt'erent. 98.— Theartt. and was quoted . cit. It is significant however of the limited extent of strictly Jewish Christianity that we find no other original examples of the use than It these three. W. 70. . In Rev 9" Abaddon is not merely personified in the free jjoetic manner of Job 28--. H. on the spot on which it had budded (see HDB i. Gram. Aram. So far as the Hades explanation of the Aramaic word. The rod has sometimes been identi1 Cor. found in the NT only in Rev 9^^.3). it is' side with Death. loc. however. would only be natural where the speaker was using in botli cases his familiar tongue. ' — — ' ' ' . the deepest deep of hell (Emek Hammelcch. 'A/3a55a)j') 12''^ 20^ ' ' ' points out that. ABADDON. and the personification of the Heb.g. Pr 15" 27-» and with the grave in Ps 88" shows that even in the OT it had passed beyond this general meaning and had become a specialized term for the abode of the . Chase (TS I. is entirely Iiis own. it is also expressed by such phrases as I'at dpi-qv. Praise the Lord. however.' while RV gives Destruction' in Job 28" 3V-. In the OT text 'dbhaddun occurs six times (onlj' in the Wisdom literature). As illustrations of this repetition. 83. in parallelism with Sheol in Job 26".that it took its rise among Jews of Palestine after they had become acquainted with the Greek language.' He mentions the analogy (see footnote. S. the genesis of which is to be souglit further back. andEBi. 15. literature. Art.y belongs to repetition of the same term {e. s. ' Mk . in EUE ExpT xx. 1898. on the contrary. p. For early legends associating it symbolically with the cross. on Ro ' 815 (/(7(7^ 19Q2) remark : seems better to suppose that our Lord Himself. in familiarity of the formula and that. ABBA. were familiar with both Aramaic and Greek (3) that Abba. 'Abyss' [1908-09] 234 LAMBERT. found Himself impelled spontaneously to repeat the word. p. In the 'cibhaddon is regularly rendered by dirdbXeia . . and that the early Christians repeated the first word in the intensity of their devotion. iii.

Eternal Life. where we read The anointing . In conclusion. which has been heard from the beginning of the Christian era. St. irpos-. p. Abel's sacrifice was the offering of a man whose heart was right. of John.^. Genesis. was also used . The spirit of the worshipper rather than the substance of the offering is now considered the essential element. Divine Upliftings.t In 1 Jn 2^* it is said that the word of God abideth in 'young men'. ' Abba in HDB. This reciprocal relation between the implanted word and the human environment in which it energizes is peculiarly Johannine. The believer's soul thus mystically thought of as the matrix in which the Divine energy of salvation. Greater Men and Women of the Bible. based on a well-known hjTnn (Par. Secondary forms of the same idea are found in 2^^ — ' ' ' K . Dt 14^). was also the fundamental laAV of the moral life from the beginning of human history. 9^ also Rev 6''* '") it was such a cry as is 2 sounded in Milton's sonnet. Like the word ' taste originally a physical. It was in accordance with primitive Semitic ideas that the occupation of a keeper of sheep was more pleasing to God than that of a tiller of the ground. and JE. 53 G. In a later passage of Heb. [1913] p. 2^ we have the promise that if the [word] heard from the beginning' remains in the believer's heart. in the Bible Dictionaries.' As a general principle. has the Martin Pope. Literature. abomination denotes that for which God and His people have a violent distaste. or message (d77eX^a). p. Whyte. where St. (b) of the Divine fidelity' even in face of human faithlessness (2 Ti 213). Did.' Jn 16'°). The belieYer as the place of the abiding. Hastings. 3^). King's Chapel Sermons. though its Greek translation. Bible Characters. very erroneously makes faith and hope pass away. 6 Ki'ptos iyyds [Ph 4']. but in the intimate and spiritual connotation belonging to vloOecrLa. lb92. abideth in you. i.e. Note the following experimental aspects of the relation in question. Paul. so in Acts and Ephesians we find both the local and the ethical connotations of this word. love. but it is also the meaning in v. With . G. [1909] 356. he shall continue in the Son and in the Father (cf. Avenge. See art. P. . 1912.' * Similarly we are told of the persistence (a) of Melchizedek's priesthood (He 7^). ( ' Literature. and the authorities cited above. compounds /xivu or one of its numerous Kara-.' By xpto-/ia is meant the gift of the Holy Spirit (cf. LiTERATTjRE. Elmslle. where Maran atha' and ' Amen close a public prayer) . John (1 Jn 3'^) uses the murder of Abel by his brother to illustrate the absence of that spirit of love which is the essence of goodness. 1901. and in 3^^ he that hateth his brother abideth in death'). who by their faith pleased God and had witness borne to them. though this cannot be said to be established beyond doubt. 101b. The Representative Men of the Bible. Matheson. i. which in almost every James Strahan. The writer indicates that the new commandment. Findlay. and accordingly that a firstling of the flock was a more acceptable offering than the fruit of the ground. used the double form in pronouncing the sacred Name.-' the stress is rather on the mutual abiding of the believer and God (Father and Son). In 2^ we have the fact that the believer abides in Christ made the ground for a practical appeal for consistency of life. sin. The Things Above. In 1 Jn 2. In the same Epistle note also S'^* 'If any man's yvork abide. abiding-. and in v. use of this word we find a striking union of the mystical and the ethical aspects of the Christian faith. . i. -which would be quite intelligible to Christians of Gentile origin. and (c) of the word of God (1 P l^^). The blood of Abel cried out from the ground for vengeance (cf. and unfaithfulness. while the phrase is associated with the specially solemn occasion of the Gethseinane agony. safeguarding it from fied is error. A.' by which the new covenant is confinned. in the i. Job 16^*.' and 13'^ And now abide faith. Knight. ' ' ('he that loveth his brother abideth in the light'). has eternal life. is operative as a cleansing..— G. Among these may be mentioned the several places in 1 Co 7. G. as in the Fourth Gospel. . W. only love ABIDING. in ExpTxx. (122'*) that blood is contrasted -with 'the blood of sprinkling.. Cain was of the evil one (iK toO TTovrjpod). H. DCG. p. [1902] 45 A. in 1 Jn 2-''. while in the Gospel the emphasis is laid on the Son's abiding in the Father and Christ's abiding in the Church. 817 . Through his faith he won God's approval of his gifts. * Popular opinion. Expository Lectures and Sermons. 10^. and slaughtered {^acpa^ev) his brother. 'Abiding' in . as a familiar devotional phrase (like Maran atha [1 Co 16'-^]. O Lord. or ' adoption. But. 237 G. He shall take ' A : ' . then to everything ABOMINATION ' — — — ' ' 1891. where our Lord is reported by St. Gbiffith-Jones. Mark to have used it. and also the art. 2 Co l^^). in the 1st Ep. while in S-'* Christ is mentioned as abiding in them by the Spirit. The ancient writer of the story (J) evidently wished to teach that animal sacrifice alone was pleasing to God (Gunkel. first roll of the purely local usages we have here no concern but there is a small class of transitional meanings which lead the way to those ethical connotations which are the distinctive property of the word. ('A|8eX) ' ABELc —Abel ' R. it should be noted that. conceived of in its various aspects. —Besides the artt. then a mental term. 1906. and the literature there cited. von Hiigel. p. 105). The greater excellence of Abel's sacrifice consisted in the disposition with which it was offered. thy slaughtered saints . vol. irapa-. ABEL Greek equivalent attached to it. see E. but the blood of the eternal covenant intercedes for mercy. The abiding place of the believer. of. an art. — . speaks of abiding in this state or calling.^ the reward of such living is that the believer * abideth for ever. . which was invoked in His prayer. 164 J. somewhat peculiar expression is found in 1 Jn 2^. The author of Hebrews gives the story a different turn. He 11-). 38 Skinner. 365 f. Peabody. and through his faith his blood continued to speak for him after his death. hope. ' — — ' place in the the elders (ol irpea^&repoi. both examples of its use in the Pauline writings convey a similar impression of solemnity as connected with the Christian believer's assurance of sonship and sonship (let it be noted) not in the general sense in which all humanity may be described as children of God. In the original story (Gn 4^"'') his offering was probably regarded as more pleasing on account of the material of his sacrifice. and conserving power. dealing with marriage and allied questions (? in view of the Parousia).' In each passage we have a subtle instance of the perfectly natural way in which the operation of the risen Christ on the heart is identiof ' with that of the Spirit. inro-). HDB . It is. saving. that we get the ethical use of abiding most fully developed and most amply presented. . 85 F. — As in the Gospels. and (4) that our Lord Himself.' into the family of God. Is 26^'. It refers in the OT to the feeling of repulsion against prohibited foods (Lv 11^°. 1. i. [1896] 44. or men of past generations. ' mine and shall show it unto you. (/SSAiO'/ia). It is recorded of him that he offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice (irXelova dvo-iav) than his elder brother (He 11^). p. however. 49i3f). whose presence in the heart gives the believer an independent power of testing whatever teaching he receives (cf. ^vith the ' ABOMIXATION case is used to render (eiri-. DCG. the words of 1 Jn227 gave rise t As indicated in to the practice of anointing with oil at baptism.

where he speaks (Ro 5-") of the 'otience' and 'sin' abounding. and together with fornication stigmatizes all the immoralities Its intensest use is of heathendom (Rev IT'^ ^). Ro4" Gn 17*) a fatlier of many nations. ' How many hired servants of ' my 15'^] father's have bread enough and to spare [Lk . when such personalities have arisen and have given themselves wholeheartedly to the Divine Spirit. reserved for hypocrisy. p. Paul).[Gr. all them that believe' (Ro 4^'). . • Cf. Paul. the prodigality of His illustrations. He was not satistied to see men raised to a slightly higher plane by their faith in Christ they were to be transformed in the spirit of their minds' (Ro 12-) they were always to 'abound in the work of the Lord (1 Co IS^s cf. and of the manifold response he was able to make to that appeal. ' ' ' ' — because they knew what commandments had been given them by the Lord Jesus 1 Th 4^). Sherwix Smith. ever-active qualities of mind and heart. sickness. Here. The religious temperament of the Apostle. The Light of t fie World. These is not exhaustive. — Addressing a Jewish in the precincts of the Temple. In all ages our faith has been conditioned by the human medium in which it has had to work. 'our forefather {rbv tr poirdropa) according to th6 To the Muhammadans he is the flesh' (Ro 4^). ally — ABRAHAM crowd ('A^paA/x).— The NT is . we find him breaking out into an ecstasy of thanksgiving at the thought of what God has done for him. and Christians are all in some sense his seed. Christian faith is full of spiritual resources its emphasizes the connexion between the Hebrew and the Christian religion by proclaiming that the God hath glorified his servant (iralda of Abraham This Divine title. 'abomination of desolation. was All through the OT and the full of significance. The ages of barrenness in Christian experience have been those Mhich have lacked richly-endowed perthe Epistles of the ABOUNDING. (everything). —The needs. Paul is preeminent among writers for the way in which ' . Ordinary men and women are pensioners religiouslj'. Yet he employs the same term in Ro 6' of the abounding of grace. (Cf. 2. It is fortunate that Christianity found at its inception such a man ready to hand as its chief exponent to the primitive churches. service (1 Co 15^). but Abraham did not worship the Elohim whom his fathers served beyond the River (Jos 24^ ^^ "). Stephen's speech (7^^). close-packed with vivid. . Ph 4""'^). misfortune. Rev 21-'^). -'0. St.' St. their varied character. NT the foundation of the true religion is ascribed neither to the Prophets nor to Moses. it was crucially important to decide ' || ' — . ' on which the soul may draw to the utmost of In the teaching of our Lord. or priest) and the first person 'resigned {mitslim) unto God' (Qur'an. he uses TrXeovdi'eiv. good works. Peter ' sonalities for its embodiment and exposition . . He was the head of the great family that accepted Jahweh as their God. be careless of poverty. Wesley. Bernard. Ja 2-'). GrIFFITH-JoXES. St. love. and he would put its resources to the full test of his spiritual needs and capacities. RVm) Jesus (Ac S'^). Origen. but to Abraham. and Lightfoot (especiNotes on Ejiistlen of St. E. hope This list of references (Roo'*). Muslims. on the passaj^es referred to. he consequently enjoys. whether he is speaking of the grace of God (Ro 5"). 1 Mac I-m. St. His was a rich and overflowing nature. Mk ISi'*). he is ' our father Abraham (Ac 7*. ii. 'model of religion' {imam. His favourite term. and who can. liatli abounded unto many' [Ro 5'*. ' — a condition which ' . Paul regards it as indicating that Abraham is the spiritual ancestor of the whole Christian Church. Mt 24i6. 2 Co 9^) and. have been the focal points tlirough which the forces of the gospel have radiated into the world at large. This is the language of a man who enjoys all the resources of the Godhead in his inner life. . are very characteristic of His own attitude towards the gospel He preached and St. which is by one man. and that especially ' . Jews. Ro 4^^. 'the fatlier of us air (4'^). Paul exhausts the power of language in urging his converts to allow the Divine energies of salvation to have their way with them. there has been a ^^dde-spread efflorescence of religious experience in the Church at large. to a peculiar degree. See Sanday-Headlam. Isaac (Gn 26^^) and Jacob (SH-) worshipped the God of Abraham. is Trepiaaevu} (in one case virepTrepiffffevw.' Ro 5^). and he in turn is lifted into is characterized by an abounding increase of hope. although it is worth noting that.1«). and the frequency with which He likens the Kingdom to a feast. and lifted its life in the to higher levels.* it acquires a moral meaning. its primary connotation being that of superfluity. therefore.' with all its suggestions of a large welcome and an overflowing abundance of good things. and that his letters remain as a record of the marvellous way in which he opened his heart to its appeal.i -"•-']. also Phillips Brooks. grace. Tit l'«. the well-known expression. and of the sense of inward spiritual abundance which . It was a subject for joyfulness to him when he found his converts thus responding to the poAver of God (see 2 Co 8"-)As regards his realization of this Divine ' ' ( abundance in his own experience. as they had received of him how thej^ might walk and to please God.' and in Ph 4^^ of the fruit of Christian giving. is similarly used in St. also and many other passages. however hard they may be (cf. 3. As Abraham 1. :. was the renowned founder of the Jewish nation and faith. To the Christians he is 'the father of 115. which cf. 'overflow. In the Epistles of St. of the great souls community. To the Jews their veins or his faith in their souls. See art. 19. as ye abound in fulness of character. the sufferings of Christ (2 Co 1'). The normal type of Christian is not reached till his nature is flooded with the grace of God. Taking the word Abraham to mean (according to tlie popular word-play. Jesus Christ. resources of the gospel. Paul. HO. or the Christian spirit that finds expression in liberality (2 Co 8^ 9«). and fruitTherefore. again. and even the prospect of an untimely end. see that ye abound in this grace also (2 Co 8'') expresses one of his favourite forms of appeal. [1897] 514a. 1S91. and vice versa. however. words and the way in which they are used give us a suggestive glimpse into 1. Paul.]). English word 'abound' in the translation of the Gr. so that he feels quite independent of all outMard conditions. There is nothing of special interest in these terms perhaps the former has the less lofty sense. there seems little to choose between them. ' Abomination of Desolation ' in IIDB.. the last otience against religion ' ABKAHAM with the grace of God. NT he has grasped the same idea. and ExpT viii.' applied to a heathen altar (Dn 12ii cf.) an adequate response on the part of believers to the varied and abundant 17. His conception of the gospel would be naturally in accordance with the wealth of his psychic and moral nature he would inevitably fasten on such aspects of it as most thoroughly satisfied his own soul . 125). contentment (Ph 4^-. Luther.— ' ABOUNDIN-G Thence connected with idolatry (Dt 7-^ Ko 2-. but it is representative. Augustine.' they were exhorted to abound more and more' (1 Th 4^). however. The call for (Lk 16'*. etc. words irXeovdi'u} and wepLa-crevu}. ' . and caught the spirit of the Master in his exposition of spiritual realities. The superabundant wealth of the gospel as a medium of the Divine energies of redemption. As used by St. as having either his blood in . Literature.

who was often 'slanderously reported (Ro3^).' ': ABRAHAM whether the Jews or the Christians could claim his support in their great controversy on justification. the inheritance of hai)piness. He does not. in so far as it expresses a spiritual attitude towards God. James attaches ' ' ( . John [in Speaker's Com. in whom all other believers. Genesis [ICC. without distinction. St. James (2*1-23) Abraham to establish the a man is justified by faith apart St. Genesis. while the maturer conceptions of a later age are carried back to Abraham. . Quis rer.^o). But.' the queen of virtues. the solace of life. not with the Aaronic order. 162). in his style. further. pp. fully the doctrines of the two apostles.. and it was counted to him for righteous' : ' With St. But. Against Wellhausen's theory that the story is a post-exilic attempt to glorify the priesthood in Jerusalem. Had St. from the works of the law (Ro 3^). The ethical and spiritual idea of God which is at the foundation of the reUgion of Israel could only enter the world through a personal organ ' who identifies God's vicegerent. 269 f. art. does not ditier much from Christian faith. whereby Israel believed on Him that spake and the world was. . Paul Abraham is a historical person who lived 430 years before Moses (Gal 3i'0. It is interesting to note that Clement of Rome co-ordinates ' — — faith faith in God's power to do things apparently impossible (417-19)^ faith by which he both strengthened his own manhood and gave glory to God (4^). To the king -priest of Salem Abraham gave tithes. See. without any kind of distinction. are 'Abraham's sons. it was natural that tlie writer of Hebrews should see the Aaronic priesthood superseded by an eternal King-Priest after the ancient consecrated order of Melchizedek.— St. 253. St. While the two apostles agree that Christianity is infinitely more than a creed. they found their justification in the priestly dignity of Melchizedek. ' ' ' Abraham to believed the gospel which was preached him beforehand. indeed. priests of the Most High (Charles. hour and ever afterwards by the mysterious order This is the conception of the For divergent critical views of the Abraham-Melchizedek pericope of Gn 14 see Wellhausen. the entire amelioration of the soul. James says in efi'ect Abraham believed God. Paul righteousness comes between and works with St. Taking the tj-pical example of Abraham. M. Gunkel and Skinner argu< for an antique traditional basis. Thus he is said to have 'rejoiced with the joy of the Law ' by a kind uses the thesis. he asks. ABEAHA^I of divine revelation and nothing forbids us to see in Abraham the first of that long series of prophets through whom God has to mankind a saving knowledge of Himself (Skinner. and in two expositions of his doctrine Ro 4. cf. de Abr. of (Westcott.' 'the only sure and infallible good. Such a theory does injustice to his intelligence. upon the Gentiles has come the blessing of Abraham {2. ii. in particular correcting St. 1SS9. Abraham had when he was still in uncircumcision (Ro 4"). — of was counted to of the tribe of Levi. Abraham saw the whole history of his descendants in the mysterious vision recorded in Gn IS^"^-. Gn 14) an argument for a priesthood higher than the Aaronic order (v. and willeth to do those which are most excellent' (Philo. Skinner. for it is said. Paul's misuse of the ' example of Abraham. But the difference assumed a dangerous form in the hard dogmatic distinction of the Schoolmen between fides infonnis and fi. Gal 3 he affirms the essential identity of Abraham's faith with that of every Christian. and who was not inferior to the great prophets of Israel in purity of religious insight and strength of inward piety. Book of Jubilees. 39). ' ' of Melchizedek. being nothing if not a life. and he believed in the Lord. When the Maccabees displaced the house of Aaron.^*) all who are Christ's.' fulfilling. Wiinsche). to the word is indicated by his suggestion of believing demons and dead faith (2^^. div. which he knew of intuition. which was regarded as the most perfect of virtues. made known in Christ. but with the roj-al priesthood of Melchizedek. If the two types of doctrine could be regarded as complementary sets of' Ja 2^^). whose faith in God (Gn 15^*-) conin the fultiliiient of the Law. him for righteousness.makes the believer Christlike. . In the Epistle of According to the Jewish tradition [Berenhith Rahh. The meaning which St. the conditions of Divine acceptance. his polemic would have been singularly lame. they difier in their conception of faith. heriting with him the Divine promises. ' Was it not because he wrought righteousness and truth through faith ? (Sp. and concentrated in their own persons the kingly and priestly functions. 44. Epistle of. | 31). Comp. the latter of which (along with the ' epistle of straw on which it seemed to be based) Luther so vehemently repudiated. writer of Ps 110. model sisted The ordinary Jews regarded Abraham as a legalist. who is able to do all things. It is now almost universally believed that the faith ascribed to the patriarchs was itself the result of a long historical evolution. her. Paul faith is the motive power of the whole life. lix and 191). The writer Hebrews bases on the incident of Abraham's meeting with Melchizedek (He 7. those who are faith [ol iK irlaTews) are of sons of Abraham. and it w-as reckoned unto him for righteousness ?' To St. It is not Abraham's blood but his spirit that is to be coveted (3-) . and in- Paul uses the narratives of Genesis as he finds them. James. As Abraham was the ancestor 3. for a faith that means self-abandonment in passionate adoring love to the risen Christ inevitablj. James been attacking either Galatians or Romans. the fulfilment of worthy hopes. Nor could anything be finer than the Rabbinic Mechilta on Ex 14^^ Great is faith.d€s fonnata crim caritate. xxvii). Asked if faith must not prove or justify itself by works. the patriarch is not dissolved into a creation of the religious fancy. the gospel which designated him as the medium of blessing to all the nations ' ' as his faith. think (like Jesus Himself in Jn 8^) of Abraham as directly foreseeing the day of Christ. example ' not that James. and not only bj. Wherefore was our father Abraham blessed ? and answers. Galatians. St. 1902. 140). him. and from him received a blessing. In the philosophical school of Alexandria there was a much higlier conception of faith.' faith . James works come between faith and righteousness. must have been profoundly grateful to him. Paul would have regarded both of these phrases as contradictions in terms. Finally.'^. and He counted it to him for righteousness' (Lightfoot. In these passages faith. he became the representative believer. St. . justice was done to both apostles.' are 'blessed with the faithful Abraham' (3^-"). But the ordinarj^ tendency of Judaism was to give Abraham's life a predominantly legal colour. Genesis. and ness. which leans for support on Him who is the cause of all things. if he was sounding a note of warning against popular perversions of evangelical doctrine. but that by works a man is justified. since all believers are converted and all faith is living.. seated on the throne of Zion. apart from his works. thereby owning his inferiority to that majestic figure. the Aaronic priesthood itself may be said to have been overshadowed in that ' ' . proving his faith by works. Before the dawn of criticism the theologian did not raise the question whether the patriarchal portraits were real or ideal.]. ad Cor. 211 f. 1910]. communicated 2. he would have regarded the question as superfluous. In like manner thou findest that Abraham our father inherited this world and the world to come solely by the merit of faith whereby he believed in the Lord . when Christ had given a Messianic interpretation of Ps 110. as in 1 Mac 2^" \Yas not Abraham found faithful in temptation. but he maintains that Abraham's faith in God as then partially revealed was essentially the same as the Christian's faith in God as now ' ' . 485. To St. Gunkel. like 3^). and called themselves. (Gal And In the Epistle to the Hebrews. p. Paul. i. may recognize their spiritual father."ff-). p. .

ausTarqum. Gn 23'') in the Land of Promise (He 11^). I. (1) The patriarch left his home and kindred. This Vk'as probably what Jesus had in view in the saying in Mt 915.e. but typical nor irrespective of moral conditions . (b) An absorbing pre-occupation with any pursuit may be the cause of fasting. Sanday-Headlam. Such fastings have a religious value only indirectly. 1904. abstinence is a refraining from certain outward actions as eating. On the principle that he who chooses the end chooses the means. The artist or the scientist may forget to take food. Look up. B. p. in Christian conduct there is extirpation. A. Abstinence in this sense is an essential and ever-present moment in The ' — of faith (11') — — the Christian life. The NT is not afraid to duty. and they enforce Christian exhortation (Col 4'^ Eph 4'). and served do no sin. W. v. however. Gal 6'''. Bar. s. 1865. His pilgrim spirit is related to his hope of an eternal city a beautiful conception transferred to Genesis from the literature of the Maccabtean was encamped interpreted. and because it exalts personal responsibility. J. tr. the ultimate tribunal of appeal in mat. and then try to And out what the Christian principles are (as these are unfolded in the apostolic writings) that determine its nature and its More narrowly — ' We — limits. trust. 102 ff. 437 flf. ..observed in such cases (Ramsay. we are told. Wherever he went he built an ABSTINENCE tive side of Christian conduct is abstinence. It is rather the survival of ancient religious sinners who have to be cleansed from all filthiness practices (like the fasting on the Day of Atoneof the flesh and spirit (2 Co 7'). not renunciation. as we unusual period. therefore. As Jesus fasted in the wU bad. Introduction. He 5"). are not fastThe lists of vices and virtues. suppression. It is associated with prayer.— (a) from food and drink. which on the occasions referred to were I Jn 3') is not simply to realize oneself . Here again the belief of a later age becomes the motive of the patriarch's act of renunciation. NT . where St. u. period (En. Ph 4").'' .). If they are caused by devotion to Christian service. t • See Dobschiitz. as akin to the spiritual and eternal.. This nega. Christian sanc. Theology. Such ters of abstinence in the ordinary sense (i. He left his home in Chaldsea. G. p. To purify oneself ment). xhey ought to silence criticism (cf. or abstinence may be un- Apoc. Christian Life in the Primitive Church. they are. badges of fidelity and they may be referred to with reasonable pride by Christ's ministers (2 Co G'". The whole of morality on its negative side may be included under Abstinence. I guess and fear . like all other privations so caused. . Fast- ing. Such involuntary privations.—!. 406 S.f and on it also lies the responsibility (Ro 14"*. . ' ' We ( decisive against that view. St. They may overtake the apostate as well as the apostle. Ascetic practices. may look first at the outward side of abstinence. ABSTIVET^CE. yet for each individual Christian these laws derness (Mt 4'""). Abstinentia'). was witliout food for three days has general laws to distinguish the good from the after his (G"). Fasting. for lists. for a moral or religious end. what is to be abstained from and what is not. though. Fasting is not the cause of the bad it cannot devolve this duty on outsuch pre-occupation. James Strahan. Pol.solemtification takes place not in innocent men. maiTiage. 1894-96. W.' Such a fast we have in Ac 9^. but naturalized in none. There is no mention. because. or of the with which Christianity deals there are sinful ele. Weiss. 72. p. and an abstaining from (dir^x^cOai) bread. or at the well forgot His hungei are focused in the conscience. Galatians. ' avoidable or involuntary (e. of fasting antitheses are apt to be misleading. 2 Co 6^* U'"'. p. 158 ff. Theology of the NT. 1901. and the function of (Jn 43''. xix. accounting that God is able to raise up. Christian moral progress (sanctification) includes a holding fast {Karix^a-Oai) of the good. but the effect and so its value ward rules. but never a home for himself. Talmud. confident that his speculative peradventure would be changed into a realized ideal. Beyschlag-. etc. when borne are they given to make needless the exercise of bravely and contentedly in the line of Christian Christian discernment. Lig-htfoot.* Ph 412). v. in a fast is mentioned in Ac 13'-. in the intensity of his application to his Avork . ISSO. Eng. not self. In themselves they are flesh' and 'fruits of the spirit. and went out not knowing whither he went (He IP). With it the ultimate decision rests. In obedience to a Divine impulse he ventured forth on the unknown. 1 Co 4". and never found another. His faith was a sense of the unseen and remote. B. St. Forward. In the self at the appointment of Matthias (Ac P^). every form of evil (1 Th S^'*-). Biblical Theology of the NT. i. from the nature of the case. B.' given in the NT morally indiflerent. Ac 27-'' 22.' etc. place in the Christian conscience the decision of but in turn they strengthen that faith (Ro 5^"^. Paul's Conception of Christianity. or from certain foods always or at shall see.' ' being risen with Christ.' (2) Abraham remained all his life a sojourner (irdpoLKos Kal TrapeirlSr]fjLos=2t'm nj. worldly business. Theol. or any great emotion like sorrow may make one ' forget to take — . B. der altsyn. Cicero makes this distinction. because it believes in the indwelling of the Holy (c) Real fasting is purposive and voluntary. ' ' ' — altar to God.Hooker's expression (Ecc. Paul. he cannot always consistently apply it (see Lewis and Short. as they may overtake any one are not meant to be exhaustive. • These are sometimes explained as voluntary fasts — to use In all moral conduct there is suppression . though I cannot see. 1896. 1882-83. They are like the scars of the Literature. 1902. it is to adopted through the force of custom. take it as inherments that have to be extirpated. but..certain times. . Lat. however. Paul thus also.g.— (3) gy faith Abraham offered up Isaac. . Bruce. It is thus applied to outward conduct. 9028-29.— F. depends on the nature of the emotion causing it.)> so the ferment of the new life acted on the latter is to discriminate between the good and St. 323-4 etc.* of 'works of the ing in the proper sense. These p. palastin. p. "While Christianity Paul. Paul speaks of his bruises as (XTlyfxaTa tou 'l-qcrov). . 289. 1895. Midrasch. Weber. i. consecration. 116 f. ch. Stevens. Romam^. 364 fif. but in nities.* 14-'^ in connexion the sphere of things indifferent) is the Christian with ordination. even from the dead (He 11'^). ABSTIN"ENCE writer of Hebrews illustrates his definition by three events in the life of Abraham. Syst. be not afraid. It Spirit. is a total or partial abstinence from food for an It is necessary to make this clear.ently binding on Christian Churches at such . It is the crucifying of the flesh death unto sin and it is the correlative of 'living to righteousness. Vict. 122).1123). The doubting heart says. while continence (eyKpareia) is used of inward self-restraint. they are not only indications of true faith. where St. The narrative in Gn 22 contains no indication that the thought of a resurrection flashed through his agonized mind. such fastings are real proofs of fidelity to Christ. 8)—but the contexts seem — — true soldier. He in many places. drinking. conscience. the believing spirit. The ideal of Christian conduct is Some hold that it was the form to be permanently sometimes said to be self-realization. cannot.

and the result in such cases Jesus. they fast for two or three days. though a opacrts (vision). also Polycarp. 1). Sim. we must look to the end aimed at and the efficacy of this means to attain that end. Hermas. 6 and. xvi. as those Jews did who vowed to kill St. Zee 8^*). . decision or induce solemnity. In such traditional fasting there is often. ought not to be of grace. and the experience of the Christian Church seems to be that any value it may have is infinitesimal compared with the evils and perversions that seem so inseparably associated with it. and simplicity in all tliese matters. Cf. ' : ' ' ' rigorous discipline (cf. (xii. in Levit. Peter. is akin to the truth that surfeiting of the body dulls the spiritual vision. 7) St. James. It is not said that St. and Epiph. Ixx. also Hermas. it is true. conscious! j^ or unconsciously. ii. Dial. and apologetic or hostile. the interpolations in : men it. as contrasted with later ecclesiastical literature. Temptation '). Apol. 4 cf. . while we must not minimize the reality of Christian . Paul fasted on that day. we may believe that the spiritual condition of the believer. and fasting (contrast Hermas. ix. when done to gain salvation. Hernias. after what Jesus had said on fasting. and they have not an abundance of necessaries. vii. or Epiphanius (Hcer. but the practice easily associated itself with the idea of fasting as a work of merit. James. Pharisiaism. nor St. 12. John and the other Apostles with him are said to have fasted three days before writing tlie Fourth Gospel (Muratorian fragment). or to the poor. Essenic) on In the NT the latter influence is the other. St. I give all my goods to feed the poor and have not love. v. as Eusebius ( Clement of Alexandria (Pferf. regarded as due to weakness of faith. wiioUy lost sight of His guidance. 2 . 10 . & eSpaKcv ifx^arevwu. The Apocalypse. Alex. What HE NT ( . to ratify a (Monday and Thursday) was adopted quarters. vii. and the Apostolic Church never St.) quotes an apostolic saying which supports this practice : ' : have found in a certain booklet an apostolic saying. resorted to fasting in order to superin- duce (3) Fasting was resorted to also that alms might be given out of the savings. St. while emphasizing the value of prayer (5^"^°). but. perversion. 1 Barn. Paul had to prove that such fastings could not be redemptively of any value. ABSTINENCE fast The Atonement came a memory rather than when that it was a reality (Ac 27*) is mentioned only as a time limit after which navigation was dangerous. (1) In many cases it would be mainly a nuitter of tradition. This view of fasting. or NT. Clem. or positive Neither St. 844^ To evaluate the practice of fasting. and more than both 'Alms abolish sins' (2 Clem. that they may supplj' the needy with necessary food (Aristides. strikes one in the apostolic writings generally. v. 61). See EBE v. ' ABSTmENCE to solemnize the proceedings. unduly pressed yet it is surely a proof that they considered fasting as of no essential importance.. that even as means of discipline they were of doubtful value. 23) holds up St. Hom. 1 Co 7^]). Ixxviii. is lacking in the usual accompaniments of a vision. Sim. Matthew. however. and to ascetic dualism (Orphic. These are the later dies stationum or crrdaeis (cf. Vis. . Clem. Peter's vision (Ac lO^'i") was preceded by hunger. they fasts. Paul's visions (Ac 16* IB'-'f-. ' alms. V. 6. liable to (2) abuse (Col 2-»ff). Montanus was the first to give laws to the Church on fasting. Did. viii. Platonic. Did. James. in the same connexion. 1 Co 9^'-'').). follows so closely on the heels of ritual that in some quarters it very early influenced Christianity (cf. the references to fasting are almost In the It is all incidental. vidual Christian intelligence to determine (Ro 14^). More powerful than prayer is fasting. St. prayer St. though prohably he did. i. 2 Co 12"-). 13) the sons of Zebedee.' ' : ' Origen (hom. rather than the performance of the outward rite. This saying might legitimately be deduced from such passages as Eph 4-^ and Ja 2"*. art. Ac 10=*".e. 1). 15). says nothing of fasting. Justin Martyr. the Pharisaic custom of fasting twice a week Mk in some though these days were changed to Wednesday and P'riday (Did. Ho?n. Sim. it beThough comes not only profitless but dangerous. v. Mt 17^S 9-^). though. 3 P'ast for those who persecute you' .' V. 8 diriora demonia jejuniis praeliandum . were early practised in the Christian Church (Eus. 9 Docuit etiam adversus Tertullian. According to Eusebius (HE v. He demanded secrecy. 9"^^. would be the essential element. Fasting done out of Christian love to the brethren noble but. iii. yet there is no warrant for making them an ecclesiastical rule. and that the spiritual life is a is . is Pharisaic complacency and externalism. fasting may have been viewed as giving power over demons (cf. Sim. Its revival in the Christian Church was due to traditionalism and legalism on the one hand. heretics did this (cf. xv. following the great prophets (Is 58^"''. implicated the feeling that God is thereby pleased and merit acquired. Justin Martyr. Col 2'^). 877). Fastings were used in certain cases to induce This is a well-known feature ecstatic conditions. is the scarcity of references to fasting as an outward observance. this view in the narrative of Mk Some find the Temptation (see EBi. however. and the former is as vigorously rejected when it makes itself necessary to salvation. x. 10. On any eventful occasion men might practise fasting. It was more when direct prophetic inspiration be. and he makes real ritual consist in works of mercy and blameless conduct (P^). and give the amount to some poor widow or orphan. strenuously opposed (Colossians and Pastorals). had relegated outward rites to a secondary place. These Jewish survivals were conserved without investigation by the Palestinian Church. or the Clem. it protiteth me nothing' (1 Co 13^). 7 Beckon up on this day what thy meal would otherwise have cost thee. ye sliall fast and mourn for them cf. Paul's language in 1 Co duced in support of self-torture of all kinds . St. Peter once mentions it as a means This silence. xv. . the Jews] feast. Perhaps the Colossi an in apocalyptic writings. . ' If there is among them a man that is poor and needy. de Jejuniis. Strom. (4) Again. " Blessed is also he who fasts that he may feed the poor " (' Invenimus in quodam lihello ab apostolis dictum— Beatus est ' We ' qui etiam jejunat pro eo ut alat pauperem '). Even the NT [Mt 17^1. apostolic Christianity regards fasting as of little or no importance. but it was not a voluntary fast nor is there any reference to fasting in the case of St. 3. Apology. H(er. and the reference in the case of Cornelius (Ac 10^") is a later interpolation. Even when fasting was enjoined. John. 18).has been adSt. p. cf. i. Nowhere is the traditional Church ascetic held up to imitation in the ii. 24 Tliere can be no doubt that ordination and baptismal and Paschal fasts may serve to solemnize tliese events. Paul (Ac 23^^). Jude. and that they were perpetually category would fall BE . grotesque as it appears to us. The NT is altogether opposed to such The matter is one for the indiecclesiastical laws. sincerity. viz. II 'When they \i. that they did not place the observer of them on a higher spiritual plane than the non-observer. that they were not binding. the danger of externalism was recognized Hermas. ii. 9-». 1) St. vii. Under such a the Paschal and pre-baptismal Though not mentioned in the NT. although it is tenderly treated when it is only a weak leaning The whole spirit of towards old associations. 3).

We are not here concerned with the NT doctrine of marriage (q.) in its totalitj'. The use of wine. The Oldest Church Manual. Apostol. 1885. tr. See. it is — inward reality which is mainly of value in the Christian ideal of abstinence. in this sense of a life whose activities are explained. . It in. it may become so on the principle that we ought not to do anything by which our brother stumbles. The institutions of society 'marriage. Mt lT-\ beginnings of that ascetic resurgence which ' ABSTINENCE indeed a preventive against incontinency. Col 3^) this view of these Pauline passages admit 'that there is very little asceticism. this Indeed. and must be upheld and honoured. must be considered in deciding the Christian attitude towards all outward observances.) for remarks qualifying the idea underlying the phrase. and. In 1 Co 8 the Apostle is dealing wdth the conditions of his own time our conditions did not engage his attention.g.. The verb do-Ktiv occurs only once in the (Ac 24^®). Abstinence is wider than fasting or outward observances it implies principles by which these external actions are determined. t but he did insist on the divineness of those obligations and . abandoning the battlefield. when we 1897. It may be said that interpolations like 9^9) reveal the 1 Co 7« (cf. for which he has been so greatly blamed. tr. Ro 8". then it is of value. Thus. — simply a preventive against uncleanness (see art. Ac 103". . but Mith the question as to whether celibacy is commanded as a superior grade of living.' ties which constitute man's social life. He was a celibate for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake (Mt 1910-12^^ and he may have made the mistake of desiring to universalize his own exceptional case. Paul does not say that it can produce that life or is necessary to it. p. then. Paul's Epistles. 454). in the way both of omission and commission. in our sense. Eng. which involves not only total renunciation of all sinful actions but self-restraint in all conduct. of NT. — cludes character as well as conduct. and are to be determined by the individual in the light of the nature of the Christian life. enforced. accused of deliberately ott'ending Jewish legal sus- NT Schaff. p. according to the NT. we may say with Sabatier (The Apostle Paul. Christian abstainers can find an adequate defence for their position in the degrading associations of strong drink in our modern life. * Harnack (on Did. 1891. is it. Theol. and his view is that in some cases marriage endangers this. or when practised to aid the poor. while there is much that makes in the opposite direction (McGiffert. marriage meant the multiplication of troubles that (Drummond. Again. reached its climax in monastic austerities. it is true. It is also the object of sanctification.. Ascetic principles. — ' 1899. 136). Abuse). We may conclude. 3. Age. in spite of his own somew^iat ascetic temperament. the dignity of labour. marriage is not to him . that. We shall see. while total abstinence is in itself not an obligatory duty. ' . however. contrary to the apostolic view. as . see Marriage.* Both these customs fall within the sphere of things indifferent. nowhere is total abstinence. fasting is not enjoined or even recommended as a spiritual help. then it is highly commendable.' 4. Marriage and celibacy. or is ottended. To begin with. but righteousness. p 123 ff. p. When the individual Christian finds fasting to be a part of this self-restraint. Paul. Paul indirectly opposes it (1 Ti 5^). ' — . World-flight is not conquering the world. Virginity). This principle. •The 'water-folk' found in the Eastern Church in the 3rd cent (who objected to wine at the Lord's Supper). come to deal with the principles of abstinence as unfolded by St. nothing can be legitimately deduced from this passage or any other in favour of fasting or flagellation as a general means of sanctification. however. in St. In one passage it has even been contended that St. but his words in our time would be simply equivalent to medical advice to the ett'ect that total abstinence as a principle must be subordinated to bodily health. in the ordinary sense. He recommends those who can to remain single as he is himself. 2 Co 41"but even those who hold ". It is the supremacy of single-hearted devotion to Christ that he holds out as an ideal. Slaves even are warned to abide in their situations. nor are ecclesiastical rules called for in the one case more than in the other. against the practice of those who had given up work under eschatological influences. but rather giving up the idea of conquering as such. World-flight is not encouraged in the NT. Soberness). or involuntarily undergone in the straits of Christian duty. The necessity of labour is unfolded in the Thessalonian Epistles. p. is the Apostle's view based on a dualism Avliich looks on matter and the human body as inherently evil. The ideal is life with the Risen Christ. as he does in the case of abstinence from food. and that there is at least a tinge of ascetic dualism in certain Pauline passages (e. total abstinence from strong drink is no more a universally binding duty than fasting is. but when it is a consequence of it. It is true he does not there give reasons. Yet there is no ground for the view that celibacy in itself is a superior form of life. xi. It is possible also that he may have been here influenced unconsciously by his Rabbinical training. peace. and as to whether this is based on a dualistic view which regards the sexual functions as in their very nature evil. * St. St. the rights of possession are of Divine appointment. While drunkenness as well as gluttony is sternly condemned. however short the time before the order to which they belong shall pass away forever (Stevens. Paul was St.' ' . and perhaps in this light also the propagation of the race was undesirable. cannot appeal to XT principles for a justification of their actions. then. knowing that they are God's freemen (see art. t See Ilarnack's What is Christianity i (Eng.ABSTINENCE discipline. and that he interpreted his own case as too generally applicable. Paul as being in general a human necessity. ' would make fidelity to Christ more difficult . 202. does not arise from a dualistic asceticism. then it is useful but one fails to find any proof in the NT that fasting is necessarilj' an element of self-restraint. Paul did not. 1 Co 5^ 7^"® 9"-^. 1904. yet cases may arise when this liberty has to be subordinated to love and the interests of Christian unity. marriage is viewed Vjy St. which is 'neither meat nor drink. that even this minimum residuum has to be dropped. expatiate after the manner of modern moralists on the dignity of labour. the state. When it is an etiect of an absorbing spiritual emotion. II. he was not blind to social nor and physiological facts' Mk quoted in EGT on 1 Th 4'*). He uses it as an illustration of the highest relationship he opposes those who prohibit it (I Ti 4^) owing to a false asceticism. or is made weak (1 Co 8^*). and it keeps in view also the inner reality of which they are the expression. while its liberty frees Christians from their observance. While Christianity recognizes the indifferent nature of these customs. 164) that this narrowness. which is equally applicable to fasting. because the same principle applies to both cases. and joy in the Holy Ghost' (Ro 14"). There is no dualism to be found in Paul's doctrine. 1. by an inner principle. It is a part of his greatness that. On the other hand. 8) thinks Eph 532 recommends celibacy as a higher life for the Christian.v. While. and its relations have their own honour (1 Th 4*. we may admit that on this question his view was narrow. 2. In view of the approaching world-end in which he believed.

was explained as homicide. Paul practised bodily torture. op. In tliis way must we explain the manifold passages where the Christian life is compared to a race. not arbitrarily imposed or cunningly invented it is It the consequence of fidelity to Christ's cause. It is the kottlSlv /cat oveLdl'^ecdai. includes the alive to the arises out of the very nature of the Christian life. What. cit. is a positive life— a life that is being sanctihed and this includes all along a negative element. Introduction). to an athletic contest. Vjut his plan is a studied attempt to conform to ceptibilities. AYhile he adheres to the heresy of 'the Way. Outward hardships of any sort must be effects. it is not subject to the law of enmity against God. 2). which overcame his bodily weaknesses. and the denial to self of anything that would hinder his being sure of the prize or that would weaken others or cause them to stumble. It does not. and the abuse (or earnest conflict [dyuivV^«j6aL\) of the man who sets his hope on the living God (1 Ti 4^"). It is sometimes held that at hrst St. and bore ' We NT with Gentile immaturity (1 Th 2"-i2).S'^. as in Codex D but such attempts are beside the point as surely as the attempts to judaize the document completely by making fornication mean man-iage within the prohibited degrees. Not only so. 1904. These are the works of the flesh. Ti 4^ 1 P 2"). similar to the evangelizing of Samaria by Philip and his baptizing of the eunuch. Just as these involve abstinence. This conduct was not due to fickleness or guile (1 Co 2'®. attempt at such a disengagement is found in the This was so-called Apostolic Decree (Ac 15). p 202) human nature. What is essential is the presence of the self-denying spirit. which is a holy calling a fellowship with the Holy One whose animatof Cliristian abstinence is — — Christian asceticism is the remedy against this. however. then. . is not athletics in our sense it is a bodily discipline dictated by a philosophico-religious view of the body a dualistic view of things (cf. The ground found in the nature of the Christian life. Paul tends to regard sanctihcation as mainly absence from sensual sin (Wernle.. It is a complete perversion to suppose that outward austerities can create this spirit. but to love (2 Co 5^^^-). These principles did not disengage themselves all at once The first real in the Church's consciousness. 1 Th 43 5--. PuuVs Conception of Christianity. 1 Ti 43). (Gal abstinences. It was. or flagella^Yhat he refers to here is the effect on his tions. It is a warning to Christian liberalism in Corinth not to degenerate into licence and so to fall. all ABSTINENCE dential disciplines furnished copiously by a strict adherence to the line of Cliristian duty. and that he tended to regard the body itself as essentially evil. whole life of his absorbing passion for men's salvation. 264). The asceticism born of tliese is at best only a (Tu/xaTiKTi yvfxvaaia* (1 Ti 4^''). . Attempts have been made often and early to moralize it and so hnd in it a Thus blood valid basis for Christian abstinence. 2.' consistently with his faithfulness to God and his being under law to Christ. to military life and warfare. self-imposed fastings. in short. p. and lists of these sins are given in the NT (see above. a reproduction of that Kivuxxis of self (so different from seltish human acquisitiveness) which was the great feature of the life of Christ (Ph 28). or the dealing of St. Its outward manifestation is accidental. This is his His &<TKr]aLs for the gospel's sake (1 Co 9*^"^*). wholly opposed to aKadapaia (1 Th 4"). out of his way to invent austerities. God. while Christian asceticism is one whose end is piety. which spends and is spent willingly out of love to Christ. Peter with Cornelius. Christians had to learn this grace of purity (1 Th 4-'). as it were. of ' weak and 'strong. 1 Th 2»). whole life is an illustration of this. Nor was this daK-rja-is of his ing principle is the Holy Spirit. Paul's teaching on this point was tinged Avith dualism. The reason for his emphasis on personal purity is the found in the immoral state of Grecian cities bottomless sexual depravity of the heathen world and in the sensual bias of (Schaff. The carnal mind is thing carnal is excluded. This determines positively what is of necessity to be avoided. Bruce. which made him work at night though preaching through the day. The Christian man body. To St. We are not to infer that St.' although he himself had the charism of continence (1 Co V). 1 ' ' ' . so also does Christianity. ii. 334). and it Avas done in simplicity and godly sincerity of conscience 24"*).' he does so without intentionally coming into collision with the customs or prejudices of others. This asceticism is. neither indeed can be' (Ro 8''). But St. cf. B.' For our purpose the Decree is valuable It is a land-mark historically rather than morally. the bodily members are just and the mortifying of the negative side of advance in holiness.29. Paul abstinence. — — ' ' a superior form of life which was binding only on a few choice souls.' and things strangled were omitted. Paul this involved very real asceticism. the other of eternal worth. and Ac from the servile man-pleasing of weak Judaism 1. — inconceivable evil of sensuality. the exhaustive labouring.) in the customs of Jew and Gentile. St. It was ditt'erent from the love(2 Co V'-. The Christian life. which made him abnegate his rights of maintenance at Thessalonica and Corinth. in the liberating of Christianity from ceremonial Judaism. Paul's view of sanctihcation whole personality. nothing more than a working compromise to ease the existing situation. emphaayiaff/jLos is Some have maintained that sized . tr. Eng. for Christianity does not deal Hence the witii innocent men. not causes. however. and self-discipline as great as any runner for tlie Isthmian prize or as any pugilist. He yielded to Jewish susceptibilities (Ac 16^ 18'^ 21^^). with its attections and lusts. He was keenlj' ' this aspect of sanctihcation (A. are the principles that determine the nature and limits of Christian abstinence? may learn these by considering the general word for 'abstinence' [awex^adai. St. 1 Co 6'--"^ Gal 5^8 etc. ' ' ' (1 Th 4'-8. and spirit is in union with Hence the very nature of the Christian Christ. and that it was only later on. This Christian asceticism is not due to any disparagement of the body or undervaluation of earthly relationships or a false view of matter. Beginnings of Christianity. . and others that he. Everylife gives a positive princijjle of abstinence. Paul has no double moralitj\ No one can empty himself too much for Christ or endure too much for Him. less superior liberty of Corinthian liberalism. which brought him into dangers by land and sea without being deterred by the fear of pain or privation. In striking language he figures himself as in the course of his Christian race undergoing privations. (Ac 15-'». then. soul. 1894. that he went. possibly from his own bitter experience of this sin. but with sinners. supplj' a logical or lasting basis for Such a basis is furnished by St. It is not simply that this asceticism involved abstinence from sin Christianity demands that from all it involved also the giving up of privileges and rights. The one is of This little proht.' ABSTINENCE He denies the charge. as in Colossians and the Pastoral^ — ' ' — . when the full consequences of his early views Avere carried into effect.' At the very lowest foundation of the Christian life there must be personal purity. crucifying of the flesh. — . gymnastic for holiness arises out of the provi* This crioftaTiioj yvixvacrta. . 1 P 2'i). That was the expulsive power which made him an ascetic in this sense.

however. i. themselves like goats to 20). Nowhere have we fuller lists of the works of the flesh given than in the Galatian Epistle. do not belong to the eternal world. He tells the advocates of liberty that love is superior to the Christian's freedom towards things indiflerent. ). just because it contained these two moments. . are largely irrelevant. Peter are content with combating this libertinism mainly by denunciation and exhortations to Christians. our bodies and their requirements. casuistically is to blur the distinction between the essential and the indifferent. but to the natural. (a) In regard to indifferent matters like food and drink God has given freedom. According to Clem. this included both aspects. Why not to advert to the coming conditions adore the image of the Emperor ? Why not throw incense into the fire ? Just because by so doing the fii'st and major principle of Christian abstinence was destroyed. They did not base their views on a material dualism. but only exhibits the opposite sides of the one Christian principle of sanctihcation. The neglect or abuse of this principle is apt to confuse the whole question of abstinence. because idolatry was so identified with all social functions that it was difficult to escape it. as if insulting the body.10 ABSTINE]S"GE ABSTINENCE ' abandoning ii. then. Jude. John. Paul means i)erfectionisni. It is not true. pleasure. Paul's principle. Rev 2". cit. p. and we may well believe that the later Gnostic dualism and licentious libertinism may both have appealed to the authority of St. Some so explained the saying ascribed to Nicliolas (cf. They. 163). which includes the affirmation of all the personality and its relationships as instruments of the spirit. or it is maintained that his attitude towards the flesh changes that at times lie views it as something to be extirpated. p. 1897 [see Index. This liberty rightly understood contains in itself the real principle of ab' — . and that this opposition between a negative and a positive attitude is not a contradiction. again. The argument is the same as that used by Jesus when He purified all meats (Mk 7'"). This principle. While St. They were not endangering the very basis of Christianity as a free service of God. Then Christian liberty in its fullness must be maintained (Gal 5^). St. as we have seen. {Strom. Or. not Divine commands and to . He points out the inadmissibility of sin (1 Jn 2^'-)By this neither he nor St. might become intolerant he might become the victim of false views. viz. and Romans. of Christian abstinence is found in the very nature of the Christian life. and spirits are His. Yet the natural world and its relations to us. Its twofold unity was apt to be disrupted. while the major premiss is the same. His general principle in regard to indiff"erent things is. just as St. admits that 'there is very little asceticism. The interests of brotherly love and Christian unity make liberty impose restraints on itself. mud of impurity (Irenreus. in which case both principles would be used to destroy such a stinence from view. In respect them We L . nor yet are they speaking ideally of the Christian life. It was a great step in advance to have it clearly enunciated. get what God meant us to get from perishable meats when we joyfully use them with a thankful spirit towards God. then. Paul. while at other times and oftener his exhortations to his Christian readers have reference commonly not to the Christian's attitude towards his fleshly nature. Age. To St. or of personality and its relationships as alienated from the Spirit of God. 'All things are lawful. The truth is that the change was not in St. Paul confutes ascetic severity towards the body in Colossians. was ajjt to be misunderstood. under Asceticism ']). Paul says all he can in their favour.' does not apply to sin. This positive principle. Paul's i)ositive principle of abstinence to refute it. These minutiae of fasting are human inventions. in Paul's epistles. Hence they had to that he came to repudiate this dualistic asceticism (Baring Gould. The Apostle. Paul. They were under the influence of an atmosphere rather than a system. that it makes liberty look as much on the weakness of others as on its own strength. and accordingly St. Peter had to face. 6. A Study of St. 137 f. as the Galatians were. Abstaining and retaining. This warning was necessary. •All things are laAvful. but to his relation to Christ or the Divine Spirit within him' (McGifl'ert. John is confuting in these perfectionist passages. p. John applies St. 2). as in Colossians and the Pastorals. Thus we find that the conditions at liome and Corinth were not the conditions present in Colossians or the Pastorals.' This is universally applicable only inside this universe of discourse. Paul the Christian life was a life of sanctification.^'). Hcbt. These are unfolded in 1 Cor. Even McGifl'ert. This restraint is a noble asceticism. the minor premiss varies. a false asceticism might be present which regarded matter and body as evil. It has further limitations. and. c. by pointing to the nature of the new life the Christian has in Christ. while there is much that makes in the opposite ' — ' direction ' (op. in the ordinary sense. — — what is sinful. The difficulty is intensified by the fact that in this region of the indiflerent we are dealing with the application of a universal principle to changing conditions. St. which would look on the observance of indiflerent rites as a necessary qualification of full salvation and Christian privilege. are of God and can all be used to His glory. however. like the bodily appetites which they satisfy. He warns the advocates of liberty also that they may apply this principle to matters that are essential and not indiflerent. To apply the principle to the latter sphere is to degenerate into libertinism such as St. had a second principle of abstinence which helps us to correct this antagonism. 136). that the gold of Christianity is not injured by the be defended rather than condemned. The abstainers in both these cases were in the minority. Our bodies. He clearly distinguished between those things that in their very nature were hostile to the Christian life and those things that were indifferent. but in the circumstances and conditions with which he happened to be at any time dealing. Paul deals with each according to its merits. as the Gnostics say.' It is this that St. For the weak brother. although he ranges himself in principle on the other side. souls. St. It is not ]>y using severity towards the body or by abstaining from marriage or leaving our earthly callings that we can gain further sanctific-atiou. This Christian principle of abstinence. that it was a holy life in fellowship with the risen Christ and its second principle of freedom in things indiflerent did not consequently apply. and St. Paul. so that. and also the negation of the flesh and the world. Alex. to use logical language. are not contradictories but complements. It is not applicable to our relation to tliose things that by their very nature are inimical to tlie Christian life. SeZv Trapaxpvcrdai ttj (rapKi (' the flesh must be abused '). Apostol. pruning and growth. as in Galatia. Yet this second principle was distinctly valuable. Jude and St. ana thus the right conclusion has to be discovered from the nature of the conditions with which we are for the moment dealing. and they were apt to be treated in a high-handed fashion. These distinctions. 'The liberty of faith is found in the bondage of love (Sabatier. they lead a life of self-indulgence.

.' In older English the verb had both meanCranmer's Bible has abuse = use to the ings.3a(r:s) for the gospel's sake was the voluntary abridgment of his rights of maintenance by the Corinthians ( 1 Co 9'-". Entstehung der altkaihol. the ' Latin abator means use badly. and has become a sphere of definite moral retribution. . (see Lewis and Short. art. .the abyss in the sense of (32 (33)^). undergone a moral transformation. Asceticism at its best leaves the house empty. The lower planes of life gain signihcance in subordination to the highest. or pursued without regard to others. artt. 1 Co 7-'''* '*^'^). no. 1897. 247 A) it means use wrongly . 142. misuse (cf. 'Christianity and the Life that now is. .. Ehre. 18S9 O. e. It is doubtful from history and physiology if it can even do that.^ (RV the pit of the abyss') and tj a^vacros simply rendering of the word Ro 10^ Rev 9'. in Rev. 14) and that perhaps is why RV retains 'abuse. Gut. — Grimm-Thayer. human relationships. when the dissolution of society seems imminent.— This 11" 17*'20^-^ ' is the RV Lk ' Donald Mackenzie. AV translates 'deep'. p. for ^vd6s. J. Ps 103 (104)") and were conceived of as shut up afterwards in subterranean storehouses In Job 38i6*. As the height of right may be the height of injury [summum ius sunuua iniuria). Gal 1'°). Bonn. Summary. und Weib lass fahren dahin'). ' .' 'the abyss. C'olossians'\ 1879. means use to the full. Lecture vi. both Evangelist and Evangel (cf. History of Dogma. See also SELF-DENIAL and Temperance. The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church (Hibbert Lecture. St. iv. Harnack.' or (2) use to the full. Potter) speaks of using fully every device of wisdom. however. rb (pp^ap in Rev 9^. and concerns {e." — ' in DONALD MACKENZIE. 173 ff. Logically carried to its issue. 252 ff.' In this second sense Cicero uses the word of spending one's whole leisure time with a friend Abator '). then. ' LXX Ec — 9'). D. In both 1 Co 7^^ and 9'^ Karaxpaofiai full in Col 22'-. tr. In the later Jewish eschatology.v. Holtzmann. B. this false asceticism would not only enfeeble the soul by debasing the body. Kind. B. Zbckler. but it rests with the individual conscience to determine when this is necessary for the furtherance of the new life in Christ. ABUSERS. EGT and Hand-Corn.^. Edinburgh. bottomless pit no distinction.' misuse. The Ethics of St. J.' The translates it so in either (1) ' ABUSE. PcbcL i. Thus in Plato (Menex. Apparently . Abuse the Comm. One phase of St.. vol. 1894-99 H. p. Hastie. and marginally so in 7^^ (a) 1 Co 7^^ The connexions {e. also C. This prohibits not only sinful actions but sinful thoughts. . there may be abstinence in indifferent matters. on above passages.' The word is found frequently in the LXX. Present Day Tracts. being made between rd ^piap rrjs d^vaa-ov in 9^.v. Hatch. vii.. not of the body as such ABYSS 11 — — ((TtD/xa). Eng. InLk. vol. Robertson. — Charikles. But God's ideal for the body is different (cf. b97 tf. Tiibingen. 1857. Consult the books referred to in the article and the various Commentaries. (p. Ph 3^^). ' the depths of the sea is used as a parallel to ' ' ' ' ' RV and in 41^ (LXX) the sea-monster regards the Tartarus of the abyss as his captive. This sphere by its very nature is not subject to obligatory ecclesiastical rules. and primarily denotes the water-deeps which at first covered the earth (Gn P. word. In St. He shows that Christianity is not a matter of prohibitions. They do not. French abuser on abuse celui qui se laisse captiver and Mark Pattison's note on Pope's Essay on Man. Paul's attitude towards the non-workers in Thessalonica. (from a intens. S^S d^vaaos which occurs in . 18S8). sorrow and joy). . -iV2' Theulogie.. Job 3". Sermon xix. 1870. Paul's accommodat(6) 1 Co 9^^ ing conduct ((TU7/caTd. A. The Ethiopian Book of Enoch is especially suggestive for the development of the eschatological conceptions that appear in pre-Christian Judaism and in the earliest part of that book the fallen angels and demons are represented as cast after the final judgment into a gulf (xdos) of fire (lO'^-"). where Sheol has passed from its OT meaning of a shadowy under world in which there are no recognized distinctions between the good and the bad. Christian Ethics before the Reformation. A. circumstances {e. 4. as human life is always 70 (71)-" the abyss' is applied to the depths of the earth. ' In 1 Co 6" and 1 Ti l^'' dpa-evoKo'iTai is translated abusers of themselves with mankind (cf. lawful use of the world (I Co 7^^) or even of Christian rights (9'^) becomes harmful when dissociated from eternal issues. Ritschl. 1910 A. London. vol. Berlin. Its aim is to destroy the body. s. ch.—The ' ' ' ' meaning bottomless. Latin Diet. but in essence they are applicable to all time. Alex. G. W. The Greek verb Karaxpo-ofiai had both these meanings.g. ' . not to fit it for God's service.ABUSE. marriage). nor must it be based on a false view of matter or of the human body or of ' to love. Paul. . Eritische Gesch.g. Glasgow. Lessons of Life and Godliness. ii. . however. tr. Ion. but would destroy the body and matter altogether. Literature. cf. EDB.g. 1877-78. Karaxpaofxat . St. iii. 1890. Blaikie. Paul's view sins of uncleanness were the inevitable Divine penalty of forgetfulness of God a view strengthened by the association between uncleanness and the worship of Aphrodite in places like — Corinth. Paul says that this d<pei5ia criii/xaTos severity towards the body is of little practical value (Col 2-*). (2) Besides this.. (c) ' become injurious. so conversely the abnegation of Christian rights for the gospel's sake enhances the power of — renewed life —a walking in the Spirit. A. the wicked and the weary (cf. 'the depth') occurs in classical Greek as an adj. i^hdm. Ro 1"'' written from Corinth). though it is nowhere used in the to render the Heb. This is what may be called essential abstinence. But (6) the Apostle uses the primary principle of Christian abstinence to refute this dualistic asceticism. the conception of the abyss has also .. encourage aloofness from or slackness in social duties (cf. Luther's hymn. Edwards in . 2 Co 11^). and Rom. . Vaughan. Christianity 9^^ — determines them eschatologically (cf. Luthardt. business and wealth) of life have in Christianity an emotional interest. while in 21'' the chasm (8iaKoirrj) filled with fire (cf. 2 Th 3i"«-). p. 3 vols.^) is described as bordered by the abyss. nor must sucii abstinence be made the basis of salvation or of a higher moral platform. This accommodation must be distinguished from men-pleasing (cf.g. ' ' dj3vacToi remaining passages (RV 'the abyss'). Kirche. bk. ' s. W. Stoicism would expel these emotions and leave the soul empty. London. Mk 10-'*''). usually as a rendering of the Heb. and ^vaa-os. are the principles that govern Christian abstinence: (1) The Christian life as a 'holy calling demands abstinence from all sin. i. This unnatural vice is that known in Greek literature as iraidepaaTla. In Ps Hades . and Clem. if pressed without regard —A These. sermon xiv. and is here evidently a figurative equivalent for Sheol.' Texts like this apply in their original freshness and strength to times of crisis (cf. Rights legally due may. Becker.' On TratSepaorca consult W.' but in biblical and ecclesiastical Greek almost invariably as a substantive denoting the bottomless place. ABYSS. but the new life in Christ has an expulsive power against sin and a constructive power of holiness. E. Lightfoot. Sermons. F. but of a uncertain.. Frankfurt am M. der A><k<'f<e. To avoid abuse of the world is to use it sub specie Abuse here borders on our meaning of finis. 1911. ii. so that what is to be aimed at by the Christian is the destruction of the flesh (a-dp^). See also J. LrrERATURE. C. Alexander. ABUSEES fact. E.

ACCEPTANCE Mt 2531-^s) filial aff"ection to a widowed Ti 5'') supplication and intercession for all men (1 Ti 2=*) undeserved suttering patiently endured (1 P 2'-"). compare 4i» 1 Ti P and 4^. 1 He 1P5 ei/7rp6(r5eKros. He it is who works in us that which is well-pleasing in his sight through Jesus Christ (He 13-').). ' . LAMBERT. ' " ( . Jer 6'-'* etc. 6'^ 8^2.' etc. in loc. In Lk 8^' the penal aspect of the abyss comes clearly into view it is a place of confinement for demons. however. St. Paul hopes that the collection for the Jerusalem poor may be acceptable to the saints and.e. . The Commentaries and Bible Dictionaries . In Ro lo^i St. Pr''2P. . Sheol or Hades— a sense equivalent to that of Ps 70 (11)-^'. ' — . . In 9^* ^ the pit of the abyss' sends forth a smoke like the smoke of a great furnace.L. while relation of the believer to Christ.' This furni-hes a starting-point for a detailed enumeration of tiie courses which are 'well-pleasing' to God.— The noun the itself is 4*. on the to be carefully avoided one hand. as the following list shows: S^xo^ai. 2 Co 6> 8'^ 11^. Mk P^. the offering of service with reverence and awe (He Fi-** cf. In the former these grounds are partly ceremonial (Lv 22-'*). Salvation. Slndieg. V. however. It should be noticed that in the the adjective well-jileasing often takes the place of the acceptable and that in Eph P the familiar expression (his grace) wherein he hath made us accepted in the Beloved gives place to the more correct which he freely bestowed upon us. referring to the same project in 2 Co 8^^. Paul in prison ' . according to the NT throughout (explicitly in the writings of St. who was Himself the perfect embodiment of ali thiit was acceptable and well-pleasing to God (cf. Fh 4'^ Col 3-». the abyss was conceived of as the proper home of the devil and his angels. we are in the midst of the visions and images of apocalyptic eschatology. not an isolated act it is an act that brings us into a [lermanent relation witli the source of spiritual life. There are. n-poaS^xoiJi. because (a) they are a manifestation of the spirit of Christ in us (Gal 2-" cf. reached its most rigid and mechanical development in the degenerate Pharisaic cult of NF times). the mere outward state and presence) and over against it the comprehensive declaration of Ac 10^' In every nation he that feareth God md workcth righteousness is acceptable to him. C. In Rev. With 2 Co IP on the non-acceptance of another gospel than that of Paul. In Ko 10". but the following considerations may be properly adduced here. Gal evapearos. J. and as such are well-pleasing or acce])table' to God. and into it the old serpent which is the Devil and Satan is cast for a thousand years (20^"^). 4^* . Tit 2^. Paul. It is interesting and instructive to comiiare the grounds of acceptance in the circle of OT thought with those in the NT. Mt 17^ JnS^^etc). Lk 4^«). and (vapiarws. and which may be set forth as follows: the ottering of our bodies as a living sacrifice (Ro 1'2'-) the serving of Ciirist by not putting stumblingblocks before weaker brethren (14'*) missionary work the ottering up of the Gentiles 15"*) the gift of the Philippian Church to St. ' ' . and is henceforth in Christ organically united to Him as the member is to the body (1 Co 12'-'-). two alternative perils antinomianism. . — We ' . 13'''). is the condition of initial inclusion within the Kingdom This is the watershed of Divine love and life. 'good works' in the Cliristian sense are a necessary proof and outcome of this relation. . 2 Co . . By that act of faith. All these may be looked upon as examples of the 'spiritual sacrifices' (1 P 2^). Mic 6^. and become purely ethico-spiritual. and what He is ready to do in us. from which we are saved by the recognition of the mystical union of the l)eliever with God in Christ. There is a theological problem of importance raised by these passages What is it that constitutes the ground of our acceptance with God ? The full treatment of this problem must be sought under the art.' whether living or dying. as the branch is This 'justifying faith' is. a false antithesis. and partly ethical (Is I'-'i". ia . on the other. This Either Or is. art 'Abyss' in EHE."). to be well-pleasing to him (2 Co 5®). oeKTds. and not of man not our own doings. is of God. which assumes our continued accei)tance with God irrespective of our moral conduct afterwards and the doctrine of salvation by works.v. Deissmann.* He 12-'* x'^P'^i 1 P 2-" and x^f'-'^^'^y also 2" . more or less implicitly elsewhere). The previous history of the word explains its use in the NT. 1 P 2^. . Christians are children of light. to tiie vine (Jn 15'"'*). the way was ertectually prepared for the full proclamation of the spiritual message of the gospel by Jesus. The abyss has an angel of its own whose name is Abaddon (q. • ' (1 .12 ACCEPTANCE (Ph 4'8 mother . Ro \b^^- Ti 2^ 5'^ ^i. — ACCEPTANCE.' and the in the NT should also be noted. 2 Ti P^ see also for the accepted time' (the day of opportunity for accepting the Divine message) 2 Co 6'-"'^ (cf. Unquestionably the Christian religion is a religion of Grace. From it 'the beast' issues (IF 17^). They are to make it their aim. 'pleasing. which are religions of Law. Pli . Now. which makes moral conduct the condition of acceptance. though here and there a higher note is struck (cf. to test and discern the Lord's will (Ro 12^). lays down tlie principle that contributions are acceptable in proportion to the willingness with which they are given. He IS^i. are now left with the passages which speak of God's acceptance of man. We — Eph l*". Mt 5'8. which determines the direction and flow of all subsequent doctrinal developments in Christian theology it is what settles the question whether our thoughts and practice are distinctively Christian or not. he passes from a state of condemnation into a state of grace (Ro 8'). 21if. where he is referring to Dt 30^^.* Ro 12'" 14'8. which are 'acceptable' to God. See the conmientaries of Westcott and ' ' RV AV ' ' . in the centre of which was a lake of tire reserved as the place of their final punislnnent. though we come very near (clttoooxv). Ph of the believer 'in Christ' (Jn 15« cf. 2 Co 8" (Titus 'accepted the exhortation') and He IP^ ('not accepting deliverance') do not call for comment. . ' ' — ' . however. as the above references prove.) or Apollyon (v. 2 Co 5^ Eph 5'«. in virtue of which the sinner accepts Christ and ajipropriates all that He is and has done. as contra-distinguished from Judaism and other faiths.o. and are mostly equivalents of oexo/j-ai and its derivatives. Col 3'-"). ' ' ' Arniitage Robinson. but willingness to accept ivhat He has done for us. ' ' ' ' ' Literature.' are to prove what is acceptable (or well-pleasing) to the Lord' (Eph 5'» cf. thus surreptitiously introducing the legal view of religion once more. and. Paul uses it simply as the abode of the dead. The use of apeo-rov. dTroSeKTos. . in it is religious in its root. * On the liible verb apiuKui use of these words in inscriptions see A.-'). What then are the principles and practices that ensure tliis hap[)y consummation ? may Hrst notice the familiar negative projiosition set forth in Gal 2'' and Ac lO^'* God accepteth no man's person (i. . It was largely due to the prophets that the old ceremonial ground was gradually ethicized . and (6) a demonstration of the continuance cf. AV of not found in in Instances of it ' ' the NT. JUSTIFICATION. indeed. ' ' — ' ' ' ' ' ' We ' ' ' . hnd Xafx^dvo:. though it never died out under the earlier dispensation (which. P"'-)- The other words. Dt 10-*) in the latter the ceremonial association has entirely vanished except in a metaphorical sense. 1 acceptation' Ti P^ the verb and adjective are frequent.

750. W. having no active part in the process of reconciliation. the TrpoTaywyevs between us. The light thrown on the condition and attitude of man towards Gcd. suggested 'for through Him we both {i. especially in the last (1 P 3'^). which demands a process of reconciliation. Here tlie Person of the TTpoaaywyevs is chiefly thought of (' this has come to us through Him ') and the resulting beneflt is urged as a reason for holy exultation. 1877. ACCESS. . and Christ as the irpoaay^jiyevs who introduces the sinner into the Divine presence. Jesus Christ the Smi oj Life. the bringing of man to God is effected through the work of Christ in His Passion . Aristid. 522 D]).se favour is sought and found. but not in the magnitude of their attainments or the quality of their influence and they are more or less acceptable to God according to the entireness of their consecration and the value of their service. — ' ' — . restore us to His favour. is often represented as the King of His people Israel (cf. In Ro 5-.ACCESS ethical in its fruit. and the quality and abundance of the latter naturally show the quality and potency of the faith-life of which it is the expression and outcome. and tiie constant endeavour of His true diisciples to follow in His steps. and in all things to become more and more like Him. In itself it stands for the work of a functionary whose role is to act as a merely official link between the two parties. GRIFFITH-JoNES. and Literature there specified. ii. This appears in the four passages in which the word is used. Tlie conception of the effects of evil-doing as separating God and man is one that runs through the priestly ritual of Judaism (cf. 1 P 3'».e. ' It is noticeable. Griffith. etc. and who has the power of life and death over all His subjects. 3. ' ' ACCESS 13 . further.e. but they determine our place vjithin tlie Kingdom. and the reconciliation of humanity at variance with itself as well as with God is brought into the circle of is : mediation (cf. Macgregor. into this grace wherein we stand (see i. is included in the benefit secured by Him for mankind at large. which came through Jesus Christ.e. —To the literature in the DCG add John Foster.' introduces to another as an intermediary. is in the Epistles of the the translation of the Greek word irpoa-ayooyTj (Ro 5-.''* 'for he is our peace [i.' Here that revelation of God. but it is the unfading ideal. It was. p. tale-bearers [Plut. 1853. and victorious character are mainly dwelt on. The light thrown on the character and attitude of God towards man. Jew and Gentile) have our access in one spirit unto the Father. Through this word we are thus led into the deep places of tlie gospel as the reconciling agency of God to man. since it means justification as a ground for rejoicing in the hope of glory.' mainly in a derogatory sense (cf. There is thus an adequate motive presented to us for perpetual striving after perfection. . R. JUSTIFICATION. however. ceived in the kingly relation (as frequently in the OT). E. through whom we have also (/cat. It was given only to One to be altogether well-pleasing to God . artt. He is the peace-maker. and man to man. being uncertain of his recej)tion that he knows of nothing which he can do to restore the lost relation and that he is deeply sensible of the shame and peril of his condition. as one who. the apostolic use of the word in its reference to the person and work of Christ includes the suggestion is between God and The word Trpoaaywyrj man was accomplished. . and corresponds to a fact in the consciousness of pil awakened sinners. especially in the Psalms. The Divine dignity has been outraged. ). Gordon. — refen-ed to has been an overwhelming sense of gratitude is awakened by this fact. however. till . God.— This word NT — insufficient to represent this function. and St. 175 . and. Paul's spiritual attitude not as though I had already attained. The Tu-o/old the ChrisUan Church. one to whom all allegiance is due. not merely on account of His loftiness and majesty. According to this. The kingly concept represents God as supreme. ' ' . Jahweh. 395] called Trpo(Tayo}-/€h. The idea which lies behind the NT references.iv) our {t7}v) access (introduction) by our {rfi) faith. There is thus no longer a right of admittance to the Divine presence. . It has been treated very thoroughly Here we shall conhne ourselves to in DCG {s. favour. copulat et auget' [Toletus]. 205 M.). p. . unless the wrong is righted and the lost favour restored . where the verb is used actively).cf.J ONES. — ' — that has been secured. It is thus a form of words representing Him in the light of a Mediator between God and man and it throws light on the relation of the three parties in the transaction. answering almost to our " as might be expected " [Alford]) got [i(xxhKa. p. and having therefore no claim to the gratitude of the beneficiary in the process. used later in a technical sense.13]). and lead us to the benefits of the Divine reconciliation. In the earlier experience of . There is an aristocracy of the spiritual as well as of the natural life the saved are one in the fact of salvation. as well as 'well-pleasing' to Him. however. 2.Christ. J. ii. 1907. Col po-'-. the righteous for the unrighteous. E. Paul this feeling was evidently poignantly emphasized and the sense of deliverance that came to him through the gospel may be taken as the measure of the pain and sorrow from which he had been delivered. The connotation of the word. but of His alienation. 1 Th 41-^ 1 Jn 3-'2). that He might bring us (Trpoaaydyrj) to God. The function fulfilled by Christ as the One through whom the renewal of the lost relation — .. is rather that of the difficulty of approach to the King's presence. Jew and Gentile.v. Trpocrayoryrj came thus to mean It is access to the royal presence and favour. In classical 1.' i. the protection and kindly attitude of God can no longer be relied on. the court wpoaayuyevs being a functionary whose business it was to bring visitors or suppliants into the king's presence. See. LrrERATCRB..p. who were once far oft" from each other] who hath made lx)th one' by His blood [v. 175. the ' access receives its meaning and privilege through its consummation in and bj. i. that in most of these passages the Oriental awe in which all potentates were habitually held is suffused with a sense of joy and pride in God as Israel's King His power. 13*). Eph 2's 3'. also the prophetic declaration in Is 59^ 'your iniquities have separated between you and your God'). ii. and His claim to obedience set at defiance. In the OT. 18S6. W. not as universal King but as the All-Father. again. Thus our works do not constitute our claim for acceptance with God after entering the Kingdom of Grace any more than before . . Dale. The suggestion is that man is conscious of Ijeing alienated from God by sin that he has no contidence in approaching God in consequence. A. 21 the spies of the Sicilian kings were 369. man to God. TTpocraywyevs Xrj/jL/jidTwv. Greek. from this association of ideas that the word derives God is conits religious connotation in the NT. one wlio liunts for another's licnefit cf. It suggests tliat the normal relation of the King and His subjects has been disturbed by rebellion or wrong-doing. 'because Christ also suffered for sins once (a-n-a^. Lectures. but I follow after' (Ph 3^-) is the normal attitude of every true believer (cf. 69 . v..' In Eph 2'* a slightly different emphasis ' that the access ' to God accomplished by Christ Himself. The Jewish Temple and . On the other hand. Ps 10^® 24S-1U 444 472 68J4 etc. meaning here 'once for all' = a fact accomplished). . and ' ' ' ' ' ' DCG . a jackal [Dem. the term Trpoaayuyevs was used primarily for one who brings to.

). Literature. (1 Mac 15-^). especially in the parables of service and 10^»). Gal 6**). 303 If. i. ..' must be studied in the light of the paragraph (vv. itself or else entirely overlooked. NT . (6) to the inconsistency between the doctrine of justification by faith alone. Though they in the heroic age. which separated it from FAia. and by the use they have made of it men are sentenced (cf. where the governor had his official During a prolonged mission in that residence. 15 Tiberius took it from the Senate. that of the former is for a place. 2. . Hititory of Greece. The judged as well as the unsaved. 19119. St. Sjjarta and Sicj^on are named among the numerous free States to which the Romans sent letters on behalf of the Jews about 139 B. adding it to Macedonia to form an Imperial province under the government of a legatus but in 44 Claudius reProconsul (avBdiraros.. N. Apostolic Age. to ' all the saints who are in the whole of Achaia. tievveil.) calls attention {a) to this aspect of the Judgment in contrast with that which represents the saints as judging the world and angels (1 Co 6-^.. St. Eng. there will be gradations in standing and in reward in the after-life.v. and part of Epirus (Strabo. Paul's residence in Corinth. to the fact of the saints having to give an account [evilof their earthly stewardship. p.. Rom. 1894-98. stored it to the Senate. In A. Menzies {Com. Lmidiui. ' ' ' In gratitude for the recognition which his artistic contributions had met with in the native land of the Muses . however. tr. iii. The rapid progi'ess of the gospel in Achaia is partlj^ explained by the fact that Judaism had already for centuries been working as a leaven in many of the cities of Greece. iv.S STRAHAN. The Provinces of the Roman Empire-. vol.— See Akeldama.). A.v. higher or lower.) of Ephesus warns his fellow-citizens of the difficulty of giving account (\6yos) of this concourse ' and in Ph 4'" the fruit that increaseth to your account.D. no inconsistency generally represents the saved as here. i. Leipzig.' ' deem. happy in their own almost uninterrupted prosperity. merely a strij) of fertile coast-land stretching along the soutli of the Gulf of Corinth. ^tolia. Edinburgh. miles.' ' — . The passage should be compared with 2 Co 5^". Apostolic A<je.[London. cf. Clarke.C. 1898.— See Trial-at-Law. 25). Argos. Acharnania. C.C. Paul applies this doctrine. The Histories of Polybius and Livy . is retributory and involves rejection . the brother of Seneca.]. and VhWo's Legatio ad Gaium (§ 36) testifies to the presence of Jews in Boeotia. and after a few months Vespasian re-established the provincial constitution. The administrative centre was Corinth [q. keeping themselves as far as possible aloof from the conflicts between the Ionian and Doric States. were celebrated its ACCOUNT. as reward (Lk 19i8-2» etc. These may be regarded as special instances of the General Judgment already referred The expression dnodLOovai \6yov generally imto. 459 ff. being thus almost co-extensive with the modern kingdom of Greece. . to those who have died before the Parousia and those who are alive The life in the body provides the opporat it. however. with the dry remark that the Greeks had unlearned the art of being free ' (Mommsen. where the judgment-seat is called Christ's see also 1 Co 4^. from the river Larisus. Attica. ACCUSATION. either to make light For one of sincere scruples or to reprove laxity. and others with them being Achjean Athens (q. was. W.v. also. . . to tlie Sythas. He ll'^ 2 P 3'5). sen. Simple uses of the noun 1 Co 41. Paul was brought into contact with the proconsul Gallio [q. in the present writer's opinion. . p. . Mk : ' To the end of the empire Achaia remained a senatorial province. 'Each one of us shall give account of himself to God. In I Co 16" St. and Corinth.— See lit. Dionysius. Provinces. Judgment the Comm. are found in ' Ac 19^". Ac 18^^) was therefore the governor's correct official title at the time of St. Tlie declaration in Ro W^. McGiffert. its ACHAICUS. however true it is that salvation is by grace. .'i6ff. tr. when the Romans subdued the country (146 B. is emphatic as to the fact and nature of this judgment (cf. v. Eng. JaMK. i. to whom alone (as universal sovereign and object of worship) man is answerable.' Ac 17^ rather indicates that the Apostle's brief visit to Athens had already borne some fruit. Eug.' and the liberality of 'the regions of Achaia' (2 Co — NT — ' . Stnatsverwaltmir). {q. 9^ 11'°). Holm. to himself and his converts.) was either reckoned by believers. Griffith-Jones. 321 f. cf. and whose service edified it.C. free from tribute. 1 Co 3'^''^). Its whole length was about 65 miles. Paul. man to judge another is to usurp the prerogative of God. and CenchrciC but the address of 2 Cor. ACHAIA. . 26'2). in the classical period. C. Achpean cities are mentioned in the Corinth. As constituted by Augustus in 27 B. on 2 Cor. It is not till the last struggle for Hellenic independence that they appear on the stage of history. E. St. Paul rejoices at the coming of Stephanas and FortuProbably they formed a natus and Achaicus. unnamed ' ' ACCURSED. so far as it went. London. they rarely figured in the great Hellenic period. like the Itahans. but whom we know only by a casual reference in the NT. while tne higher mountains of Arcadia bounded it on the south. which is found in the Synoptic Gospels and was an integral part of ' ' The cities which formed the famous Achaean League became the most powerful political body in Greece and. as the above references prove. who was an ex-prajtor. found are those dealing with the Judgment. tunity for moral action. Those who are themselves liable to judgment must not set themselves up as judges of one another. — Achaia {'Axa'ta) 260 ff. .ai) ACHAICUS breadth from 12 to 20 miles. T. A. city. and.. — Momm- ACELDAMA.. As a senatorial province Achaia was governed by a proconsul. Cf. Marquardt. tr. plies that defence is not easy. which divided it from Sicyonia. on art. when the 'town-clerk' . An Outline of Christian Theol. A. He 13'''. Weizsacker. Athens.v. [he] declared the Greeks collectively to be rid of Roman government. they at once honoured the brave confederation and spared the feelings of all the Hellenes by calling the new province not Greece but Achaia. primitive Christian teaching. 1897] p. in loce. — It mention the use ' area about in the sense of reckon. to Jew and Gentile. One of many worthies whose character adorned the early Church.'^-i^) of which it is the conclusion.— See Anathema. Mt 19-») . The judgment of the latter. which would have been civil wars. At once there arose throughout Greece movements. i.14 ACCOUNT will be sufficient merely to of the verb 'account' (\oylfofj.' ' consider' (Ro 8***. and the doctrine of final judgment of men according to their actions. as 'a born Philhellene. Nero. . and 650 sq. in V^ and 5^ to Christ). Only three yEtolia. 18S5. 1 P 4^ doers and slanderers of Christians] shall give account to him that is ready to judge tlie quick and the dead (in 1" to the Father. LiTRRATURE. the province included Thessaly. Stephanas as 'the firstfruits of Achaia. 1897.' wished to make Greece absolutely free. prove that there must have beeo many other centres of Christian faith and life in the While 1 Co 16'^ refers to the house of province. There is. and shows that. subject to no governor. J. XVII.' The only significant passages where the word is ' The Achseans were probably the remnant of a Pelasgian race once distributed over the whole Peloponnesus. within the heavenly Kingdom and this place is in accordance with the faithfulness and quality of their service while in the body. if these people could have achieved anything more than brawling . Damaris. This is in harmony with the teaching of our Lord in the Synoptics.

[do. 261)-264 (233). Kenyon {Handbook to the Textual Criticism of the NT^.e. C. Two groups may be distinguished from the purer MSS K'. 113. The date of Acts and reception in the Canon— 1. but the character of this text is still somewhat doubtful. Textual theories Westcott and Hort.' and Godet. 63 (C). The most complete study of the 1. 6602 (200). Christology.-vi. The composition of Acts 1. and /recensions. in Latin.) or in other well- known handbooks. E.— This is represented by 61 (B). Old Latin Biblical Texts. Other primarily European mixed MSS are 8. (b) The Jerusalem tradition. Hieronymian text is not well represented. 3. African and European.). and is quoted ' — The Jerusalem and Galilaean traditions. 88 ff. Historical value of the various traditions— 1. we have the Latin sides of the Gr»co-Latin MS 85 (D) or d (Codex Bezae). There is a special nexus between 648 and 257. Morin from a Paris MS of the 11th cent. 6. Eschatology. (a) The Antiochene tradition. I'^ is also found in two branches 7=1 and /c2. The best representatives of 7 i^i are 208 (307). The famine in Judaea. — : . hundreds of Vulgate MSS of the Acts. as this is not any better known than von Soden's. The expulsion of the Jevrs from Rome. 1001 (E = Codex Laudianus t) . but fortunately the quotations of Cyprian and Augustine (who uses an African text in Acts. 116(-). and for all purposes. 61 is better than 62. The purpose of the whole narrative. and following his numeration . but no single witness is free from or 1 contamination. 7 (Apl. — MSS • This MS is adequately described by F. 551 (216) the best representatives of Vc^ are 364 (137) X and a series of other MSS contaminated in varying degrees by K. The Latin Versions. It is impossible here to enumerate the (4) The Vulgate. —The text of the Acts is preserved in Greek MSS. to recognize the quality of their service and to . In favour of Luean authorship. and 157 (29). tl'. passed to Germany.' i. The Latin Versions. Literature. The abrupt termination of Acts. entirely independent of his theories as to tlie early history of the text. The Gospel of Luke and Ac 1. it should be observed that this MS. whole mass of Greek MSS is that of von Soden — as t. (2) The earlier chapters. dividing the into H. 3. v. { As an instance of the advance in knowledge which von Soden's labours have produced. The Syriac Versions. Their study is a special branch of investigation. The best representatives of /w are 62 (498). Of these MSS 61 and 62 represent a common archetype 51-2. Greek MSS. but the text of d is in many ways unique. and does not belong (and apparently will not belong in the immediate future) to a full critical edition. 8.ACTS OF THE APOSTLES deputation from the Corinthian Church they may have been bearers of the letter of inquiry which St. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. and in w. by Findlay {EOT). which has many early readings. Knowledge of Josephus in Acta. i.' ?'&' vii. IV. roughly speaking. after being. The Syriao Versions. 2. now at Paris. MSS It is probable from 3. which can be supplemented and corrected by the quotations in Ambrosiaster and Lucifer of Cagliari (see esp.' 'I. The obvious facts. 66 648 (13). which is much the best authority for H.55 (D = Codex Bezae*). 287-700). Rendel Harris. 15 — — (1) fl. 950. somewhat better in Acts. the best representatives of ib2 are the pair 78 ('von der Goltz's MS') and 171 (7) which are almost doublets. Perhaps they represented the parties in Corinth yet they must have been trusted by the Church and must also have shown themselves loyal to the Apostle. (2) The European text is best represented by g (Gigas) at Stockholm. As in the Gospels. IL Tradition as to authorship 1. 2. in HDB on 'Achaicus.' The suggestion that Achaicus was a slave either of Stephanas or of Chloe does not comport either with his position as a delegate or with St. Bohairic. : Early Quotations. but 648 is considerably the better of the two. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES (i//). K. Syriac. 8. whence it was probably obtained by Laud. it is best to give the main outlines of his classification. and represents facts which cannot be overlooked. necessary to give also Gregory's new numeration. Sahidic. 319. 4. Corinth487a . it is in a very fragmentary condition. Paul answers in ch. it should be noted that this MS used to be regarded as one of the principal authorities for the Western text. apart from scribal errors. though not nearly so fully as the Gospels. who gave it to the Bodleian Library. The Eg3ptian Versiont. It is also well represented in the text of the commentary of Andreas (A'^P). 320 . ii. 62 (N). Achaicus is such a rare name that some authorities call it 'Greek. A Spanish lectionary of perhaps the 7th cent. 64 (A). The Spirit. t Besides the details noted in the handbooks. 305. 1897] pp. a text with enough sporadic / readings to raise the question whether it be not an 1 text which has been almost wholly corrected to a. Acts— by Wordsworth and White 2. containing a text which is almost identical with that of Cyprian . L [1911] 341 f. ii. Expositor. because MSS of this type seem to be represented in K — K : K K . in the brackets are given the numbers in Gregory's Prolegomena to Tischenof these It has not seemed dorf's Editio Major octava. critically quite valueless and K''. a later form of the African text can be found in the pseudo-Augustinian de Divinis Scripturis sive Speculum (CSEL xii. The OT and Jewish Law. 1008 (Pap. on 1 Cor. 1. a Bohemian MS now in Wernigerode. — in his Schriften des Neuen Testaments (Berlin. of VII. in. 74 (389). Chase.used by Bede in Northumbria. Blass. A. than it is in the Gospels. von Soden. and by a few other MSS which have suffered more or less severely from E contamination. Comm. !<> (3) I. by three pairs of connected MSS. except that of tracing the history of the Vulgate. 6. G. and may possibly have been made for the private use of the owner of 65. Text— 1. 74 and 162 are specially good representatives of H. the edition of Wordsworth and White may be regarded as sufficient. 4. the quotations in Aphraates and Ephraim that existed originally an Old-Syriac Version of there Acts. a I'aris MS from Perpignan. The Old Latin or ante2. v. 4. K treat them with becoming i. ians. and other secondary Versions. but in both MSS there is much Vulgate contamination. a Bobbio palimpsest (saec. v. V. Buchanan. 90 per cent of the later MSS belong to this type. A branch of the European text of a Spanish or Provengal type is found in p. /b is found in two branches. 2. ' ' MSS . though he follows the Vulgate in the Gospels) enable much of the text to be reconstructed. A Study of Ambrosiaster. deference. Secondary Versions. 2. (The best edition of h is by E. 5. . a mediaeval revision of for lectionary purposes. however. it may be divided into two main branches. Baptism. and quoted extensively. which has little bearing on the Acts. 103 (25). Against the tradition. 8th ser. Souter. The / recension is found in three forms /» 1^ I". Apostolic Age.' others 'Roman. The death of Herod Agrippa. 6. Gallio's 4. 162 (61). S. Amh.) According to Wordsworth and White. known as the Liber Comious. by the early Fathers. KOBEETS. 257 (33). and other ugly rumours (1 Co 5^). (1) The African is represented by Codex Floriacensis (h). it is called A'l. and was at one time deemed worthy of a separate edition. It is impossible to give here the full list of MSS (2) K.2 [London. which is. 8. 2. VI.— 1. The arrival of Festus in Judaea. formerly at Fleury. and of the Latino-Greek MS 1001 (E) or e. 1895] p. /bi and /b2. The date of the Lucan Gospel. 200 (83)-382 (231). The sources used in Acts. Reception in the Canon. proconsulate. 1907]. J. corresponding to the Evnngelion da-MepJiarreshe represented by the Curetonian and Sinaitic MSS but no MS of this type has survived. 7. Armenian. and g2 in Milan. is almost As his grouping of the 1902-10). Text. saiC.) at Vienna. v. (3) Besides these purely Latin MSS. Greek MSS. Is best represented bj. The theology 1. Paul's appeal to the Church to 'acknowledge such. [Oxford. The latter of these agrees in the main with the European text as established b3' g-Ambrosiaster-Lucifer. Weizsacker. (1) The we-clauses. and by 467 . 3. standard . the Complutensian edition. 7 His language suggests that their coming somewhat reassured him after the disquieting news brought by Chloe's household. x in Oxford. I. 370 (353). 4 [1905]).-vi. or perhaps of the archetype of 65. Chronology of Acts 2. has been edited by G. 365 (214 = as<='")and a few other minuscules . —Artt. 70 (505>-101 (40) .

Bohaiiic and Sahidic. which ' ' A • TOv (US S' anoa-ToKov (fmcri To\iJifj<TaC tniSiopdovixevov ai/riav rriv Trjs 4>pd(Teois Tivas avrhv fiLera4>pa. Later on. according to von Soden. H I /b /c KT 'Western' text. — — : . and their allies. 57 f. The earliest 6. possibly in Jerusalem. instead of assigning this original to Luke. Budge. he thinks. Bishop of Edessa (411from the 435) (see F.— The two Versions. in the neighbourhood of Antioch. Leipzig.(rai trvvra^iv (Eus. as well as some of its own Palestine. HE iv. but. This was based on an earlier Syriac Philoxenus. he attributes it to Tatian. 55 (D) is the best example of this text. [1901] 174-185. and Clement of Alexandria. JThSt ii. which had many Tatianic (c) /. C. . From these two texts there arose the Latin Version predominantly Tatianic and most of the early Fathers were influenced by Tatian.) ' ' Palestinian (3) There is also a lectionary of the so-called which was probably in use about the 7th cent. there existed side by side the Tatianic text and a non-interpolated text which he calls I-H-K.). can be shown roughly in the following diagram H — K H Georgian. and Alexandria. three revisions were made (a) H. (6) F. for the best Sahidic text). ^Mdiss. 1895) thought that Luke issued the Acts in two (l)The oldest Svriac Version of the Acts is therefore the Peshitta. though they sometimes show traces use the . ^ Earklean made by (2) Besides the Peshitta we have the Thomas of Heraclea. and 51 and 52 as representing as nearly as possible the original text.) . Thomas of Heraclea which is no longer extant for Acts. . and the style of the additions is not sufficiently Lucan. Gottingen. and the other more closely with Codex Bezs than with any other known Greek MS. who.B. According to von Soden. London. 1897. 6). we have Origen and Didymus. (On the nature of the Palestinian type. in Antioch. derived from I-H-K. Cambridge. {N. but the opinion of Coptic scholars seems to be increasingly in favour of regarding the Sahidic as the older form. probably made by Rabbula. Chase (The Old Syriac Element in the Text of Codex Bezce. Tertullian. made in 506 bv Polycarp for Mabug (Hierapolis. W. They regarded 55 (Codex Bezse) as representing the .' TS vii. contained none. owing to Latin influence. also has revived Blass's theory in so far that he thinks that the interpolated text witnessed to by 55 and the Latin Versions and Fathers really goes back to a single original .' This may refer to Acts. usually supported by the two great bilingual MSS 55 and 1001 (D and E). Burkitt. Syriac literature see F. . . vol. Quotations in early writers. 29. For the 3rd cent. the later Church writers mostly text. Lucifer. in corruptions. in the 4th cent. [Cambridge. [Acta Apostolorum secundum formam quce videtur JRomanam. found in Arabic. 1912. It is also very desirable to investigate how far it is possible to prove that there was an / text. frequently by the marginal readings in Syr"arci^ and sporadically by a few minuscules opposed to this interpolated text stood the Alexandrian text of 51. but with a few other corruptions by Lucian. Secondary Versions. tjytovat This scarcely sounds as though a series of interpolations was intended. the / text did not contain all contained still fewer. ii. Study of Codex Bezte in (a) Rendel Harris (' TS ii. Bishop of text. London.B. and other languages but none of them is of primary importance for the text. The relative date of these Versions has not been finally settled. wiiich preserved in the main the text of I-H-K without the Tatianic ad(b) K. Jerome. Ephraim's Quotations Gospel. keeping the I-H-K text against H. that of Africa Eusebius and Cyril of Jerusalem the Palestinian text. Athanasius vatian for Italy. 1894) and F. Burkitt. and the interpolations. for Rome (the Western text). in Gaul. but no amount of retranslation will account for the relatively long Bezan additions. which are extant for the Gospels. The weak point in their theory was that they could not explain the existence of the Western text. representing the Alexandrian school . and Cyril represent the later development of the Alexandria text . Acta Apostolorum. the modern Membij on the Euphrates). Obviously this complicated theory cannot be dismissed without much more attention than it has yet received. (1) The first really plausible theory to meet even part of the facts was Westcott and Hort's {The New Te/itament in Greek. 1834 fi'.. exist also for Acts. C. while between the two was the text of the mass of MSS agreeing sometimes with one. which preserved though in a few cases many Tatianic additions. but the Sahidic has many main witii the / readings (see E. The general relations of the various forms of the text. p. (2) Founded mainly on the basis of their work.) The Egyptian Versions. and there are a few fi-agments of Versions in other dialects. and Ambrosiaster represent the text of Rome and Italy Augustine. Coptic Biblical Texts. The weak point in this theory is that the only evidence that Tatian edited the Acts is a passage in Eusebius * which states that he emended 'the Apostle. who may be regarded as representing the text of the end of the 2nd cent. but has suffered from the addition of a much greater degree of Tatianic corruption than really belongs to the / text. 1902-1910. K and /. Cyprian for Africa. by Hesychius in Alexandria.— It is quoted by Tischendorf as Syrp. i. 2 [IDUl] p. quotations long enough to have any value for determining the text are in Irenseus. H. 1882]). Versions of Acts are 5. The Bohairic agrees in the text. sometimes with the other. Textual theories. 'S. added a new recension of Acts to his Diatessaron. (3) More recently von Soden [Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments. who suggested that the later text {K) was a recension based on the two earlier types. He thinks that in the 2nd cent. {X. It may prove that the text with additions is not Tatianic but is nevertheless a single text in origin.16 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 1893) thought that retranslation from Latin and Syriac would solve the problem . began to be based on any complete view of the evidence. revised the Philoxenian with the help of Greek MSS in the and enriched his edition Library of the Enaton at Alexandria. Ethiopic. Persian. of probably local contamination with As soon as textual criticism 7. two theories were suggested to supply this deficiency. but more probably refers to the Ej)istles. and also in his commentary. 1 [1891]. it became obvious that the chief feature to be accounted for in the text of Acts was the existence of a series of additions in the text in the — H : lU-K Latin Versions and Fathers. Africa. and Foiir Lectures on the Western Text.—The Peshitta is quoted by Tischendorf as Syrsch. but his reconstruction of the Roman text is scarcely satisfactory. with a number of critical notes giviny: the variants of these Greek MSS which often have a most remarkable text agreeing „ forms : one to Theophilus (the Alexandrian text). using the new facts as to the MSS summarized above. 52 (B S). and NoFor the 4th cent. Armenian.). A. which according to von Soden is I. and sometimes combining both readings. ditions.

von Soden. Burkitt's Old Latin and the Itala might be valuable. and mostly in the same way. [Leipzig. unless it be thought that the Gospel was written by a contemporary of Marcion who had not yet written Acts. in its oi-iginal state. i. Paul in the Epistles and in Acts. pp. however. v. Paul. is not original. col. 1905] which also gives a clear statement of the best editions of the separate of the Old Latin and the MSS ' Vulgate (pp. the author of the Third Gospel. Harnack. I. Lake. They form together an apparent extract from a diary. and we should have no right to argue. NT'-i. 12. 10. (For the later traditions concerning Luke and his writings see Luke. 405) that the facts would also be explained if the writer of the we-clauses and the redactor of Acts came from the same Bildungssphdre. on his last journey to Jerusalem and continues (with only the apparent break of the episode of St. by noting the redactorial changes in the Marcan sections of Luke. in which this interpolation is placed. If the ' ' We ' connexion with the Third Gospel be accepted. begins again when St. C. the writer of the weclauses' is identical with the redactor of the Gospel and Acts. of course. G. vol. Gottingen. xxiii. especially Galatians and Romans (7) the absence of Pauline doctrine in the speeches in Acts . Against the tradition it is urged 1 that the presentment of St. Handbook to the Textital Criticism. the fact that Marcion used the Gosjiel is evidence for the existence of Acts.' and the theory that he redacted them with more care than any other part of his compilation. Einfilhrung in das griech. and the main results can be . ii.' or passages in which the writer speaks in the first person. 1. . A. Now. 294 £f. Paul. the text in which they are imbedded would become extremely valuable. I. and Wordsworth-White. Tertull. Oxford. Paul leaves Caesarea and continues until the arrival in Kome. the Acts is ascribed to St. pt.AUTtt OF THE APUiSTLES : ACTS or THE APOSTLES 17 nevertheless did not possess. 1. because the interpolations are clearly wrong. (2) that on definite facts of history the Acts and Epistles contradict each other and it is said in each case that these facts exclude the possibility that the writer of Acts was Luke the companion of St. p. Hieronymi. 1906.' but without changing the idiom. . of the XT"^. HorcB Synopticce^. Die Schriften des NT. 1911. London. XV. therefore the text in which they are found is to be condemned. 1909]. that. Paul's second journey . . These are Ac 16'"-" 20^ 2^8 27' 28i«. for undoubtedly an element of exaggeration is introduced by the fact that in the Marcan source there were many vulgarisms which all redactors would have altered. Oxford. 1906. 174193. K. 1 . but not sufficient attention has been paid to the observation of E. London.)) as contrasted with his Epistles. nost. That is no doubt wrong. It should also be noted that there are a few Lucanisms ' which are not to be found in the ' Literature. but this possibility is excluded by the facts (a) that there no conceivable reason why the writer should adopt this form of writing at these points. . Bat it does not follow that the text omitting ttviktov. pp. only necessary to consider the other possibilities (1) that we have here from the writer of tolic decrees. [Oxford. (1) The "presentment of St. Paul (see. Iren. on St. 19-85. ' ' Tradition as to Authorship. esp. all the Bezan interpolations. ' the whole work the descri|)tion of incidents which he had himself seen (2) that the writer is here using an extract from the writing of an eye-witness and has preserved the original idiom. Important for the study of the Latin are von Soden. in the Gospel we know that he was using Mark in many places. 1912 E. begins again in Philippi. ' ' . A monograph analyzing its evidence on the lines of F. summarized. as it certainly ouglit to be. except that he allowed the first person to stand. The points which are really crucial ( ) . It would be well if some later analyst would eliminate from both sides the idioms which are common to all writers of good Greek at the period. —The TU xxxiii. There is also a good r6sum6 in J. 12 fl". VOL. adv. 1649-1840 F.— So far back as tradition goes. The only way of deciding between these two possibilities is to make use of literary criteria. tr. Leipzig. theoretically possible that these sections are merely a literary fiction. Hcer. (Clem. 1902-1910. — when it finally ceases. 1909 (the Eng. In favoar of the tradition of Lake's authorship is the evidence of the Ave-sections. LNT. It is. Paul's acceptance of a compromise at the Apostolic . S. and enjoining its observance on Jews. Nestle. Berlin. Luke). The former view certainly seems the more probable.' The details on which this argument is based will be found best in J. NT in Afrika zur Zeit Cyprians. Das lat. therefore. in this argument are (a) St. and the Canon of Muratori). in Ac 15^^ the Latin text interpolates the Golden Eule into the Apos' ' fore. xii. are. 1909. (5) St. Lukas der Arzt. ' ' 'we-clauses. For any full statement of tiie case reference must be made to their books the principle. Paul's circumcision of Timothy (Ac 16^). Paul and the Ephesian elders [20^®"^^] which is told in the third person) until Jerusalem is reached and St. then breaks oft" again during St. and this has been done in recent years with especial thoroughness by Harnack in Germany and Hawkins in England. If these idioms constantly recur in the we-clauses. 2. Paul's imprisonment in Jerusalem and Caesarea .' it must be either because the we-clauses were written by the redactor. general textual question can be studied in H. as is now often done. thereis .. Farther back tradition does not take us there are no clear proofs of the use of Acts in the Apostolic Fathers (see The New Testaynent in the Apostolic Fathers. Strom. Luke. As a fact we find that the we-clauses are more marked by the characteristic phraseology of the redactor than any other part of the Gospel or Acts. The Text oj the AT6. Moffatt. and. For instance. It is. Paul in the Epistles is completely emancipated from Jewish thought and practice. v-xv).' . pp. Kenyon. Paul goes to see James . The arguments can best be arranged under the two heads of favourable and unfavourable to the tradition. 1905) or in the early Apologists. that whereas St. further. Christi secundum edit. Test. les. Hawkins. — as to circumcision in the Epistles (/3) his acceptance of Jewish practice while he was in Jerusalem (Ac 2121^. A'ow. C. * The de Rebaptismate has not yet been sufficiently studied from this point of view. he is represented in the Acts as still loyal to the Law himself. Alex. II.) : ' ' Tiie value of this tradition must necessarily de- pend on the internal evidence of the book itself. Sclmrer (2'hLZ. Paul is quite different from that in the Pauline Epistles. or because the redactor also revised the 'we-clauses. Dom. as contrasted with his teaching . This tradition can be traced back to the end of the 2nd cent. de Jejuniis. and these only. in his narrative (6) that by the general consent of critics these passages have all the signs of having really been composed by an eye-witness of the events described. apparently reduced to a choice between the theory that the redactor of the Gospel and Acts wrote the we-clauses. and companion of St. is' from an older edition of the period before von Soden) . in. If the writer of Acts is merely using the first person in order to show that he is claiming to have been an eye-witness. It has been urged as a proof that the writer of Acts could not have been a companion of St. which begins in Troas and breaks oft' in Philippi. we can establish his preference for certain idioms. IV.* If it were possible to say that the interpolations were a connected series (whether Tatianic or not is of minor importance).

1908. be regarded as carrjnng its own conviction. Paul's actions immediately after the conversion . by speaking of his ' return to Damascus. (5) If the exegesis and text of Acts be adopted which regard the Apostolic decrees as a compromise based on food-laws. are concerned with (a) St. both were wonderful manifestations of the Spirit. exactly what happened at an excited revivalist meeting twenty years ago.18 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES whom ACTS OF THE APOSTLES intelligible to foreigners of various nations. and the Law was The argument in the Epistles is valid for Jews. as contrasted with the complete silence of the Epistles as to this agreement.) that the text and exegesis of Ac 15^ point either to a food-law or to a compromise. Retreat from Jerusalem to Tarsus in Cilicia. which are serious. GunDie Wirkimgen des heiligen Geistes. (/3) his first visit to Jerusalem . Paul. Visit to Damascus immediately after the conversion. and it is hard to avoid the conclusion that Acts is here inaccurate. Kommentar. 2. Resch. 1. ' return to Damascus." in Meyer's Krit. ' The whole question of glossolalia can be studied in H. But it must be remembered that there is serious reason for doubting (i. PauVs actions immediately after the conversion. (ii. Paul would have put forward so un-Pauline a description of glossolalia ? There is certainly some weight in this argument but it is to a large extent discounted by the following considerations. Departure to the of Syria districts and Cilicia. Paul. on first hearing the glossolalia of the disciples. and. . The two accounts of this complex of inThe main cidents are Ac 9i"-3" and Gal l^^'^K points in the two narratives may be arranged thus — in parallel columns Acts. But there is much to be said against each of them on the following lines. (a) St. but the reason given is that he was partly Jewish. Earlier Epistles of St. and showing that behind the actual text there is an earlier tradition which described a glossolalia of the same kind as that in 1 Co 12-14. if so. (7) To us glossolalia of the Pauline type is a known phenomenon and probable for that reason . Paul at any ' ' . 1910 (9th ed. If these four propositions were sound.').).' in GGN. cf. 'Das Aposteldecret. (a) In Ac 16^ St. pp. 1 Cor. was not compelled to be circumcised. It is argued that this latter glossolalia is as unknown to the historian of psychology as the glossolalia described in 1 Cor. London. Ac 2 describes the glossolalia of the disciples as a miraculous gift of speech that was simultaneously (a) as compared with 1 Th 3"-8. if we accept the reconstructions which are based on the view that in the Epistles we have a complete exposition of St. Paul's teaching. K. (b) the account of St. (^) It is quite true that in Ac 2P^^what is untrue is St.' 4. and that it cannot have been the work of Luke. 29ff. ' Noten zur Apostelgeschichte. ) that Galatians was written after the Council (see G. Paul should have said nothing about it in Galatians or Corinthians. [1905] 3 ." . A A to Arabia immediately after the conversion. there is really nothing to be said against the picture given in the Acts. and neither was more probable than the other. Let any one try to find out. 188 ff. : ' ' of points which he had failed to his converts while he was with them. or that. Gottingen. (a) It is not known that Luke was ever with St. J. Paul's companions in Macedonia and Achaia in ment by letter bring home to Certainly there is noexhibition of glossolalia. : Galatiaks. the narrative in (1 Co 14^"). and so far the account in Acts may Council (Ac 15). visit to Jerusalem ' ' after three years. ' 3. (7) his St.48ff. is improbable."• ^) 'If any man speaketh in a tongue let one interjnet' On the other hand. In support of this it must be noted that the immediate judgment of the crowd.. Apostelge. Weiss. is it probable that a companion of St. ' . 2. (7) There certainly is an absence of Pauline doctrine in the speeches in the Acts. the incident of Titus in Gal 2^ shows St. . while glossolalia of the ' foreign language type as described in Acts But to a Christian of the 1st cent. 1. But. p. and the conclusion suggested that the writer of Acts cannot have been a companion of St. Wellhausen. difference between these accounts is obvious. being a Greek. Paul. but he that prophesieth edifieth the congregation (1 Co 14'' . and I was let down in a basket through a window') we have a corroboration of the ' The . of '1 Cor. 1909 J. being a Greek. in the light of contrasting statements in the Epistles. There is no evidence in the Epistles that the Apostle would ever have refused circumcision to a Jew it was part of the Law. and Peter's speech was directed against this imputation. and he will see that there is room for considerable inaccuracy.' xxviii. Lietzmann's Commentary on 1 Cor. thing in Acts to suggest that he was in Corinth. 3.-Exeg. they would certainly be strong evidence against the Lucan authorship of Acts. though as an act of grace he actually was circumcised. Many objections of this kind have been made. but in the first place it is emphatically stated that Titus was not a Jew. Paul accepts Jewish custom that it can be shown from his own writings that he was likely to refuse. is well known . in his Handbuch zum NT. but tlie majority are trivial. Visit 2. and it is suggested that Luke or his source has given a wrong account of the matter. It is not probable that any foreigner ever accused any one of being drunk because he could understand him. • He that speaketh in a tongue edifieth himself. But. Paul's visits to Jerusalem in Acts as compared with Gal 2 (c) the movements of St. Tiibingen. Paul circumcises Timothy. Harnack. kel. vv. Ac 17'» 18' 1 Co 14 the main unintelligible to ordinary jjersons. was that they were drunk. there is no that It is also claimed that proof that he ever did so. (/3) In all probability we have to deal with a tradition which the writer of Acts found in existence in Jerusalem more than twenty years after the events described. — second visit to Jerusalem. 1899 H. It should be noted. Leipzig. implies that the conversion had been in that city and in 2 Co 11*^'* ('in Damascus the ethnarch of Aretas the king guarded the city of the Damascenes to take me. The account given of glossolalia in it shows that was in ' . if we realize that the Epistles represent his treat: . it is certainly very strange that St. : Escape from Damascus and journey to Jerusalem. 1911. TU (b) The accounts given in Acts and Galatians of The points of PauVs visits to Jerusalem.ichichte. he was not compelled to be circumcised. it is a purely physical and almost pathological result of religious emotion. and this undoubtedly affords a reasonable argument for thinking that the account in Ac 15 is unhistorical. iii. divergence. though that it is not valid for Gentiles logic ought perhaps to have led St. (2) Rather more serious are the objections raised to the accuracy of certain definite statements. or of special controversies due to the arrival of other teachers. Gottingen. Paul's strong objection to circumcision . each of thought that he was listening to his own language. Gottingen. and the serious ones are really only the following (a) the description of glossolalia in Ac 2 as compared with 1 Co 12 tl. .*. and in tlie second place it is quite doubtful whether Gal 2'* means that Titus. Lake. Paul to argue Jews also ought to abandon it. by asking surviving witnesses. A. 1907. however that the inaccuracy apparently consists in tele scoping togetlier two visits to Damascus and omit ting the Arabian journey which came between them St.

Paul. PauVs companions in Macedonia and Achnia in Ac 17^^ 18^ compared ivith 1 Th 5"-^. Of these identities only the first is fully accurate and it applies equally well to the visit to Jerusalem in the time of the famine. Peter's conduct later on in Antioch). since this discussion altered nothing the Gentile mission had already begun tliere was no special reason why Luke should have mentioned Usuallj^ however. therefore. and Acts and Galatians cannot fully be reconciled. On the other hand. and the consequent telescoping together of two visits to Damascus along with a proportionate shortening of the chronology. but in so doing he weakens his own case still more. p. so that the interview with the ajjostles described in Gal 2 is identified with the Ajiostolic Council' in Ac 15.' . Thus. If we start from the facts. the objections which are raised against the account in Acts fall to the ground. A. the time of Lightfoot by assuming that the Apostolic decrees had only a local and e[/hemeral importance. Paul's life. C. and that he had spoken to him. 123ff. for he can give no satisfactory reason whj. The classical statement in English is that of Lightfoot (Epistle to the Galatians. Paul not say at once that the judaizing attitude had been condemned by the heads of the Jerusalem Church ? his second visit to Jerusalem. London. but they give divergent accounts of . save James the Lord's Now touching the brother. ' : GJessen. things which I write to you. Paul's first visit to Jerusalem. bttt merely whether the mission to the uncircumcised should be continued. and that it settled not the question of circumcision. In Germany this difficulty has been more fully appreciated. the Gentiles) and the Circumcision {i. though it clearly must come after the visit (probably of a missionary character) to Arabia. for tiie one led up to the Apostolic decrees. ). All these suggestions (and a difierent combination given by almost every editor) agree in giving up the accuracy of Ac 15. If the Council had taken place. tails of this visit are a more serious matter.* while in Acts the circumcision of the Gentiles is the main point. And I was still unknown by face unto the churches of Judsa which were in Christ : but they only heard say. Paul and the other apostles discussed their respective missions when they met in Jerusalem but. A History nf Christianity in the Apostolic Age. or the suggestion has been made that the account in Gal 2 is really a more accurate statement of what happened during St. in order to account for the hostility of Aretas. But Barnabas took him. — It is possible that the difficulties here are due to a mistaken exegesis rather than to any real divergence between Acts and Galatians. and tarried with him fifteen days. The question may be studied in detail in C. and it is not easy to understand why. .e. ACTS OP THE APOSTLES These difficulties 19 since have been met in England — Ac 928-30. C. It is. Paul describes a private conference before the Coimcil. and either the account in Ac 15 identified with Gal 2 has been abandoned as wholly unhistorical. (c) The movements of St. subject of dispute. Clemen. the inaccuracy of Acts resolves itself into the omission of the Arabian visit. Lig-htfoot. and he spake and disat boldly in the and Cilicia. Apostelgesch. and brought him to the apostles. who formulates it by saying that there is an identity of geography. so far as the enumeration of events is concerned. in which case it does not seem obvious why they are given so prominent a place in Acts. Lightfoot to some extent weakens these objections by suggesting that St. Harnack. (7) St. 1912. Paulus. The subject is not the same at all. It is also clear from Ac 11-^^. the visit to Jerusalem mentioned in Gal 2^"'" is not the second but the third visit referred to in Acts. it is clear that St. critics have assumed that it. in consequence of which he was free to continue his preaching to the Gentiles without hindrance. but that of continuing the mission to the Gentiles which had been begun in Antioch. not helieving that he was a disciple. in Acts a full meeting of the Church and the result is not the same. 1911 Galatiaiis. before God. he assayed to join himself to the disciples and they were all afraid of him. he does not mention tlie decrees. The de(/3) St. . for Titus and John are not mentioned in Acts. ' And when he was come to Jerusalem. for in Galatians it is a private discussion. there is no further difiiculty in thinking that Ac 15 represents the discussion of the question of circumcision whicli inevitably arose as soon as the Gentile mission expanded. Paul's last visit to Jerusalem and — — ' ' — is — have been misplaced by Luke. TTJ! TrepiTo^ris means the gospel for the Uncircumcision (i. McGiffert. * From the context it is clear that to evayye\iov T19S aKpofivarCai .St. Emmet. if the identification of Gal 2 and Ac 15 be abandoned. — — .e. W. OAL 118-23. of which be once made havoc' can alter the fact that Acts speaks a period of preaching in Jerusalem which attracted sufficient attention to endanger St. while the otiier apparently did not do so. why did St. Paul's argument that he should not omit any of his visits to Jerusalem. desirable to ask whether the reasons for identifying Gal 2 and Ac 15 are decisive. But other of the apostles saw I none. Thus. . K. If Ave accept the identification of the second visit according to Acts with the second visit according to Galatians. According to Acts. Edinburgh.. Canibridge. A. There would seem to have been a party in Galatia which urged that circumcision was necessary for all Christians this point had been settled at the Apostolic Council. 1908. for in Galatians the question of the Law is not discussed (and was apparently raised only by St. No argument of it. London. 1S97 . when St. Paul's second visit to Jerusalem. Paul's departure from Damascus and his arrival in Cilicia.ACTS OP THE APOSTLES escape mentioned in Acts. character of the conference. He that persecuted us once now preachelh the faith puted against the Hellenists but they went about to kill him. Galatians. B. .— The ditterence between these narratives is concerned with the movements of Timothy and Silas. Mhile Galatians describes an essentially private visit to Peter probably both documents refer to the same visit. . persons. Lake. there is no difficulty beyond the fact that Acts does not state that St. the Jews). but omit the public meeting and official result tu which it was preliminary. while the decrees mentioned in Acts really belong to a later period perhaps St. The character of the conference is not the same at all. and how : • After three years I went up to Jerusalem to become ac- quainted with Cephas. and declared unto them how he had seen the Lord in the way. And he was with them g'oing in and coming out at Jerusalem. Earlier EpistUs of St. . as they place it between •St. and result.12^ that St. The persons are not quite the same. J. wliich probably took place during the famine. if the view be taken that Gal 2 refers to an interview between St. Paul's second visit to Jerusalem was during the time of the famine. Leipzig. Paul describes in Gal 2''" In the course of this he held a private interview with the apostles in Jerusalem. and the resultant arguments against the identification of the writer of Acts with Luke are proportionately weakened. as is plain when the narratives are arranged in parallel columns. . Paul should carefullj' describe a private conference. Paul's interview with the ajio>tles. if he is writing after the Apostolic Council. I lie not. Then I came into the districts of Sy ria Damascus he had preached name of Jesus. Paul and the Jerusalem apostles during the time of the famine. 1865 . Great difficulties then arise it is obviously essential to St. 1904 .

the argument from literary affinities between the we-clauses and the rest of Acts remains at present unshaken and. kept him in prison for two years (Steriav). that Luke wrote. XX. i. but the difficulty is that Judas really preceded Theudas. The only argument of importance is that in the apocalyptic section of Mark (ch. This arrival of Timothy at Corinth is mentioned in 1 Th S**. 60 to c. and not always well informed. A. that can })e said is that this argument raises a slight presumption in favour of a date later than A. though perhaps not very probable.e. asking them to rejoin him as soon as possible.D. EommentarT. 6511. a certain Lambon was accused of treason in Alexandria. but. whether there are really any satisfactory proofs that this was the case. also mentions Judas of Galilee after speaking of Theudas * and the suggestion is that Luke had seen this and was led into the not unnatural mistake of confusing the dates. because no Jews came forward to prosecute it is easy to understand that. The date of the Lucan Gospel. but that the evidence was insufficient to justify a condemnation. Josephus continues :_7rpbs T0UT019 5c KoX ol TraiSe? 'loiv^a ToO TaKiKaiov ai'T)xOi)(Ta>'. a short time before The arguments A. . who no doubt used the speeches which he puts into the mouths of the persons in his nariative ' ' . 70. and remembered only that Josephus had spoken of him after Theudas. that of Theudas. knowing that he was dangerous. 13) expressions which might be supposed to refer to the fall of Jerusalem have been altered to correspond with the real facts of the siege. — in Acts. the Lucan authorship be accepted. 7Tpo<T(Ta^ev 6 'AAefavSpos (Ant.-Excget. and telescopes together two incidents in much the same way as seems to have been done with regard to St. for to explain the abomination of desolation as a prophecy of a siege is not specially difficult. 70. St. if the prosecution The case of failed to appear. but implies that St. ' The best account of various ways of dealing. place. however. The facts are as follows. any date after — the last events chronicled. According to this. and the Roman judge. the most striking change is merely that the vague Marcan reference to Daniel's abominat ion of desolation has been replaced by a description of Jerusalem surrounded by armies. Avhich Philo describes as the longest period (t6v If this be so. though it is possible to find other conceivable theories. ' with the same freedom as was customary among writers of that period.D. Timothy (and Silas ?) had already reached Athens and been sent away again with a message to Thessalonica.with the question Die Thessalonicherbriefe. as the facts would be equally covered if a message from St. Paul's In the second place. a third book beginning with the account of St. On the other hand. A. The abrupt termination of Acts. of these divergences ' ' Summary. it is possible trial in Rome.TTO 'Pai/Jiaiiuv d7roa-n)(rarT05 KvpifCov tt)? 'Iou6aias TifiiJTevoi'T05. been with St. It has usually been assumed that this must be posterior to the but it is doubtful fall of Jerusalem in A. and had collected information from the Apostle and others as opportunity had served. 1909. Actually. 2). The knowledge of Josephus shown evidence for Luke. Of course. but a passage in Philo's in Flaccum points to the probability that it was two years. ' ' .— this is found in the case of Theudas. the traditional view that Luke. and after which. III. This is the simplest solution of the question.' in is given by E.D. p. Paul. and are described by Josephus . which have been used for fixing on a more definite the date of the Lucan Gospel. Paul was released after the end of the two years. it would be a rational assumption to think that the change was due to the influence of the facts on the writer but the force of the argument is not so great if we reverse the proposition. Paul's visits to Damascus immediately after the conversion. and has spent two years in some sort of modified imprisonment. and after him that of Judas the Galilsean in the days of the Census Both these revolts are well known. A. von Dobschiitz. for the two years may be the recognized period during which a trial must be heard. Meyer's Krit. What this period was we do not know. and was thus led into the mistake of thinking that Theudas must have been earlier than Judas. according to the implication of 1 Th 3"-. Paul he has been sent to Lome. the case collapsed. which cannot be earlier than A. is possible. From this Harnack has argued {Neiie Vntcrnuchungen zur Apostelgeschichfe. Paul had intercepted him on his way from Beroea to Athens and sent him to Thessalonica.D. The revolt of Theudas was thus most probably later than the speech of Gamaliel. but no verdict has been passed. The most. it is also possible that in the descrii)tion of the death of Ilerod Agrippa some details have been taken by Luke from the description of the death of Herod the . known. — The general ' . Paul had been originally a prosecution by the this character. (i. Luke's termination fjLrjKiaTov xp^vov). until some further analysis succeeds in showing why it should be thought that the we-clauses have been taken from a source not written by the redactor himself. ToC Tov Ka'av O. 100. 1. it is possible. after a statutory period of waiting. Luke had no interest in emphasizing the fact. Acts ends : ( ) . 43-47).20 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ACTS OF THE APOSTLES apparently in the middle of the trial of St. and probably it still kept even though the venue was changed to Rome. as this was not a definite acquittal. ' — * After describing Theudas' revolt. ' result of a consideration between Acts and the Epistles suggests that the author was sometimes inaccurate. but it is hard to see that he makes mistakes which would be impossible to one who had. 90. and therefore the case must have collapsed for lack of a prosecution.) that the Acts must have been written before the end of the trial was Beroea. as Luke says in Ac 28-\ did not put in an appearance. Paul went to Athens he left Timothy and Silas in and sent a message to them either from Athens or from some intermediate point.D. But the remarkable point is that Josephus in Ant. Paul at times but not during the greater part of his career. If Date of Acts and Reception in the The Canon. Jews. which point are 1 by the evidence of Ac 1^ is earlier (2) the abrupt termination of Acts (3) tiie possibility that the writer knew the Antiquities of Josephus. such as von Dobschiitz'a suggestion that 1 Tli 3^ need not mean that Timothy came to Athens. In this case Acts omits the whole episode of Timothy's arrival at and departure from Athens. that the end of Acts was not so abrupt to the ears of contemporaries as it is to us. of Acts is not really so abrupt as it seems. The evidence for the date is very meagre. was the editor of the whole book is the most reasonable one. indeed. But two other In the lirst possibilities have to be considered.D. 2.e. 6). Gottingen. tiierefore. He apparently knew the correct date of Judas. In Ac 5^^ Gamaliel is made to refer to two revolts which failed— first. and the reference to it must be a literary device on the part of 3. the companion of St. If the case of Theudas be admitted. but they did not actually join him until he readied Corinth (Ac 18^). tu? cu TOt? npo TOVToji' t8ii}\ui{TafX€Vf *Ia»caj/3o? kol ^t^u>v oi)f OLVaaTavphMTai. . V. or intended to write. XX. But the Jews. This argument would be important if it were the only explanation of the facts.D. whose revolt took place in the procuratorship of Fadus (c. if we knew that Luke was later than the fall of Jerusalem.

100. as a substitute for the canonical Acts . If we consider the narrative from this point of view.' of Paul of which the last item probably means the canonical Acts (see F. Finally. The decennium 90-100 seems. but demonstrative proof is lacking. . is the main these admit — . . this might be a valuable indication of date.D. i. 59). Paul appears at intervals. while a further series of subdivisions can be made according as the chief actor is Peter. on the whole. the most probable date. and how far they represent older therefore. as an institution in a world which is not immediately to disappear. in which is most characteristic of Mark and Matthew though many traces of this still remain. C. never uses the triadic formula baptism is always in the name 'of the Lord. it must have been in existence some time previously. p. rb ayiov irveu/j. or (but only if the Lucan authorship be abandoned) thirty years later. used a corpus of the five Acts of Paul. was. — It is. point away from the very early date advocated by Harnack and others. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES sources used by the writer. Reception in the Canon. of theory 1. but not so far short as the other arguments for dating tlie Acts. . Paul. and criticism. and in the of little discussion. . even if the Lucan authorship be doubted. Burkitt. It appears also probable that in the Church of Edessa Acts was used from the earliest time as the continuation of the Diatessaron. Marcion's text is a redaction of the canonical text. a somewhat more minute system of subdivision has been adopted in the fore.D. or Stephen. but at present (cf. partly of theory. A. but omitted the That is to say. 1904.D. but TTvevfia Kvpiov in 5^ 8^^ [the text is doubtful]. througliout the Catholic Acts. both in the Gospel and in Acts.— (6) The desh-e to show the unreasonableness and wickedness of Jewish opposition is also clearly marked. London. of any collection of Christian sacred books which included the Four-Gospel Canon. . it 21 becomes a question first point. 140) used the Gospel of Luke. THE Apostles [Apocryphal]. conceded. and in the surprising growth of ChristiThis is perhaps the main object of Luke's anity. — — earlier chapters.a are the usual expressions. writings. the Marcionites and other Gnostic Christians do not appear to have ever used the Later on the Manichseans seem to have Acts. Acts the characteristics of Acts. however. 22 serves to give a general conspectus of the facts . It is. . falls into the natural divisions afforded by his two (or three) great journeys and a cross-division can also be made by noting that the author sometimes uses the first person plural. we can see several motives underlying it. xp'O'^^s is habitually used predicatively. and in this respect Acts is more primitive than St. and Luke's Gospel was taken into the Four-Gospel Canon not long afterwards. The earlier sections in the same way can be divided though the division is here much less clear into those in which the centre of activity is Jerusalem. The Composition of Acts. This is corroborated by his own account at the beginning of the Gospel. rb TTvev/jLa. clear that the which the writer put How — ^\Titer has not attempted to give a colourless story of as many events as possible. not impossible that the to dissociate Christianity from Judaism. very remarkable it falls short of demonstration. Andrew. see ACTS OF The Spirit manifested the working of miracles of healing. 130 is the latest date that can reasonably be suggested. The table on p. which is the fulfilment of the promise of Jesus to send it to His disciples ' (iVa eTnyv<^s irepl Siv KarrjxridTjs !*]). and to defend Christians from the imputation of belonging to a sect forbidden by the officials. The Pauline section. This analysis is sufficient to show that the Avriter must have been drawing on various sources or traditions for his information. again. and we have to — — face three problems : What was the purpose with togetlier this narrative ? far is it possible to distinguish the sources. possible that some of the isolated Evangelical quotations in the Apostolic Fathers may be from Luke but no proof of this can be given. however. he wishes to tell the story of the early days of Christianity in order to prove the Christian teaching. both as a corpus and as separate documents. [Lk tianity. IV. The purpose with which the whole narrative was composed. and the relations which they bear to one another. Moreover. when the question is raised why the sections are so arranged. which he used ? What is the relative value of the sources which he used ? 2. and to it is subordinated. X6ywv ttjv In other words. : . Acts falls immediately into two chief parts the Pauline. On the other hand. Peter.ACTS OF THE APOSTLES But the evidence is here much less striking. sometimes writes exclusively in the third person. the eschatological expectation (Ac ptf. (a) The desire to show that the Christian Church was the result of the presence of the Spirit (irvevfj-a. but is using history to commend his own interpretation of the facts. of course. Acts was universally received as the authoritative and inspired continuation of the Gospel story. in which he defines his purpose as that of convincing Theophilus of the certainty of the narratives in which he liad been ' instructed dacpaXeiav . —The — there- establishment of the facts. rb TTVfv/jLa 'Irjaov in 16''). itself in glossolalia. still smaller subdivisions can be made by dividing the narrative into the series of incidents which compose it. Marcion (c.— The is ques- tion of the composition of this or any other book one partly of fact. if Tlieudas be not has no real strength. So far it has been assumed that Luke was the and in this case the probable writer of Acts length of his life gives the terminus ad quern for dating his writings. Even this appears to be very improbable if attention be paid to some of For instance. so that. than in the from this point of view more straightforward later chapters.' or 'of Jesus' there is no trace of the developed Docetic controversy of the Johannine Epistles or of Ignatius . for the Doctrine of Added specifies as the sacred books 'the Law and and the Epistles the Prophets and the Gospel and the Acts of the Twelve Apostles. . If his authorship be disputed. it is a question of fact and observation but. and it may have been written thirty years earlier. all that is kno'v\Ti \vith certainty Pliny's correspondence with Trajan) is that it was . and is contrasted with the attitude of Konian . the weakening of the eschatological element. and the interest in the Church. John. As. A. and those in which it is Antioch. (For the more detailed consideration of these Acts. In the sense of determining the arrangement of the sections. and the Priscillianists in Spain so far adopted this usage as to accept this corpus as an adjunct to the canonical Acts. There is no trace 4. A. Lk 3'6 •24-»8f). and the non-Pauline parts with a short intermediate section in which St. . It is. and Thomas. cf.e. The obYious facts. as such. The case of Theudas is. which are especially afi'ected by the question of sources. first forbidden and persecuted. the terminus ad quern is the earliest known use of the book or of its companion This is to be found in the fact that Gospel. Early Eastern ChrisGreat as given by Josephus. Church within the Roman Empire. written or oral. writer desired If we knew the time when Christianity State. and. Philip. c. and not as a proper name. of course.

in any case clear that this feature of Acts supports the view that one purpose cherished by the writer was the desire to protest against the view that Christians had always been. and that in 64 it was probably (but not certainly) not forbidden.ACTS OF THE APOSTLES forbidden by the beginning of the 2nd cent. we have for the rest of the Paul ' narrative a source ready to our hand the personal information obtained by Luke from St. and that he was himself the editor of the whole book. the writer is desirous of showing how Christianity had spread from Jerusalem to the surrounding districts. Paul.. In discussing them it is simplest to begin with the most marked feature the weclauses and then work back to the earlier ' — — ' chapters. He also explains in what way the Christians came Beferencb. (c) As a means towards the accomplishment of his other purposes. or could ever be. Paul himself. but of Christians as suspected of certain definite crimes. It is. As was shown above. as the Neronic persecution was not of the Christians as such. and the early history of the Church in Jerusalem. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES Church. Paul whom he met in his society. or from other companions of St. from there to Antioch.' balance of evidence seems at present to be strongly in favour of the view that the writer of these sections intended to claim that he had been a companion of St. If this be so. however. regarded as a danger to the Empire. and from Antioch through the provinces to Rome. the (1) The ' we-clauses. This may cover as much as Ac 9^"*" 1127-30 — — ' .

In Ac 3f. this evangelization by Philip and Peter in Samaria. but is less likely to represent Jerusalem tradition. ll'». Next he explains how the conversion of St. A speech 44 4S4. It is obvious that the ol fxev odv Siaairapivrei of Ac 11'" picks up the narrative of In S^-'* the story of Stephen's death is brought S'"*. we get a clear and probable narrative of the history of the Jerusalem Church. At present. 4S1 31-28 24247 of Peter. is used in the sense 3"). The result of this speech is an extraordinarily large number of converts (5000. Paul put an end to the persecution. 3oj^ \^^^ jjj qI^ 2 as dfSpa dirodedeLy/jL^vov dwb roxi deoO. If A be followed. then. To this branch of the Jerusalem tradition Harnack has given the name of source A. and ijyetpe is used of the Resurrection. B is continued in j^Q I more probably. Hellenistic Jews. or of doublets in the narrative. Is.' and to Ac 2 the name of source B. slightly varying. it will be necessary we-sections to regard the as representing a separate source. 2.ku odv 8La<nrap&r€i diiiXBov evaYye\(-^o/j. but the cumulative effect is certainly to justify the view that we have two accounts. tradition. 12-5-13^. but what follows. it is more probable here either from Jerusalem or fi'om St. Is ir^5-3o Pauline' or 'Antiochene'? The following section. and how the conversion of Cornelius led to the recognition of preaching to Gentiles by the Jerusalem community. whom he announced as the predestined Messiah. peculiar and not Lucan. while in the second half it is Antioch. In the former the word dfao-TTjo-aj raised up to preach (3-® cf. . Tlien the writer gives two instances of rbv \6yov. and the persecution which befell them and the beginning of this story is in 6^. of course. The most important feature of Ac l'-5*^ is that 2'"*'' seems to contain doublets of 3'-4^^. Thus there But 8^ is is an organic unity between S'* and the end of the story of the . while the earlier sections of the same kind might be attributed to the Jerusalem tradition.€voi . and he also identifies it with the Jerusalem' ' Cresarean source (see below). which can fairly be attributed to Antiochene tradition. unless it prove possible (so far it has not been done) to find some ' ' * than anywhere else in Acts that we are dealing with traces of a written Greek document underlying Acts in the same way as Mark and Q underlie the Lucan Gospel. The same sort of result is reached by considering the sections following 11'"'^. The communism of the Early Church. of the same series of events. or Jerusalem and the neighbourhood. and consider the question whether the rest of the chapters mentioned above came from one or several sources. but in the latter dvaarTjcras is used of the Kesunection. he thinks. diajy/xos 'lepoaoKvfJiOLr . and to discuss the probable limits of the Antiochene tradition. It is. As the result of this missionarj^ speech a great number of converts were made (about 5000 [4*]). 12'"^. Jesus is described as a irah deoO (3i3-26 427. in which the account of the Council might be Antiochene or Pauline. These exhaust the number of the passages which are ever likely to attributed to the Antiochene source. but difficulties arise as soon as an attempt is made to work either backwards or forwards from this centre. (6) The Jerusalem. are doublets is thus probable . no one has shown any serious ground for thinking that we can distinguish any signs of change of style. Paul and what he may have learnt from other Antiochene persons. Paul quite as well as from any one On the merits of the case we can go no else. and the same is true of 15'"^. and it is hard to see convincing reasons why the Antiochene source which Harnack postulates should not have come from the Paul source. SB ry Tifiipq. is clearly part of the Jerusalem tradition. But it is also true that B^-S'* might have come — this series of doublets the twice-told story of the early ' communism of the first Christians and the repetition of the shaking of the house at the outpouring of the Spirit are the most striking. before considering whether they are really one or more than one in origin. might again be either Pauline or Antiochene. Here again it is easier to begin by taking the later chapters first. does not deny that the so-called Antiochene source represents Antiochene tradition. but later on released after a speech by 5i7-42_ . belongs to B than to A. 21-13 214-36 237-41 xhe gift of the Spirit. in connexion with the sensation caused by this wonder Peter explained that he wrought the cure in the name of Jesus. It is clear of this tradition are difficult to fix.-^— \t is obvious that Ac l'-5''" represents in some sense a Jerusalem ' ' — tradition. 6^-8^ to be regarded as belonging to the Antiochene tradition ? Harnack thinks so. moreover. fiiyas eTrl t7]v iKKXrjcriav t7]v iv iravTe^ Sk diecnrdprjaav /card rds x'^P"-^ ol ij. All that is said is that this Antiochene tradition may have come from St. To the be present writer it seems that. as the later sections.'^ 4'"). their seven representatives. as may very well be the case. and afterwards with the Jerusalem-Coesarean narrative. that to it the section describing the foundation of the church at Antioch and its early history (Ac IP^^") must be attributed . and it is scarcely less clear that 8"'""* 9^'2118 12'"^ represent a tradition which is divided in its interests between Jerusalem and Ciesarea. . Peter and John were arrested. to a close by tlie statement that iyivero 8i iv iKeiv-Q (2) The problems marcation between what Luke may have heard about the early history of Antioch from St. but it begins in the middle. This. According to it. to point in ' ' ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ' ' ' 23 literary criterion for distinguishing between the ' Pauline and Antiochene sources. it will remain permanently impossible to draw any line of de- this direction. as the linguistic characteristics of 3 f are ' ' ' . Paul himself. Between 6" and S'* there unless it be thought that the whole is no break speech of Stephen is the composition of the editor. Finally. necessary to deal first with the purely Jerusalem sections. but may have a separate origin. and picks up his story as to the Christians who were dispersed after the death of Stephen. and it is very probable. as compared with ch. accompanied by the shaklug of the house in which the Apostles were. 2 he appears alone or 'with the other apostles.' According to him. with the same formula ol fiev oCv Siaa-irapivTes in 11'". he returns to where he started from.^•*. presented by the earlier chapters are much more complicated. Of .ACTS OF THE APOSTLES exaggerated or misrepresented. however. further (for the possibility that Luke was himself an Antiochene see Luke). The exact limits (a) The Antiochene tradition. the continuation of A can be found in 5'"'^. together with the possibility that it may have lain before the writer of Acts as a document. In Ac 3 f Peter is almost always accompanied by John (3'. The chief Eoint which attracts attention is that in the first alf of these chapters the centre of interest is Jerusalem. (a) The purely Jerusalem sections. and by Philip alone on the road to Gaza. 3000). can also be attributed to the Pauline source. It also seems quite impossible to say whether he was using written sources. therefore. and that the suggestion of a multiplicity of sources is supported by some — linguistic peculiarities. Peter and John went iip to the Temple and liealed a lame man .' That Ac 2 and 3 f. before considering the Jerusalem tradition of the opening cliapters. This result finds remarkable corroboration in certain linguistic peculiarities of Ac 3 f. but in ch.

the former to B. imprisonment. but. Moreover. Thus source commends itself as an early and good tradition. Joppa. Philip's conversion of the Ethiopian on the road to Gaza. the disciples received the Spirit on the Day of Pentecost amid the shaking of the room. The narrative gives an intelligible picture of the events which led to the growth of the Jerusalem Church and of an organization of charitable distribution that ultimately led to the development described in Ac 6. to speak the word /xera irapprjaias. although it has been ' Lucanized. rather than a Lucan This applies especially to Peter's composition. describe Jesus as having been the Messiah. 3f. He then goes on to announce that God has glorified this irais by the Resurrection. Linguistically there is no clear evidence. London. or at least vv. with which Harnack connects it. though Harnack doubts this. however. 4. 2 is a point for which comparative certainty may be claimed. and his arrival in Ca?sarea. Peter does not A— ' — . It is not found in A. and either that Luke disliked the section referring to the events after the Crucifixion. a sj^irit of voluntary communism flourished. and an early type which suggests that we have here to do with a source used by Luke. in the enthusiasm which prevailed. 79 Acts . Harnack is inclined to see in 5^'"^^ a doublet of 4^-'^^. on the other hand. but it may be noted that 0d/3os is a characteristic of the Christian community in B in 2^*.' and perhaps with a side reference to the Servant of Jahweh in Is 53. after which Peter made a speech. Finally. It therefore must remain uncertain whether Ac 5 ought to be regarded as wholly A. If. by no means improbable that the apostles were twice arrested. It is certainly probable that S^*"-^ belongs to A. It is. ought to be regarded as belonging to it. owing to the characteristic combination of Peter and John. which seems to relate some of the same events. however. followed by the mission of Peter and John. however. and of the supplementary source B in ch. as they had asked. Peter's mission to Lydda. which describe Philip's evangelization of Samaria. and is repeated in 5^* ". 1 Clement. Here also the writer made use of a Greek document A A — — Mark —and tradition —whether written supplemented it with a Jerusalem it is or oral impossible See Burkitt. probably in documentary form. and the Didache. therefore. in many points resembling that in Ac 3. and. but it is not so certain as the previous results. Then follows a description of the joy of the Church at the release of Peter and John. It is more doubtful when we come to the two other sections. in which the phrase rd. as the story is told. though the bearing on this theory of the double source A and B in Acts is not mentioned. This is not improbable. In the same way the story of Ananias and Sapphira in Ac 5^"^' would fit quite as well on to B as on to A. The same can also be said of the prayer of the Church in i^*^-. and an organization of charitable dis' ' A — ' ' . the Spirit was outpoured amid the shaking of the room in which they were. for instance. the Martyrdom of Polycarp. and a practical defiance of the command of the authorities not to preacli in tiie name of Jesus. plain that this Jerusalem tradition at the end of Luke is the same as that in source B of the Acts. moreover. or be divided between the two sources. The problem then arises. The question presents in this respect a remarkable parallel to the state of things in the last chapters of the Gospel of Luke.®"^^. According to this narrative. for. etc.) a phrase peculiar to source A. or because he desired to correct the Marcan tradition. it is tolerably clear that was a written Greek source used by Luke.^i'ov XpiffrSv). whether B was a written source or oral tradition. but it begins in the middle and tells us nothing about the events previous to the visit of Peter and John to the Temple. A great number of converts (about 3000) were made and. a picture is drawn of the prosperity of the Church. it seems. and might possibly be separated from them and as- Peter. which he identifies with source A. on the whole. speech. it is noteworthy that 12^"23 is also very clearly connected with the house of Mark and his m(>ther. Now.' Messiah {rbv Trpoa-KexeipifffJ. and of the voluntary communism which prevailed./ dyiov iraWd <rov 'Iriffodu. and it may be regarded as reasonable to think that this also covers the rest of the section. Ac 8«-« 931-III8 121-^. It is. probable that Ac 1. tribution came into being. Presumably. but as a irais 6eov (more probably Servant of God than Child of God.. rather than John the son of Zebedee. where the suggestion is made that the early part of may represent a Marcan tradition. it is impossible to say. These are (^) The Jerusalem-Ccesarean sections.24 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES to off'. ACTS OF THE APOSTLES say—-either because the Marcan narrative broke as it breaks oti' in the existent text of Mark.' it still retains its own <!haracteristic expressions. 5v ^xP'O'as ( made Christ ?) is very remarkable. but. Apparently it was to till up this gap that Luke turned to source B. wholly B. irapprjcrLas Trdcrrjs \a\eiv Toy \6yov aov. the composition of this part of Acts becomes plain * but it also becomes a question whether the John who accompanies Peter in source A (and nowhere else) is not John Mark. it has several marks of individuality. If we suppose that the original Mark contained a continuation of the Gospel story down to the foundation of the Church in Jerusalem. and an account of their prayer dos rois 8ov\ols <tov /xera. 5^'' seems a not unnatural continuation of ch. Peter's arrest. All this. or perhaps that his copy had been mutilated.. true that the characteristic Peter and John is not found in 5'''^. The actual existence of the source A in ch. • p. This is much more clearly Caisarean than either of the others. so that S^'*" may be attributed to A. and. any weight be attached to the suggestion that A is connected with Mark. and escape in Jerusalem. but in a different order . after which they were able. It is. 1911. Earliest Sources of the Gospels. and with the addition of many more testimonia as to the Resurrection. the phrase apxriyiv is applied to Jesus rather curious in 318 and 5^^ (elsewhere in NT only in He 2^" 12^). and Cajsarea. The section 9^'-ll'8 remains. and Herod's death Harnack thinks that all these pasin Csesarea. which militates somewhat against the view that these chapters belong to different sources. sages represent a Jerusalem-Caisarean tradition. just as he used Mark in the Gospel . it has the advantage of connecting the story of the Church at Jerusalem directly with the events that followed the Crucifixion a period on which is silent. and he supplemented it at the beginning with B . which is in some ways one of the most archaic passages in the NT. who will remain in the Heavens until the 'restoration of Recent research in the field of eschatology and Messianic doctrine has brought out clearly ' ' the primitive character of this speech. though from the circumstances of the case not much weight can be attached to this. a copy of this document came into Luke's possession. is hypothetical. This narrative does not seem so convincing as that of source A. and return to Jerusalem. how far these sources can be traced in the following chapters of Acts. but without the characteristic phraseology of A. In answer to their prayer. The question then suggests itself whether source the written source of Acts may not belong to the same document as Mark the written source of the Gospel. and that He is the predestined ' ' ' ' ' — all things. But if Ac 1 be regarded as belonging to it. and to assign the latter to A. f.

rendered certain by the reference in Ac P. Leipzig. Acta Apostolorum not be regarded as a statement of fact. Thus. therefore. which is plainly intended that he made use of Mark . but it must be improbable that a narrator of that age would have thought that it so happened. led them out to Bethany.ence is suggested that the disciples. It is equally clear that Acts really observed fact and of hypotheses to explain places the Ascension forty days later. be reconciled ? Various attempts have been made and. F. for They have not. of course. the removal of Philip by Lucan phrase (59 times in Luke. refers to the Ascension is Overbeck {The Acts of the Apostles. 1. Judged by this standard.quite possible that many details in B may be cornected with Philip. but on the whole it narrates the same events. and pass into the The same thing can be said of source in the open country of uncontrolled guessing. ence. (elirev 54). So far as the ' we-clauses and the prob. never left Jerusalem after the Crucifixion. A. that we here reach the credence as good and early sources. but we can use the analogy of his observed clear from the morning of the Resurrection to the practice in the case of the Gospel. don. if he the way to Emmaus. the truth is. It is possible that he was justified salem to tell the news {dvaardi'Tes avTrj ry (bpq. were frequently of a kind that we there is. but that is not the question. of Philip. with Philip. or one of valueless. but it is Ac9^'-lP^isa Caesarean narrative. He did not realize sion on the evening or night of the third day after that in any narrative there is a combination of the Crucifixion.*^ Besides this. connected with Peter and Mark . though of the 1st cent. the Ascension took place near Jerusalem open. 15 times in Acts. The days between the Resurrection and the Ascension. the continuation of the Lucan Jerusalem narrative and it would certainly be rash to regard B as in the Gospel . some confusion in the text at should now never think of suggesting.secundum formam quae videtur Romanam. the Spirit (or angel ?) from the side of the Ethiopian only once elsewhere in the NT).stayed in Jerusalem or went to Galilee ? ments. According to possibility of a connexion with Caesarea remains Ac 1. limit of legitimate hypothesis. Blass. but here also the the question is more complicated. if the events them. the Antiochene hand might conceivably be identified with source and Jerusalem-Csesarean traditions seem to deserve B . and at once returned to Jeruthought right. which was settled in Csesarea. but the conclusions which Zeller there is no doubt that the Gospel places the Ascendraws are often untenable. Moreover. the suggestion of Harnack and others that the source miglit be identified with the family. On the whole. there is no reason to doubt to be any room in the Gospel narrative for the forty the general trustworthiness of the narrative. to find room in the Gospel for the forty days. and that it never to Azotus . 1875-76). Antiochene narrative and the Jerusalem-Csesarean The problems which arise are therefore: (1) How narrative (the Philip clauses) can be judged with far can the Gospel of Luke and Acts 1 be reconmore difficulty. The While they were narrating their experience the point is that he did not hesitate to alter his source Lord appeared. of an inquiry into the raised by source B is more difficult. Eng. The hypotheses of a writer or narrator of 1* (5i 7]ixepCiv TeaaapaKovra) is correct and. Historical Value of the Various Tra.). they cannot narrative which has points of connexion with A. — A — — ' ' ' — ' We . is not impossible from 21^ (a we-clause') we know that Luke came into contact with him there. except that there does not appear of probable inaccuracy. forty days after the Resurrection. or seem to to the general impression given by the passage) is belong to the world of legend rather than to that excluded by the facts that etTrei' 5^ is a peculiarly of history for instance. No doubt it is true that. p. however. whatthe points open to suspicion is still that of Zeller. it is therefore probable that he taken up to heaven..ever text be taken. The best statement of all usually the reverse. the sequence we can obtain some idea of what he is likely to of the events was the following. that Lk 24^^. rection the women believed. for H^-'^ has also points of connexion wise or not told at all in A. in any given narrative. at least in the case of A.. been successful. In the Gospel. Finally 12i-23is a Jerusalem narrative If. — . and the inferV. it can only the existence of a written Greek source.Peter. is any possibility of a break in the narrative is v. Lon. If so. tr. though in the main constant to his source vince the disciples.) two disciples saw the risen Lord on meaning of the story as well as the words. it is not enough to justify the omission is no reason why the narrative as a whole should of forty days (see esp. and reason for rejection. on grounds of general probability. was by no means disinclined to change the avry ry rj/jLipg. and was in the Gospel . But the problem The result. In this way the same day. including ditions. In 8^"*" is a further happened in the order given in A. The only place where there did not hesitate to do so in the Acts. Ac 1 be assigned to B. but failed to conLuke. and we can control his to be regarded as taking place on the evening of methods. If it be assources of the Jerusalem tradition is to establish sumed that Ac 1 does not belong to it. xxiii). because we possess his source. probably con. Here. While there are traces from the Gospel. To this it seems in Ac 3f. are continued in ch. in be compared with source A. Later on in the same day (iv Mark. of improbable exThe only possible suggestion. and this raises difficulties in rect in spite of the fact that they are told otherrelation to A. But that this point. 1896. as the we have no other information as to their original connecting links in the Gospel narrative are quite form. 5. in doing so. ably Pauline tradition are concerned. on the other hand. this question That this was Luke's own view is made quite plain has already been discussed. and these two sources. it is true. we have another criterion. Early on Sunday have done with his sources in Acts. if the text the fact. morning certain women went to the tomb. and to it cannot be said that the application of this them two men appeared who announced the Resurcriterion raises the value of Acts. with a document. The exist. but this possibility (in any case contrary various small points give rise to doubt. or on the other ' ACTS OF THE APOSTLES 25 planations as to how events happened is not an argument against its early date and general trustworthiness. but the main narrative otters no real implies that a narrative is not continuous. How far can the Gospel of Luke and Acts 1 It is probable that Luke is dealing with traditions.' cannot say how far he alters his sources. with a parallel narrative B apparently ferior.ACTS OF THE APOSTLES cribed to a distinct Cesarean source. as we have no means of comparing ciled? (2) Is it more probable that the disciples the narratives with any other contemporary state. however. According to Lk 24^^-. unless it can be shown that the explanation involves improbability not only in fact but also in thought it must not only be improbable that the event really happened in the manner suggested. have happened in the order given in B. Here we know moment of the Ascension. purely Jerusalem tradition. ' ' . It is also obvious that the information given by Philip might be the source of much more of that which has been tentatively attributed to source A.

but there are in the existing text two indications that the appearances of the risen Christ were in Galilee. 23rd. title of king to this in 39-40 the tetrarchy of Antipas was added. A. but it went wrong shows that the problem is not imaginary. ' into Galilee. be so. 44. missing. 1881. in Epigraphical Studies at Delphi.). like A. Nikitsky in Russian. 2. 52 [CIL vi. Ac 2^3 Sif-'S). . 1898. The famine in Judaea. the evidence of Luke and the Acts is that the disciples did not leave Jerusalem. and bears the date of the 26th acclamation of tlie Emperor Claudius. such as those in Lk 3^ But at five points synchronisms with known events can be establishetl and used as the basis of a chronological system. as his 24th acclamation came in his 11th tribunician year (i. and now most accessible in ' Deissmann's Paulua. which cannot be discussed here. and fixes the famine in the fourth year of Claudius.e. was a written document wVien used by Luke. and therefore that the disciples must have returned All ye there after the Crucihxion. and the Gospel of Peter. and within a few days appointed Agrippa. Gallio's proconsulate. Go. The period between the Crucifixion and the growth of the Jerusalem community was naturally the most obscure point in the history of Christianity and. and 24th acclamations — ' ' . Orosius (vil. I will go before you into Galilee. 2. is that the writer found some reason to modify his opinions in the interval between writing the Gospel and the Acts. The beginning of his reign was immediately after the accession of Chronology of Acts. which supplements and corrects the statement in St. the meaning of the second part. but he was sent to Judtea after the death of Herod Agrippa I. — There — Mk « . p. and it becomes more probaVjle (a) that Ac 1 is from a separate tradition from source 15 {b) tiiat source B. (a) H^''-. it must have been some considerable time after 25 Jan. as the narrative says.D. 189S. London. p. as an inscription of that date refers to the 27th acclamation. as the 22nd. Madden. he was never in close contact with one of the original Galila. If. t Secondary evidence is to be found in Mt 28. there shall you see him. only the value which may be attributed to the sources of Orosius. and there is a link missing in the history of the chain of events. Whether he was right to do so depends on the judgment passed on various factors. W. But after I am risen. 48. and the arrival of Festus in Judjea (25^). 223. than that they went into Jerusalem. A. Jn 21. Samaria. It is not known when Fadus retired. which. 51. so that Alexander's term cannot have begun before 45. He actually told them to remain in Jerusalem. Why this was so is disciples. definite 1. Gallio's proconsulate in Corinth (18^^) . I will go before you into Galilee. especially Ro 8^. The death of Herod Agrippa. Is it more probable that the disciples stayed in Jerusalem or went to Galilee?— The evidence tliat the disciples went to Galilee is found in Mark. there is a contradiction between Ac 1 and 2. shall be offended for it is written. 130. 44 to Sept. 1895. do.' is obscure. and once more it must be urged that this implies that the disciples went there. That the two traditions thus exist cannot be questioned. If they were. and more probably not before 46. Jerusalem was the last place to which those who were not inhabitants of that city would go. it is not diflicult to see that the tendency of Christian history would and the Roman Citizen. XX. which are unknown . Moreover. this ably from Sept. however.' but Mark is the primary evidence.' Here it is quite clearly stated that the first appearance of the risen Christ to the disciples is to be in Galilee. a reason for not accepting Ac 1 as an accurate account of history and this judgment perhaps reflects on source B and certainly in some measure on Luke. and Galilee. 52).' This seems intended to prepare the way for the flight of the disciples after the arrest in Geth- are no chronological statements in the Acts. or jjossibly from Jan.D. 45 to Jan.D. I will smite the shepherd. and this is therefore the terminus ad qitcm His terra of ottice for the date of the famine. but in any case it implies a return to Galilee. for it is certainly is to connect Galihean link up the links of the chain as if the had never existed. This must be recognized. 45. Paul the Traveller the .) says that the famine took place during the procuratorship of Alexander. even if Luke it is .. Tubingen. vi. All that is really shown is that. is more definite. Odessa. to the tetrarchy of Philip. been fixed with considerable definiteness by the discovery of . This would be between the sjjring of 43 and that of 44. and the sheep shall be scattered.. This date has recently 3. and whether this is not also implied in the speeches of Peter in Ac 2 and 3 * (cf. 46. reigned nine years. ). was prob- have naturally emphasized Jerusalem and omitted a fact that from the beginning the Christian Church found its centre in Jerusalem and not in Galilee. but it does not agree with the evidence of the coinage. Was Christ born at Bethlehem ? London. tell his disciples and Peter that he is going before you semane ' .— Our information for the date of this event is found in Josephus and Orosius.f The end of Mark is. r25b). The evidence is not sufficient to settle the point. began after that of Fadus. according to the evidence of coins * (if these be genuine). Josephus (Ant. and it is not probable that Orosius was acquainted with the Antiquities.26 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ACTS OF THE APOSTLES in his attempt to find out the facts at this point.a fragment of an inscription at Delphi t which contains a reference to Gallio as proconsul (which must be proconsul of Acliaia). p. Ph 1^3. so that his statement has independent value. On the other hand. Claudius added Judaea. the Galilsean tradition seems to deserve the It is in itself much more probable preference. The ditticulty is that Josephus says that Agrippa died in the seventh year of his reign. of course. t First published by A. v. Agrippa I. (Ac 12^^^) the famine in Judfea (II-'"^ 12-^). This statement has.D. * See F. so far from the risen Lord announcing His future appearance to the disciples in Galilee. with Caligula. however. 51-24 Jan. that is no special reason for rejecting his evidence for later events when he really was in a position to obtain sound information. 191L . a writer of the 5th cent. VI. panic-stricken. but what either source B or Luke himself (if Ac 1 be not part of source B) has done Galilee. of course. This acclamation was before 1 Aug. but may be summed up in the question wliether the eviileiice of the Pauline Epistles does not suggest that the earliest Christian view was that Ascension and Resurrection were but two ways of describing the same fact. and after 25 Jan. in A. unless it be supposed that Agrippa dated his accession from the death of Philip rather than from his appointment by Caligula. and that. Alexander's term of ottice ended in A. Coins of the Jews. 51. Later on. So far as this goes. but it supports Josephus fairly well. (6) Mk 16^ (tlie message of the young man at the tomb). It must. who was then in Rome. Moreover. Thus Josephus fixes the famine within a margin of less than two years on eitlier side of 47. if • Of course. be noted that it ought not seriously to attect our judgment on Luke's account of later events. 37. nor can they be reconciled without violence. the decree of Claudius banishing all Jews from Rome (18-) . 68 f. These are the death of Herod Agrippa I. who became Emperor on 16 March. 25 Jan. unlike Mark. therefore. on his system of reckoning (see Ramsay. that the disciples fled to Galilee when they left Jesus to be arrested by Himself. we have to choose between them.

: ACTS OF THE APOSTLES A. owing to the ancient method of reckoning. Corinth to Antioch— end of 51. Arrival at Ephesus summer of 52. Paul. Various other arguments have been used. Sept. — ' impulsore Chresto. if so. Leipzig. in the summer of 52. follows Trial 27 all came in the 11th tiibunician year. Date of Herod's Marriage with Herodias and the Chronology of the Gospels. It is thought. He states that this date is derived from Josephus. — VII.D. St. even when an allowance into the Epistles in ' ' ' ' tus seems to give no firm basis for argument. however. therefore. on the whole. before A. 51. be remembered that the period of 14 years reckoned between the first and second visits of St.' but no date is given. Clemen. scription must be placed between the end of 51 and 1 Aug. In view of the evidence as to Gallio. the ing. showing no traces of Johannine. Zeitalters. 49-Sept. The arrival of Festus in Judaea. Chronolociie. 8th ser. which is. part of two years. 55. in his Chronicon. which is clearly a mistake. and to on the earth. Harnack. Nevertheless. which probably means Sept. The proconsul usually entered on his office in the middle of the summer (cf. and 17 a few months more than 15. but none is based on exact statements or has any real value. but escaped owing to the influence of Pallas his brother. It is strange that in some respects Acts is less Gentile or Greek than the Epistles. Claudius. Tacitus does not mention the fact nor does Josephus. LiTERATiTRB. the art. ' ' [1912] 462). Paul was tried by Gallio in . Josephus states that Felix. Lake. 1904. just as in the a noticeably smaller degree of Messianic kingdom than in Mk. then reconstruct as by Gallio— Aug. and this can hardly be the case if he retired before Nero had reigned for three months. 56 the true second year of his reign but. which probably means not Oct. [Leipzig. 1897-1904. also according to Tacitus. Hamburg. Orosius vi. Paul's trial by Gallio. Britannicus was born in Feb. 14 may mean a few months more than 12. merely that by then his 27th acclamation had taken place. Aci. Rom. though it is doubtful Avhether it could have been described as SieTias irXrjpwdeiffTjs the phrase used in Ac 24-''. Twelve months later is not absolutely impossible. places the arrival of Festus in the second year of Nero. according to this reckoning. though scarcely an accurate translation and. Staatsreclit^. According to Ac 18'-. 57. so that Festus must have entered on his office. Thus. Paul's trial must have been in the summer of 51. St. is unfortunately surrounded by great difficulties. At this time Gallio was in office. the latest 36. Gallio in it for another term. Wieseler's Chronol. ii.' in Expositor. though it is improVjable. this is the earliest possible chronology. and surprisingly few of Pauline. In common with all other canonical writings. Turner (older statements are almost entirely based on K. as events seem to have moved rapidly before and after that period. in + 48 and the conversion was either 14 or 17 years before this. according to the Eusebian plan of reckoning.— The theology of Acts is. and therefore the Crucifixion. 41. The second visit to Jerusalem in Galatians is identical either with the time of the famine or with that of the Council. according to Tacitus. 1848) C. 51. Paul had been in Corinth 18 months (Ac 18'^). 50. in 41 or 46. and the 25th acclamation has not yet been found. just 14 years old. influence. — Departure from Ephesus and arrival at Corinth Arrival at Jerusalem and became proconsul. i. The Theology of Acts. Jesus wdth the promised come from heaven to judge the inaugurate the Kingdom of God There is. 15) states that it was in the ninth year of (VII. Giessen. 233-9. were written. however. 52. If we combine with them the further data in Galatians. General probability really means in this case considering whether the Eusebian date fits in with the date of St.' Probably this is correct exegesis. For literature on the subject see A. before the death of Britannicus. the Emperor Claudius banished The same fact is mentioned all Jews from Kome. with later date for Gallio. Paul to Jerusalem depends entirely on the reading AIMAGTCON in Gal 2^. and a proportionately increased interest the Spirit. 55-Oct. and has. who had revealed Himself in time past to His chosen people the Jews . in HDB on 'Chronology' by C. but the date agrees very well with that of for. . in view of the fact that the evidence of Josephus as to the marriage of Herod and Herodias suggests that the death of John the Baptist.e. if the trial before Gallic's proconsulate Gallio was in Aug. These are the only data in Acts for which any high degree of probability can be claimed. Third Gospel. H. and Mt. and it identifies Messiah. cording to Ac IS-. indeed. who says: ludseos. The date of Gallio is by far the most certain. Paulus. Paidus). . simple and early. i. if the latter. 25). and this is usually taken to mean as soon as Gallio ' We may 51. — autumn of 54. Deissmann. unless we suppose that two years in prison means June 55-summer 56. interest in the . Trial before Festus Two years' imprisonment arrest — summer of 55. or that Pallas retained considerable influence even after his fall. were later than has usually been thought (see K. but during it to have stood relatively still. most of the faults of circular reasonStill. —65 to summer 57. though sometimes he continued According to this. . whom Festus replaced. at which time Aquila had just arrived in consequence of the decree of Claudius. 31. who will world. Paul's trial took place VaWiwvos 5k oLvdvirdrov 6vtos. so that really the end of 51 is the earliest probable date Thus the Delphi infor the 26th acclamation. and Britannicus was. for we do not know whether Claudius had been acclaimed for a long or a short time before 1 Aug. des apost. 52. the Apostle must have reached Corinth in April 50. by Suetonius {Claudius. it can be placed in +46. This may probably be explained as due to the fact that the writer belonged to a more Gentile circle than those in which Mk. which might easily have been a corruption for AIAAGTCjON ( = after 4 years'). Mommsen. and that the 14 years in question are always a difficulty. and Mt. unless he is referring to some other writer of that name (cf. and normally held it for one year only. therefore. 56Sept. — : — — — summer 57. we have only Eusebius and general probability to use. It should.AUTiS OF THE APUSTLES Aug. This is especially important. assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit. it regards the God of the Christians as the one true God. Eusebian date comes out of this St. and St. But Pallas was dismissed. The facts are as follows Eusebius. The possibility ought not to be neglected that the conversion was 10 years later than the dates suggested. either that Tacitus made a mistake as to the age of Britannicus. in view of the fact that the combination of statements in Josephus and Taci. This date 5.D. iv. Thus the earliest date for the conversion would be A. 1888] 256). we obtain a reasonably good chronology as far back as the conversion of St. . This is partially explained by the fact that much of so-called Faulinismus has been read but. — — . or.D. Summary. must have come to Corinth in July 51. Josephus appears to place the gi'eater part of the events under Felix in Nero's reign. according to the exegesis adopted for the statements in Galatians though. test fairly well. was prosecuted on his return to Rome. If the former. The expulsion of the Jews from Rome.

Xpo^'^" diroKaracrdcTews irdvTUiv. of (i.e. Kr\. acquires increased force. and the and 10^ and and how far A Mk ' ' . doctrine of the Spirit. Christology. In one place only (20-'* T7}v iKK\T]<Tiav Tov Kvplov [but deov X B vg. he does not * The text is doubtful the editors usually give £ru el 6 vJds ixot 6 ayaTTTfTo?.vios fiov elcrv. the difficulty remains. irvevpLa Kvpiov iir' ifxe. On the other hand. he seems to be less eschatological. Kal ol dpxovres ffrb/j. repentance and change of conduct {iin(jrp€\l/are) . again. who in his Gospel gi-eatly lessened the eschatological elements found in Mark and Q.(thus possibly the text of /» and certainly of a text coeval with I-E-K [if such a text existed]) probably he Is right. The possible difi'erence must. on the (jue hand. on the other. The same sort of comment can be made on S-"'* and 17^^ but otherwise there is little in Acts to bear on the eschatological expectation. For the Avriter of 3. Trpo(p7]T<I>v debs & irpoKaT-qyyeCKev did TraOeiv tov Xpiarbv avrov odv. as an especially archaic characteristic. This. CIema'«i. is not quite clear. which with less doubt may be referred to the Resurrection. d5e\(pol. while Ac 4 and 10 belong to the Jerusalem source and the closely connected or identical Jerusalem-Caesarean source (which agree with at all events one interpretation of the meaning of the Baptism in 1).. It must remain a problem strictly interpreted. In this respect Acts seems to be more archaic than the Pauline Epistles. iyw (TT]fj. The sufficient proof of any argument or exjilanation of any historical event was to be found in the fact tliat it had been prophesied. p. wj Kal iv ry deirripcfi. the death of the Christ is regarded as a wicked act of the Jews rather than as a necessary part of a plan of salvation. In the speeches of Peter and Stephen.' and does wish to say that by the Resurrection Jesus became the heavenly. OT . The OT and Jewish Law. The cause of the blotting out of sins is here.' sometimes more narrowly the actual Messiah reigning in the Kingdom of God. though it is not here stated that the witnesses of the Ascension shall also live to see the Parousia. who is appointed by God to judge the world (cf. as had been foretold. t This must mean that the Messiah (of whom all men know) is Jesus (of whom they had previously not heard) and emphasizes the fact that.ff/j. Paul. ravTi^v [i. ology of the Fourth Gospel.Ka. iirayyeXiav] 6 At what the world. this seems to be implied. it must be remembered that many critics think that this same quotation from Ps 2 is connected with the Baptism in Lk 3-. As compared with Mark or St. Paul's speech at Antioch in Pisidia). where. nothing is said to suggest that this would not have been effective without the suffering of the Messiah. Aug. The point seems to be that. and doctrine of baptism. the quite primitive meaning of the king of the kingdom of God. dyiui /cat Swd/iet) and the similar phrase in 4'-". Eschatology. Sttws dv ^Xdwai Kaipol dvaypv^ews dwb irpo(T(hirov rod Kvpiov Kal dirocrre'iXy] rbv ir poKexei-pi-(y t^-^vov v/jliv Xpiarbv 'Irjffovv. . 5p del ovpavbv probably has reference to the Resurrection. as in the OT prophets. The most remarkable example of this is the picture given in ch. The points on •which the theology of Acts requires discussion in detail are its christology. 75 ff. reflects light on Ac 10^ (ojs ^XP'O'"' o-vrbv 6 Oebs irvevfiaTi. the Tbv irpoKex^'-P'-'^l^ivov iifitv mo.e. and the TR] iiv wepieTroL-rjaaTo did rod aifxaros tov Idiov) is there anything which approaches the Pauline doctrine. In the latter sense it was possible to speak of Jesus as top wpoKexeipi. ) thinks that Luke regarded the Resurrection as the moment. and it is noticeable that this passage is from the speech of Paul to the Ephesian elders. glorious Being who would come shortly to judge ' has been made for this fact. and the circumcision of Timothy'. attitude to the OT and Jewish Law. 17'*^). 25 of St. but Harnack prefers to read the quotation from Ps 2 with D a b c ff al. for the connexion of exptcev with Xpiaros is obvious. for critics how 4-'' far this difi'erence is between Ac IS^^*- accidental (or merely apparent). the Christ.aTos vp-uiv. In the latter sense the position taken up in Acts is that the Law OT . it meant for the earliest generation an attempt to show that Jesus adequately fulfilled an already existing doctrinal definition of the Messiah. In P^ the Parousia of the Messiah This Jesus who has been taken is still expected up into Heaven shall so come as ye have seen him go into Heaven .* in which case the further quotation in Lk 4^*. It should be noted. this and other sins will be blotted out. for in the context dvaarrjo-as can be given no other translation.o(Tvvrj ev di'dpi <^ iopiaev. ^<xrr}aev rjfjApav ev 17 fxiWei — ' ' ' ' KpLveiv Tr)v olKovfiiprjV ev TricTTiv 5i. a few other authorities. if they repent. that in Acts 'It/o-oDs XpLcrbs is not used as a name except in the phrase rb ovofia 'ItjitoO Xpiarov (2^8 3« 4\» S^^ 10« 15-6 le'^*) elsewhere X/)<(rr6s is always predicative. : the // and A' texts. Paul's acceptance of the Law in Jerusalem. but they did it in ignorance . Kal iir\-qpwaev iieTavo-qaaTe ewLa-Tpexpare. or that i5ei wadeiv rbv Xpiurdv (17^).28 ACTS OF THE APOSTLES ACTS OF THE APOSTLES wish to say that the life of Jesus was the Messianic Parousia or Coming. There is comparatively little 2. because XpiarSs sometimes means the person who is by nature and predestination the appointed Messiah. but traces of the primitive expectation are not wanting. however. but the Christology belongs to an early There is no suggestion of the Logos-Christtype. The most important passage is 3'^^Kal vvv. must mean that Jesus became God's Son at the Resurrection. of the is binding in every detail on Jewish Chri-stians. indeed. and.epov rois t^kvois r}fiQ>v xj/aKfii^ y^ypairrai ry yeyevvrjKd ere. The death of the Christ has in Acts but little theological importance. in the light of the whole passage. The whole of early Christian literature outside Johannine influence is full of appai'ent inconsistencies. (bairep .i. point Jesus became Christ. Whether this can be reconciled with the Apostle's own position is a point the present for students of the Ejiistles to settle . and Jesus will come as the predestined Messiah.ii'ov vfjitv Xpiffrbv (3'-"). This was. Like all Greek-writing Christians. Acts the OT was the written source of all revelation. and.jovv (2"'). in agreement with one interpretation of Ro 1^ In favour of this view can be cited Ac 13^-'* (St. debs eKireirX-qpuiKev dvacTTrjcras 'Itjctovv. and at least two important hranches of / [J and H']). it is justifiable to connect it with the fact that Ac 13 (which agrees with Ro 1^) belongs to the Pauline source. wliich.kv de^affOai &XP'. or even of the Epistles The Christ appears to have of the Captivity. but not binding at all on GentUe Cliristians. Harnack (Neue Untersuchungen zur Apostelgesch. oD e'iveKev ixp'-'^^" M^i kt\. Trapaffxi^v irdffLV dvaffrrjaas avrbv in veKpuiv. ev (roi ijv£6io)<ra with N B L 33 fani 1. he uses the LXX and does not stop to ask whether it is textually — : ' ' — accurate. but no suggestion of any causal connexion. mass MSS But a distinction must be made between the as prophecy and the OT as Law. fani 13.' In the former sense it was possible to say eXvai rbv Xpia-Tbv'lrja-ovv f (Ac 18^). . in Acts which throws light on the eschatological expectation of the writer. and that. though other interpretations are possible or to say KvpLov avrbv Kai Xpiffrbv iirolTjcrev 6 debs tovtov rbv 'l7). according to Acts. whereas Christology means to most people of this generation an attempt to give an adequate doctrinal statement of Jesus. 6 be irdvrwv twv ovTuis. In Acts Jesus is recognized as 1. to be expected in a book written by Luke. wpbs rb e^aXeKpdijvai v/xQv rds d/xaprias. in any case not be exaggerated. eschatology. The writer says that the Jews put the Messiah to death. Here there is a verbal connexion between the suffering of the Christ and the blotting out of sins. Luke wishes to say that Jesus is the Christ. olda on Kara dyvoiav ewpd^are.

however. as is probable. 17. ix.— The most important the God.) i. however. Paul asks the Ephesians whether they have not received the Spirit and. and found its extreme result in the attitude of Marcion. The Spirit. cod.. what is the difference between rb irveC/jia and wvfdfj. Nevertheless. most probable that he regards baptism as a necessary preliminary to the gift of the Spirit. cf. Paul so far as it can be discovered (Ro 6^ Gal 3-'. Sim. Paul. The passages which seem at first to identify baptism with the gift of the Spirit are especially Ac 238 and 192-«.ACTS OF THE APOSTLES writer believes that in this respect Acts gives a faithful representation of St. . and once as rb irveO/xa 'Itj<tov. with Didache 8 (but not 7). giTff. It is not quite clear whether Acts rejrards all Christians as inspired by the Holy Spirit. On the other hand. whereas the 'laying on of hands' was the direct means of imparting this gift though. to the coming of the Messianic kingdom. or as TTvevfxa dywv (16 times). either as a corpus or as separate writings. but in the context we are not told that those baptized received the Spirit only that they were added to the Church. it is therefore necessary to deal with the problem of the Leucian corpus. under some exceptional circumstances. but not for the Gentile. and of all who were fuUy — — — 5. p. (A : full discussion will be found in ERE ii. 8 and 211-217). and the Eusebian text (if that refer.' because they are supposed to have been composed by a certain Leucius.' This seems decisive. The exact meaning of the very important phrase rb irvev/Mi ''IrjaoO is also obscure. and interpreted some passage in the text to mean that the five Acts were all written by Leucius Charinus. (2) mention of the five Acts of Peter. ev aiy ireptet'xorro 7rpa^€is UeVpou. Paul. gi. and inquire whether such a collection existed in early times.In 2^8 St. cf. mentions as famous heretics Cerinthus and Ebion. rather than. As prophecies. Paul's own view (see the admirable discussion in Harnack.iro<TT6\ti>v nepioSoi. This developed doctrine of the Spirit is the most marked featm-e of Acts. Baptism There is no doiibt that the writer of Acts regarded baptism as the normal means of entry into the Christian Church. whether the Spirit was regarded as one or many (or. Merinthus and Cleobius or Cleobulus. or as rb TTvevfia (9 times). ws Sr]Kol to aiiTO ^tfiKiov. 6). 382 ff. — **ACTS OF I. so that even from this passage it would seem that Cliristians were regarded normally as This Holy Spirit is inspired by the Holy Spirit. It is. and the Resurrection and Ascension of the Christ are related to this fact. recognized these Ephesians are described asfrndrp-ds. pp. the OT books are accepted without question. if one may judge from 8^'^-. The was a Leucian corpus direct source of the later tradition that there is no doubt a statement of Photius {Bibliotheca. 1916. and Paul. raised by the question whether the writer (or his sources) makes the gift of the Spirit depend on baptism or on the lajTng on of hands. supported by the other passages in which baptism and the gift of the Spirit are distinguished of these 8^-^" and 10^' are the most important. THE APOSTLES (Apocryphal). the gift was directly conferred by God . that a kind of imperfect Christianity was Christians. Claudius.— of lyTRODCCTORY. in agreement with the PauHne phrase 'The Lord is the Spirit' (2 Co S^") ? In any case it is clear that the gift of the Spirit was regarded as in some sense the work of the exalted Jesus (Ac 2^3 . to baptism) of Mt 281^ (but not with the usual text of this passage. Thomas. — . The Christians were inspired by the Holy Spirit.) LrrERATUHE. 4. ACTS (APOCR\TK\L) 29 that the Law was still binding on Jews but not on Gentiles must be sought in a distinction between the Law as source of salvation it was not this for any one and the Law as command of God this it was for the Jew. more probably. . This agrees — with the practice of — possible. It would appear St. Peter says: 'Repent and be baptized and ye shall receive the gift of the Spirit. 1. i. 8 n. Paul because they had not received the Spirit. baptism. with which God had anointed (exP'^''^'') Him ? Or was it the Spirit-Jesus. John. once as irvevna Kvplov. even before they had been baptized. Demas. hearing that this is not so. 114) aveyvwcrOj] jSt^At'oi'.' This conclusion is. A further development is found in Acts that the gift of the Spirit can be ensured either by baptism (see § 5) or. . and the Lucan Gospel is clearly intended to lead up to it. John.€vai tujv a. ApostelThe reason for thinking gesch. as He had become after the Resurrection. (For the best summary of this question see Harnack. in the end. without any ministerial interposition. by the lading on of hands' of the Apostles {i-n-ldecns x^i-P^"'. and the work of Christ is already regarded as the foundation of this inspired Church in the world. the inadequacy of their baptism was discovered by St. . of course. at \€y6fj. and Hermogenes. Epiphaniirs (Fanar.. usually referred to as rb irvtvua Tb iL-yiov or rb dyiov irvevna (21 times). not in the triadic formula (Ac 2^5 S^^ 10*» 19=). ** Copyright. Difficulty is. Andrew. Apostelgesch. rather than as the inauguration of the Kngdom of God instead of the world. or with the later Christian practice). by Charles Scribner's Sons. from such episodes as that of the Christians in Ephesus who had been baptized only in John's baptism. References to Lencius. and there is no trace of the Jewish controversy which raised the dispute aa to the correct exegesis of the OT. he inquires further into their . li. Andrew. AeuKios Xapi^'os. Thomas) which sometimes are referred to as 'the Leucian Acts. but not as the direct means by which the Spirit was given. Before they can be discussed separately. navAov ypd(^ei Se avras. KiRSOPP LaKE. A problem which has as yet scarcely received the attention which it deserves is. but the whole tendency of the Acts is to look on the possession of the Spirit as the characteristic of the Church. There is also no doubt that he represents an early stage of Christian practice in which baptism was 'in the name of the Lord Jesus' (or 'of Jesus Christ').|^96)^ though this power. was not shared by all other Christians. Hermas. when speaking of the Alogi. and apparently this is because the dispute had not yet arisen. rather than of an eschatological kingdom.a). 'AvSpe'ou. See at the end of the various sections and throughout the article. in other words. either invariably or as a general rule. Was it the Spirit which had been in Jesus. From this it is plain that Photius had seen a corpus of Acts. on the whole. the gift of the Spirit in their case is directly connected with the 'lapng on of hands. Was this the same thing for the writer? Or did he mean that after reception into the Church they would receive it? In the same way in Ac 19-'® St. cf Lk 24") but ultimately derived from . It is true that in Ac 2 the gift of the Spirit and the consequent glossolaha are explained as a sign that the last days are at hand. but it is at least certain that it regards this as true of all the leaders. This controversy can be traced in the Epistle of Barnabas. It is therefore desirable to examine earUer hterature for (1) mention of Leucius. In some respects Luke is more archaic than St. but in Acts it cannot be found. as seems to be the case in Mark. and how far the name of 'Leucian' may be applied to it. once as Tb irvev/xa Kvplov. Ix the East. 'lojai'vov. 0a)fjta. 1 Co V'^-). and says they — — this. what was its nature. but not in ' — Apocryphal Acts are the five (Peter.

West here there is a series of witnesses to Leucius. 26. or possibly the Acts of Pilate. and the passage is not in any of the extant fragments.' but it is not clear to which books reference There is a slight presumption that the is made. Ep. probably intending to identify himself withMeUto of Sardis (c. and Thomas which the Manichaeans used as a substitute for the canonical Acts.]). Thomas. Zahn. Thomas and this conclusion is supported by inenclosed in brackets are probably an ternal evidence. the ^vTiter goes on to give a hst of Apocryphal Gospels. Nexocharides and Leonidas the philosophers are i. vel s>ib nomine Thomae et si qua sunt alia {r. 209). id est sccreta. iii.. Thomas is excluded. and the natural interpretation of his words seems to be that he regarded Leucius as an orthodox Christian to whom the Montanists tried to attach their origin . Acta Joannis. the last (Paul) probably by Catholics also. it remains clear that Euodius regarded the Acts of Andrew as IVIanichaean and the work of Leucius. non solum repudianda verum etiam noveris damnanda. 1). impUes that Euodius also regarded Leucius as the author of a corpus of Acts.<pl were controverted by John Kal tQiv avT6v. habes ita positum "etenim speciosa figmenta et ostentatio simulata et coactio visibilium nee quidem ex propria natura procedunt. and in hterature dependent upon it (see Schmidt. can perhaps be traced in pseudoHieronymus. sed ex eo hominequiperseipsum deterior factus est per seductionem. bishop of Barcelona.38. Augustine says 'H. the Acts of Andrew is attributed to Leucius. Schmidt. — and did not regard him as heretical. and presumably not of the others though. 'disciple of the devil' means 'Manichsean. but not of Peter. which in the Latin version are connected with the name of Leucius Charinus. John.' — — (6th cent.e. p. interpolation (see Zahn. the Manichseans] tanto graviorea sunt. 19. Thomae et his similia. Nicolaitae. (1) Pacian (f c. who took to himself the name of Mellitus. if a certain laxity of syntax be conceded. In a rescript of 405 to E.abetis etiam hoc in scripturis apocryphis. ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) dfj.. In Ep. qui se animatos mentiuntur a Leucio. the letter was probably taken up into the works of Leo. n. Migne. Novatianus concerning — . vel illos qui dicuntur S. etc' Here clearly Leucius is regarded as the author of the Acts of John. which are not otherwise mentioned. collected by Leucius. Andrew. (c) E. Paul. In the West. and the possibility remains that he is referring to a Manichsean corpus of Acts. It is therefore probable. Idacius and Creponius. as Schmidt argues {Alte Petrusakten. the p. we have the not quite in order. apocryphi. vol." — quidem catholicus non : with the later. of Andrew. Epiphaniua was acquainted with some book in which Leucius appeared as a companion of St. vol sub nomine Petri et Johannis quae aquodam Leucio scripta sunt (vel sub nomine Andreae quae a Nexocharide et Leonida philosophis). In a corre(6) Turribius of Astorga (c.30 AcvKiov Kcd ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) St. quanto a catholico canone seeluduntur .). therefore. with whom Turribius corresponded (see Schmidt. Patrologia Latina. se institutes a Proculo gloriantur. ch. in actibus scriptis a Leucio (codd. John. 390). John. or . (2) Aiigustine. x. Montanists] nobiliores. others Kara Ai(7\ivrjv (see Th. omn. but there is no suggestion of the full corpus of five. that he is referring to Andrew or John two Acts for which the Leucian authorship is otherwise most probable. but argues that this opinion was probably based only on an interpretation of the passage of Augustine quoted above. Turribius discusses the Hterature of the Manichaeans and Priscillianists. vobis autem [i. The writer of a late Catholic (7) Mellitus. and mentions as the chief of those who do this the it appears that some Montanists were Kara. vel illos qui appellantur S. loannis. spondence with his fellow-bishops. 'Leutio') quos tamquam actus apostolorum scribit. and then continues 'Libri omnes quos fecit Leucius discipulus diaboli. earliest traditions connected Leucius with St.strius of Brescia (. Apocryphal Acts. John.' instead of the canonical OT and NT. etc' so that he must have regarded Leucius as the author of these three Acts.— (1) Fhila. Peter. Tfcfut. but it will be noted that he does not suggest that Leucius was in any way heretical. Acta Joannis. 62) but no importance can be attached to this late and inferior composition. to show from which he is quoting here. is inclined to beheve that the writer may have meant the whole Manichaean collection. as we probably have the complete text. and the passage is unlike what As is shown we possess of the Acts of Peter or Paul. In his Liber de Hairesibus. and 2. After the Acts of Andrew. however. as the author of the Acts of Peter and of John. p. Innocent says 'Cetera autem quae vel sub nomine Matthiae vel sub nomine lacobi minoris. but Leucius is clearly indicated earliest evidence for a corpus of Apocyrphal Acts. Valentiniani et The words — ' . with less clearness. and Paul. and. Among these he mentions 'Actus illos qui vocantur S. He begins by referring to those who use apocryfa.' : In the contra Felicem. however. Manichaeos. There is nothing.3otherwise unknown persons.' As there follow several Manicha?an writings. while thinking that the Acts of John are certainly intended. Greek Christian \\Titings until Photius. viii. fleer. 50). xlii. written by Euodius. quos sacrilego Leucius ore conscripsit. The text is certainly 391). However this may be. it is tolerably certain that here. Theodotus quoque et Praxeas vestros aliquando docuere ipsi illi Phryges [i. 88. but rather that he controverted heretics. Augustine was acquainted Apocryphal Acts of Peter. * From pseudo-Tertullian. But the point is not certain. talia). Apart from this sohtary mention there is no trace of Leucius in d\\u)i> TroWu}i>. 450). In the West.xsuperius. The full quotation is given by Schmidt (p. loannis evangelistae et sancti Andreae vel Thomae apostoK. It is quite different in the ii. It would appear from these data that (a) the . (6) A quite late tradition regarded him as the author of the corpus of five Acts Paul.e. and the Priscil- — — lianists in addition to the canonical Acts. 61). the contemporary of Augustine.l. version -of the Acts. ad Chromatium et Heliodorum. p. written earlier in the 5th cent. as elsewhere. The evidence for the Acts as a collection. quas canon admittit. of which the first four were accepted only by Manichaeans. 53). Presumably. and Philip. (4) Innocent I.. 160-190). In the de Fide contra (3) Euodius of Uzala. 3 Pacian wT-ites to Semp. ii. which was once annexed to it. 'Manichaei. Thomas. — the Proclan party of the Montanists. 6. Andreae. and this would suggest either the Acts of John. Andrew. Peter. Schmidt thinks that he probably derived his knowledge from the letter of Turribius and a list of heretical writings. but the passage is obscure * 'Et primum hi plurimis utuntur auctoribus. though not certainly.xternal evidence suggests that Leucius was probably the author of the Acts of John. It does not appear probable from internal evidence that Mellitus had any first-hand knowledge of the (5) The Decretum Gelasianum as — rejecting apocryphal : _ — — — . Gnostici. under the corrupt form of Seleucus. says: 'Volo solhcitam esse fraternitatem vestram de Leucio quodam qui scripsit apostolorum actus. though it has now disappeared . bishop of Toulouse. Ixvi. the Acts of Andrew might be added certainly not of the Acts of Thomas. which Pacian denied. 38 (printed in Augustine's works [ed. (8) Further traces of Leucius. UpoKAov. who thinks that it probably. books made by Leucius are not identical with any ah-eady mentioned. nam puto et Graecus Blastus ipsorum est. who claimed some connexion with Leucius.

) has shown. ence (in A. . ii. The Acts of Thomas are not quoted. but rehed on a Pauhne document Before the discovery of the relating to Thekla. eanctimonii ? As Schmidt says.5).) are ascribed to Nexocharide (v. and in iii. 6. and apparently annexed a selection of heretical passages from the Apocryphal Acts to justify his disapproval. the correspondence between Leo and Turribius. Besides mentioning the Acts of Peter and John (of which certainly the latter and probably the former also are ascribed to Leucius). 17. canonicas legere scripturas contemnunt. . . cui credi iam poterit hoc ab ipso memoratum. quemsimiliterubique const at etverbo semper practulisse nuptis innuptas et id opera qaoque ostendisse erga sanctissimam Theclam ? quodsi haec daemoniorum doctrina non fuit. bdii. Peter. and John in connexion with the Encratites {Pan.ACTS (APOCR\THAL) plurimi qui apocryfa prophetarum et apostolorum. . xxx. xiv. but it is plain that he was acquainted with the Acts of Thomas. The crucial passage for this conclusion is c.' This apocryphal correspondence was contained in the Acts of Paul. 3. 4. against which the Apostle had striven. clearly implies (a) that the IManichaeans used a corpus of ApocrA'phal Acts in place of the canonical Acts of the Apostles . xlvii. bishop of Toulouse (see the quotation above).bvwv (rvyypdp.' Later on he gives more details in a passage where the text is unfortunately clearly corrupt alii ACTS (APOCR\THAL) 31 quam 'Nam Manichaei apocrj'fa beati Andreae apostoli. Leipzig. 25. 20. or that there was any connexion with Leucius. Peter. qui totam destruit legem veteris Testamenti ct omnia quae S. id est Actus quos fecit veniens de Ponto in Greciam [quos] conscripserunt tunc discipuli sequentes beatum apostolum. Acts of Paul it was possible to think that this might be the so-called Acts of Paul and Thekla.' and are regarded as books used by heretics.iro(TT6\(i}v irpd^eis dXXd 5ai)j. Moysi de diversis creaturae factorisque divinitus revelata sunt. 667). qui de adventu eius aliquid cecinisse in praeteritum putabantur. unfortunately no longer extant. 244 ff . 6 (1) Eusebius. but it also circulated in some SjTiac and Armenian MSS no doubt it was an excerpt from the — — HE — NT . Faustum. But there is no sign of any con16. quam et Theclae Paulus et ceteri ceteris adnuntiaverunt apostoli. D. the Acts of John and Andrew are mentioned together with 'those of the other apostles. In the controversial WTitings of Augustine against the Manichseans there are manj^ allusions to the Apocryphal Acts. Xenocharide) and Leonidas Fabricius (Codex Apocryphns.paTa. . ovx^ tCov a. It is. and Paul. Andrew. which had not yet been entirely deposed from the Canon. as the correspondence alone does not seem ever to have been regarded by the SjTiac Church as heretical. but — — . which do not elsewhere appear in the Manichaean corpus. 179) states that Agapius used the Acts of Andrew. (2) Augustine. Peter. 5 and iii. — . that the Manichaeans used the five Acts of John. Thomam et ilium inexpertum veneris inter ceteros beatum Joharmem sed hos quidem. Second Council of Nicsea (787) a quotation was read from Amphilochius' lost book -n-epl tQv \pevSeiriypdcpuiv rQv wapa aiperiKoTs. ' ' is not mentioned. Ephraim says that the apocr^-phal correspondence between Paul and the Corinthians was RTitten by the followers of Bardesanes. where allusions to the Acts of Thomas and Acts of Peter can be identified (c) the contra . A correspond(3) Innocent I. 707) thinks that these names are a corruption of Charinus and Leucius. nor is any reference made to Leucius. {d) Leucius TMiatever it . Lat. and for this reason had elicited a letter of condemnation from Leo. therefore. 25. It is not quite clear to which Acts Innocent refers. tamquam sit daemoniorum voluntas et doctrina etiam persuasio ' . In iii. mentions the Acts of Thomas. Num igitur et de Christo eadem dicere poteritis aut deapostolo Paulo. Andrew. to doubt that Augustine and Faustus both recognized the Acts of Paul. 44] thinks that this is merely accidental) . and Exsuperius. It also appears from the Acts of the CouncU that the Acts of John was quoted and condemned. unde et habent Manichaei et alii tales Andreae beati et Joannis actus evangelistae beati et Petri similiter beatissimi apostoli et Pauli pariter beati apostoli in quibus quia signa fecerunt magna et prodigia. of these passages. Thomas. 4 the Acts of Paul. John. (6)). . while the Cathohcs rejected the first four. in which allusions can be traced to the Acts of Thomas (6) the contra Adimayitum. 1). bishop of Astorga in Spain. Schmidt (44 ff. It was resolved that no more copies were to be made and those already existing were to be burnt. facUeque sacrilega vestra daemoniorum his potestis importare mente doctrinas. but accepted the Acts of Paul. as well as to those of Andrew."' Faustum Manicheum (Ub. 2). etc' : may be the true text of this passage. they might ascribe to the name of the Apostle their own godlessness. however. praeter reliquaa eiusdem libri blasphemias quaa referre pertaesum est. Gesch. xxx. 1). praetereo. xUi. and Exsuperius. 188892. 2 the Acts of Peter are mentioned. in Patr. in which Faustus the ISIanichee says : Mitto enim ceteros eiusdem domini nostri apostolos. (h) that this corpus contained the Acts of Andrew. ii. 50) thinks that it is the source of a quotation from a Manichaean writing which Augustine could not trace ' Sed Apostolis dominus noster interrogantibus de Judaeorum prophetis quid sentiri deberet. 3. the Catholics] exclusistis ex canone. he refers to Acts of Matthias and of James the less.' Turribius found that the PrisciUianists and Manichseans were making great progress in Spain. In the Panarion Epiphanius (3) Epiphanius. Lxi. and Schmidt (p. much more probable that Ephraim is here referring to the Acts. because his opponents refused to recognize their authority. He also refers to a Memoria Apostolorum. . it is clear that Faustus gava up the use of the Acts of Andrew. and xxx. fairly certain that this latter document in its present form is merely an extract from the older Acts of Paul there is no reason. in which he proposed Sei^opiev 5^ rd /3i/3Xta ravra & Trpocpepovcriviju'ti' ol dirbffrarai Trjs iKKXrjcrlas. 360). throws more hght on the use of the Apocrj'phal Acts by the PrisciUianists. the ApostoUci {ib. 'in order that under cover of the signs and wonders of the Apostle. which in some texts (see Zahn. 405) between Innocent i. ut dixi. from the consideration .) (d) the contra Felicem and (e) the de Civitate Dei. Andrew. which they described. and Paul (c) the Acts of Thomas is not mentioned (Schmidt [p. sciousness that there was a Manichsean corpus.e. Forty (4) Leo the Great and Turribius (440-461) . At the same time a note in Photius (Bibl. and other heretics (cf. — it is not clear whether Ephraim knew the Acts or the excerpt. He also expressed himself further in his letters to Idacius and Creponius. 1.' This Memoria Apostolorum is also mentioned by Orosius (ConsuJtatio ad Augustinum. Reference may especially be made to (a) the de Sermone Domini in Monte (i. ii. John. 374). so that the Eastern Manichseans must have used at least some of the Acts. In the East. Acts. At the (4) Amphilochius of Iconium (c. In iii. however. Leo complains that the PrisciUianists 'scripturas veraa adulterant and falsas inducunt. and Thomas. Petrum et Andream. and John (for text see above. In his commentary' (2) EphraimSyrus (c. years after the time of Innocent. quia eos vos [i. shows that the Apocr^-phal Acts were used in Spain not only by IManichaeans but also by Priscillianists. cod. however. id est Actus separates habentes. commotus talia eos etiam nunc sentire respondit "Demisistis vivum qui ante vos est et de mortuia fabulamini. It is now. des A'T Kanons. — 'inquo admagnam perversitatissuae auctoritatem doctrinam domini mentiuntur.l. This selection is.

dealing with certain heretical Paul is in the house of a Jew views. In Antioch her beauty attracted the atten. This is not indeed complete. p. in which was the Coptic text of the Acts of Paul found by Schmidt places various fragments deahng with the C. (3) In Myrr/^a. and went to Antioch. and John were heretical productions. but seems to argue that they made use of genuine material. II. ISSO. of which the main tenets are (a) a denial (1) /re Antioch.question of the Jewish law and it appears possible hshed by him in his Acta Pauli. In prison Paul converted the prefect seals and committed herself to the water with the Longinus and the centurion Cestus.—I. but apparently the central feature is Paul. however. After this there is a great lacuna. A lioness protected him and other Christians to be arrested. which was originally recognized as orthodox if not canonical.certain Cleobius. — . 239 ff. while he burnt. placed in the mouth of a and preached in his house on dvdcrTa<ris and ijKpd. Here he healed of the dropsy a man named Hermokrates. Schmidt draws the (a) The Manichseans had following conclusion formed a corpus of the five Acts. and not the creation of God (d) the government of a riot ensues in which he is ill-treated and stoned. but apparently Paul raised up Dion. . Peter is also present. and probaptismal formula. crucifixion was not that of Christ. : From and punished Hermippus with bUndness. (d) In this way the Acts of Paul. who are represented as Gnostics with scene is laid cannot be discerned from the fraga pecuhar doctrine of an dvdffTaffis not of the flesh. Hermogenes.32 (5) ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) John of Thcssalonica (c. ments which remain. the universe is not in the hands of God (e) the He then goes to Iconium.soldier of the /3a(ri\€i>s l-qcrovs XpiarSs. nor (2) In Iconium {the Thekla-story) well-known story of Thekla is placed. but the main facts are now plain in the mines (? in Macedonia). Paul's work in Rome. Nero caused demnation to the wild beasts. but apparently he made a speech and gained many converts. On the evidence as we have it no serious objection can be made to these propositions it might. and the power of Christians over the demons or heathen — gods. The Acts of is extant. and miracle. and finally died in Seleucia. Dion. ACTS (APOCRITHAL) servants. after a series of miraculous Paul to be beheaded. Presumably he ultimately garded as roughly established. Jehn explains that the Acts of Peter. abandoned her betrothal to Thamyris gives an account of the martyrdom of Paul. fell preserved. Then she returned to Iconium. which is given with a full and clear discussion in his Alie Petrusakten (cf. Longinus and Queen Tryph^na and the sympathy of the women Cestus were told to go to his grave on the next of Antioch secured her pardon. and on the was he of the seed of David. On the road to Sidon there is an (4) In Sidon.— Thekla left Paul in M>Trha. Paul. Theokleia. and then followed Paul in man's clothing to Myrrha. C. who was baptized. — — . . and enough remains in the Coptic to show that the Greek has kept fairly well to the original storv. and Paul and other Christians were shut up in the temple of Apollo. a servant of Nero. (b) In the course of the struggle between the Manichseans and the Church the view was adopted that the corpus was the work of a certain heretical Leucius. . From the flames she was miraculously was preaching. she was forced to jump into a pond full of be burnt. . — . and there is no suggestion from the town Thekla was condemned to be that he was a prisoner. came to be regarded as heretical. When Nero heard of this tion of Alexander. condemned her. but it contains a prophecy of In Iconium Paul was entertained by Onesiphorus. 112 f. and the other Christians to rescues. The text of this whole story is very defective in Coptic. and then went to T>Te. 6S0). At the prayer of Paul the temple was destroyed. They used this corpus instead of the canonical Acts. the daughter of The last episode (9) The martyrdom. especially at the incomplete.the exorcism of demons and the curing of a dumb cerning the Apocryphal Gospels in recent years child. But Hermippus the elder son of Hermokrates was opposed to Paul. died. He then went on to Sidon. of Paul. Teia. but were not themselves the authors of any of them. Paul restored him. Patroclus acknowledged that he was the her refusal to consent to his wishes led to her con. but of a docetic Here the phantasm (/) Christ was not born of Mary.). but the text is of certain rather serious lacunse. this evidence. — — . and the Priscilhanists used it in addition to the Canon. On one occasion. and pub. and there In this incident (6) Paul in prison in the mines. have them. At hia execution milk spurted from his . be a matter for investigation whether the corpus of the Manichaeans was also used by the Eastern Manichseans. with the reXetwo-is. and and vowed herseK to a life of virginity. Schmidt in the Heidelberg Pap>TUS 1. whose son is of the resurrection of the flesh (6) the human dead. . but Paul was taken into the amphitheatre. with the exception escaped from his imprisonment. a prominent Antiochian. Paul preached Paul and Thekla. in 1905). named Anchares and his wife Phila.). with the result that Thekla. Leipzig. are still minor problems connected with the order Paul appears as one of those condemned to work of the incidents. and was erroneously attributed to the other books. beginning and in the middle. The text is defective. and the manner of his rescue is not clear. According to it. In Sidon there is an incident which apparently is concerned with unnatural vice. Andrew. Paul. where she found from a window and was killed. just as had been the case ZWT. but there is unfortunately a large lacuna in the text. By far the most important discovery con. (c) The name of Leucius originally belonged to the Acts of John alone. and he restores to and the general contents of the Acts may be re. as we The most important incident (7) In Philippi. Theokleia the text of this is also preserved as a separate docuand Tham>Tis therefore raised persecution against ment in Greek. Ultimately the protection of phesied to them hfe after death. when they would be baptized by Titus and the house of Tryphaena and converted her and her Luke. incident connected with a heathen altar. Paul was scourged and banished without any hindrance. Paul restores the boy to hfe. The text is here full of lacunse. The contents. 1903 (and that the scene is moved to Jerusalem and that in a cheaper form without the facsimile of the text. way to Iconium we are introduced to Demas and The place in which this (8) A farewell scene. but afterwards healed and converted a certain Phrontina. also his Acta Pauli. or was the peculiar possession of the Western branch. but ultimately. The I dividual Acts. Only the beginning of the story (5) In Tyre. She returned to day. Bonnet. but it is preserved separately in Greek. — — . can be divided most conveniently as connected with Philippi is a correspondence with follows the Corinthians.and he was converted. and the younger son. Patroclus. and makes body is not the creation of God (c) the world is many converts but he is suspected of magic. —In the preface to his recension of the reXelcoais Mapias (M.

silence as to the Montanist movement. for this reason. Between lemics.ei'a vriixTeiicrOjU. XXX. : . and is habituaUy called the <T<ppayl%. ttws Spirit. Gesch. Eusebius in with the Shepherd of Hermas. 2. which had given the prophets to the Jews and later on had been incarnate in the Christ who had given the gospel.. I. Harnack thinks that the complete wine. The question TertulHan than with Hermas. and ligion to the need of an ultimate judgment of God. and ddvaros. who resisted His efforts. The precise date of this tractate is for sin after baptism. From the Commentary of Hippolytus on Dn 3'^ it seems clear that he regarded the Acts of Paul as definitely historical and trustworthy. and shows that it was composed in the great Chm-ch. of Barnabas. ii. instigated by the serpent. and in in Johannem. _ Origen quotes the Acts in de Principiis. Schmidt. This sonship was broken by the Fall. and man was given the especial favour of being the son of God. Faust. Hence he probably did not regard the Acts of Paul as heretical. 'Father. and had bound all humanity him by the lusts of the flesh. but asceticism is equally necessary. VOL. in order in this way. even in marriage. Ada Paidi. Johannis revelatio. xx. not in any heretical or Gnostic sect. The Acts must be earlier than TertulUan's de There is no trace of any institution of repentance Baptismo. From that moment history be- — came a struggle between God. 3. iii. water takes the place of other hand. and possibly the Johannine Apocalypse. NT Kanons. through His chosen people Israel and through the prophets. aKadapala. because it gives us clear evidence as to the provenance of the Acts. 880 ff. is d.' which suggests somewhat the same judgment as that of Eusebius. . can best be explained. 176 ff. and there therefore no doubt but that Hippolytus regarded the Acts of Paul as httle less than canonical. who was so impressed that he ended the persecution. From the theological point of view the Acts of Paul has exceptional value as giving a presentment of the ordinary Christianity of Asia at the end of the 2nd cent. For the reconstruction of but a full account.ej'.vri followed by (pdopd.' This statement is extremely valuable. which show that the 'Acts of Paul and Thekla' is an extract from the Acts of Paul. and in these relater than a. i. but at the same time distinctly not Nicene. Revelatio Petri. and the prince of this world. and involves an absolute abstinence from ail sexual relations. by becoming flesh. p. Far the best statement of the theology of the Acts is in C. and his Son. Actus PauH.) The theology of the Ads of Paul. and the theolSchmidt is influenced by the frequent use earlier. Combating those who doubted the truth of the story of Daniel in the hons' den.). the Apoc. stated to be taken from the late 2nd cent. out of which the SabeUian and Arian controversies This incident is not extant in the Coptic texts. who was repairing HE the evil of the Fall. The general view which is implied is that the world_ was created good. had proclaimed himself to be God (in this way heathen re- was explained). In both cases he gives the Acts of Paul definitely as the source of his quotation. points to a date earlier than 170. there is no justification for doubting that Tertullian refers to the Acts of Paul in de Baptistno. these two positions a choice is difficult probably Schmidt's Acta Pauli.' which is sometimes condensed into the statement that there is no other God save Jesus Christ alone. The latter is prob- Acts of Paul is ably the necessary moment. 12. or anything but in view of more extended knowledge of the which could be construed as anti-Montanist poActs as a whole this opinion is untenable. makes it clear that in the Chm-ch of Africa. so that the Acts must at all spects the Acts of Paul agrees more closely with events belong to the 2nd centtuy. as among the v6da. ogy underlying it is not clearly expressed the of the canonical Acts and the Pastoral Epistles to most remarkable feature is that here.d. Pastor. The result of this process was the existence of ayvwala.ov eij S-qpCa KaraKpiGevTOi aifieSeis the most hkely period for the composition of the Acts of Paul. It is also definitely not Gnostic. baptism uncertain. The narrative ends with the baptism of Longinus and Cestus at the grave of Paul. the passage quoted above from Augustine. and afterwards he appeared to Nero. he says et yap TriKTrevofifv on IIauA. . ridovf). where the whole question is thoroughly discussed. the teaching of the Acts is quite simple—it is that 'there is one God. Paul. It is clear that this is the popular theology ovx' '"'' '"^^ ToO AauiiqK yti-dju. The date of the Ads of Paul. 200. The testimony of early wi-iters furnishes a safe terminus ad quern. the Didache. Zahn. which would destroy all that was contaminated. undisturbed by polemical or other special aims. as late as the time of Augustine. but at the latest it is only a few years appears usually to be postponed. 25 ranks the Acts of Paul. This Holy Spirit was_ (as in Justin MartjT) identical with the spirit which had spoken through the Jewish prophets. Son. for the Supreme God is also the Creator. T. The testimony of early writers to the Acts of Since the discovery of the Coptic Acts. So far as the doctrine of God is concerned. In the Claromontane hst of books of the OT the Acts of Paul comes at the end in the and company of Barnabae epistula.. but neither passage is found in the extant texts. and Spirit' is a formula which seems to mean Father. as in all the choose a date not much earher than 180 on the other Apocryphal Acts. to destroy the dominion of evil over flesh. This feature used to be regarded as Gnostic. (See especially C. It is thus in no sense Arian or Ebionite. so that the Christian faith rested throughout on the Spirit. is almost central. 17 ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) and 200 is 33 — 'Quoflsi qui Pauli perperam inscripta le^funt. — . But he does not appear to place it with the Acts of Andi-ew and John and 'the other apostl6s' (perhaps the Acts of Peter and Thomas) which are AroTra iravT-rj Kal Sva-ffe^rj. The Eucharist is is whether it is a great deal or a very little primarily a meal of the community. of Peter. Actus Apostolorum. The means whereby Christians ensure this result are asceticism and baptism. a marked survival of unique value. But in His mercy God had sent His Holy Spirit into Mary. Finally. is given by Nicephorus CaUistus NT ' (cf . and ir\6. and reference made to the hterature bearing on the subject.. It should be noted that there is no attempt to distinguish between the Logos and the Spirit. and the estabUshment of a glorious kingdom in which Christians will share.. and the Son or Incarnate CTT* avToi' 6 \euju et? tou? 7r66as ai'aTreo'aji' 7r(pU\€LX^v auTor. sciant in Asia presbyteruin. Jesus Christ.ACTS (APOCR\THAL) neck instead of blood. Ep. exemplum Theclae ad lieentiaiu niulienmi docendi tinguendique defendunt. 1 83 ff This also gives full references to we cannot really say more than that between 160 earlier literature. the Acts of Paul was accepted as authoritative and orthodox. convictum atque confessum se id amore Pauli fecisse loco decessisse. c. and the instigator if not the agent of redemption. proves that it is not later than the 2nd cent. even if not canonical. Spirit or Logos. 2. Christology in popular circles the Ueplodoi UaiXov. qui earn scripturani construxit quasi titulo Pauli de suo cumulans. He apparently regards the Acts as only shghtly inferior to the Canonical Scriptures. There is also of primitive eschatological interest : the expectation of the coming of Christ.

perverted Marcellus. the books which clearly were made use of by the redactor of the Acts of Peter are the Acts of Paul and the Acts of John. who had finished 'the twelve years which the Lord had enjoined on him' (on this legend see esp. but the missing incidents can be restored from the Mnrtyrium Petri. 79 (lOth-llth cent. — Now we know with tolerable certainty that the Acts of Paul was written in Asia. in order to fulfil the saying of the Lord. Apart from the OT and NT.). (2) the Codex Vercellensis.' down Lipsius {Acta Apocrypha. and runs parallel with the Martyriwn to the end. hv f. which was threatened by a certain Ptolemseus. For instance. after costly embalming. not improbable that the Acts of IVtor came from the . who was first in Rome. who had been twitted with the paralysis of his daughter in spite of his powers of miraculous healing. This contains either an extract from or a recension of the last part of the — MS It begins by describing Paul's departure from to Spain. But Peter appeared to him in a vision and rebuked him for not having obeyed the precept 'Let the dead bury their dead. a convert of Paul and. this forum was especially reserved for disputes and closed to commerce. i. Peter. In this case the 'actus P. and Simon retreated. non intrabitis in regna coelorum' a saying which is also found in the Gospel of the Egyptians.' ZKG xxii. cured her for a short time. therefore. After Peter's death Marcellus rook Acts. Akad. the narrative explains that Nero was angry with Agrippa because he wished to have inflicted worse tortures on Peter. There are also Slavonic and Coptic (Sahidic) versions. He makes other points of a similar natm-e. The story then relates the events which led up to the martjTdom of Peter. Apocr. but the prayer of Peter caused him to fall and break his thigh. extract from the Acts of Peter is preserved in two — MSS. 8502 in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin (Sitzu7igsber. et quae retro sunt tamquam ab ante. Schmidt at the end of the Gnostic Papyrus P. Preuss. which re-edit older material in a form more agreeable to Catholic taste. — — his body and buried it in his own tomb. giving the proceeds of it to the poor. 841) that the local references to are really very small. [1S96] 839 ff. Having thus shown his power. des Kanons. I am going to Home to be crucified. Peter was warned of the anger of Agrippa. Later on. pp. This was copied by Ph. At this point the Codex Vercellensis is defective. ii. no longer extant in a complete form. The Codex ends with the obviously corrupt Une 'actus Petri apostoli explicuerunt cum pace et Simonis amen.). giving the Roman episode and martyrdom. emphasis on the fact that the writer is acquainted with the entrance to Rome both from the sea and by road. K. But. Meanwhile. and the similar conduct of Xanthippe the wife of Albinus. xxxvi. Litteraturgesch. Vercellensis. and the arrival of Simon Magus. Patmiensis 48 (9th cent. et sinistram ut dcx-tram. which overlaps the Codex Vercellensis. The main reason was the decision of the converted concubines of Agrippa the prefect to refuse any further intercourse with him. according to Appian MS — (de Bello Civili. In this contest. which is long drawn out. and (3) a Greek text of the Mortyrium Petri. he was deterred by a vision of an angel. pp. 1903. p. apostoU expUcuerunt. 1-47 and 2. a friend of Nero. by (a) Cod. Lipsius thinks that the Patmos The contents of the Martyrium is the best. that Ai-icia and Terracina are towns not far from Rome is a fact which must have been quite generally known. 103) suggests with great probabiHty that 'et Simonis' is a misplaced gloss. fheologie. Harnack's Expansion of Christianity.34 ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) " The Acts of Peter is 2. where he was crucified by the orders of the prefect Agrippa. Other argiurionts seem to point to Asia rather than Rome for the composition of the Acts. Meyer and published by Lipsius in his Acta Apocrypha. The text of this early (3) The Martyrium Petri. Peter. et quae sunt sursum tamquam deorsum. ii. while he was planning further persecution of the Christians. so that Peter was the last martyr of that persecution.). which probably represent portions of the original Acts. the latter made an effort to restore his reputation by flying in the air. Peter was successful. Peter at his own request was crucified head downwards. He was carried to Aricia and thence to Terracina. The place of origin of the Acts of Peter. Amen. There is no unanimity among critics as to the community in which the Acts of Peter was first produced. and dying soon afterwards left land to Peter's daughter. By this miracle Ptolemseus had been converted to Christianity. Krumbacher in 1885 and published Lipsius in 1886 in the Jahrbiicher fur Protest. but. 'Si non feceritis dextram tamquam sinistram. of which the Codex Vercellensis is an extract. apart from late paraphrastic recensions. 86-106. a contest was waged for his faith on the question of the respective powers of Simon and Peter to raise the dead. and from the comparison of the Codex with the Greek Martyrium it is possible that the original form of this part of the ancient Acta can be reconstructed with some probabihty. He lays special 1. and then restored her paralytic condition. d. was found by C. The Acts of Peter. and went back to Rome. Leipzig. two of them in a fragmentary form. There is of course a natural tendency to consider in the first place the possibility that the document is Roman. At the beginning of the incident. and of many other wives who all left their husbands. where he died. [1904] 48 n. From this it appears that Peter on his departure from Rome was arrested by a vision of Christ going to Rome and saying. Here the Codex Vercellensis is again extant. 559) and Zahn {Gcsch. but not of so striking a character. Athous Vatoped. capitul. sondern in Jerusalem gestorben.). This relates the story of Peter's paralyzed daughter. on the ground that. and at first was persuaded by the Christians to leave Rome. (2) The Codex Vercellensis (Bibliothec. ii. and published by him in Die alten Petrusakten. was directed to go to Rome to oppose Simon. 1). and it is usually thought that the Acts of John came from Ei)hesus or the neighbourhood. 102). 161-231). he explained that she had originally been paralyzed in answer to his own prayer.— (5) Cod. Rome . ' Against this it is urged by Harnack (Altchristl. Act. three documents exist. who makes Aricia his headquarters. in order to preserve her virginity. He also emphasizes the correctness of the narrative in placing the contest between Peter and Simon Magus in the Forum Julium. beginning with Simon's flight in the air. Simon. and do not give more knowledge than was easily accessible to any one in the NT Rome 2nd or 3rd century.' Finally.). or Actus Petri cum Simone. and knows that the paved way from Puteoli to Rome is bad to walk upon and jars the pilgrims who use it. cviii. pp. which Peter sold.' would be the conclusion of the original Acts of Peter. It is. These are (1) a Coptic text of a Upd^eis Uirpov.' Peter therefore applied tliis vision to himself. the latter preserved directly in three fragments and indirectly in Arabic and Ethiopic translations (see further Lipsius. however. This was copied by C. as soon as Peter arrived. This fragment (1) The Coptic Upd^eis IHrpov. In favoiu: of this view the most complete statement is that of Erbes ('Petrus nicht in Rom. are the same as the second part of the Codex Vercellensis.

the wife of Andronicus. 82 f that which seems to follow upon the episode of The frequent verbal Drusiana. 250. Fortunexcerpt.and the Greek text of the Martyrium are critically edited by R. 1897.'title 'Petrus Jerusalem nicht in Rom. p. ii. their translation.' — — — . Lykomedes obtains until 230. The fullest statement of this possibiUty is Fortunatus is. On the feast day of Artemis The sources used by the Ads of Peter. rather than any Gnostic probably in a Latin version. thought Docetic account of the Passion of Christ.ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) 35 same district. and soon itseK.sondern in2. 559 ff. and of a at that time that this Ust proved the identity of revelation which the true Christ made to the authorship of the two books. who has been buried in the same place. p. but our knowledge of the KripvyfMis on his virgin hfe. (6) The Acts of John. ii. Com. but..shed in passages given by M. dependence of the Acts of Peter on the Acts of This was discovered in 1886 by M. not converted. which is very marked in the dies. The most important argument Ephesus and meets Lykomedes. Lit. John returns to dom of Peter is clearly based on the martjTdom (2) Second visit to Ephesus. end of the 2nd cent. p. dies again. — them as undoubted history (of. that misisse et ei duritiam carnis nullo modo reluctatam esse sed the Acts of Peter was ^vTitten by the author of locum manui tribuisse disciouU. The terminus ad (Petrusakten. 1009) he But in some passages which depend on the Acts of says John there is an appearance of a pronounced 'Fatur ergo in traditionibus quoniam Johannes Modahsm or almost of Docetism. with Zahn and James. and it is ap. and her husband also falls dead from grief. Lipsius in Acta Apocrypha. but determines first to strengthen the which the composition ought probably to be placed. Vind. The testimony of early writers. 103 ff. But Harnack (Altchr. so that some years earherthan this (to 1). is the large use of the OT and NT made by the Acts of Peter as contrasted with their very limited worship John makes a speech. but of the Codex Vercellensis which deals \\ath Paul after her burial John goes to the tomb and sees really belongs to the Acts of Peter. that the Acts used the Kvpvyfia lierpov. ii. p. rather than by the author of the Acts atus. full detail by C. Other possibilities are Antioch or the Acts of John. and appears to have sect. and the date of settled. Harnack thinks that this is not intelhgible but John raises both to life. [Leipzig. 165 adopted by Lipsius {Apokr. 1891] the Coptic modian is generally supposed to have written c. and the article of Erbes in 1 ff. No complete edition of the text exists the Codex Vercellensis Commodian. 1903. Probably grave to be dug. and under the and the growth of their prestige) la the earhest ZKG xxii. given by Harnack {TU xx.).) have argued very forcibly quern is some time earlier than Commodian the that this is not the case. is concerned with the compassionate attitude to. and includes a hymn which was used. though the text is fragmentary and uncertain. James in John is demonstrated by the long hst of parallel Cod. allow for the spread of the Acts. Schmidt inchne rather to the end of (1) In Ephesus.) and Schmidt these than either Rome or Asia. 553 ff . 161 ff. points of contact. Harnack thinks that early in the 3rd cent. and emphasis he is right. date gesch. It gives a long and extremely Anecdota. the whole account of the mart jt. wards the lapsi. He then encounters a young uses freely and accepts as equally inspired. Schmidt. Die alien Petrusakten {TU xxiv. where John makes a long speech and parently not possible at present to say more than heals many sick. he then goes to (a) The Acts of Paul. James in Apocrypha 1897 in TS V. and a discussion tending to negative his conclu(3) The most important fragment of the Acts is sions is to be found in Schmidt's Petrusakten. R. however. Obviously this sort of mistake. The earhest writer to use the the account given above of the theology of the Acts of John is Clement of Alexandria. R. 1. Very important is the treatment of Harnack regarded : _ i. 63 (written in 1324) and pubh. Potter. Leipzig. His most teUing argument Ep. fixes on the decennium either side of the year 200 it is now possible to reconstruct the greater part as the most probable for the WTiting of the Acts. of Paul. Recent research has 3. and after prayer.). and that the Acts of African Chi-istian poet. both of which the WTiter death on the priest. 237 [253]). of the original. Apart from various smaller and converts both father and son . 2 [1900]. p. John is then summoned to that 180-230 seems to be the half-centm-y within Sm>Tna. plained as due to dependence rather than to among others. p. who was clearly acquainted Peter represents the popular Christianity of the with both the Acts of Paul and the Acts of Peter. Ephesian community. the following inci- — ± most probable time {Altchr. 660 ff. Carmen Apologeticum. During the Sunday (4) The death of John.)» but dents can be arranged John comes from Miletus to Erbes and C. as she remains one of the chief persons. The next episode at Ephesus is in the reasoning is somewhat tentative.D. Lipsius and quod erat extrinsecus tangens manum suam ipsum corpus in profunda others. The date of the Acts of Peter. gestorben. with whom he Here Cleopatra. the wife of Lykomedes. IleTpou by C. use in the Acts of John. 1. ii. by the Priscilhanists (Augustine. The Acts of John. however.. esp. Ill ff. in his Chronologic. hes do^-n in the grave and either too small to enable the question to be satisfactorily dies or passes into a permanent trance. and is not an Christ appear as a young man he is instructed to addition made by the redactor who formed the raise up Drusiana and also a young man. It is generally conceded that the cult to find. — — — — — . xxiv ff. the 2nd century. Apostel. and partakes with He then orders his (c) Schmidt also argues the brethren of the Eucharist.lodges. is the from the comparison of many. No single IMS is complete. Acts. In general the Acts of John. identity of authorship. (p. .SmjTua.added much to our knowledge of the Acts of John .theatre. npa|ei. 623 S. the man who has killed his father because he had use can clearly be traced of the following books. 275) is too early. and opinion usually and. while Erbes and Schmidt maintain that a picture of the Apostle.crucified. The terminus a quo is more diffipossible date.) but it should be added that there is per. Schmidt in his Peiru^akten been converted during his first visit. A. and worships it in his in the hght of the Shepherd of Hermas a much room until John discovers it and shows him his earher date ia possible. In the Acts of Paul will serve also for the Acts of Peter. A. 1. . James. p. laut there is less to be said in favour of pointed to a heretical and Gnostic origin. i. but Schmidt has disciples while the phantasmal Christ was being shown conclusively that the facts must be ex.. Apart he goes to the Temple. Lit. dies from the annoyance haps still room for doubt whether that portion caused her by a yoimg man KaUimachus. 82 ff. and after a speech inflicts from the OT and NT. accused him of adulterj\ John raises the father. The theology of the Acts of Peter. The whole subject is worked out in Ephesus to the house of Andronicus. who had Drusiana. used to tliink that these passages Jerusalem. who beUeved. Adumbrationes to 1 Jn 1^ (ed.

if not the only. as it begins. . but it is not certain that this is really a reference to a Gnostic system. and the date must be decided by internal evidence.' clearly refers to with the best products of 2nd cent. A similar reference. prominent part is also played by Patrocles the brother of ^geates but — A The theology and character of the Acts. and this points to Asia as the place of origin. The Ogdoad is sun. though very shortly. but it is not at all . 190i. ktA. Greece. This The provenance of the Ads of John. Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha. The date and provenance of the Acts of Andrew. in which the statement as to John.— No MS is extant which — _ gives even as good a representation of the original Acts as is found in the other early Acts. as is shown by his 'Apostolic Preaching. Some of the mystical passages 'qui virgo electus a Deo est quem de nuptiis reach a magnificent level. The evidence of Clement is the chief. pp. Nor is there any serious argument against this view. The theology of the Acts. Hennecke. Apocrypha Anecdota. Nei/fcst.36 ACTS (APOCR\THAL) ' ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) The best statement of the case aaainst the Gnostic theory is This is a certain reference to the Acts of John (ed. for there is certainly no connexion between the destruction of the temple of Artemis by the Goths in 282 and the attack on this temple attributed to John and Probably. and planets. The fragment ends. remains quite uncertain. His feet left no mark on the ground. and on the gi-ounds of general resemblance to the Acts of John. jji' : iv v€6tt]T(. Schmidt.). R. Paul or of Thomas. . and may be ranked volentem nubere vocavit Deus. Apokr.' The death of Andrew was by crucifixion. possess in quotations of Enodius of Uzala (end of the 4th cent. If this view be given up.oi^ Xpiffw (rou. Petrusakt en. which is condemned together •Rath the other Acts.000 men went to the proconsul to demand that Andrew should be released. The case for a Gnostic origin is best given. — HE certain. by Zahn (NKZ x. i. Cambridge. 71 Apart from the suspicion of Docetism and aXX' IvX fxev ToC trcoTTJpos rb crUofiia airaiTe'v co? <rwfi<i ra. 1) Th. aAA' tus ^xr} Tou? o'vi'OfTa^ oAAco? TTtpt auToi) (^poveLV vn-eicreA^ot. Acta Joannis. Schmidt.. This certainly seems Docetic. fj. —The a friend of the Apostle.) some valuable fragments. Leipzig. If. 1). he never denied the existence of the seven heavens. p. {TS v. there is no longer any doubt as to the heterodoxy of the book.(Egea' rather than a personal name perverted his wife MaximiUa by Encratitic doctrine against married Hfe. who is in prison in Patras. the Acts of Paul. Especially noticeable is <rwMct. p. 1). 9. 808 (lOth-llth cent. tain. 808 begins in the middle of a speech of Andrew. Gr. The Acts of Andrew.TU xxiv. and is altogether finer hterature than Prologues. and prayed that having once been joined to the cross he might not be separated from it. The Gnosticism of the document is chiefly supported by the reference in the great hymn to an Ogdoad and a Dodecad. See also M. in which the scene of the Acts is laid. Ephesus. 212 6 OiXovrl jxoi The Acts of John may be studied best in Lipsius and Bonnet. 1897. but probably early of John seems to come from a far higher mj-stical in the 3rd cent. the theology — . 1898. abruptly in the middle of a speech by Andrew. moon. and Handhuch zu den Nentest. Apokr. Tubingen. -^Egeates was obliged to comply. but Andrew refused. ii. or more generally Asia. rehgion. These points depend largely on the view taken of the authorship of the Acts. vi. theology of the Acts appears to be markedly Docetic and Gnostic. but it is hard to say where mysticism ends and Docetism begins.). (TS v. written by the same author as the Acts of John. and Clement was not a Docete. the most probable date. is the writer of the Monarchian reHgion. may be taken as the place of composition. therefore. 83 ff. and the Dodecad is the signs of the zodiac. is in Strom. but not much should be built on this view. of which traces are also found in Augustine from these. 1903. Apocrypha Anecdota. Apokconsciousness that he has used a somxe of doubtful ryphen. and was bm-ied by Stratolles and MaximiUa.definitely Valentinian origin. of course. but the legend ascribing an unusual shape to the cross used seems to be of later origin. and these Latin adumbration es inC.vvT]. The text of the fragment in Cod. The general situation is that the Apostle is being prosecuted by a certain iEgeates which is perhaps 'an inhabitant of We . Leipzig. 120 fif.e. Later on. do. Especially important is the section on the Acts of John in C. iifiayev yap ov Sia to that of the Acts of Paul. yrj/xat ivLcpavels Kal elp7}Kihs "'liad.KOv. It represents Jesus as possessing a body which varied from day to day in appearance. Augustine and other writers against the Manichseans make tolerably frequent mention of the Acts . as is usually thought. with the sole exception of the Acts of Paul. But in other respects the Acts Perhaps later than Clement. and while Irena^us resisted this teaching. 1880. wCTrep ajLte'Aet ro'Tepoi' SoKritrci Tii't? the ascetic objection to marriage in this respect ets auTor 7re<iai'epaja"6aL VTrtAa^o^. 1). Bonnet). Vatican. 119 ff. Bonnet. at the moment of the Crucifixion Jesus appears to John on the Mount of Ohves is also prima facie Docetic. and for a Hypotyposes. 195 f. SvfdfjL^L <Tvi'e\6^i:i'ov a-yta. ii. ei? Sa<. his friends in the Acts. For tln-ee days and three nights he remained on the cross exhorting the multitude at the end of this time a crowd of 20. the Acts of Andrew is really Leucian. xxixfif. This is the noteworthy that neither Clement only complete text of all the known fragments. — because he .fjLOvr]v yeKw^ av eit). i. (Eus. ii. 4. James in Apocrypha are generally recognized as derived from the Anecdota. avTos 6e a7ra^a7rAu»5 ajra^i)? the Acts of John is quite as stern as the Acts of ov ov&iv TrapeiaSi/eTai Kivrnxa naS'qTi. Zahn. Twenty years either side of 160 seem to represent the hmits. becomes the most probable place. a full collection of all the quotations is given by Lipsius. Asia is the most probable place for its origin. by M. Erlangen. Petrusakten (. Here.. p. It iproves that it belongs to the 2nd cent. At present the Leucian hypothesis perhaps holds the field (see esp. nor the author of the Prologues seems to have any James. R. for the Acts appears not to be quoted before the time of Origen iii. it appears probable that a fragment in Cod. the Acts of John (ed.). Die alten. Apostelgesch. It is orthodoxy. 211 ff. The distinction between Gnosticism and Catholicism was not that one believed in an Ogdoad and the other did In not. 1904. The only evidence is that the centre of the Acts is Ephesus. He then died.).'S av Gnosticism. Vat. just the same way the Valentinians and others explained that the Demiurge had made seven heavens above the earth. but it is curious that Clement of Alexandria quotes part of this passage as historical without any hesitation in accepting The fact that it. ii. dealing with Andrew in prison. belongs to the early Acts and from a variety of som-ccs it is also possible to reconstruct with some accui'acy the story of the martyrdom of Andrew. but there is really no evidence to say how much earher than Clement it may be. and the end of the 2nd cent. the theology of the Acts is not unlike ayKaia^ VTrrjpecrCa'.. but in the view wliich they took of it. xviii ff. but less cer. So far as the fragments preserved enable us to discover. 1 . James. . testimony as to the date of the Acts of John.. and was capable even of appearing to two observers at the same time in quite different forms. and E.

she is At 'sealed' and partakes of the Eucharist (v.) cf. and saj^s perishes. Bonnet. 175. The 13 'Acts' the Martyrium exist as Leipzig.i6'« in a Sinai palimpsest. In part(B) theMSSaregroupedontheir On the textual merits and in a descending order LTVYR. 222. ' KOM + . — 1871." TS V.. Quartalschr. 'The Soul. 1883-87. On the text of this Hymnin Nicetas of Salonica. The existence of a Syriac original is proved by a series of errors in the Greek arising from Syriac idioms or 'm-iting.. 3-70). i. Acta Apost. which mast derive from a not very distant ancestor. 2. Thomas Thornas is ordered by the Lord to depart (ii. 327 ff. 30. to the prison. Another is at Berlin Sachau Syr. Hymn of the Soul" (Actix. again two types occur. 273-309 but see E. Mart. 881. 1900. We must. The Acts of Thomas. Apocr. [1905] + MS ' . The A text = A (Paris. 172-333. Burkitt has settled the question (JThSt i. a double of this at Cambridge (P. iii. 1905. One of these is afterwards ordered by the Apostle to summon the demons from the house. Hvmn . In part (A) Bonnet distinguishes two types of text r and A.. There is the same emphasis on asceticism even in marriage. Only from pp. and thus supports the Leucian ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) to to prison. 108-113). is taken to a mountain and there pierced with swords. part (B) = Besides UP. has a dream which contains a foreboding of the consequences of this preaching for the married hfe. On the road the Apostle asks the general to command some wild asses to draw his carriage. f2 ( =KORUV) and P fam. :_ .). vi. Zivei gno^t. U andP Both types have several unimportant variationsin i ncluded) common. Pref. 3 [1897] Hoffmann. p. app. The Apostle. : MS MS ' ' 30S203 . . . An attempted torture being miraculously frustrated. 1903). imp. p. who is afterwards restored to life and receives the Eucharist with his brother. 670-679 and in Lipsius. Thomas is now ordered by the king and besought by Charisius to make Mygdonia alter her conduct . not by the quality of its text. P. Bedjan. one that he saw Thomas as a double person exactly hke him standing by and telling him to While this happens. pp. gives variants from the Berlin MS). 543 ff. Z only excepted (Petersb.). as they more often differ on serious points. nat. Somewhat out of date. All these MSS belonged to the A textin part (A). while Q gives here which only the exordium of Act xiii. 146 ff. version derives from the Syriac (op. grsc.cit. xxi) exists (c) The Armenian version should be better known. but still valuable in some respects. Having preached to the people. and Macke (Th. A woman is deUvered from a demon that had been doing violence to her for five years.). followed by a multitude. That morning Mygdonia preaches a sermon to her husband on Jesus as the heavenly bridegroom.Acts. Identical selections FRCX (99-1452^). revaewseparately the MSSforpart (A) = Acts i. 270-282 Duncan Jones. Burkitt having then con\'inced the editor that the Greek was but the version of a Syriac original (Pref. ZNTW. (2) Original langv/ige.' and invites him to ride on its back to the town (iv. llthcent.) + fam. 37 theory. Tertia the queen pays a visit to Mygdonia and returns convinced (xi ) Thomas is again imprisoned. leads the converts and with them Mnesara. Hymnen. Preface. 12th or 13th cent. he erects a palace in heaven which is shown to the disembodied soul of the king's deceased brother.' and professes to be the serpent from paraThe dragon is summoned to suck the venom dise. therefore. D. mostly in the form of Thomas. after doing which it The youth is restored to Ufe. vol. * ( = the rest of the MSS. On the mountain Sifor the general and Vazanes receive orders as presbyter and deacon (xiii. SFZ (275"'-288). Search should be made in the East for SS of this i X.). this moment a young man's hands are withered in the act of taking the Eucharistic bread.2( =FLSZ). A. Syr. part (C) = Act xiii. a whole in two MSS. text is given in Lipsius and Bonnet. Judas 5. ii. and exhorts the Apostle to give the bodies of the women back to life. + Martyrium. On the text of the of the hvmns (in Acts i. The best text is Cod. After a general conversion. He confesses that he has murdered a woman for repudiating him after her conversion by Thomas. After Schroter {ZDMG. The 1. In the courtyard this same ass preaches a sermon to the multitude. Iving Gundaphorus. But. Preuschen (Hennecke. xxiii. and by ISI. pp. and Snnct. 197-250 could due influence be allowed to the Syriac and its ally.Apocr.). gehzed. ii. U. the resuscitate the body (iii ) colt of an ass addresses the Apostle as the 'twin of the Christ. p. comes to hear Thomas The same night her husband Charisius preaching. and converts Vazanes the king's son. James in Apocrypha Anecdota. 15 Actsiii. Giessen. which forthwith appears.). 46III).. The r text=GHZ and B (1st half). CXBHTG VYRD . pp.ii. — (1) Contents. [1900] 280-290). p. After the Eucharistic meal.^ Spending the money on alms. text ii. In Conybeare's opinion the Arm. R. of which viii. Thisis the only Greek of the VallicelL B 35. 448-451. Preuschen. Thomas is ordered by his master. Cod. 1904 Burkitt. ii. 563) was impressed by its variations. Thomas follows her and returns At the Avedding-feast having administered the sacraments her and her foster-mother. of Syr. he is conducted back and speaks a long prayer (xii. : BH : 10th cent. MSS neglected by Bonnet cf. both being 'sealed' with oil by the Apostle.. which Vetteris expected to publish in the Or. a general of king Misda?us visits Thomas and prays him to deliver his wife and daughter from a cruel pair of demons (vii. since they had died as the demons were leaving them (viii. r/i r.fonds arm. Mus. cf. .). inserted here. . They enter Vazanes' house. Jerusalem. Sin. Act. The genealogy is still obscure. Lavra and Vatopedi. To protect her for the future. p. following U omit (A) and (B) altogether. On the next day and night this comes true. 99-146» Bonnet). she recounts horrible visions from the lower world. ii. and the cross also plays a large part. xxiv ff. A. He explains to the bridegroom that He is not Thomas. 1871. to build a palace. is R A. 1874. xxix ff.-xii. the wife of Vazanes. Thomas returns to the prison {Martyrium). Apostelgesch. the tradition In part (C) of the Greek text appears to be not very reliable. Brunswick.Lond.) Jesus. while V gives here only the exordium of (A) have no selections beyond Act preserve (B). ii. Apokr. + . have been published by Bur kitt(S<ud. see (pp. 7) text and its Oriental and Greek versions. Christ. Noldeke {ib. w'hile SFQZL give here no more than the 'prayers of Act xii. Bevan. where they are 'sealed' and baptized by Thomas. . SFZL (251 "'-258™. daughter of the king of Andrapolis he is discovered to be an inspired person and forced by the king to pray over the bride and bridegroom. _gr»c.' and encounters Thomas on her way proceeding as a prince with many hghts (ix. and valuable discussions are given in Harnaok.). Acta Apocrypha. Paris. The (19) other MSS give but selections..). . acknowledging Thomas as 'twin of the Christ. xxii). ) .fam.). 'identical selections' above. however. 936). 1903. viz. On entering the inner room Jesus is found sitting with the bride. Lipsius. a relative of the royal family. 475).). hidden in Smyrna. On this occasion the Lord appears as a youth bearing a lamp. Thomas's final words culminate in an exhortation to abstinence from marriage and in emphasis on the permanence All India being evanof spiritual possession (vi. MS : . U (Rome. wife escapes to receive the 'seal.' At home. M . and while in prison sings the 'Hymn of the Soul./r. 1510. Apokr. andix.Leyden. and converts the couple to a complete abstinence from sexual relations (Act i. In the morning Thomas is arrested. have no trace of (B) or copies preserve (A) of which 9 copies (C). . A atParis (Bibl.)..6'ire.a)TheSyriac(ed. 12th cent.i. Pref. Thomas is sold by Jesus to the messenger of an — of the Indian prince. Restored to hfe. finds a youth killed by a dragon. The Hymn of the Soul is not in it. Cambridge. Fragments from the 6th cent. but his feeble commands are refuted by her from his own teaching (x. A Brussels Several MSS are still (ii. Mygdonia. Add 14645 (a. Bonnet has 11 copies preserve (C). again out of the body. Bonnet's text might beimproved. p. A4.d. which. ii. Neutest. His wife flees from his embraces. 1892. against the order of these MSS and P. Chronol.~(. (3) Text.chs. 94. 2047) might be of some interest. Athos (the catalogues of the most important libraries. Bonnet. translation) is preserved in Br. Charisius His finds his fervent suppUcations again scorned. are still unpublished).WTight. The other complete MSis P (Paris. (6) The Greek version (ed..).^ [1884] 423-425).ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) of the Acts of Andrew resembles most closely that of the Acts of John. Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten. Our present text is not always superior to the Greek version. .

Lit. the universal acceptance of a theology counting only the supernatural world as real. 1907. BcrUn.d.) the probabihty of hterary sources. Following this line of Uterary criticism. but cf. p.. The Church and its dignitaries are practically absent (cf. and Nau. his art. [Leipzig. 205 ff. 2. translation. 391401. pp. 1904. 229-241) advocates a Greek original ('the Son of the King and the Pearl') sprung from a pagan Gnostic movement in the new Sasanid empire. Paris. p. Apostelgesch. . 2 (1904). Acts v. 113. 170 n. Possible sources certainly deserve serious consideration (cf. p. 545549 with ii. especially abstinence from sexual relations even in marriage. p. and Noldeke.) raises the question whether the material of the story was created in Edessa or imported. 692-594) is omitted in most MSS. i. — opinion. ii. p. : (d) Of other versiona. explained it in the 11th cent. 718. however. 96 ff. 121). ii. but it is certain that one of the component parts of Act ix.' was composed before the rise of the Sasanid power in a. cit. That the Hymn fact. ' wrong The language (with the proper names) points to Syria. Apart from this should be considered his exegesis of the 'psalm' of chs. but Preuschen included (cf.. Early Eastern Christianity. The supernatm-al world is not described the Gnostic cosmogonies and esoteric doctrines are absent. 609-610. Early East. causes them to stand out as another unit. 44. cit. Persian beyond that time. 142). 1 (1897). that most MSS of the Greek version give but If this should occur also in the Oriental selections. that he is over-stating the importance of the existing analogies. Tlie intellectual pursuits of the Gnostic mind are absent.. ZWT. spread by several petites religions from Egypt on the waves of universal S5mcretism. . 121. p. Aphi-aates. 119). 240. Act x. Schwen. 130-132). (Hellenist.. several coincidences with Gnostic phraseology have been intensified in the Greek. Reitzenstein has emphasized {op. Suspicions are raised by the fact (5) Integrity. is present in the Odes of Solomon. also Kriiger. 418 note [on 1. pp. Siphor. plunged in a sleepy forgetfulness of His heavenly origin and supreme task by assuming a fast ratselhaf t strong influence of pagan literature {op. On the 'sleepy forgetfulness' cf. 1904. and the remaining parts might come in as It seems. however. our collection of 13 Acts might seem the Noldeke result of a process of agglomeration. 1907. 479). since Gnostic astrology and scenery do not differ in degi'ee from the rest of the Acts. the Latin not entirely. the character and style ('Acts' ixf. Nicetas. obtrusively Gnostic. Gutschmid. It seems. 1883. influences). (ch. . Mygdonia shows a firmer gi-asp of the implications of his doctrine than Thomas himself (Act X. Preuschen {op.) has shown that it contains just those heresies' for which Bardesanes. 212 note) — ' ' reserve the middle quarters of the 3rd cent. 122). 118-154. 132. Early Gnostics and Eastern Christianity have appeared to differ less Moreover. is urged as self-evident. 1906. Conybeare. Hilgenfeld {ZWT.. NT'-. It is impossible to clench this argument. apncr. Cod. p. 226. Reitzenstein of Bardesanes' environment. 175-176. cit. 108-113 (and also a long doxology after ch. and the Martyriuni). cit.). Hilgenfeld.. the figure of Thomas to Edessa. Afrahat. Hamburg. Christianity.). and individual salvation as the chief end of man. Asceticism. 687 Bonnet. 477. vi. tradition. 3). 199. Excision from its context is impossible without leaving scars. just as he used the Lord's Prayer in a later prayer of Judas Thomas. Fabricius. ib. defiled by communion with them. (ch. 'Bardesane' and * Bardesanites . London. in vocabulary than in other regards.-xii. {GGA. AU critics with this last exception. p. the 'Hymn of the Soul' in thia 'Act') to the literary capacities R. (6) //7/mns. 108-113 as a 'Hymn of the Christ. useless (cf. since 'Parthian kings' are mentioned in 1. 1888. i._ advocating Buddhism Prcuschen in Hennecke. With regard to its inclusion in the Acts. 1890] 332 ff. 'Psalm') in chs. Parsiism. Even before meeting the Apostle.' The Acts presupposes (7) Theology of the Acts. and other leaders of early Syi-iac Christianity (cf. as the latest probable date for the whole. It is a document of the religious life.). and may ' I cannot help expressing a private opinion that the Hymn — was inserted by the author himself. Christianity. Future criticism may even see its way to combine this point of view with the first. Theol. or are even due to (4) Provenance cf. 38 (ed. agree in ascribing the 'Hymn of the Soul' to Bardesanes or to his school. Hennecke. ACTS (APOCRITHAL) not safe to abandon this ancient exegesis. in have become a part of the recognised teaching of the sect to which the author of the Acts belonged (cf. p. 225 f .]) as the time of the translation of the relics of Thomas to Edessa (a. Diet. 1905.— The Bridal 'Ode' (ch. TS v. It may. and ii. It 40). not of the metaphysics of Gnosticism (Bevan. GGA.d 232). p.. ii. independent of the Acts is certain. The sacraments are much in evidence as the only means of attaining to the fife among the inhabitants of the world of fight (chs.d. 18 in our Syriac a mystic song of the Church. i. 82). 1905. dulge much in literary criticism before a more adequate knowledge of the original text is available. however.. JThSt Identification of the soul and Christ vi. Therefore we must not go much Christ cheated by demons. only SjTiac and for the largest part omitted by Sachau 222 cf.p. cit. and date. the Ethiopic is wholly. but it is not so clear that the Acts is independent of the Hymn. 5 f. Burkitt. pp. 154^222) and his school (see Burkitt. : — _ ._ Baptism immediately followed by the Eucharist is the rule.' Reitzenstein supports his views (for the Bridal Ode with less decision op. The 'Hymn of the Soul' (Greek. artt. 7). Wundererzdhlungen. the vigorous style of Acts ix. (except the Andrapolis episode) He supposes a rather intricate genesis for our collection. 7. serving the Lord of this world. The pagan theology of Hermetic monotheism has left its traces among the mediaeval Sabians of Carrhae (near Edessa). Bevan {op. unsafe to inlater accretions. Ephraim's Comitself is mentary on 3 Corinthians. p. Apokr. 227). was excluded by the Edessene Church. This proves that its character is not p. Perhaps it is only its reckless Puritanism which separates the Acts of Thomas from the B'nai Q'yama. Early East. pp. 1903. Ada ThomcB. according to Ephraim. For the history of Harnack. in Hennecke. quoted under (3)) defines the character of both hymns as Ophite or Sethian. Cath. 1904. without any suspicion (cf. Leipzig. 1st Act) It occurs in the story of the woman in Act v. its . One author may have composed the whole by adapting pagan stories to Thomas's name. while the rigoristic ethics have close parallels in early Syriac Christianity. ii. Act x. 104 ff . He points out that miracle-stories {' aretalogies') were a Mterary genre. 15S). recensions in ThT and JThSt.. the 'Hymn of the Soul. Against this fact coincidences in plu-aseology seem to carry little weight. Mygdonia. no. An orthodox bishop of Salonica. The date of the Acts is fixed by Lipsius {LCBl. Acts iii. Burkitt remarks {Early Eastern Christianity. 96-99. Altchr. Kleine Schriften. 82) suspects interpolations and detects a nucleus in Acts i.38 ACTS (APOCR\THAL) is f. ii.-viii. All this exactly suits Bardesanes (a.. p. above (3) and Burkitt. It does not even go much beyond the Apocalypse or the Patristic comments on the Song of Songs. He explains its curious implications Bevan. In this case the different shades of style may be due to close adherence to or fn^e expansion of such sources. 1508. Vazanes had seen this (Act xiii.

49 and 27 (Gr. Of these Cathohc recensions. the Syriac has baptism followed by chrism. 1883-87. occurs in ch. vi. .-dgypt. 1906) had already found a way. (9) the story of Gundaphorus and Gad. 158). and quotes ch. Leipzig. 2 'I. Samaria. Leipzig. but research have dominion over him (avdevreiv dvdp6s). who rested from His work on the seventh day. ii. et rcll. Haase. . Lieipzig. de doctrina vero multa mentitus est. and preserved or even added to all the mu-acles. Acta Joannis. loannis evangelistae et sancti Andreae vel Thomae apostoli qui de virtutibus quidem quae per eos dominus fecit. with all his Poimandres Stud. The result was a series of Catholic recensions which left out. pp. and by Zahn. 12.). Consecration of the water is not found. Lit. 18-24. found a man to walk in holy fellowship with Him in the seventh — — generation. (a) Instruction (132) (b) prayer (25..") thinks it worth noting that Enoch (q. im rom.. {n) A response from heaven of the cup (121.3 ff. the Greek and SjTiac differ . though running water is but once used (121). perhaps. fruhchristl. ADAM In 39 Vazanes. 1909.. renunciation from sexual intercourse is understood (promised. (chs. . 157) .) the immersion may have been omitted. Forschungen. Cult of the Heavejily T'wins. While the Greek in 27 has a double unction {JThSt i. p. 132. etc. E. both omit the Eucharist. 132). 6. Jesus. can be found attached to the name of every Apostle or Teacher in NT times in the Ada Sanctorum. 1910. It may be as early as the 3rd cent. unction and chrism. (//) iynmersion (27 Syr. Besides this a series of Acts. and a Christophany in chs. Reitzenstein seems to open a field where Rendel Harris (The Dioscuri in the Christian Legends. 251 . but that the doctrine connected with them was heretical. — . Zur bardesanischen Gnosis. 2644 [Cumont] R. From a woman was the words of Sirach (25-'') Besides the works already quoted. Die or. Die and because of her we all die. This view finds its clearest expression in the Prologue of pseudo-MeUitus Volo sqllicitam esse fraternit atem vestram de Leucio quodam qui scripsit Apostolorum actus. Ge. in fact. 170 note and 199). A. eine altchr. Paderborn. Erlangen.. viz. Burkitt. F. in question. The disentanglement of various recensions of the separate Acts is very difficult. the most famous are the 'Prochorus' and water appear as Eucharistic elements. de Zwaan. der neutest. 121. whose month of free-markets (cf. Trinitarian formulre and Logos-terminology are used rather indiscriminately. F. It describes the adventures of Phihp in Phrygia. et litt. 121.apTias). Elsewhere the Eucharist seems always to occupy the place of the last part of later baptismal ritual. (chs. 153-158). Cambr. 27. Later Acts. woman for man . note 3) takes this as proof that the Acts wishes to reduce the Vu-gin birth ad absurdum. relig. 157) (g) prayer over the unction (27 Gr. Paul did not hellenistisch-romische Kuhur. Eve was created second and sinned Pauly-Wissowa. occur in various combinations.and 1 Ti 2"f. (c) consecration of the oil (157) (d) imposi(e) outpouring of oil on the tion of hands (49) head (27 Gr.' St. [121]. 153. 2. London. Kultur des AUertums. Unction may have extended to more parts of the body for exorcistic purposes (cf. That. Cumont. speaking generally. Rel. 251) or. J. Harris. When the writer of Jude (v. take pleasure in this quaint philosophy of history. Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten. 158) {m) partaking of the bread (49. arranged under the date assigned in the calendar to the saint — . u.. ia by Kirsopp Lake. 1. ch. 121. but they are comparatively unimportant. 132. Lipsius. . the cult of Aziz (the morning star) a presupposition. (8) Ritual.ACTS (APOCRYPHAL) (ch. Besides the five Apocryphal Acts which have been discussed. and just here a parallel between Bardesanian literature and our Acts comes in (cf. which are very formula is always Trinitarian. Asia. 1892. The name Thomas = 'twin' has been the point de depart. Apokr. 1910. 157) . plurima vera dixit. and belongs either to a mildly Gnostic sect or to the same Modahstic Christia. 121. 158) and whose place as a patron of . und relig. . 25-27).. Renunciation in a formal way is absent. the beginning of sin (d-n-d ywaiKds dpxv d/j. Ordinary bread nurnerous. z. 74 ff. 445. 7.nity as the Acts of Peter. ii. therefore in chs.* ADAM ('A5d/x). do.?chichte der altchristlichen Litteratur. 132.v. also but.' ' The most impressive element (1)). but Edessa Thomas was honoured with (cf Jn 11^^ 20-'' sinned second.) was 'the seventh from Adam' (e/35o/xos airb 'A8dfx). The edition of the Acts of John (the text is best given bread seems to be more essential (body and blood by Zahn. 5 and JThSt. i. monotheism are still obscure to us. p. Supplenaent. . is morally as well as physically weaker than man. 565). the confirmation and 'sealing' by the chrism. . (i) chrism (27 Syr.' This would be quite a solitary cloud of scepticism in an atmosphere saturated with syncretistic thought. there are several others of later date. Apokr. Man was not created for woman. 1. Thojnas's character as a twin of tJie in the Acts is Christ (see above W. The most valuable is the 'Acts of Phihp. the speeches. 1880). d Edesse. With in this field is certainly destined to cast light on the premisses of this argument one may compare the dark places of the Acts of Thomas. Heidentiim. in the company of his sister Mariamne. griech. Reitzenstein.) (/) u7}ction (27 Gr. 65-70. The baptismal 1904. and not very profitable. Wendland.' which is edited by Bonnet in Acta Apocrypha. (/) prayer over the chrism (27 Syr. Sphraqis. Leipzig. Adam was the tirst man (ix = man) and the parent of the human race. Tubingen. 121. Probably it was this Dioscuric god. Duval. Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen. Tubingen. 2. The fullest* account is that of chs. the rest of the art. . i. The whole act of unction and immersion is called 'sealing' (121). 153-158. Neutest. His. It seems to him an interesting point that God. Bauer (Das Leben Jesu iin Zeitaller so-called 'Abdias' collection. and Cult of the Heavenly Twins.).58). (1893) p. The Sacramentary of 71 Serapion of Thmuis. F. 152). i. p. and in R. The materials for a more detailed statement of the Catholic recensions can be found in Harnack.). Paris. 1911. It is discussed by Lipsius in Die apok. 1903. see F. Act ii. Catholic recensions. de Zwaan . Hennecke. he felt that the accepted * The sacramental usage in the Acts is not fixed: the 14 points * The section on the Acts of Thomas is from the pen of . 158) (0 allocution before partaking (49. Dolger. {k) prayer for the Eucharist (49. growing ever shorter and less valuable. Act xiii. KiRSOPP Lake and J. Apostelgeschichten. as many of the Rabbis did reverence for womanhood. 132. P. Gnostic phraseology occiurs side by side with it. son of Joseph the carpenter. and the in ch. Dioscm-ic attainments are ascribed to Thomas is evident. Outpouring and unction constitute a double act (157). he probably has in mind the sacredness of the number seven. 158) . 156) . Tdufbezeichnung in ihren Beziehungen zur prof. In 1 Co ll^f. 1910.the doctrine of the headship of man and the complete subjection (wda-a virorayrj) of Woman is based upon the story of creation.first therefore let woman ever remember that she toire politique. The ways and by-paths of syncretistic and let her never attempt either to teach or to p. — In the course of the Manichcean controversy the view was adopted that the miracles in the 'Leucian' Acts were prenuine. Brightman. 1907 R. Adam was created first and : ' .

To St. In Memoriam).' Formally as a deduction from the story of Adam. but ours who are descended from thee' Yet Adam is not the cause of sin (2 Es 7^).. . It was not a personal and empirical. paldstin. Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive. 424). which reigned in the world long before the ascent of man and the beginning of sin a debt which. . but a traditional and dogmatic. between the first and the last representative Man. sin. and literature. altsyn. there was a new creation (KaLVT) KTiais) old things were passed awsA^ behold. . 242). they were become new (2 Co 5'''). . ' . Not legalism or its absence. not merely marked a new epoch in history. Paul brooded on the stupendous series of events of which Christ was the cause. But he linds in the antique human document these facts the Divine origin and organic unity of the human race man's aflinity with. but 'a new creation' (Gal 6^^) was of avail. . was capable of immortality potuit non mori his sin made him subject to death. enduring substance of the legend. London. God therefore required to begin with an inferior state. judgment. The last In Christ shall all be made alive. or when he began. Studies in Theol.' and it is convinced that man did not make society but that society made man. 216). Beyond this it has not yet done much to enlighten theology. W. crude and rudimentary. that he was reading a pure allegory he believed. . 1894. It is to be noted that the Apostle does not advance any new theory of the first creation. followed by the gift of His Spirit. man should pay as cheerfully as possible. 79). introducing a new society. like Luther. and it cannot accept the pedigree of Adam as given by Moses or by Matthew. on the immeasurable ditierence which His brief presence made in the life of mankind. : . we do not know them histori' ' woman's creation after and her fall before man's clearly established her inferiority. Paul (1 Co 15^5-49j ^he primitive man was of the earth. of his sin . and immediately thou appointedst death for him and in his generations. St. Paul had. in which the same sense of a fatal heredity is coni"oined with a consciousness of individual responsi*0 Adam. a natural as opposed to a spiritual man. The narrative which blends these elements in a form that appealed to the imagination of primitive peoples has a depth of moral and religious insight unsurpassed in the OT ' ' .' It is remarkable. without the warrant of one syllable of Scripture to corroborate the truth of the colouring' (F. Thomson. as it cannot be cancelled.' as akin to God. Paul's conception is that. (Tennyson. He says nothing of a garden of Eden. 2 Es 3'': 'And unto him (Adam) thou gavest thy one commandment which he transgressed. but as the wages of his sin. but really as his own spiritual intuition. According to the Talmud. ii. there is such a thing as transmission of guilt. And Thou hast made him. and knew that many others had. that death is for all organisms a natural law. Corinthians. philosophy. with the innocence and inexperience of a child. an anthropomorphic Deity. And yet his sense of two things his own gi'eatness and God's goodness convinces him that it is radically contra rei-tun naturam. Science knows nothing of a man who came directly from the hand of God. 3. The ' immortal allegory of Genesis cannot now be regarded as literal history. and death which is found in Gn 2-3. He knew only what every student of Scripture could learn on that subject. ' ' ' . If any man was in Christ. the Cliristian believes that it is finally to be abolished. what hast thou done? For if (ility. Theol. 1908. A. Reflexion on this profound spiritual change and all tiiat it involved convinced the Apostle that Christ was the Head and Founder of a new humanity that His life and death. but a disregard of the known distinction between right and wrong the entail of death..' As St. ' ' . ethics. Thou art just . while the first man Adam. It was the result of a Divine creative act. 191). we find that men have drawn largely from their imaginations. ' cally. p. Robertson. Sin. Edinburgh. Leipzig. wliich has reigned over all his descendants. Coi-inthians. System d. or whence he came. but created a new world. The teaching Christianity confirms his instinctive feeling that death is in his case a dark shadow that should never have been cast upon his life.' Adam. p. Its working hypothesis is that man is 'a scion of a Simian stock.' serpent. is that we do not know the beginnings of man's life. on historical evidence and we should be content to let them remain in the dark till science throws what light it can upon them' (Denney. We do not know how Man arose. a talkinj. He thinks he was not made to die. St. This is apparently opposed to the doctrine of science. and we have no reason to hide it. a miraculous tree of life. except in his own soul but each of us has become of St. p. Paul with regard to sin and death does not materially differ from that of liis Je^yish contemporaries and of the Talmud. . The Bible of Nature. that Moses 'meldet geschehene Dinge. The life of the spirit is substantially identical with holiness it could not therefore have been given immediately to man at the time of his creation for holiness is not a thing imposed.' having vanquished death. thy fall has not merely been thine own. while he leaves out the drapery woven by the old time-spirit. 'became a lifegiving spirit' (I Co 15^^-'"). Acknowledging that it is not the mere natural fate of a physical organism. Cf. He did not imagine. with what unerring judgment he seizes upon and retains the vital. ' . earthy (xoCKb%). thou hast sinned. 4. the Apostle thus teaches the unnaturalness of human death. Art has made it difficult to think of our first parents without adorning them with all graces and perfections. See also artt. He no doubt regarded as literal history the account of the origin of man. ' — : — — — ' (Skinner. like Philo. and capacity for. between the intrusion of sin and death into the world and the Divine gift of righteousness and life. the Divine his destiny for fellowship with God as an ideal to be realized in obedience to Divine law his conscious freedom and responsibility the mysterious physical basis of his transmitted moral characteristics his universally inherited tendency to sin his consciousness that sin is not a meie inborn weakness of nature or strength of appetite. 1910] 52). between the ravages of one man's disobedience and the redemptive power of one Man's perfect obedience (Ro 5|-^-2'). however. the freewill offering of the individual. . but the wages of sin. LiFB AND Death. or where his first home was in short we are in a deplorable state of ignorance on the whole subject (J. But when we get away from poetry and picture-painting. a religious experience so vivid and intense that ordinary terms seemed inadequate to do it justice. the power in man to give or withhold himself (Godet.40 belief in ADAM ' ADAM the Adam of his own soul' (Bar 54'^). Genesis [ICC. there inevitably took shape in his mind a grand antithesis between the first and the second creation. ' . not as the law obeyed by all created organisms. 1880. the characteristic of which was simply freedom. The plain truth. He had no new revelation which enabled him either to confirm or to correct the account of the beginning of things which had come down from a remote antiquity. it is essentially a product of liberty. of his history. but not such a thing as transmission of sin' (Weber.

Paul. A. .rLaiJ. 1S97. loc. 254 Plato. Luke would be familiar with it as a term used for the advice of a physician. ISi^i-Wi. and reason admonition must be realized if The adit is to be a means of moral discipline. particularly a waiter at table (Lat. Eph 6^ Tit 310 cf. he ranked equally with them he could not be disinherited against his will. 1894-95.ds. 1 Th 5'"".^-o. minister). Paul alone of biblical writers he uses the word 'adoption' [vlodeffia. The implication is 'a monitory appeal to the vods rather than a direct rebuke or censure' (Ellicott).— The word ' ' occurs in the diaKoviu). Sidnell. etc. NT ' ' . . p. p. Gn 16'^-). It is translated 'adoption' in Rom. in ERE i. Its object.. 'bounds. Deissmann.' i.' lit. i.. but 'adoption of in Gal. If a man had a legitimate son. 1126 ^nd Ro 7=* where 'called' is the translation. vovQtrio} TTjffis) — Hebrew custom. see Gal 2^^^. in EBE i. cf. 1S96. Paul's speech.. Moses by Pharaoh's daughter. Bruce. ADMONITION. The adopted son at once left his own family and became a member of that of his adopter. Paul's Conception of Christianity. 2 Th 315 for the latter 1 Co 10". St. in so far as these differed from one anothei . p.e.. also in Plato. 'giving of the law. and is best considered under its various aspects (CJi:SAR. A. p. The administration of the Roman Empire is never directly referred to in the NT. 59.— B. who pours out wine to the guests individually. ished (Mt 21----. there is need for constant admonition (2 P P'''^'). ' ' — — . p. W. W. 2 Ti 42. and though adoption was a legal custom among the Babylonians (Box. Paul but it is common in Greek inscriptions of the Hellenistic period. 149 if. The term. p. two places. Weizsacker. though the preventing of the extinction of a and vovBteria (a later form for vov6i- outside the Pauline are not found in the For Epp. 153). H. Stevens. In the latter case he came under the adopter's po<esto5 as if he were his son by nature. i.a. D. Col 1^8 3i«. Paul's Conception of Christ. Ramsay has endeavoured to show that. V. Paul.g. Horce Sjinrjptiixe. 1 Co 125 ^nd 2 Co 9^2. Dt W^^^-. if he had no legitimate son. With them childlessness was to some extent met by the levirate. . losing all rights as his father's son.' 'exhort. St. Eph P. This Greek word is not found in classical writers (though ^eros vios is used for an adopted son by Pindar and Herodotus). 1 Ti 413. cf. of such ' family was thought important by the Israelites. Aristoph. always with the added suggestion of sternness. whereas in 2 Co 9'^ it is particularly the concrete form of that service which is intended. 122^). Ranee. ' ' . 'fixing of bounds' (Ac 172^). Beyschlagr. and are the result of foreign surroundings and influence. 122 ff. 13«). For private and public exhortation by preachers. Weiss.' 2.ADJURE Literature.-Sol.r'\. alluding to a Greek and earliest stages.g. In 1 Co the tr. Paul in these passages is Roman rather than to a Proconsul. or in the patriarchal period by polygamy (cf. .'^(ii in the active signifies 'transact business (xpfifia). Gorg. or brother (2 Th Z'^% The object . Romans^. . to train by word. Gal 45. On the other hand. and it Mas at one time supposed to have been coined by St. 331ff. 349 ff. Is 8i« 30«ff-. H. 107 and 111). Syr. Prom. Avhence eiavolriCLS. cf. James Strahan. C.' of which the RV has substituted administer (AV) has given just as in 2 Co 8^^^' ' AV in ADMINISTRATION. This meaning of Divine oracle is found chiefly ' ' tives. Josephus).. or at a later date by divorce. Ac 1022. . Paul in the five passages named above is taking up an entirely nonJewish position . Roman adoption was founded on the same general ideas it was called arrogatio if the person adopted was sui Juris.^sch. Wheeler Robinson. The custom. . St. Galatians. Apostolic Aqe. cit. Ramsay. manner tion' as vo/jLodeaia. and communities. M. . Jer 25^'* 31-. of the influence of Greek and Roman ideas on St. that St. as a skilled doctor would admonish a patient in a serious illness (see Hawkins.' 'legisla- (Ro 9*. a servant. and of the person thus admonIts ' ' ' We ' . p. of Gr. 112 ff. B. Obedience to God's law and submission to His will are essential for progressive Human nature being what it is. 479A). G. and sons were afterwards born to the latter. with the underlying idea that the mind and heart must be suitably prepared for its reception. — St. and is also found in the Apocrypha. It was afterwards used as a form of will-making. presence in a section is suggestive.' 'admonish (Ac 27''. 1899. the admonition given (Lk 2-^ cf. ADJURE.4n9flf. 2 Mac 2^). The classical Greek- sons ' ' ' . \pf\\i. The root idea is to put in mind (iv r(2 uui Tidivai). 264 Vesp. To admonish is the duty of a father or parent (Eph G'* . 48ff. . It was at first largely connected with the desire that the family worship of dead ancestors should not cease a cultus which could be continued only through males (Woodhouse. blame (cf.23 9-*. Ac 20^^ the former see Ro \o'\ 1 Co 4'*. The few instances of adoption in tlie OT (e. Hab 2'^-. except in St. 2 Mac 7-'. ^yis ll'". ii. monition and teaching of Col 1^ correspond to the repent and believe of the gospel message.' 'give Divine admonition' The passive is used of (cf.). He 8* IP. could have written Epistles which contained such statements (cf. St. Cariss J.. 1 Th 22. St. But. Sanday-Headlam. The custom oi adopting children is explicitly alluded to by St. he could not make a will but. Esther by Mordecai) exhibit a different reason for the act from that stated above. the custom was very common among both Greeks and Romans. Theology. p. Somerville. Job 40*). Paul as a person of position and an experienced traveller gives advice in an emergency. 1912. 1009).. pp. in its Godward and manward aspects. place to 'minister' (RV 12-^ and 2 Co 9'"^ the word whicli originally means Gr is ADOPTION 1. Vulg. at any rate in its was to prevent the dying out of a family. 107. 1906. and bpodeala. by the adopting into it of one who did not by nature belong to it. It appears. teachers. In 1 Co 12' the aspect alluded to is especially that of practical service rendered to a master [including that of . remonAristoph. 1911. ADOPTIOX in the 41 NT NT. 1882-83. then. 114). adoptio Jiliorum. Theology of the Nl\ 1901. reproof. ). 1. it was not in use among the Hebrews. See also Chastlsement and Discipline. ' deacon ' rendered ' word ' for ' to adopt ' is eidTvoieladai. AV ' to our Lord ']. he often adopted one that he might secure the inheritance to him rather than to rela- — . spiritual life. and is formed in the same . in both ministration. adoption as sons (RV adoption of children ') in Ephesians. B.C. 136 ff. Pss. Biblical Theology of the NT. . strance. In Greece it dates from the Sth cent. A. This. If he was adopted while his adopter was still living. This M'ord is common in classical Greek. however. 1902. give a Divine response to one consulting an oracle. so much so that some have doubted whether a Jew. professional. The terms are used in classical Greek (e. ' the service (or duty) rendered by a BidKovos. -jrapaivew signifies 'recommend.). adoption. The Christian Doctrine of Man. B. even after he had become a Christian. but aduptio if he was under his own father's potestas (Woodhouse. but are more common in later Greek (Philo. 2. usually simath b^naya) five times: Ro S^'. Stiff. Ro 11*. In the NT reference is made to this subject in its family. 155 ff. so that he became in all respects its representative and carried on the race. 125 fl.22 cf.—See Oath. Souter. is one of the manj'^ instances 342). The Pauline Theology. and Divine aspects.. etc. who Avould otherwise be heirs.-^ 3 Mac 5" 7^^ a). 3. xPV. diaKovia.

by grace): 'my Father and your Father. It is this distinction between an adoptive and a natural sonship which gives point to the title Only-begotten (q. in loc). sonship we are first said to be made (Gn P®). and therefore call on Him as Father (v. But this has been disputed. being under the Law. If we are the sons brought to glory by Jesus (He 2'"). etc. the completest sense could not be proclaimed before the manifestation of the Divine Son in the flesh' (Robinson. the giving of the Law. see § 4 above).42 in ADOPTION no ADOPTION writer but St. notice that St. . In Gal 4*'' he says that God sent forth that we might receive His Son {rbv vlbv aiiroO) adoption . Father (cf. and puts into our mouth the words Abba.' for 'we are children of God' (Ro 815'. Equivalents in other parts of NT. yet seems at first sight to speak as if Christ's comingwas only to give adoption to those whom. the covenants [often repeated].' He never speaks of God as 'our Father. iv. Peter speaks cf. as Lightfoot remarks {Com. this title would be meaningless (for endeavours to evacuate its significance see Pearson. Jn 14*. On the Crced^. not iiwb rbv vo/xov the reference is not only to those who were under the Mosaic Law. combined with the broader outlook due to his Graeco-Roman surroundings (see above. The thought closely resembles that of 1 Jn 3^ we are noiv the children of God. to be begotten. ' ' . the glory [the visible presence of God].' It is noteworthy that the adoption is before the Incarnation. If Christians become children of God (Jn 1'^ see § i above). Hos IP. whereby we cry. 59) that the word ' become shows an adoptive. Eph F. 27 f. As Westcott observes [Corn. The Apostle applies the metaphor to the relation of both Jews and Christians to the Father. Paul. 343 . in loc).those who 'receive' the Word and believe on His name are said to be given by Him the right to become children of God.' The figure of adoption appears as a ' re-begetting in 23 .) had Jesus been only one out of many sons. or rather that Son. ' ' . so that of Christians is not yet fully realized. although it could only be in Christ. sons in the same sense. or live. i9f. my first-born'). not natural sonship I will be his God. Thus in Jn l'^*. and see below. . He teaches us how to pray. all belonged to the Israelites.. (b) But more frequently St. The phrase 'redeem is thouglit to reflect the Roman idea that the adopter purchased a son from the father by nature adoption was efi'ected before a praetor and five witnesses. but only under the Gospel. 'this right is not inherent in man. Paul uses the word adopthe idea is found elsewhere. 29). 53). but to all subject to any system of positive ordinances . Father. Eph. see also Heir). And so our Lord explicitly . Here the sonship of Israel. while He revealed God as Father of all men. ' RVm . The distinction of Jn 20''' is maintained throughout the NT. Nu 12''). ii. through faith. 4.' though He taught His disciples Athanasius cites the ordinary usage of to do so. Paul applies the metaphor of adoption to Christians. Paul of the figure of adoption in the case of Jews and Christians leads us by a — ' — natural consequence to the doctrine that our Lord is the Son of God by nature. He redeemed. is described as 'adoption.)• It was not till the fullness (rb irX-ffpwfia for the word see Robinson. § 5). and he shall be my son .' The promise of Rev 21'' to ' him that overcometh ' equally im* plies adoption. the promises. where we are said to be all sons of God.' Romans in Ro 4^^ {ib. So in 1 Jn 3\ it is a mark of the love bestowed upon us by the Father that we should be called children of God [the name ' the matter under discussion.v. -p. A ' — which see Ex 4-^ (' Israel. But. though addressing those who were not by any means all Jewish Christians. sent in the likeness of sinful flesh. through Him (Jn 3'^"'^ 1 Jn 4^). Avian. Abba. and since no one could be a son 141 32«. ' as with sons. the phrase used is toi>s virb vbfiov.' (so perhaps in 1 Co 9^"). . He yet uniformly (see next section) diti'erentiates His own Sonship from that 'brings many and that God deals with us ' of all others. It is the redemption {aTroXvTpuicris) of our body. and afterwards. c. Tlie adoption. Paul's metaphor of adoption. § 5]. Christ is the Only-begotten Son of God. — ' .' my God and your God.. A Son by nature implied by the metaphor. On this passage Athanasius remarks (Orat. 339. v. . being Gentiles. iv. also Mk 8^^] as a proof that He is Son. had come directly into the Church. pp. art. by reason of whom the rest are ' My ' ' made sons' (Orat. c. l03l^ Jer 3P. notes 52. and so (but less explicitly) do the sayings in He 2"* 12* that Jesus : ' ' except through our Lord [cf. In the same context the Apostle speaks of Jesus as God's 'own Son' {rbv eavroO vldv). inasmuch as. And. Sonship in ' sons unto glory' (see below. 255) of tlie time came that God sent forth His Son that we might receive adoption (Gal 4^'-). shadow of it existed in the relation of Israel to God. {a) Somewhat emphatically he applies it to the Jews in Ro 9*. in Christ Jesus. but "given" by God to him. the service [of the Temple]. Paul.. ."). i. and in Rev 2-'' 3^ cf. but many of whom. 1 P 1'yfQ are begotten again unto a living hope by 'the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ' by means of the resurrection of Jesus (see below. who was sent into the world that we might be saved. Kpa^ov Gal 4* with Kpd^o/xev Ro 8^5). for to the art. but if he shall be manifested. but that he uses a metaphor dependent on Roman law when writing ' ' NT tion. c. in Jn 20^'' makes a clear distinction between His own ' ' ' We sonship (by nature) and our sonship (by adoption. § 2). and (the Apostle adds) 'such we are. Jesus did not receive it.— Although We 5.' of whom is Christ concerning the flesh a passage showing the intense Jewish feeling of St. . Dt Mai Ps 685 bestowed by a definite act— KX-qduifiev. . Arian.^^ tov Idiov vlov). our Lord's teaching implies adoption. 23. St. though actually they were only slaves (v. indeed. therefore pre-existent (Ro 8* cf. pp.^). the fathers. Adoption is spoken of in Ro 8-^ as something in the future. 42. aorist] . The same . since before the Incarnation the Jews were sons [by adoption]. (c) Just as the adoption of Jews was inferior to that of Christians. 39. not a natural. even if expressed diUerently. Arian. Paul. by a simulated sale. therefore He was a Son before He became incarnate (Orat. on receiving the grace of the Spirit. Gal 3-^.). we sliall be like him the sonship will then be {)erfected. . because He was God's own Son. He is emphatically a Son over [God's] house' (He 3" St. my son. 3. of God as the Father of Jesus in the very verse in which he speaks of our being begotten again by Him (1 P P. Christians received the spirit of adoption. In its highest sense adoption could not be received under the Law.. The context in these passages shows that the Spirit leads us to the Father by making us realize our sonship . The use by St.' This passage is closely parallel to Gal 3^*'.' Lightfoot (on Gal 4') observes that before Christ's coming men were potentially sons. Athanasius argues that. thing follows from the language of those NT writers who use phrases equivalent to those of St. it can be completely attained only at the general resurrection. our Lord in speaking of Father [it is so very frequently in all the Gospels. 2^°. 21 f.). and we are still waiting for it. § 5). ii. my kinsmen according to the tiesh. it is to Greek custom rather than to the Roman law of adoption in its original and primitive form that the Apostle refers in dealing with Gal S"^-.

J. both Clement Alex.W. Wood. the term 'Adria 'was still further extended to signify the whole expanse between Crete and Sicily. and " Adriatic " to the interior sea up to the farthest end' (VII. Thes. A. 14. W. with a harbour and roadstead (xiii.' passage in which the tenses 'describe neither a gradual process nor a reception at some interval after believing. Swete.vTT7]v6s 27^] is found WH only was the Jews (to borrow Lightfoot's phrase). But it can be adequately explained from that Hebrew psychology which is the real basis of the Pauline and Petrine ideas of personality. the Ionian Gulf forms part of what we now call "Adrias"' (II.. ii. opposite the island of Lesbos. Hist.^. 15) that this contrast is a product of Hellenistic dualism. But in another sense St. G. Oxford. 342). . p. and the v. on the Galatians. Paul*. The aorists can ' In the case of the potential This flourishing seaport of Mysia situated at the head of the Adramyttian Gulf. 960). 1895. art. note 57. (' Wheeler Robinson. Paul and St. Paul speaks of it as a definite act at some definite Ye received (iXd^ere aorist. moment of our lives not perfect) the spirit of adoption (Ro 8^^). vii.).. on Galatians (1st ed. The heart (or. — A5pa/j. § xxxi. which is followed by St. 'Adoption'. and incorruptible. he tells us that it is . Voyage and Shipwreck of St. ix. pp. is 5 miles from the coast. On the Creed (ed. M. 1903). MACLEAN. in Pauline terminology. p. 1880. 'When you were first baptized.' Thus Payne Smith (Thesaur. ix. The modern town of Edremid. Luke sailed from Ciesarea by Sidon and under the lee (to the east) of Cyprus to Myra in Lycia. by Holtzmann. p. the analogue of baptism. 1846. like their Lord. ' — J. . in tion.' the meek and quiet spirit which is precious in God's sight. Syr. St.d. Strabo. according to Hebrew thought. Ida. on Romans (1st ed. compare Ac 10. See further on this point the article ' ' . ADEIA Gal. He is Son by nature who one with the Father [qui hoc est quod Pater). Pearson. Hair). even when not matter of pre2^-'^''. 1895). of personal attire has been no infrequent accompaniment of moral and religious earnestness. and the head of a conventus juridiciis. 8). scription. In one sense it was an act of God in eternity we were foreordained unto adoption (Eph 1^). [4'] 43 § 30. south of the Strait of Otranto. Box. At the end of the 2nd cent. mean nothing 1909. and with a virtuous and honourable life (ii. many subsequent edd. 2. it is the expression of the covenant between God and His people. pt. in ERE. and may be a further example of that dependence of 1 Peter on Pauline writings which is now generally recognized Moffatt. Lightfoot. : ' : ' : mission into the Christian : fold. in his And so Sanday . B. ii. and useof ornaments. while an inland highway linked it with Pergamos. Ramsay. in popular usage.. 9). Com. The adornment which is praised is that of 'the hidden man of the heart. LNT'^. Two passages of the (1 Ti 1 P 3^. we can understand how adoption came in later times to be an equivalent term for 'baptism. H.Headlam paraphrase baptism. thus.*) warn Christian women against excessive display in dress.' And in the later Christian writers vlodeaLa became a synonym for baptism adoption of Its name and origin were probably Phcenician. 1899. H.RV 'Did ye receive (Ad/3ere) the Holy Ghost when ye believed (mcxTevffavTes)^.' etc. after which the Gulf was also called the ' Idsean. that St. in loc.. p. 381 f.) Sanday-Headlam. Ro T\ Eph 3>6). 11 f. i. M. that ordained by Him] is of water and fire unto adoption. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen. a. Smith. 'Adoption (Semitic)'. near the mouths of the Padus. Com. Finally. The name was derived from the important Tuscan town of Atria. vi. says The mouth (strait) is common but this difi'erence is to be observed.e. [Eng. s. col. St. art. and contrast it with the superior adornment of the Christian virtues. JaMES StRAHAN. 62 fT.. Lehrbuch der Theol.]) and Tertuilian (de CuHu Feminarum) found it necessary to protest in much detail against the luxurious attire. 1879-1901. Com. he distinguishes the Gulf of Adria from the Sea of Adria . indicates a wider extension of the meaning by adding that ' the name " Adrias " is now applied to the whole sea. G. Orationes contra Arianos. cf. ' ' [WH — RV ' ' ' ' ' : ' . Rising to importance under the Attalids. p. Candlish. (PcbcI. as he says elsewhere. who wrote about the middle of the 2nd cent. It has often been maintained (e. ' The reference to the subject in P 3*. as the apparelled members are the outer personality.'* thus communication of the Holy Spirit sealed your ad[dignitate) oi is — . ' ' ' ' It was in a ship of Adramyttium larger than a mere coasting vessel probably making for her own port. ib. ' Adoption (Greek) and 'Adoption (Roman)*. J. Armitage Robinson. J. while the Ionian Sea came to mean the outer basin. 20.— Conybeare-Howson. 49. ii. in art. HDB. Athanasius. that to both the name " Ionian" is applied to the first part of the gulf only. . The better ADORNING. 316. 92) confined to the northern part of the gulf now called the Adriatic. district of the Roman province of Asia. that we may clearly understand the only-begotten (unicum) Son of God. 2564) quotes a Syriac phrase the baj>tism of John was of to the efl'ect that water unto repentance. J. 204. Strabo. — ADRAMYTTIDM the adjective ' Mpaiiimov [Ac in the NT . ( NT ' ' H. passim (the general subject of this magnificent work is the Sonship of Christ) . art. psychological interest. . art. are adorned with good works (1 Clem. 250 W. S. Adoption and baptism. Ep.' the [sea of] Adria'). on . Spirit in NT. in the shelter of the southern side of Mt. sion consider at what period of our lives we are adopted by God as His sons. Luke (Ac 27^). tr. however. SDB. ii. the mind [Ro 7-^]) is the inner personality. prevalent even amongst Christians of their day. 7).* has some This is confirmed by Ptolemy. Literature. else. v.' In later times the name Adria was applied to the whole basin between Italy and Illyria. ' ' — — (Suicer. 'With the accuracy of a geographer. 10 f. St. Ben. but Strabo describes it as ' a city founded by a colony of Athenians.' 1865. Ephesians (1st ed. Woodhouse. 1. Burton. J. Com. it became the metropolis of the N. 'AdopSee also J. iii.). artt. but a definite gift at a definite moment' (Rackhani.t. is frequently named in the intervening The righteous. Ignatius contrasts the adornment of obedience to Christ with that of a festal procession to some heathen shrine (Eph. Yet in neither case is the adoption fully realized till the future (above. This points to the adoption being given on the admission of the person to the Christian body." For we are sons of God by His lovingkindness and the favour His mercy. Paul. the Adrias. London. LiTERATORE. but the baptism of our Lord [i.' 'A5panvvT7iv6i).'' We may in conclu6. in enumerating the boundaries of Italy. Both are necessary. 330). fashion of the hair (see the art.. Holy We may Man. § 3 (c)). v.. which inherits the name and much of the prosperity of Adramyttium. In view of what has been said. 51). where they joined a corn-sliip of Alexandria bound for Italy (Ac 27^"''). and therefore must be ascribed to the moment of entering into the covenant at circumcision. Oxford. 20). and was originally (Herod. to make the unity of the whole man. This use of man in the sense of personality suggests the well-known Pauline contrast between the inner and the outer man (2 Co 4i« cf. 127. W. 18lj4).g. etc. ii. the lower part of which was known as the Ionian Sea. xxxiii. — Simplicity NT adornment literature. Through it passed the coast-road which connected Ephesus with Troy and the Hellespont. 1877. 1 ADRIA (6 'ASpla^ 'Adplas]. Ramsay. Paul 'speaks of adoption. in the beginning of our era.' so that. ad ed..ADORNLN-G As Augustine says (Exp.. Com.

2). and giving us a foretaste uf his unbridled activity at his future coming.' world. p. the word occurs with great frequency (26 times). i. by duplicating and reduplicating the original word.ibsolutely of Satan.Messina as communicating with the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian Sea (v. On a visit of St. d7r' aiuivos. 6 i^ ivavrias. aluv — ' — J. the j^hrases express what we mean Avhen. in accordance with the root idea of aiuv. i. but slowly carried forward in one direction. The person so called was a dweller in Lydda or Lod. 54. is employed by St. and liev.' for ever. and of the Straits of . that the Peloponnesus is bounded on the west and south by the Adriatic Sea (16). as "jn.44 ADULTERY JE(JN bounded on one side bj' the shores of the Gulf of Adria. 1 Co S'^). iK roO aiQvos. alQpes. The common classical use of alwv for ' lifetime' is not found in the but there are instances . An interesting parallel to St. for probably she had storm sails set. v. and used of an earthly adversary in Mt 5^. . The plural alCives expresses the time-idea as consisting of or embracing many ages ajons. we say from of old or ' from the most ancient time. Maclean. and that he and some companions.wi' iv ti} 'ASpLg. Epli 3'-'. but the son abideth 21'«. In these instances. 3). V.f 1 Co 16". whose parousia is according to tlie working of Satan (v. M. Paul suffered shipwreck on the Illyrian or the Sicilian Melita. is iSION aiu)v. Paul's experience is found in the life of Josephus. In Rev. passim) indicates the eftbrt of Ciiristian faith to give expression to its larger conception of the ages as extending to the limits of human thought. Peter to tVe place. 2. His ship was driven through The usage current is in the centuries similarly reflected £NEAS (AiVeas). and under all uses of the word that concept remains in a more or less dehnite degree. . Jn 13*. 3). as a proper name. Following these. 334. ' The servant abideth not in the is ' ' . 25. In Col 2'* the word virevavrlos is used of an inanimate object: 'the bond which was contrary to us.' 'ages'). d^ij? Gn 2\^'^ . -who speaks of Alpheus flowing under Adria from Greece to Ortygia in Syracuse (viii. . apostates from Christ. i. while avridiKos has the article (see Devil and ' . or he may be the human enemy as prompted by Satan. the phriise indicates futurity or continuance as long as the age lasts to which the matter referred to belongs. It expresses the idea of long or indefinite past time. aiei (=alFo}v). and flnds as other derivatives the Latin cevinn and the English 'aye. 3.' 'course. 'age. Paul*. saving themselves by swimming. and the Roman Citizen. Tlie plirase eh rhv alQva or tovs alQvas is frequently found in the NT as a time-concept for a period or 'age' of indefinite futurity. the ages to come EpIi 2''.e. The use of the intensive form eJs tovs alJivas tQv aicbvoiv (Gal P. Ec3". Lk 125S 183— all these witii a legal reference. dViv?. ADVERSARY. 114). probably with reference to Is 26'S where the has the same word.— See : James Strahan. to breathe. ADVOCATE.v. Ph r^8 in 1 Ti 5" Chrysostom takes tlie adversary to be Satan. In every case it is used in the plural.. He 13-'. pi'. Nothing further is known of the man. and that Crete is bounded on the west bv the Adriatic Sea (17)' (Smith. The cure seems to have had a very remarkable influence in the district. ADVENT. tlie . p. it is only once used in the iilural (Lk P^). and. the reviler (cf. Vand. ' ' ' ' ' ' HE ' A LXX ' contrary part. Is 64^. Smith. Probably he became a Ciiristian at the date of his cure. Ac 3'-'' 15'* cf. 5) uses this expression . St.") . ' ' NT house for (also Satan). K Gn 6'^ . In 2 Th 2-» ' he that opjioseth (6 avTiKtlfxevos) is Anticlirist (q. (Smith. St. W.— See Marriage. Jn 9-*^).^i'wi' ij/j. 14) makes the islands of Gaulos and Melita (Gozo and Malta) tlie boundary between the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian Sea. Paul the Traveller ADULTERY. 'since the world began' (EV . op. tirst and second by Pausanias. it is noteworthy that in the Gospels and Acts. except in two places. Ramsay. 1. Luke made a landsman's mistake). The larger vision gave the larger meaning. periods of vast extent from all ages' (RV. 163 f. ). Tlie idea of one age succeeding another as ' ' ' ' ' ' — ( — ' ' ' ' ' — ' .' A. iirevavTios is used in He 10^^ of the advei-saries of God. 1880. Gn 6*. 1) and that Sicily is bounded on the east by the Sea of Adria (4). where the phrase eZs t6v ai(I>va seems to have that significance . (aliLv. In tlie rest of the NT the use of the plural predominates (54 out of 86 instances). in the intensive formula els revs alQvas twv aicbvcov a form which is never found in the Gospels or Acts. The instances 120 in critical editions. cit. and was on the starboard tack. Voyage and Shipwreck oj St. where it occurs 34 times. a town on tiie plain of Sharon about ten miles south of Joppa.). J. propei'ly an adversary in a lawsuit. three Greek words in the NT 1. Eph 3"). It is of frequent occurrence in the ' number 125 in TK.' 2. used in Lk 13" of our Lord's Jewish opponents. In the Fourth Gospel the phrase is sometimes employed as a synonym for eternal life (Jn 6^'* '*). Lk 1™. avTiKciftevos. and in 1 P 5^ of the enemy. ^'Eneas. He further informs us that Italy is bounded on the south by the Adriatic Sea (14).' 3. c'jiyc.' Strictly speaking. on Meleda or Malta (see Melita). Literature. avrCSiKos. 16-2 ff. — W. Some of these ages are regarded as having come to an end but now once in the end of the world (' at the end of the ages' RV) hath he appeared to put away sin' (He 9-*). /or life. and may be translated 'for ever. 1895. perhaps not driven to and fro in the sea of Adria (RV) (unless St.' Satan in this last l>assage 8idi3o\os is anarthrous. etc. similar phrase in Tit 2^ is he that is of in all working througii them. which was the only course by which she could avoid falling into the Syrtis ' modern opinion connects it with del. who relates that his ship foundered in the midst of the vSame sea (/card fxecrov rbv 'Adpiau). Parousia. BoYD.g. . nViyri.. 4. Procopius (Bel. were picked up by a vessel sailing from Gyrene to Puteoli ( Vit.' Jn 8^' cases with the suggestion that the devil is Such are the adversaries . The meaning of the term 'Adria' was the debatable point of the once famous controversy as to whether St.' but ' Adria' (5ia(pepo/j. The name occurs only once in the NT (Ac 9^^-^). causing many of the dwellers in Sharon and Lydda to accept Christianity. The Voyage and Shipioreck of Paul-i. e. and NT. and it is interesting to note tliat the letter of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eiiseb. and in 21'^ of all adversaries of the disciples. is lost. but it cannot be said that the fundamental idea of 'age.' as an epoch or dispensation with an end.). 1 ' u)\]i in various forms. or of Antichrist. speaking generally and indefinitely of time past.' It expresses a time-concept. who had for eigiit years been conhned to bed as a paralytic. was healed by the Apostle. Ac 27^). . F.i^). to which many of the Christians had fled after the persecution which dispersed the apostles and the church of Jerusalem.— This renders variously translated as age. working ihrougli the persecutors.' 'eternal. It is used of an enemy of God in 1 S 2'" (LXX). ' — There some uncertainty Some as to the derivation of the word relate it with dvp-i-.' In the LXX aluv is used to translate a)\v ^y.— See Paraclete. and on the south by the shores of the Adria (iii. probably Mt life.' an opponent. Paul to denote those who oppose the Christian religion.

. .e. 251 f.). 43). John Reid. Lk IS'"). . The general translation in and is 'world. . — . but Koafxo^ is employed instead e. 1879. nVii. Taking the Apostle's girdle. There is undoubtedly at times a close similarity of connotation between aitliv and Kdcrfios as indicating a moral order. ExpT. over all the Roman Empire. (Mt 12^2." is at all events established by the end of the first Christian century.) as 6 aio:v 6 ivecTTihs. Com. Dalman says that ' in pre-Christian products of Jewish literature there is as yet no trace of these ideas to be found' {The Words of Jesus.). future 'age' there is 'eternal life' (Mk lO^". The future age is described as 6 aluv fj. and may become It is described the only objects of hope and desire. v. That St. xv.v. Com.. 48 f.See Suffering. But this meaning of the word belongs to a time when the Gnostic ideas and terminology w'ere more fully developed than in the first century of the Christian era. 567 cf. Mk 4"*). . Paul on his return from his third missionary journey." being the product of the schools of the scribes. ' . s. Lk IQ\ Ro 122. a Avord of uncertain derivabearer of this name is mentioned on two separate occasions in the Acts (il-"-™ 21"*-^M and also by Eusebius {HE ii. London. Judaistic Christianity. Clacis Xovi Testamenti.' as is done by Schiirer {GJV* i. ii. ERE. . 'World'. i Co 1-". and ^^ 24^ its eiid is emphatically affirmed (Mt 13''>28-"). Expositor. 3). do. . X. 1894. Tac. 151). Again in A.>x. 'St. 6. 217 J.) as 6 vvv aiwv (1 Ti 6'''.os] ? 1 Co 1'-"). . where he predicted that a great famine (q-. 'the present world' (Gal V). Swete. London. . art. ( instance of aiuv as referring to the actual world. Dalman apparently doubts whether Jesus used the term Himself. pp. : ' ' : ' ' . Westcott. 1895. Gn 2133).' He makes the reservation that for that period the expressions characterised the language of the learned rather than that of the people' [ib. The immediate efi'ect of this prediction was to call forth the liberality of the Christians of Antioch and lead them to send help to the poor Inethren of Judrea (Ac IP^). He 6^). (2 Co 4''). ' ' ' ( AV ' ' Literature. 135). We have no term to express it exactly. It is unfortunate that there is no word in English which exactly expresses this meaning. This world or age as a moral order includes the current epoch of the world's life. pp. at a date before the days of Jesus Christ. vii. etc. ). Gospel according to St. J. It is described as 6 aiiliv this world ouTos. nomanso (ICC. 'the world' (Mt 13--.. not form some idea. p. .' we have the striking conception of the 'ages' as 'including all that is manifested in and through them' (Westcott. There is also attached to the word the significance of age as indicating a period or dispensation of a definite character the present order of world-life viewed as a whole and as possessing certain moral characteristics.' ald}v)t Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world (k6(fij. etc. Though Syria and the East may have sufi'ered most on this occasion. Last Things. It is difficult to believe that a nation which expected so much from the advent of the Messiah did St. on Colossians and Philemon^. 44 at Antioch. Corn. Marshall. Kendall. 1877.D. 3.) would take place 'over all the world. The writer of the Acts tells us that this famine took place in the reign of Claudius. p. of the vast changes which would be produced when He did come. its its sons (Lk 16*). F. where he met St. and Was Christ born at Bethlehem?. and look upon the age which was so marked as one to be contrasted with the age in which they were living. For if they were able to know so much that they could aim at the world [ffToxdaaadai rbv aidiva]. 146). of John aldif is ' ' ' — ' ' AV RV KVm never used in this sense. (1 Ti 1" whom also he made the worlds' (ages). in locis F. fashion (Ro and cares be rich in it (1 Ti 6^^). B. and it is hypercritical to accuse the author of the Acts of ' for speaking of a unhistorical generalization famine over all the world. ' ' ' ' ' AOABUS —The '><'• ' ' . We cannot follow Dalman when he says It is not unlikely that in the time of Jesus the idea of "the future age. 625 J. . Geikie. It is an evil age (Gal V). . and we find him in A.ff. p. Li/e and Words of Christ. also 15^" etc. but our plirase the spirit of the age' comes very near to what is required. The Words of Jesus. . ' the world to come' (Mt 12^-. 1913. . 133. There is much uncertainty as to the time when this contrast first arose.Eons and Ages of the World'. A.. 65.. righteously. 1902). was not yet familiar to those He addressed (ib. neither can they die any more' (Lk 20^''-)It has 'powers' that may be tasted' in the present age (He 6^). The contrast is regarded as that which is de- (Mt 13"). Those who are counted worthy of it neither marry nor are given in marriage. Paul. G. Sanday-Headlam. Paul recognized a distinction between them is evident from the phrase Kara rbv aiCjva tov and Kbcrjxov ToiTov. 'the world to come' (]Mk 10^". Men may ' ' ' . 7. in. and in the symbolic manner of the ancient Hebrew prophets predicted that so the Jews would bind the owner of the girdle and hand him over to the Gentiles (Ac 211"'"). if not altogether. Agar Beet. xviii. In Wis 13^ there is a curious ' ' AGAEUS •iS . the whole Enii)ire could not fail to be more or less afi'ected. 1902. The present 'age' has its God ' : . p. 3rd ser. There is not the faintest sign that such words as aidiv have any reference [in the NT] to what we call Gnostic terms (p.v. 162 ff. but says ' The currency of the expressions " this age.. It is enough to quote the opinion of Hort in his Judaistic Christianity. Dalman. 'this age' and 'the age that is to come.Mark. 73 ff.4XXuiv. Ann. pp. AFFLICTION. and Josephus testifies to the severity of the famine in Palestine and refers to measures adopted for its relief (Ant." " the future age. T. The prophecy failed to move tion). Among the Gnostics (see Gnosticism) the iEons were emanations from the Divine. 1902. 'If any man love the world' (1 Jn 2'' etc. inloc. Edinburgh. simply as alibv. (1 Co2'*-*). Dion Cass. 59 we hear of Agabus at Csesarea. ' ' ' . p.^o:s under ordered rule is provided for in the suggestive the king of the ages') title 'the king eternal' (EV j^ He P through cf. . Plainly alibv describes some quality of tlie KdcrpLov. . and He IP 'the worlds (ages) were made by the word of God. [1S9S-99] 323 Lightfoot. But more frequently it is referred to as in contrast to a coming age. Roman historians speak of wide-spread and repeated famines in this reign (Sueton. 147ff. 2). which is translated both in in RV according to the course of this world (Eph 2-).. fJDB. 148). Paul from his resolve.' i. tr. XX. Now is the judgment of this world now shall the prince of this world be cast out (Jn 12".. Eng. Claudius. do. Hort. ' scribed in JeAvish writings as njr^ D^iy and Kin dVij. how did tbey not sooner find out the Lord thereof?') 5.). that world' (Lk 20^5). p. and godly In the in it (Tit 2^% and it has an end (Mt 13^"). Cambridge and London. 6 epxb/J-evos. xii.) and as 6 aiwv iKelvos. etc.D. yet it is possible to live soberly. 132 f. It is an epoch in which the visil)le and the transitory have vast power over the souls of men. . He is described as a prophet who resided in Jerusalem. Ix. p. . 133. artt. . [ISSS] 2ti(>-27S WUke-Grimm. its rulers its and its wisdom 12^). pp. They are almost. Ramsay.. also p.' These are identified with the age before and after the coming of the Messiah. . In the Gospel and Epp. 70 f. 1898. on the Epistle to the [lebrews. ascertaining whether There is no means of Agabus was a prophet in the . and love it (2 Ti 4'"). 5. C. he bound his OAvn hands and feet. {'Aya^os. synonymous in Where is the disputer of this world ('age. [1901] 543.' though 'age' appears always in and in the text at He 6^. 146 H.

Reynolds.^). [1906] 441 fi" ). Boyd.' (3) rfKeios. Age '). 1st sen. Younger widows would receive help according to their need. 109. AGRIPPA. note). Ellicott. on Col. The rule about enrolment only when the threescore years had been reached was evidently intended to restrict the number of those who were entitled to receive regular help. full-grown ' or perfect. Love and authority are commingled in his mission. of course. r^Xeios) man.sense a preacher or forth-teller of the or whether he was merely a successful soothsayer. 6) about itinerant widows who were so ready to receive that they were not so much x'7pa' as TTTJpai. Notes on the Tr. p. tyranny of evil). On the whole.20 2« 3'» to denote the heavenly or spiritual sphere. art. prisoner of Jesus Christ' is practically repeated in Eph 6^". it is best to regard the instruction as a direction about widows who were entirely dependent on the charity of the Church. regarded the air as a region between earth — and the higher heavens. of the NT. Light from the Ancient East. in loc. R. The dispensing of charity to widows was a great and grave problem in the early Church. It is impossible to etermine if the widows who were enrolled Mere bound to give some service in return for tiie assistance which they received.' i.) that the reference is to an order of deaconesses a supposition that becomes an argument for a late and unPauline date for the Epistle.— See Herod. . Ambassador.' except has under heaven. a struggle of Satan to regain his lost place. —The W. must have been the equal. The phrase is co-ordinate with the words 'a perfect (or fullgrown. See J. iii.' which precede it in the text. Eadie..' (Deissmann. the early fitness for ' : ' The question the Christian ambassador that he beseeches those he addresses. ' ' RV ' ' ' John Reid. Others think that the reference is to an order of widows who had duties which somewhat resembled those of the presbyters (Huther. F. or nearly the equal. Nestle calls attention to ' the punning observation in the Didasealia ( = Const. Both phrases describe the ultimate height of spiritual development which the Church as the body of Christ is to reach. Specially." In l_Ti 51 and 1 P 5' 'elders' (Trpeff^vrepoi) has the primitive signification of men of advanced age. It was also considered in relation to the dispensing of the charity of the Church.^ON). Encyc. 7th ser. The likelihood of 'ambassador' being the right translation is strengthened by the fact that here as elsewhere (2 Co 5-». Paul is beseeching Philemon 'for love's sake' (v.' The question naturally arises. Incarnation called forth a countermanifestation of diabolic power on earth. The apostles. Ellicott. 1879. De Wette believes that probably there were women who vowed themselves to perpetual widowhood. It is difficult to see what good end could be served by the second of his recorded Tradition makes him one of the predictions. I Co 2**. It includes also the ideas of maturity or fitness. Because of this it is supposed by some (Schleiermacher. or a measure of life. inhabited by heavenlies' spirits. In Eph 4'* 'the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ' (EV) is somewhat difficult to interpret. 171 loc. and Philemon^. ii. art. But the conception is not unlike that of St. but in general it was fixed at thirty (see Cathol. The general line of interpretation is that the whole Church as the body of Christ is to grow into a fullgrown or perfect man. AIR. ' seventy and a martyr at Antioch. . NT RV ' ' ' ' ' ' ' RV AV ' date of the Epistle (see H. of St. Were only widows of advanced years eligible for assistance ? It is possible that younger widows might be in greater need of help. 'a generation. The age limit for an old age Sension is not a new idea. art. at least in the case of widows. 'Widows'). and fullgrown in the margin). a word which does not occur in the NT. Col 1'^ 'power of darkness. and performed certain functions in the Churcli but evidences of such an order belong to a later date in the Church's history. Paul as noted — ' ' above.' ' in 61* where it . of Meyer. . Com.' This can hardly refer to the first rebellion of Satan. (2) yevea. The latter phrase explains what the former implies. Eph 6-") St. also the following article. In Eph S^-^i riglitly puts ' generations for ages. or of oldness. In Rev 12'' the war between Michael and the dragon is in 'heaven.' (\) aiwv (see . iii. In later times the canonical age varied. [1880] 382-390..' ' 'ambassador'). who was old enough to hold some 'ministry' in the Church (Col 4'^). AGED. Com. like other Jews of their time. p. and 'perfect' in the margin (cf. but were not enrolled like the older widows as regular recipients of the Church's charity. in loc). In Eph 2^ the air is the abode of Satan (see below) . and especially if the Epistle belongs to an early date. 6 Expositor. 1899. In 1 Ti 5^ it is said Let none be enrolled as a widow under threescore years old. Lk 22^*.' and the standard or height of the perfect man is the stature of Christ in His fullness (see Comm. 'an am. There are several parallels to these passages in that class of literature which is thought to be a • siprniflcantly The Peshitta renders it * in heaven. Paul in age .' the appeal would have in it a note of authority. Paul uses a verbal and not a noun form to express his position as an ambassador.' Cf.' Taking the word as meaning 'ambassador. the word has its primary meaning of age { = equals in ' ' AGE. Lightfoot. The translation 'ambassador' is more fitting because Philemon. Field. whom John Reid.' loosely measured as extending from 30 to 33 years. assuming. ' general significance of age is a period of time.' and especially for full age as applied to human life. also in Eph P. the unseen universe* is where the wrestling of the Christian against the spiritual hosts of wickedness takes place. so after the Ascension the attack is supposed to be carried into heaven' (Swete. The two forms may have been confused in transcription or in use. and there would be little or no ground for an appeal based on considerations of age. (4) r]XtKla is the most exact Greek term for ' age. of age was of importance as regards holding office in the Church (see NoviCE). and is apparently in this case equivalent to 'this darkness' (cf. In Gal P^ where the compound awriXiKidsTas is used. * where the has perfect in the text. in Eph 6^^ ' the (rot iirovpavia) —a vague phrase used . It is the peculiarity of RVm common ' . The pun may be rendered in English as not so much " widows "as " wallets. in Expos. and of stature. ' ' ' age'). and cf. It is not a relevant objection to say that St. Apost. higher NT — Word .e. B. It is also to be noticed that the phrase ' ambassador and . In strictness the translation 'ambassador' requires vpeapevr-qs. Several Greek words are employed in for 'age. HDB. Alford). ended by his final expul' As the sion. —In Philem * the writer speaks of himself as llavXos irpeff^&rris (AV and RV Paul the aged.bassador in bonds. but rather the fighting is in the heavens. as father of Archippus. The probability is that they were not. — especially evil spirits. In He 5" for to them that are of full age the substitutes ' fullgrown in the text. etc. as in 2 Co 5'^' ^**. as when a person has attained to full development of growth. . it expresses the idea of advancement in life. nor yet can we with Bede interpret heaven as the Church .

and Christian Egypt. though not with St. for we find Atlianasius {de Incarn. He may have been one of the craftsmen. It is probable. J. ' . 1. KnowUng-. Paul's words a reference which seems to indicate a bitter personal hostility between the two men. Alexander the coppersmith. to which the Gospel of Mark was addressed. XVII. may regard the allosion as an interesting instance of the sons being blessed for the father's sake. Ramsay. L. city in the Empire. Relation of St.rjTTjpiov. and as many as were of the kindred of the high priest' (Ac 4«).^* (-svith or without v. The ideas seem to have had much currency among Christians. art. and that the former is more in accordance with the facts. who did St. 29). however..' The prince of the power of the air (Eph 2^) is Satan.^*. Meyer holds that Alexander was a JeAvish Christian who was put forward maliciously by the Jews in the hope that he might be sacrificed (cf. here say powers of the air. Dbmon. A. as well as controversial disputes on matters of doctrine which might rather connect him with 4. Mark identifies the father by a reference to the sons. The omission of rts.AKELDAMA Christian rehandling of Jewish apocalyptic writ- ALEXAisDRIA A 47 In the Testaments of the XII. but Alexander was a very common name.' 1900. . it became successively the capital of Hellenic. ALEXANDER We ALEXANDRIA ('AXefd. a certain. Ac acheldemach) transliterates n (which is only rarely so found). in See.v. On the other hand.' where were an ascent Sammael and his powers. Alex. (1) His trade was that of a smith (see Coppersmith).— (kKeXSan&x said to be equivalent to xwpi'oi' a'i/xaros WH. C. 4. 1895. and clear the air and prepare the way for us up into heaven. Roman. and about 15 miles in ' . Holtzraann artt. This Alexander has been identified with both 3 and 4. title. 'Acts. 279 . —See art. xxvi. J. Paul. Paul much evil and whom the Apostle desires to be rewarded according to his works (2 Ti 4'*"^*). but whom the mob refused to hear. but the (for this meaning of i^ovaia see Lightfoot's note on Col V^). Comm. It is possible that 3. RUFUS). are able to gather certain facts regarding him which would seem to connect him with 3. W. Matthew's explanation. 'W. we are told that Alexander greatly withstood St. present form probably date from the latter part of the 1st or the beginning of the 2nd cent.— R. M. the associate of Hymenaeus.' . Paul or his teaching. but subsequently any other metal. . and there was a great fight (vii.' 'there bearing rule over his fellow-spirits 'while the Lord came to cast down the devil.D. BOYD.' before his name has been regarded as an indication that Alexander was a well-known man in Ephesus at the time. AKELDAMA Akeldama in is 'AKeXSafid TR). (2) The statement regarding him was addressed to Timothy. Strabo. apostate angels are suspended in the second heaven awaiting the Last Judgment (§ 7 see Thackeray. therefore. and the data are insuflicient to allow of any certain identification. of Meyer. who was settled in Ephesus. EGT.v. Jewish Thought.— This name is found in the in five diflerent connexions. not hpn and the final X (which is retained also in the best Vulg. Christian convert and teacher.v. but a comment or gloss either by the author of the book (St. p.' which accords better with St. Ro 16^* and art. F. '^Q'^^ = Koifj. further. while it is probable that the whole section vv. but the only thing in common is the name. at the period subsequent to the death of Christ. ' ' ' ' LiTERATURB. nearly a mile wide. Paul to Contemp.) there is described into the firmament. NT HDB and ££i. p.' though en the whole it is unlikely that a Jew would have any connexion with the production of the symbols of idolatry. Luke) himself or even by some later editor or transcriber. Satan is the arch-tyrant whose abode is in the air. Paul. 25) speaking of the devil having fallen from heaven and wandering about 'our lower atmosphere. ' ' In the Ascension of Isaiah (q. on the south side of the Valley of Hinnom. Peter's speech. MACLEAN. which might associate him with the craftsmen of Ephesus. that this indicates that Alexander belonged to the high-priestly class . 3). It has. St. about 14 miles from the Canopic mouth of the Nile. It would certainly seem as if the explanation of the title 'field of blood' given in Mt 27* is radically diflerent from that suggested in Ac V^. Com. Luke's. and possibly designates as many diflerent individuals. originally brass. text. These works in their London. Caiaphas. a worker in metal. at Ephesus (Ac 19^^). 176 f.)vfQ read of the aerial spirit Beliar (Benj. though not quite certain. been suggested as possible that the second part of the word represents Aram.)..) and others apostatized from the faith. 4.. leading member of the Jewish community 3. and it is impossible to identify him with Alexander the alabarch of Alexandria and brother of PhUo. {'k\^avSpo%. i.—The city of Alexandria almost realized Alexander the Great's dream of ' a city surpassing anything previously existing' (Plutarch. After the healing of tlie impotent man we are told that Alexander Avas present at a meeting of the Jewish authorities along witli Annas. Those who hold the Epistles to Timothy to be non-Pauline 19^ as the basis of the regard the statement in Ac references in the Epistles. 5. and 5 may be the same person. Christ descends from the lowest heaven to the firmament where was continual warfare. slight variations in the MSS of Ac 19^^ and diflerent views have been taken with regard to Alexander and the intention of the Jews. 'helper of men'). though still an incorrect translation of the Aram. and built on a neck of land two miles wide interposed between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis (Mariut). That he had authority over the evil spirits whose abode is in the air was the general Jewish St. The site of Akeldama is the modern Hakk edDiimm. however. 'cemetery. ' ' ' A ' ' A We — — LiTERATURF. who along Avith Hymenseus (q. 9) . does not. and next to Rome the most splendid About 4 miles long from E. Patriarchs ings.-") of the latter passage is not part of St. who was put forward by the Jews at the time of the Ephesian riot to clear themselves of any complicity with St. who has incorporated a less trustworthy tradition in the text. as St.).' air-power or air-tyranny i. s. while there is no indication in Acts that Alexander had any personal connexion with St. and was excommunicated by the Apostle Paul(lTili«-2«). Planned by Dinocrates under the king's supervision. 1900. except among the Sadducees. and to dypbs aifiaros in ISIt 27*: in that case the word represents Aram. and John. Feltoe. to W. evil spirits.v. ' the greatest mart in the world (/i^yurTov i/Miropiov ttjs olKovfuevijs. In all probability Alexander and his brother were well-knoAvn and honoured men in the Church of Rome (cf. (q. and takes the form of the angels of the air In the Slavonic Secrets of Enoch the (x. A. in HDB and DCG. Paul belief./5/)ia). 1'^. in loco). The son of Simon of Cyrene. Zeller. who bore the cross to Calvary (Mk 15^^). There are. leader of the priestly party in Jerusalem 2.e. 13). It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that we have here an instance of the occasional discrepancies and inaccuracies which have from an early period crept into the text of the NT. . and the brother of Rufus.

X Tlie legend of the composition of the Septuatfint. they yet dropped their sacred Hebrew language.' ' of the their capital not only the commercial but the intellectual centre of the world. 1) of more than half a million. ('AXe|a^5pei/s. Apollos was ' an Alexandrian by race. criticism. 32). The three regions into which it was divided the Begio Judceorum.. were conMuseum. of great political and g^eat scientific work (Mommsen. but the Museum. and. terminating in tlie four principal gates. which in many ways resembled a modern university. Eratosthenes in geography and her physicians were the most celebrated in the world. Naturalized in a foreign city and inevitably breathing its spirit. revising. the palaces of the Egyptian kings.. but ' Alexandrian. and commerce. cliilled rather than fostered original genius. and the muses rarely visited the . Religion. who gave them * Near the centre of the city. Large fleets. roused to indignation by the heresies of Stephen.. The migration of the Jews to Egypt. and India.). was the great ambition Ptolemys make • Its inner basin. and most of the ' Writings ' in the 1st. and RVm. Alexandria's most brilliant scholars. perhaps represented by the present mosque ^^ebi Daniel. Alexandria became the greatest of Jewish cities. like the Parisians "of the Institute" but . to —It population.C. There was a synagogue of Alexandrians in Jerusalem (6''). In the Roman period numerous and respectable labours of erudition. the most famous of the city's temples. from which places the most valuable freights are brought to Egypt. came into tlie hands of their Hellenic neighbours.' a community within a community. Rome. For literature her savants did a noble Avork in collecting. 77). to the number (according to Josephus. Culture. 71 f.. and developed not only a genius for trade but a passion for learning. and Egyptians while representatives of nearly all other nations commingled in its streets (Dio Chrys. so that a double amount of custom is collected. estimates (xvii. not writers. and determining the line of the other streets.' one canal joining the great river to the lake. 271 f. is probably based on facts. the Temple of Poseidon. it was quartered like so many of the Hellenic cities of the period by two colonnaded thoroughfares crossing each other at a great central square. and the Library. the Prophets (probably) in the 2nd. and was for centuries the foster-mother of an international Hellenic culture. p-eatly enlarged. The initiative seems to have been taken by Ptolemy Philadelphus. . but the contact . giving them equal civic rights with the Macedonians and Greeks rights wliich both Julius Caesar and Augustus confirmed to them. who welcomed them as colonists. uniquely adapted for maritime trade. fanatical defenders of the Mosaic faith. her literary school was imitative rather than creative her poets trusted more to learning than to imagination. forms the modern harbour. and drew to herself the commerce of three continents. they were yet profoundly influenced by their environment. L 7). proceeded from the circle of the savants "of the Museum.C. Orat. and nowhere else was the scattered race so wealthy. t On the eastern point of the island was the famous Lighthouse. Paul was wrecked at Melita (27"). and the other in New York. Glorying in the retention of their monotheistic faith.48 ALEXA^^DRIA ALEXANDRIA The proofs of her devotion to letters were seen in the Brucheium. In the beginning of our era they amounted to an eighth part of the 3. one of the Seven Wonders of the world. at a later date. K. ii. 'The Nile. or central quarter of the city. and from the favourable effects of the rise of the Nile. Voyage and Shipwreck of St. arising from imports on the one hand. Eibotos. Seneca gives a vivid picture of the arrival of the Alexandrian fleet of merchantmen at Puteoli The trade which came to Lake Mareotis {Ep. L 13). fills the lake also. Here are references to the three most striking aspects of the life of Alexandria her religion. and from exports on the other. contained in the Letter of Aristeux. The Law was translated in the 3rd cent. being full.' one of which is now in London. Brucheium. ' is worthy of remark : this results from the city being on two sides surrounded by water. ' ' . which began at the time of the downfall of Jerusalem (Jer 42^'*). ii. Paul-*.000. ).. 'The corn which was sent from thence to Italy was conveyed in ships of very ^reat size. t Near it were 'Cleopatra's Needles. 52) its free citizens at 300. the grafting of Judaism on Hellenism flowered into a system which had far more influence upon the permanent thought of the world. a. however. under their ethnarch or alabarch. which were The name AV The artificial atmosphere of literary which was the breath of life to grammarians. translated into Greek J for their own use. In one Alexandrian ship St. and Rhacvtis corresponded generally with the three classes of the population Jews. while Ecclesiastes and Daniel were not translated till the 2nd cent. We — — noisseurs. Diodorus Siculus. so cultured. and coasters of Alexandria traded with every part of the Mediterranean. in which were accumulated the books of Greece. 2. In this home of endowed research the exact sciences flourished . ' formed by a mole seven stadia in length the Heptastadium flung across to the island of Pharos.d. and leaves no marshy matter which is likely to cause exhalations (xvii. invert the order. Served on her northern side by the Great Harbour and the Haven of Happy Return * (eiivoaTos). and com in Egypt became as proverbial as it had been in the — — ' ' da^'s of the Piiaraohs. particularly philological and physical. Commerce. and it probably had at least an equal number of slaves. it was here very clearly apparent that the main matter was not pensions and rewards. ). Provinces^. — While — — — ' portant. ' . ' are dispatched as far as India and the extremities of Ethiopia. and in another he continued his voyage to Puteoli (28^1).. they appear to have been quite as large as the largest class of merchant ships of modern times (Smith. and it was an ordinary occurrence to find vessels bound for Italy in the harbours of Myra and Malta (Ac 27^ 28"). ' ' ' of the city does not occur in the NT. Their Scriptures. mighty in the scriptures' (18^). a learned man (dv7]p \&yios .' as noun and adj. and dialecticians. Under the Ptolemys Egypt largely took the place of the lands around the Euxine as a grain -producing country.! and on her southern side by the wharves of Mareotis. immured in academic cloisters. with lecture halls and State-paid professors. 1880. and another the lake to the sea. the Csesarium f in which divine honours were paid to the Roman emperors. increased rapidly under the Ptolemys. and are thence exported to other places. philologists. and classifying the records of the past. detached from the realities of life. or so influential.' says Strabo (xvii. in which the attempt was made to blend the creeds of Greece and Egypt. which contained not only the mausoleum* of Alexander. Xll. so that the whole city was laid out in parallelograms. culture. is found 4 times in Acts. from the Nile and the Red Sea was equally imcruisers The the eclecticism of Alexandrian religion was represented in its pagan aspect by the cultus of the Serapeum. A\e^av5piv6s). Ant. the Jews showed themselves at once pliant and stubborn.' says Strabo. p. Hipjiarchus in astronomy. Egypt.v." as they entitled themselves. Alexandria had on her roll of fame the names of Euclid in geometry. Alexandria really succeeded in winning for herself the crown of science. Alexandria entered into the heritage of both Tyre and Carthage. the centre of Semitism as well as of Hellenism {q. Alexandria was built on a site 1. Greeks. of classics. circumference. Occupying their own quarter of the city the north-eastern and forming. On tlie whole. — — — — — Its fine air. who doubtless wished to promote the use of Greek among the Jewish population of the city. who visited it about 58 B. 'eloquent'). From the dimensions ^ven of one of them by Lucian.

cit. 1909 . ' ' which they had enjoyed for centuries. many more of the race were scattered over all the other parts (^j* raZs dWais ovK 6\lyoi (nropddes [Philo. ). J. PhUo's brother Alexander and others filled the oflBce of alabarch' (see ' LiTERATrRB. See also the following article. ii. system (Provinces". Knowhng. 8iKaLiifj. Ant. and the Fourth Gospel. the /novoyev-qs (the Divine Child. . Ant. two another an idea T. the Only. some scholars (Schiirer. P. —Among the active opponents of St. AUxandefs Empire.. which was entrusted with the management of Jewish aflairs. 280).— Art.D. in Flac.mKIAiSS in exchange the classics of Athens.E. H. and turned the Jewish quarters into scenes of daily carnage (Philo. and it need occasion no surprise that those of them who chose to reside in the Holy City were as zealous for the Mosaic traditions. Meyer. His diravyaa/jLa or xapa/cTTj/) . (Kdyios. Philo-Judceus.v. 90) one could still see standing in Alexandria 'the pillar containing the privileges which the great Csesar (Julius) bestowed upon the Jews ' {ttjv cTT-ljkriv TO. VOL. and of thus facilitating that fusion of Hellenism and Hebraism out of which so much Christian theology has sprung. They were amongst the most opulent and influential citizens. loc. as represented by the writers of Colossians. While one quarter. Mommsen remarks that they were the clearest heads and the most gifted thinkers who sought admission either as Hellenes into the Jewish. 2). named after the first five letters of the alphabet.' thus depriving them of the rights of ' — — Apollos iq. 2 vols. E. He ordered 38 archons to be scourged in the theatre. The reign of Caligula was marked by the first rude interruption of the policy of toleration. Emp. Kiepert. 2 vols. Mommsen.' as throughout the Dispersion generally. known as Delta. Weiss. as well as a richness of culture. ii. A. of the city. Jerusalem is said that there were in mentioned in Jems. Hnally. Ramsay's \. and The Silver Age of the Greek World. The special Eegio Judceorum lay in the N. and over which a certain number of dpxovTes presided. xviii. BJ II. But one of the first acts of Claudius was to re-afSrm the earlier edicts. Holtzmann. many jAilES STRAHAN. §§ 6-10). A sj-nagogue of the Alexandrians in the school of Philo in particular assimilated many elements of Greek philosophy and the Judaism of Egypt was gradually difl'erentiated from that of Palestine. which could not have been attained among the Rabbis of Jerusalem. Even before becoming a Christian. 167). and those of Cilicia and Asia in a third. two were called 'Jewish' (lovoaiKal Xiyoi'Tai [Philo. and adopted Greek as the language of the home and the synagogue as well as of the market. And if the Alexandrian exegetical method was often unscientific as when it made Moses identify Abraham with understanding. Apion. .begotten) into that of the Kdafio^ vorjrds or \6yos. art. according to Strabo (iioipai. who probably did little more than give expression to the current opinions of his countrymen in the time of our Lord. be regarded as pseudo-Judaism. but which Renan (The Apostles. of identifying the Hebrew ' wisdom ' with the Greek reason of developing Plato's conception of the world as the 6eiov yevv7]T6v.gilla. Page groups — the Libertines in one place of worship. ' ' Macedonians quarters (Jos. ii. (in 1S88 . or as Jews into the : ALIENS 49 city— a statement which Schiirer {HJP ii. and Asiatics residing in Jerusalem all worshipped in one sj-nagoane. beyond the promontory of Lochias. of the Alexandrians AXe^avdpiuv. Schurer. Zockler. do. . 7). bilingual. the Jewish element predominated. just like the archon of an independent city. xrv. do. 5). who. and sees that they fulfil their obligations and obey orders. 1006 T. They formed a distinct municipal community. poured the warm life-blood of a historic and humane faith. vii.' The Jews of Alexandria {q. The literary exponent of this spiritual rapprochement is Philo(g'. the endeavour was consequently made to harmonize the religion of Moses with that of Plato.€TotKeiv Kara ttjv ttoXlv e| laoTifxlas wpbs "'E\\7}va's). and others were in the service of the Roman citizenship . Of the five . ad Gaitcm. M. . in the neighbourhood of the royal palace. Yet in the great mass of the 'Alexandrians. on account of his persistent allegorizing. also For a time the 'Alexandrians' were doubtless but ultimately thej^ forgot their Hebrew or Aramaic. 73) dismisses as an insipid Talniudic legend. ALEXANDRIANS. which is the Invisible God's irpurdyovos or vpuTdTOKos. them became highly educated LiTERATURK.^. cf. of Rom. and as strenuously opposed to innovations. do. EBi. London. he had the supreme merit of combining the highest Eastern with the highest Western view of the universe . X. . Alexandrians. ii.'y. Living in a gieat university town. Eng. the learned and eloquent dwaros iv toll's ypa<pah).aTa irepiixovaav & 'Kalaap 6 fidya^ Toh 'louSat'ots ^dwKev [c. 'Roads and Travel XT)' in HDB. Drummond. was entirely peopled by Jews [BJ ii. and Josephus states that in his owTQ day (c.) were in a very ditterent position from the people of any modern Ghetto. des alten Alexandria. SDB. Apio7i. 375ff. and admits of a variety of interpretations. Hebrews. ' ' (' is not in good form. Emperors (c. Ac 6^). Some exearetes (Calvin. the men of Alexandria and Cyrene in a second.). XIV. rives. Alexandrian thought provided the' categories in themselves cold and speculative into which Christianity. of the city.. 113) is disposed to accept as 'by no means improbable. last .' Augustus instituted a council or senate {yepovala). Me.— See Stranger. Alexandria thus became the meeting-place of Eastern and Western ideals. and possessed extensive political privileges. — See list appended to preceding article. §8])..}}. Till the time of Augustus the Jews were presided over by an ethnarch. and the Diadochoi permitted them to style themselves Hellenic. the four streams of Paradise with the four cardinal virtues yet the writer of Hebrews could scarcely have built a bridge between Judaism and Christianity unless he had been trained in a school which taught its disciples to pass from symbols to ultimate sincerity.. O.) — — (quoted by Josephus. Mahafify. J. in Flac. cf. and none of them were without their house of prayer (Philo. At the foundation of the city Alexander gave them equal rights with the Greeks (e'5w/ce to fj. Leg. the elKwv rod iroirp-ov. 8). Others (Wendt. Zur Topog. Cyrenians. Sarah with virtue. not impossibly of the Museum . Sanday. 'Alexandria' in HDB. tr. 73d. Cilicians. of the Stephen were certain of them that were synagogue called the synagogue . where it is also all no fewer than 425 synagogues in the I. the Greeks were attracted by a strange note of assurance regarding God. the Image of its Maker. the Alexandrian Apollos had doubtless a breadth of sympathy. xviii. HJP ll. and Luther was happily inspired in suggesting that he may have been the writer who used the HebrewHellenic theology of Egypt to interpret the manger of Bethlehem. of W. 1872. . Bengel. . Noah with righteousness. 1]). Winer-Moulton) think that the first three classes of Grammatically the sentence Jews had one synagogue and the favoured by the tuc tuiv after . — ALIEN. Hackett) believe that each of the five classes had its own distinctive synagogue in the holy city. and in Pauly-Wissowa . The governor Flaccus issued an edict in which he termed the Jews of Alexandria strangers. James Steahan.. While not a little of his NeoJudaism must. Prov. Berlin. was a true Alexandrian. With perfect if by faulty exegesis. In an eclectic age and citj^. Rendall) assume that the Libertines. as any Hebrew of the Hebrews. realities. ii. Some Alexandrian Jews held responsible positions as ministers of the Ptolemys. Both races were sensitive to impressions while the Jews felt the subtle influence of a rich civilization and a lofty philosophy. the Jewish men of culture made their Scriptures yield up the doctrines of the Academy and the Stoa. § 20). ISSS. 4 .v. ' governs the people and administers justice among them.

It is clear that our Lord and the Apostolic Church taught this as a religious obligation with equal force. Ingram.v. Case. St. Prooem. and thou shalt have treasure in heaven (Mk lO^i) .g. Art. almsgiving is assumed to be one of the duties of it Sirach and Tobit. ALPHA AND OMEGA. 'Almsgiving' in UDB. and found its ences to the obligation of helping the poor (e. the following rock (1(H). 147.^. respect for the ancient literature which embodied these ideas was maintained by disregarding the ordinary import of the language in favour of a hidden meaning more in liarmony with contemporary notions. the Epistle of Bar-nabas (q. well-pleasing to God (He IS^S). and give alms make for yourselves purses which wax not old. but the validity of his shalt share all things with thy brother. In the Sermon on the Mount..) current in both Jewish and Christian circles. London. who wrote Ro 1213.beholdeth his brother in need. ing of the Twelve Apostles (iv. Social Questione. 2*).50 ALLEGORY dXXrjyopia.v. A. ALMIGHTY. We find the same principles assumed in the literature of the Apostolic Church. ALMS.—See appended to art. Almsgiving (Christian)' in ERE. The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews century or so later. type. Banners of the Christian Faith. 1S93. contained all poor widows of the community (Ac 6^"^). or of God who inspired the writer. W. that the principle of preters. is derived from the used of a mode of speech which implies more than is expressed by the ordinary meaning of the language.g. S^-"* 9^ 10^ IP-* I2-'"-)we have to study in the history of the Early Certain Gospel passages also show allegorical traits. name for God. B. (1 Jn at the time. is the religious the principle life (e. the wisdom of Greek philosophy. but expressed Whoso hath this world's goods. how much more is also discernible in his reference to the muzzling in those things which are mortal. 43^.Epistle of St. Church and of Christian civilization. 190S. A. G. Harnack. even more emphatically asserted. L.2.). ALPHA AND O^LEGA to the rich young ruler.— These are the first and alphabet cf. 2 Co 8 interpretation. and had all things common and they sold their possessions and goods. What relation this ' ' . The Incarnation and Common Life. They whose appointment we have direct aimed especially at showing that the Jews' sacred ' : ' : ' : We Mk Jn 10i-'« 15'-»).g. .v. have thus in the NT and the subHebrews is especially rich in these features. 'Aleph to Tau'. the place of men is decided on the ground that they have or have not helped and relieved the Lord's brethren (Mt 253^-^'').' The title is applied to God the Father in Rev P 21«. but its most probable last letters of the Gr. The Epistle to the phrases. e. which apostolic literature the clearest enunciation of the are much more Alexandrian in type than the principle whose etfect and practical applications writings of St. and parted them to all. do. J. if not indeed the only true one. i. and in several places expressed directly.i. Expansion of Christ ianitij^'. Heb. and to Christ in Rev 22i=» (cf. and in St. Ro IS^s. 1S83. 'Alms' in EBi and Smith's Z)B2 'Charity. says that Moses taught many speaks of such deeds of charity as being sacrifices things under a decent allegory' (Ant.g. in the story of Ha<^ar not say that thej' are thine own for if ye are (q. This interest In the letters of St. 1894. is elsewhere (see Community of Goods) considered but it .. 4). F.MtlS^^-^o. A. Luke our Lord is reported as saying: 'Sell that ye have. Our Lord says meaning is the ' Eternal' One—' I am that I am* . J. They were less ready than Philo to tenance of their brethren is most emphatically abandon the primary meaning of Scripture. The word allegory has come to be used more particularly of a certain type of Scripture interpretation iq. etc.and 9). according as any man had need (Ac 2«. John the of God notion interpret Scripture. . Newbolt. His Allegories of the find him specially occupied with the collections Sacred Laws is one of his chief work's. Sell whatsoever thou hast. Mk 4i»-2»=Mt 1. it was inevitable that they that any man can love God without loving his should follow the allegorical tendencies so prevalent brother is a falsehood 4-"). Davies. Counsels of Faith and Practice. though all which were being made for the poor Christians in his writings are dominated by this method of Jerusalem (Gal 2i». at least clear that the Church in Jerusalem recognized the paramount obligation of the maintenance of the poor brethren. Similarly Josephus (g-. though less for apologetic than for liomithe responsibility of Christian men for the mainletic purposes. Allegorical colouring sharers in that which is immortal. when properly interpreted. 1899 W. do. 'A to Z. J. employed this means of ALLEGORY. CaRLYLE. E.3'»-25 = Lk primary obligation of the Christian life. and in certain letters we early in the 1st cent. Westcott. There can where in some instances the allegorical element be no doubt that our Lord and the may have come from the framers of tradition in NT looked upon the maintenance of writers of the the poor as a tlie Apostolic Age (e. This method of interpreting literature was practised at an early date and among diiierent peoples..*^ cf. It is in the First Allegory was used freely also by Palestinian inter. Paul we have frequent referflourisiied chiefly in Alexandria. when distinguished from metaphor. Christian Charity in the Ancient Church. and especially in OT Literature. C. In the Acts we read of the Church of Jerusalem: 'All that believed were together. Eng. For St.). London. of kindliness to and provision for the poor is constantly tauglit in the in the later Jewish literature. S. is Mt 6i-»). £pii 428^ I xi 618). tr.g. parable. and shutteth up his larly^ in the Haggadic miclrdshim. 12'-i2=Mt2li«-'«=Lk20»-^9. — The word Greek ' ' .^). a half. but covenants not only prefigured. and is supposed to have been primary in the intention of the writer. Its fundamental characteristic is the distinction between the apparent meaning of Scripture and a hidden meaning to be discovered by the skill of the interpreter. in the parable of the Judgment. Jewish interpreters.36-43 making the OT munity of acceptable to Gentiles.' Edinburgh. however. John. — . The Teachliterature. F. and shalt idea of two covenants proved.' The Epistle of the ox (1 Co 93'-). compassion from him. When ideas of a primitive age were no longer tenable. how doth the love When Christians in the Apostolic Age began to abide in him ?' (1 Jn 3'^).^\ 1 Co 16i.— See GoD. carries on the same principles. rr\n\ has been very variously derived. do. Uhlhorn. and of Barnabas contains almost exactly the same the veil of Moses (2 Co S'^ff-).D. foremost representative in Philo (g. particu. The ancient Heb. A. particularly in the Diaspora. the veiled meaning is the more important.). Eng. Paul (e.v. 1886. In allegory proper. list Literature. may is have to the community of goods art. and give to the poor. 8) says Thou Paul claims to be allegorizing when he finds the two shalt not turn away from him that is in need. a treasure in the heavens that faileth not'(Lk 1233). ' . — The duty Interpretation.) and Sarah (Gal 42'«-30). 8"-i5. and it is worthy of notice that the first officers of tiie Christian com- mention are the Seven who were appointed to carry out the ministrations of the Church to the books. and they freely employed allegorical devices. Yet the use of this method is far less The Christian literature of the end of the 1st common in the NT than in some later Christian cent.

in in . Paul makes two uses of the 6vaiaaT7]piov in the Temple.— R. 1).). expression 'Alcph to Tau. is expressed in the language of the Apocalypse by the Greek phrase 'A and f2. Schmiedel (m ^c. (Monog. could never be omitted. The Christians did not lay themselves open to the charge of violating the law' Weizsacker. and that.' of which the Talmud and other Rabbinic writings furnish many examples. xv..D. in a few examples they stand alone as a of representing the presence of the Redeemer. 16). I. he instances the well-known Levitical practice those who wait upon the altar have their portion with (av/^fiepi^ovTai. Josephus (c. they decline in number and importance during the early Middle Ages. its presence there will cause no surprise. JE HDB B.*^) upon the Ovaiaarripiov of the temple. is a heathen altar.) probably refers to this saying ( equal with God. the usual ALTAR. Bacon.. 8) to express comand Greek (Theodoret. xiv. as in the the gospel to live at the charge of the Christian community.). its position was central. Even if they did not maintain and observe the whole cultus. ' The Seal of God is Emeth (ncN = ' truth'). persecution of Diocletian was over. (Strom. etc. Apion. at least in the W^est. part of the ottering being burnt in the altar fire. 42). existed from the beginning. Hor. and ecclesiastical writers while jScafj-ds.' but probably for St. Sank.' which corresponds to a common Heb. ( .ALTAR This idea of Llie Deity. Paul. nothing is said which implies either its presence or its absence' (Judaistic Christianity. Iren. and in so doing they plainly claimed the Divine privilege of eternity for the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ. 25. Vis.D.. He implicitly abrogated the Levitical law. that the practice of the Jewish-Christian Church was not altered suddenly.) the altar (1 Co 9'^). Leipzig-. . iv. 300-500. Jewish writers (e. i. Moreover. when His sacrifice was completed. 11. LXX. Bab. Charles adduces similar phrases in Latin (Martial. walls of catacombs. after the 7th and 8th centuries. Schoettg'en.g. i. Alex. the writing of truth'). and are rare. . 2. xxv. 65) even suggests tiiat they were more devout and earnest Jews than they had ever been continuing to worship God at the altar in the Temple like all their countrymen. Hort observes that respecting the continued adherence to Jewish observances. in DCQ K. Gen. v. It is significant to note that in none of those hundreds of examples do the letters (often rudely scrawled by poor peasants) refer to any one but Jesus Christ.-'') the champion of spiritual freedom. 8). W. which were thrown down in Elijah's time (Ro IP). Jerus. vi. The altar on which sacrifices were presented to God was indispensable to OT religion. nor was it possible to regard them as such. . Similar is the use of Justin (Address to Greeks. 6). further emphasized 44'*.) thinks that the reference may be to priests who serve am Tempel der Heiden wie der Juden. Kohler. AlBAN WeLLS. Most numerous in the period from A. the Gnostic teachers sought to deduce by various means and numerical quibbles the essential identity of all the Persons of the Trinity (cf. Heb. or allowing it to flow on the ground at its base. Age. original for the NT Apocalypse. At a subsequent period the practice became universal all over the Christian world. its chief significance for Christians lies in its constant application to Christ. The most striking example of the antithesis is found in 1 Mac p4-5a_ Antiochus Epiphanes erected a small altar to Jupiter the abomination of desolation (v. alpiiabet (cf. Tertullian ii. 46). when our Lord instituted the New Covenant in His own blood (Mk 14^^ Lk 222"). inseptem emphasized this view of the matter and. . of which this passage in the Apocalyjise supplies the first of countless instances. To those who believe in a Jewish pleteness. 64a . But there are many clear indications that the first Christians remained Jews McGitl'ert (Apostol. Apart from a passing allusion to the altars — — — — ' ' ' — ' — — ' — ' ' — ' . L. Paul observed in Athens bearing the inscription Ayvuxmi) Qei^ (Ac 17-'*). 1. Paul the only Ovaiaa-ri^piopv/a. Lord and Master. ' ' . Josephus. H. as of the Christian author or editor of the Apocalypse it was an opinion deeply rooted in the convictions of the Christian congregations. St. before tlie last ^k' . It has been generally assumed that. and the ritual of blood the supposed seat of life was the essence of the offering. yet this did not endanger their allegiance. It is hard to conceive of any fact more suited to emphasize the deep-rooted belief of the early Christians in the true Divinity of their reverent way term for altar is dvaiaaT-fipLov a v/ord otherwise confined to Philo. and was still alive and veady to succour His faithful followers. and established the claim set forth in the later creeds that the Word of God w. and its application to Christ will constitute an instance of the Christian remodelling wiiich that book has undergone. i. and part reserved for the priests. MuUer in PRE^ . 1. in Is 41* 43'" ME saying. art. 26) iv. Charles and JSliiller agree that Patristic commentators invariably referred all these passages to the Son. Literature. relying on this as an established fact. Charles. art. the rite of sprinkling or dashing the blood against the altar. . and last letters of the Heb.g. and countless examples are still extant to prove the general popularity of this custom. middle. Hcer. e.' The NT contains only a single distinct reference to a pagan altar the j3u}/ii6s which St.^pci5^o^. Ambrose(£'a. as contrasted with a Jewish place of sacrifice. many inscriptions had been put up on tombstones. brought sacrifices (wpocrtpopas) to lay on the altar in the Holy City (24''). in which these two letters stood for the name of Christ. (1) In vindicating the right of ministers of St. We hear of no attempt to dispute it and. The inference that the New Covenant left no place for any altar or Mosaic sacrifice is first explicitlj.' Not only was this the universal opinion of the earliest commentators. Age. . . (full account of extant inscriptions). the disciples must at once have perceived that it made every altar obsolete. Whatever details might be added. who had created the world. They had no desire to be renegades. and the attitude and practice of the early JewishChristian Church in reference to it form an interesting and ditlicult problem. 18« Sank. Among others. and offered and even St. The Levitical cultus was continued in Jerusalem till the destruction of the Temple by the Romans in A. also Dn 10-' nc^ nnp?. H. v.s the altar on which sacrifice : ' ' ' ' . C. In most cases the letters are accompanied by other symbols and titles of the Master. art. Cyprian [Testimon. 70. which was the hour of sacrifice they took upon themselves vows. The altar was the place of meeting between God and man.drawn by the w^riter of Hebrews (see TEMPLE). a word containing first. . Ixxxi. Clem. Alike in the simple cultus of patriarchal times and the elaborate ritual of fully developed Judaism. but gradually and with not a little misgiving. Yoma 69b). calling it the hellenized form of a well-known ALTAR ' ' 51 (Ex 3'^). W. Whatever may be the origin of the phrase. 6.j. to whom the law gives the privilege altaris esse socios in dividenda victima' (Beza).— In the NT. Kohler) have given another explanation of its use as a title for God. They went up to the Temple at the hour of prayer (Ac 3'). 1733. But there is not wanting evidence that enlightenment came slowly . and on the twentj'-fifth day of the month they sacrificed upon the idol-altar (/Swyttos) which was upon the altar of God (dvaiaaTTjpiov). sacrifices for release (2P". adv.

however. Figurative language must not be unduly pressed.' irpea^e^u}. the mind alone receiving the benefit of the offering. All who join in the sacrifice are partakers with the altar (kolvoovoI toO dvaiaarrjplov). the dealing.' Thei^e old Heb. to the orgies of pagan gods. save in the case of Luther's edition and the LXX version of tlie earlier books of the OT.. justice of God. 101 f. for Christians. a matter of great interest to study the use of those few words of ancient origin which have taken root in the religious language of so many great Christian nations. In the world of religion it still remains a great obstacle to all attempts to realize a truly catholic and universal Church. and what is said of them must be allegorically intended. ' ' ' . Gal psf. ii. from the rpkire'^a tov Kvplov. Paul was not thinking of age at all. R. 3. A. Light from the Ancient East-. Few sentences have given rise to so much misunderstanding. to pass from the altar of God or. of course. of which the chief component ideas are the bearing of a message. Weizsacker.^ where his ' separation to preach expresses the same thought in yet another form.-\ London. Benzinger. i. Edinb. from the Bible. Smith. v. The lack of a common language has always been a barrier to the mutual knowledge and intercourse of the great nations of mankind. p. based on the ancient idea of the vastly superior wisdom brought by ripeness of years. in all the services where they are used. by parity of reasoning. Berlin. phrases were taken. R. daip-ovluv. but both the OT terms and the NT dTrScTToXos have to be understood in the light of use and context rather than of derivation.. The writer of Hebrews refers to the old Jewish altar and to a new Christian one. no af tempt has been ' — . Nevertheless. 1 Co 15*'). for Trpecr/SetJw had lived a life of its own long enough to be independent of its antecedents. having vp^a^vs (' aged ') as its stem. thus irpea^edta is never found in the without it. and a general use of Latin and Greek names for all the objects of their study. . in a representative character. J AMES STRAHAN. Nowack.' in 2 Co 5^".* ' — * irpetrPevoi and Trpecr/Sewr^s were the recognized terras in the for the Legate of the Roman Empire (Ueissraann. the Tpajre^a. the hospitality of table-comnuinion is the pledge of friendship between Him and His worshippers. So we Christians serve an altar from which we obtain a purely spiritual advantage. St. sees underneath the altar the souls of martyrs— the blood poured out as an oblation (cf.' bassador') see art. 1894-95. Lk 14^^). The Temple. his commission is not to lord it over others. HJP. In 14'* the prophet sees an angel come out from the altar. all the more that the days when the educated men of all European nations were wont to converse in Latin have long since passed away. Age. W. one might almost say commensals with God.. C. 379). 207 f. his is a humble pride. Rel. and the solemn investiture. Of these. ^Yhethe^ the writer actually visualized the Cross of Christ as the altar at which all His followers minister. NT There is no very marked difference between 'ambassador' and 'apostle. and no dvcnacrri^piov in the proper sense of the word (von Soden). Age. H. Schurer. for vengeance (Rev 6«. Moreover. the corresponding Greek noun {wpea-^evTris) occurs nowhere. Paul appeals to the ethical significance of sacrifice. peace' with men (cf. is but a caricature of such a general medium of interpretative forms of worship. According to antique ideas. 1887. The altar being His table and the sacrifice His feast. Heb. therefore.ev can only denote Christians. ii. (1) Reasoning somewhat in the manner of Philo. To a certain extent the gulf has been bridged for men of science by a newly-invented vocabulary of their own. but to ' beseech them nay. for only grace has put him in his lofty position (cf. 1911. Greek East I made to replace them by They have a deep interest foreign equivalents. those who eat and drink together are by the very act tied to one another by a bond of friendship and mutual obligation W. I. How revolting it is.. En. on behalf of. A. ^"'EixoiJ. Aged. 'one sent forth').^.. regarded not as an atonement but as a sacred meal between God and man. he notes the emergence of a mysterious priest from a tribe which has given none of its sons to minister at the altar.' while the cognate collective noun (RV 'ambassage') is used in Lk U^'^ 19'*. "Watkins. 22^). C. Freiburfr. Reste arab. Apostol. Gal P^-n). On the Trpea-^vrris of Philem9 (AV and 'an am'the aged. The representative character of ambassadorship is emphasized by the repeated vv^p. the spirit or genius of fire. Us Ministry and Services. AMBASSADOR. London. In 8^ and 9^3 the dvatacrrripwi' is not the altar of burnt-offering but that of incense (see Incense). with those to whom one is sent. It is. Apostol. 1894. 1897. — .'» cf.g.. before starting out. 378 f. Smith. perliaps the most familiar are the words 'Amen' and Hallelujah. In this way they acquire a richer content. and on this circumstance bases an ingenious argument for the imperfection of the Levitical priesthood. God Himself only intreats It is He who seeks arrangements for (2 Co 5^"). which seems so unintelligible to the mass of the worshippers that a sign language (of ritual) is largely the medium by which they follow the services when not absorbed in the reading of devotional manuals in their own mother tongue. The Latin of the Roman Catholic missal.' The same preposition (iirep) occurs in Eph 6-" . Edersheim. Sern. for they have no rg ffKTjvr} XarpevovTes. and so of the whole Mosaic system (He 7'^). McGiffert. Probably. His tone of dignity and of Sride springs not so much from his metaphor as irect from his vividly realized relation to God vTrip : ' We ' is more emphatic than ' irpea^evo). Its ti^ttos is the sacrifice of the Day of Atonement. and have come to convey. London. Instead. Literature. The point which the writer seeks to make is that in connexion with the great Christian sacrifice there is nothing corresponding to the feasts of ordinary Jewish (or of heathen) sacrifices. St. wliereof they have no right to eat who serve the tabernacle (13'"). then. ' exactly the same tone that he claims the title ' aposfle (see. the same or a similar meaning. 36 f. 1894 J. VJ. like the blood of Abel. 247). C. p. 1894. e.52 AMBASSADOE AMEK In the OT the idea behind the words translated 'ambassador' (generally ?«aZ'aM) is that of going or being sent. ' RV RVm — — AMEN. Ph 2^^ 2 Ti 4'') representing the life or i/'uxiy— and hears them crying. Welliiausen. Sem. Although this word occurs twice (2 Co 520 and Eph G^") in the EV of the NT. p. 43 ff. Arch. with the added as though God were ' ' was offered to the God of Israel. (2) Against those Christians who occupy themselves with (sacrificial) meats the writer says have an altar. like XeirovpyoL in the Tabernacle. to be an ambassador. So also in Lk 14^2 191^ the context shows that the irpea^eia is representative. as many have supposed is doubtful. we find the verb irpea^eiju. p.. 2 vols. . Freiburg. and of this the etymological equivalent in the NT is not ambassador but 'apostle' (dirdffToXos. i. Arch. Rel. with a delegated authority sufficient for the task (cf. does suggest a certain special dignity and gravity. 1874. an Iranian conception . not . Gal 1\ 1 Co 9^ 159"") cf. (2) In arguing againsc the possibility of partaking of the Eucharist and joining in idolatrous festivals. 17 f. and in 16'' he personifies the altar itself and makes it proclaim the truth and ' ' ( ' ' intreating by us. whose heaven is a replica of the earthly Temple and its solemn ritual. Heb. The writer of Rev.. Heidenthums. where. It is in . no part of which was eaten by priest or worshipper.

which neither His predecessors nor His followers have ventured to imitate. as in some later MSS of the NT. cf. like the Book of Enoch or Noah. Euseb. Rev 31^) the word ' Amen is used as a noun implying the ' Faithful God. or almost the refrain in chorus. His own authority and absolute ' faithfulness. after both doxologies (15 times) and benedictions (6 times in RV) or as the last word of a prayer (RV only in Prayer of JSIanasses but 2 others in Vulgate. and not at all to the actual of the — ' — complete absence . but as a reminiscence of the very words which came from our Lord's own mouth.' even if we had not been led to infer this by the growing reluctance of the Jews to emphasize this feature of their service. the word is used to introduce His own words and clothe them with solemn affirmation. as in all else. (cf. to the words of a previous speaker. times the 'Amen' was even repeated after the From the Jews and the lesson had been read. as in the solemn oath of Nu 5"^ (cf. etc.g. Shab. haste. St. This was further modified by the insertion of * and in the first three divisions of the ' Psalter. though Hogg suggests that this sentiment was extracted from a pun on Is 26^ {Elijahu Zutta. root jon. Siddtir B. but after the reception of the Sacrament a custom to which Justin refers in his [the earliest] account of the manner in which this service was conducted {Apol. have been ascribed to some earlier seer. 229)— and no one is better qualified to speak on the subject He found here the word He needed to give the assurance which usually came from an oath. and are intended to guard against irreverence. He spoke as having authority ' ' '^ — K not the word Him. 1196. 'Amen'). Twice in the (2 Co l^". after grace before meals. In His mouth. and in this capacity it is not surprising that He found a new use for the word of emphasis. etc. 15. even though its meaning is wholly misunderstood by the Muslim imams who guess at various impossible explanations. 'truth. was adopted in the Scottish Liturgy of 1637. The later Jews were accustomed to use Amen frequently in their homes {e. and God Faithful King was used instead. it appears by itself without a doxology. as the response of the people. and dropped only Somein the 6th cent. who wrote for men unacquainted with Hebrew. and it thus finds a fitting place in the mouth of the people to whom Nehemiah promulgated his laws (Neh 5'').' and in one passage (22^") christianized from it. meaning steadfast.' The Church of the Fathers made much of the word Amen in all its OT uses. To express emphasis. nc^f. 72. John has always doubled the word. strong form of assent to a previous statement. i. and in Dalman's view ( Words of Jesus. to prop. In this. 'to adopt as one's own what has just been said' (HDR i. tlie way in which it acquired this ' A Amen ' meaning. probably for emphasis. in opposition to the Christian practice. In the Book of Common Prayer it appears in various forms as the end of the priest's prayer. aminun— secure ']) was intended to express certainty. in Massie's words. Amen later became the last word of the first speaker. 64. in the days when He was sowing the seed of which we are reaping the fruits. where it is still repeated after the first two siiras of the Qur'an. and laid down precise rules for the ways of enunciating and pronouncing it. in accordance with Hebrew practice the word was often doubled. ' truth. by the common evidence of all the Gospels (77 times). It is plain that the — word in Acts itself a link with the Third Gospel must be ascribed to the peculiar style and attitude of the author. and as a recollection of the debt which we owe to a race so often despised. 89). as a It was not till after the Exile that it assumed its far commoner place as the answer. The rest of the presents examples of all the older uses of the phrase.' but it is hard to tell whether this is to be understood as a play on words based on Is 65^^ (n^^.' and Eth. either as simple subscription as such it stands appended to three of the Psalms (41. In two old MSS of Tobit (end). ii. since Delitzsch's explanation from a word Nroj<= I say is shown by Dalman (p. but it is certain that it acquired a fixed place in the services of the synagogues. etc. Neh 8^).). 80).AMEN merely as a reminder of their essential unity and their ancient history.' Assyr. has sought where possible to replace the word by a Greek equivalent (dXij^ws.). Christians it passed over to the Muhammadan ' ' — ' ' ritual. He was no slavish imitator of contemporary Rabbis. These are found in the Talmudic tr&ci B^rdkhoth ('Blessings'). and the certainty that it was one of the very words which fell from the Master and had for Him a message of rare and unusual significance. It is uncertain how far this formed part of the people's response in the ritual of the Temple. amena. by the Western Church. able to win blessings not only in this life but in the next and one commentator.) to be wrong and based on a purely Babylonian ' ' practice. which may originally. Ps 106''^). etc. 'trust' [Arab. though the earliest is found only in the Jewish Apocalypse (Rev 7^^ 19'*) NT ' ' ' ' which has probably been worked up into the Christian Book of Revelation.' akin to Heb. xx. AMEif scribes' (Mk l^). 'foundation. Neh 13^1. The object of this use of Amen was. but the Master Himself gave a new emphasis to its value for Christians by the example of His own practice. viz. That it was His habitual way of speaking is doubly plain from a comparison of all four Gospels. vii. Yalk. The use (? Jewish) in Rev 5" corresponds with this custom ' (cf. The original use of the word (derived from a Heb. though the title applied to Him in Rev Z^^ is founded upon His own chosen practice. To 13'^). hymns. He plainly expressed His dislike for oaths (Mt 5**). brought in to add to the mysterious language of the vision. and in many NT Epistles. Amen would naturally have passed from the synagogues to the churches which took their rise among the synagogue-worshippers. The language of St. or whether it is connected with the manner in Avhich the Master employed the phrase as guaranteed by NT . 9). But in doing this ' He was really making good the word. V^) and Jeremiah In the mouth of Benaiah (1 (Jer 28^) it appears as first word in the sentence. 136. and introduced it into their services. Amrani. Paul in 1 Co 14'^ shows that the synagogue practice of saying Amen as a response early be' ' ' ' ' — came habitual among the worshippers of the Nazarene. where it still forms a common response of the congregation. This is confirmed by Ambrose. Luke. went so far as to declare that by its hearty pronunciation in chorus the godless in Israel who lay in the penal fires of Gehenna might one day hope for the opening of their prison gates and a free entrance into the abode of the blessed.' and it is therefore natural that no other man has ever ventured to foUowHis custom. and as such took its natural position at the close of the five divisions of the Psalms. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus. This was sometimes altered later. Here it is perhaps a conscious archaic form. temenu.' and a verb. 296 on Is 26-). 227 f. 66). and not as the brief examination of the history of the word will be sufficient to prove the meaning which it had.' being read as jcx. So great was the superstition which attached to it that many of the later Rabbis treated it almost as a fetish. even though St. iv. The practice is still in vogue in the Eastern Church. not only after blessings. or as the unanimous assent — ' L . ' ' practice in the churches.

do. corresponding to Hananiah or Hanani of the OT. and never recovered it. by Jannaris. Heb. p. p. Hog-gr.e. Ro 16^^). and [1902] 663. find it occurring frequently in the postexilic writings and particularly in the Apocrypha. Allworthy. OxJ. It is now tr. wine being amethystine in colour. name of which AV Amplias ['A/UTrX/aj. Philippians*. Edinb.C. among Philippi it ' this was 32 miles to the south-west. resident in Ephesus. Derived from d. Saint Paul. Paul. i/iijv. Grote. G. ' ' LXX was regarded as a charm against bad dreams. very common name in later Jewish times. iv. a com- my beloved in the Lord ' (rbv dyairrjToi' LiTERATFRE. Paul became acquainted during his long stay in that city. A woman by Nestle. term has been introduced to strengthen affirmation. 1902.. Romans^.' snxd. 1870. T. it is inferior in price to true gems. wishing to share in the lievers approbation accorded to such acts of generosity.' Thucydides (i. Kev 212»). Hogg notes that in English. 'kvavlas. G. mon Lat. whom St. pretending that they had sacrificed all. Eng. Presbyterians it is said by the minister only.v. and the historical interest which attaches to its every echo. Ananias and his wife. ixedixTKeiv. sold their land and handed part of the price to the community. 100) says that the Athenians sent 10. 1 Co 4"). Ampliatus must have been a Roman. iii. Ephe^'). Josephus (Ant. 1. however. 91). a Jew. made from tlie seeds of an eastern plant which has not been identified with certainty. Occupying an eminence on the left bank of the Strymon. the important part it has played.^) and Stachys (v. Paul and described as ' AMPLIATUS ('AMTrXtaroj [Ro 168 K ABFG]. new ed. [1897] 190. Ananias was carried into the early Church on the wave of enthusiasm which began on the day of Pentecost. Being comparatively abundant. to colonize what was then ' ' gracious '). ANANIAS AMPHIPOLIS CAM^iTToXts).— variety of quartz of rock-crystal.v. An early convert to Christianity. ' heat').000 settlers of their own citizens and the allies to the Strymon. amomum Headlam. BELOVED). L. in EDB. The term is now applied to a genus of aromatic plants.*). St. 1835. he was perhaps a Roman. best known as the husband of Sapphira (Ac 5^"*). 3 miles from the Strymonic Gulf. Lex. Ro 16 as The only other persons described in 'my beloved' are Epsenetus (v. Such friends. Col 1'). Jjn. of purple or bluish violet colour. fiou iv Kvplip). In Rev 18^^ AV (with B ii'^) omits the word RV (Avith K *AC) accepts it and translates 'spice' (RVm 'Gr. and Sandayin or visiting James Strahan. . JDK. Northern Greece. W. Quaffed from a cup of amethyst. 1872. just below the egress of the river from Lake Cercinitis. 174. 226 ff. Heb. integrity of the Epistle and the Roman destination of these salutations.. both priest and people. tr. 25) predicts that in the Golden Age — perhaps from Arab. Literature. It is possible that he was a Jew 'Assyrium vulgo nascetur amomum. ii. XX. St. 374 ff. and is not to be confounded with the oriental amethyst. James Strahan. H. Macedonian city played an important part in early Greek history. One relic of the Gospel language is retained in the Bishops' Oath of Supremacy. Paul had met on one of his missionary journeys. and largely employed in classical antiquity for intaglios. the vine-juice could not intoxicate. with whom St. In the (Ex 28'*. are referred to as ' beloved child ' (Timothy. but they lost it in 422 B. Dalman. came the names Paulus. Paul's or closely associated with him in Christian work. do. Leake. Grimm-Thayer. The Apostle and his fellow-travellers evidently remained in Amphipolis over night. If the view be held that the salutations in Ro 16 were part of a letter to the Church of Ephesus. it commanded the entrance to a pass leading through the mountains into the great Macedonian plains.) ' amethyst ' stands for ahldmdh. or sapphire of amethystine tint. 'to intoxicate. but they were utterly devoid of any understanding or appreciation of the new religion they professed. Ananias fell down dead. some sjiecies of which yield cardamoms and grains of paradise. It lay on the Via Egnatia. Peter rebuked the male offender for his duplicity. s. B. From Curiously enough.' i.. and Lucius a 'kinsman. Nothing whatever is known beyond this reference. 284 fl. M. 1902. 2) speaks of Harran as 'a soil which bare in plenty. artt. or by a reveller wearing an amulet of that substance. and formed an item in the style of proclamations until the 16th century.' The word to be used generally for any pure and sweet odour. . Hist. hamma. In this period of early zeal many of the Christians sold their lands and handed the proceeds to the community of be- —A (Gr. in JQR ix. [1896] 1-23. It was almost encircled by the river. beloved fellow-servant' (Epaphras. as in Syriac. p. and next day went on to Apollonia (Ac 11^). 'not.54 of AMETHYST the ANANIAS first of four districts into which they divided Macedonia. it has come to mean consent.. Naturally it was often engraved with Bacchanalian subjects. and who was known by etc. possibly as that of a slave or freedman prominent in the Church.' even though it commenced its career as first word in the sentence. amomum'). term of Christian endearment might suggest that Amplispecial The atus was a personal convert of St. of Greece. beloved brother (Tychicus. Alban Wells.' and has been enabled thus to acquire the sense of 'the very last. (cf art. DELP] is a contraction). Eng. who had taken a Latin name (cf. The amethyst was used as a gem-stone by the ancient Egyptians. The Romans made it a free city and the capital of called (cf. p.^). London. The foregoing remarks may enable the reader to judge of the strange changes to which the meaning of this word has been subjected. iii. intentional delicacy The precise phrase * —as my ' is saluted perhaps with Persis the beloved (v. It was under the Macedonian kings from 360 till the Roman conquest of the country in 167 B. In the history of the Apostolic Church. — Saluted by St. and JE. . which is a very valuable gem of great brilliancy and beauty. and was . DCG. Barnabas. a variety of corundum. we meet with three persons bearing this name. ' represented by Neochori. s. but now Amphipolis. — This James Strahan.—The artt. which connected Dyrrachium with the Hellespont. The Words of Jesus. Jahweh ' is We the "Nine Ways" ('Ei'i'^a oM). 1878. whence its name Amphi-polis. in which the name occurs. which commences almost in the style of one of Christ's In legal terminology the famous declarations. 424). etc.' and Vergil [Eel.' it Avas regarded as a charm against the effects of wine. Along with his wife. of Arapliatus Assuming the the Apostle at the time of writing to be residing Rome.. This vra^ doubtless a case of sympathetic magic.C. 181 f. Community of Goods). It is interesting to find the name Ampliatus several times in inscriptions belonging to the Imperial familia or household (see Lightfoot. Sanday-Headlam also refer to a Christian inscription in the catacomb of Domitilla belonging to the end of the 1st or beginning of the 2nd cent. AMOMUM (&fiu3ixov. in ExpT viii.' It was the jewel of their empire. ' ' — beloved in the Lord does AMETHYST A not occur again in the NT. Conybeare-Howson. EBi.—W. When St. i. and was one of the most beautiful day's journeys ' ' ' Paul ever experienced (Renan. An aromatic balsam used as an unguent for the hair. {anidvuTo^. a stone which xiii.

and does not here. He was the bondservant of Christ. herem.) of Ac 4«. carry any sense of formal excommunication .^). Wallis Budge). . Ananias was summoned to Rome and tried for complicity in these disturbances. but it would be an anachronism to read them into the simpler thoughts of the apostolic literature. XX. Spitta). 'a person or thing devoted or set apart.' and it is possible he may have been a personal disciple of Jesus. 1. Planting of Chrislianity. once in reference to the Apostle himself. He retained his office. and to whom Christ appeared in a vision telling him to go to Saul of Tarsus. and is regarded by Schiirer {GJV*ii. and his cldef. he announces that for their sakes he would be willing. Clearly 'anathema' need not. pride or greed hateful as these sins are the power and presence of the Holy Spirit had been manifested in the Church. if it were possible. He is not to be identified or confused with Annas (q.' 1900. and who afterwards appeared among the Apostle's enemies before Felix at Caesarea (Ac 241''''). which ' ' Herodian period. 9 . with penalties varying both in amount and in duration. but was gradually confined to the sense of accursed. Peter. St. A Christian disciple who dwelt in Damascus. for about twelve years (A. and now. and it is possible that in this case he thought of anathema as being remedial and temporary.. Botin. and he is commemorated in the Abyssinian Calendar. 1. A. but was assured that the persecutor was a chosen messenger of Christ to bear His name to the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel. 2. On liearing this command. Much has been written on the need in the infant Church of such a solemn warning against a type of hypocrisy which. fif. Comm. He was the son of Nedebaeus. J. p. to which he had been appointed by Herod of Chalcis. ' ' ' Later tradition has much to say regarding Ananias. was restored to office. Holtz- mann. 9). knowing the reputation of Saul as a persecutor. the OT allusion would be predominant. To the Apostle. which led to a massacre of some Galilajans by Samaritans Christ and permanent hopelessness. E. When the war broke out in A. the general of Aretas. EGT. Weizsacker. Weizsacker. to be even hopelessly separated from Christ. while it is undoubted that in the narrative the cause of death ' — and to the plundering of Samaritan villages by Jews. In the Pauline Epistles the word 'anathema' occurs four times. at the instigation of Agrippa the younger. — 2. 1. xx. 2. Greater difficulty attaches to Gal 1^. BJ IL xvii. and Ananias had sinned not only against human brotherhood. in his yearning over his fellow-countrymen.— The is W. ix. or. In patristic times the word denoted some ecclesiastical censure or form of punishment. was it not in thine own power ? (Ac 5'*) at once dispose of any view of the incident which would regard communism as compulsory in the early Church. but against the Divine light and leading which had made that brotherhood possible. . Paul has just expressed (8^^*) his belief that nothing conceivable could separate him from the love of God . it denotes a spiritual condition of which the two features are exclusion from the redemption in ANATHEMA. had it become prevalent. Whiles it remained. if not his only. Baur. He is also described as bishop of Damascus. ed. imprecates anathema upon others. expressed reluctance. ' Acts. 227]). would have rendered the existence of the Christian community impossible. as the twenty-first high priest in the Roman272) transliteration of a Gr. [1894] 24 R.g. Knowling-. from which emergence could be efi'ected. ed. though the language is that of justifiable passion and not to be interpreted literally. St. Ananias went and laid his hands on Saul. who received his sight and was baptized. Age. [1907] 256. thought would be that of a hopeless spiritual condition. and as such he resented entirelj . BJ n. the purpose being sometimes remedial of the ofi'ender and sometimes protective of the community . much more than fraud. The case he imagines is one that would warrant extreme indignation. traced to the will and intention of St. and reported to have met a violent death. 25 [new ed. Thus encouraged. They may liave suggested lines on which a system of official discipline in the Christian Church was afterwards constructed. LirERATURE. ix. Peter. The personal passage is Ro 9^ where there is no serious difficulty to those who do not look for strict reasoning in the language of the heart.AIS'AjS'IAS carried out for burial . AI^ATHEIMA came in and The narrative 55 his wife also fate. He ruled in Jerusalem with all the arbitrariness of an Oriental despot. C. Boyd. for which a precedent may have been sought in the teaching or practice of St. Ananias. The action of Ananias and Sapphira was hypocrisy of the worst kind. where the Apostle. much more than mere hypocrisy. 274. and on the other occasions in reference to the maltreatment of his Lord. did it not remain thine own. GJ V* ii. for destruction (Lv 2728. in loco . Paul would be the last of Christian teachers to withdraw all hope from a man. only with extreme difficulty and by special forbearance on the part of God. 272. 47-59). Spitta. if at all. while his personal wealth made him a man of consideration even after he was deprived of his office. was overtaken by the same does not indicate that the two were punislied because they liad in any way violated a rule of communism which they had professed to accept. 29^ Jqs gi7)_ j^ jg capable of use in the good sense of an offering to God. prefect of Damascus. F. he was dragged from his place of concealment in an aqueduct and murdered by the assassins whom he had used as tools in the days of his power (Josephus. term there gathered in course of time an elaborate system of excommunication. Paul describes Ananias as devout according to the law.D. Paul before Claudius Lysias in Jerusalem (Ac 2. Pavliis. bitter quarrels broke out between the Jews and the Samaritans. says Knowling. but these developments are mainly later than our period. stoned to death after undergoing torture at the hand of Luoian. Apostol. slain by the sword of Pol. Leipzig:. 28 [18S0] 27 ff. Holtzmann. 66. who was praying and had seen in a vision a man named Ananias coming in and laying his hands on him that he might receive his sight (Ac Q^"""). or Jn IS^^. 1866. Paul. again under strong emotion. Lk 32.' and as one to whom witness was borne by all that dwelt at Damascus. Around the Heb. During the time of his administration. C. His name stands in the Roman and Armenian Martyrologies. Jan. .D. according to one authority (Book of the Bee. In his speech before the multitude at Jerusalem (Ac 22^-"!") St. 2). but. xvii. Josephus. word used in the LXX to represent the Heb. under religious sanctions. ' ' The sin for which Ananias and Sapphira were punished is described as 'lying unto God' (v. ' 3. and after it was sold. He is represented as one of the Seventy. Neander. . according to another (see Acta Sanctorum. He did not scruple to make frequent use of assassins to carry out his policy in Jerusalem. eh. V. of Meyer.' which is the rendering adopted in AV in all NT passages except 1 Co 16^^. Literature.' an attempt to deceive not only men but God Himself. and cannot be regarded as a chance occurrence or the efi'ect of a sudden shock brought about by the is discovery of their guilt. and his violence and rapacity are noted by Josephus (Ant. The high priest who accused St. The words of St. and his Roman sympathies made him an object of intense hatred to the national party. Most critics admit the historicity of the incident [e. by Solomon of Basra [1222]. Baur.v. xxix. i. It was.S'^-). Schiirer.— F. Zeller. Ant. .

" ' Maranatha. the verse runs. But Christian hope reaching out towards the eternal world is something much greater than our familiar human hopes of blessings yet unrealized . SuiP.*— In He 6'9 the writer describes the hope set before the Christian. the one on meeting and the other on parting. ' Curse. . and the preacher of another gospel.' was not to be or even His teaching made and proved him a tolerated.' unless both were used. 2 Jn"*-"). In response St. it may mean. carrying finality with it.' ' Excommunication. as an anchor of the soul. Or the idea may be. and conscious therefore of certain obligations to Christ but they were so provoked by the attempt to set Jesus on the same level with the supreme God. let him be anathema. But the reference to 'an angel from heaven' is sufficient to prove that ecclesiastical censure. which again was carried back to our Saviour's teaching (Mt 18"). where any thought of enforcing a penalty is rendered impossible by the jubilant tone of the section. He adopts the word used by the men of whom he was thinking. where also the word follows a warning and Apost. ' person set apart for destruction but whether that destruction was final or only corrective would depend upon the man's impenitence or reform. just as an anchor by its firm grip keeps the ship from drifting with the winds and tides. and i. and to that extent the beginnings of a system of discipline may be traced in the phrase. for with greater wisdom thought may be given to Him. and with which He would deal finally or remedially. more Lord. the word anathema occurs in the course of the sharp conflict excited by the extreme party among converted proselytes to Judaism and the great idea is that everything in the religion of a professed Christian is deter.' in Grimm-Thayer and Cremer. an ejaculatory prayer. Moss. and an anchor appears on ancient pagan medals as an emblem of hope.56 a:n"athema ANCHOR quick to amend. ' Our Lord cometh' (so ' RVm). The Lord is coming soon. Such men as are referred to in 1 Co 16^ Avould of necessity find themselves excluded from association with disciples. however. inspiration and counterfeit. ' .' The use of an anchor as a figure of hope was not new. where the ultimate restoration of the man is distinctly in view. O (figurative). that it recurs to his memory as the Epistle is being closed.' was a party whose irreligion was manifested by their cry Jesus is anathema 12^). cf Didache. while this kind of ostracism was a natural accompaniment of anathema from the beginning. and suggests the footnote of 1 Co 16^. Excommunication. 241 ff. and condenses his indignation into a curt dismissal. come.' In such a place again the word cannot denote official ecclesiastical censure. So much is the Apostle affected by this dishonour done to his Lord. These difficulties are reflected in the various renderings of and 11 V. for it is found in pre-Christian Greek and Latin authors.' though the expected Parousia is not a recurring feature of the Epistle. devotional rather than minatory in its character and intention. but never the breath of the Holy Spirit. Between those two extremes there are many halting-places. Paul sets up the great antithesis between real ' . on the passages cited. and is confirmed by the usage of the next generation . Constitutions. . mined by his real relationship to Christ. In course of time anathema came to mean excommunication. as in 1 Ti 1-'" and 1 Co 5*.^^ is not repeated in v. 6. ' ' . In the original the word 'hope' of v. and eventually expanded in great detail. the refusal to have anything more to do with him until at least some signs of a newborn love for Christ are given. both the meaning of the words and their relation to the context have been subjects of controversy. Hope has power to keep the soul from wavering in times of storm and stress. ' ' See also artt. before he closes a letter or group of letters. If it be taken as an assertion. whether one of his own colleagues an angel from heaven. and rules for their treatment were prescribed (1 Co S^. Let those who do not love the Lord fear and be ' probably. That would explain the absence of any attempt to translate it from the vernacular. But. If any one loveth not the Lord. They were in a sense within the (1 Co Christian community. to whatever extent Jesus was degraded therein. The Spirit of God is the author of any confession that Jesus is Lord ecstasy or even demoniac possession may be pleaded for the assertion that Jesus for His teaching is destined to Divine destruction. Over against the party of which the watchword was 'Jesus is Lord. W. Free association with him would be no longer possible. Tit 3i». any conduct or teaching that dishonoured his Lord. ' which we have ' ANCHOR AV • For anchor in the literal sense see art. for which sanction was found in the Pauline use of the word. It is really an antithesis to the prayer for grace in Eph 6-^ the handing over of the unloving man to Satan. see iii. . 26. 1 P 4^ Rev 222o. HDB assertion.v. Execration and not official discipline is the dominant idea. some exegetical difficulties have to be faced in determining the extent of its application in the passage. s. or. As to the addition of Maran atha. ayaSe/na . Strictly rendered. the word itself implied a certain relation to God. to which he has just referred in the preceding verse. as an anchor drops into the sea and catches hold of the unseen bottom. Simple and beautiful as the figure is. with the censure of the Church as a corollary. X. was not the main thought. and the insecurity of each of them is in proportion to its remoteness from the confession of Jesus Christ as Lord. Or. For a discussion of the Aramaic phrase. The figure would naturally suggest itself to any one who reflected on the nature and power of the faculty of hope. Twice in 1 Cor. vii. and the NT Comm. they had been so familiar with the evil inspiration that swept them along to the worship of 'dumb idols' (12-) as to be disposed to plead inspiration for any tongues or doctrines of their own. and there is no need to trouble further with these men.' with parallels in Ph 4*. Discipline. with related questions. HDB — K. Maran atha. For it is of the essence of hope to reach into the future and lay hold of an invisible object. It is either an ' LrrERATiTRE. and the use which this writer made of an anchor to represent the hope of the Christian soul at once transformed the figure (as the Catacombs bear witness) into one of the dearest symbols of the Christian religion. and had supplanted the earlier The Lord is risen. in the writing of which his pastoral heart must have been pained again and again. that they were prepared to renounce Jesus and even to denounce Him rather than to confess His Godhead and submit to His claims. and considered simply as a little prayer. and by the apparently absolute incompatibility of that belief with their fundamental conviction of the unity of God. in which the normal yearning of the Apostle expresses itself. a spiritual condition with which God alone could deal.' But the term is better detached entirely from the reference to anathema. for He is at hand in triumph. introduced into the Church from some form of paganism. That such teaching reflected also on himself would be a matter of little consequence but Clirist was sacred to him. 3. The sudden way in which the expression is introduced suggests that it had already become a popular form of something like greeting in common use among the disciples.^". See artt.

It ' sure. x. Juxias. Expotitor. Belation of St. : dTrdcTToXos is 3.' he means to say. son's .^." and so died' ' ! The name Andronicus occurs in inscriptions belonging to the Imperial household (see SandayHeadlam.— The passages in the apostolic wTitings in which angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways.^). But the other NT writings have not been so fully examined. p.— 1. very end. ' ' ' anchor of the soul. and the three Epistles not at all. 2. This is really a mixture of metaphors the metaphor of — brought honour. Clement. who said ' that there is no resurrection.—S. makes the anchor. that is the ultimate foundation of the Christian hope. Two interpretations of this phrase are possible ' : (a) well-known and honoured by the apostles. to determine whether mascuUne or feminine. In Ph 2^. and it is the more remarkable that the other Johannine writings have so few. and it may have also brought responsibility and obligation to serve on behalf of the community (cf. The latter.' The angels as heavenly beings. Cf. 140). The meaning in these cases is evidently literal.a\drrovs fJ. 3rd ser. The liteFal meaning of S. RV. Lk 727 (from Mai 31 but not from LXX. on Hebrews. Heroes. The HDB . to conclude that he means to say that the anchor is although a remarkable expression (and all the more so if the second name is that of a woman). by supplying hope at the beginning sure and stedfast apply to of the verse.) as an 'early' or 'original' . . is so far supported by the fact that aa(pa\7j and iSepalav (lit.— Saluted by St. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in that it is unnecessary to do more than refer incidentally to it here and the angelology of the Gospels has been treated at length in DCG (see Literature below). steadfast. and another metaphor by which the Holy of Holies becomes a type of that world unseen. lit. 5 (6)]). Andronicus and Junia(s) are said to have been in Christ before me (ol /cat vp6 i/xov yeyovav ev Xpi(rT<^). a Greek name). The only relative of St.' limits the figure to a declaration that hope is an as ANGELS 01 — ' ' ' ' Apostle's captivity at Rome. 96). 422). neither angel. and note on (4) p. Yet some of the Jews rejected all belief in them. Have you hope ? "pointed upwards with his finger. disciple in Ac 2V^. On the other hand. almost certainly not relatives. Gal. translated 'messenger. who is the beginning as well as the end of all things (cf. Angels are creatures. There are frequent references to the subject in Hebrews.^i. of John's messengers in Lk 72'*. C A. ANDRONICUS (AvSpoviKo^. It is probably right. Seniority of faith was of importance in the Apostolic Church. (3) The pair are further described as of note among the apostles' {iivLa-qixoi iv tois dTrotrroXots). Go read where I cast my first anchor ' with reference to our Lord's intercessory prayer in Jn 17. case. the figurative faultiness of the language is more than atoned for by its rich suggestiveness as to the Christian's grounds of hope with regard to the world to come. p.^^). Paul known to us is a nephew 2316). the Holy of Holies. LiTERATUEE. Paul to Jewish Thought. but see 2 Co ll^s]).' The only other mention of fellow-prisoner is in a description of Aristarchus (Col 4'") and Epaphras (Philem ^). and this sharply divided the Pharisees from the Sadducees. through. Paul in Ro 16^ his name being coupled with that of Junias or Junia. Of these the Apocalypse. as the Jews had always taught (Thackeray. possibly members of the same tribe. John Knox on his death-bed calling to his wife. and it is the object of this article to consider them particularly. 2 Co 8^3 ANGELS. Therefore they may not be worshipped [ib. when they asKed him at the He lifted his finger. In the Gospels dyyeXos is used of John Baptist in Mt 1110. therefore. by inserting a hope immediatelj' after soul. (6) notable or distingiiished as apostles. But. which.' is found only once in the NT outside the Gospels in Ja 2^. but. p.* (1) The pair are described as my kinsmen (toi)s (r\r/yeveis . —The Comm. 45 fl. as thus it is name occurs in the accus. This last interpretation has given rise to one of the difficulties felt in deciding the destination of these salutations.aov). David- L AMBEET. Romans^. they had become Christians before the conversion of Saul. and makes the three epithets 'sure. 'not failing' and 'firm') suggest that the idea of an anchor was immediately in the writer's mind. also his answer. Note the prominence given to JMnason (q. as prisoners of war '). no book of the OT or the NT is so full of references to the angels. Ep^NETUS). it is used of Joshua's spies (in Jos 6^* [LXX]. but after the Captivity the doctrine greatly developed. It is the appearance of our great High Priest before the face of God for us. Cf. and saluta' ' tions are sent from three 'kinsmen' in v. The meaning may be that they had actually shared imprisonment with St.) j the worship of angels was . B. B. and of Jesus' messengers to a Samaritan village in Lk 9^2. both sharing the ' ' ' ' ' —From the earliest times the Israelites had been taught to believe in angels.' and 'entering' apply to hope itself and not to its symbol the anchor.' 'stedfast. viz. as enduring persecution for Christ's sake. my fellow-prisoners (ffvvaLx/J. the Pharisees confessed both (Ac 23"^). Allworthy. Paul (the only imprisonment up to this time known to us was the short confinement at PhUippi [Ac 16^. calls for special attention . as might be expected from the subject. esp. Mk 1". .e. See art. and by introducing a comma at this leaves it doubtful whether the anchor is also point to be thought of as entering within the veil. i. 1876. 1 Co 8^). 1902. and occasional ones in the Pauline and Petrine Epistles and in Jude. Ep. The Fourth Gospel refers to angels only thrice (1" 1229 2012 5'! is a gloss [see below. is probably to be preferred. vindicates RV in making the three epithets hang together as all relating to one^(XT€i\ev'lT]aovs). They were created in. (Ac (2) Andronicus and Junia(s) are also described scope of this article. Another 'kinsman' saluted is Herodion (v. but fellow-servants [cvvoovKoi) with man (Rev 191" 22^). The most obvious construction of the Gr. J.yyi\o%. also has dyyeXos). 42 and see 1 Co le^^*also art. however. ' ' ' ' (Carlyle. 1872. They are not inferior deities. 92 fl'. in view of what the writer says at a later stage about the Most Holy Place with its ark of the covenant and cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy-seat (9^-) as a pattern of heaven itself where Christ appears before God on oar behalf (v. 150). which is referred to. an anchor entering into the unseen world to which Christian hope clings. This makes Andronicus and Junia(s) apostles in the wider sense of delegated missionaries (see Lightfoot. we read Toi/s KaraffKoirevaavTas oOs d. they were in that sense fellow-prisoners.A^DEOI^ICUS an anchor of the soul both sure and stedtast and entering into that within the veil' a statement which has been understood in two different ways. and entering into that which is \\dthin the veil. nor spirit' ' * It is impossible. whether compulsorily or voluntarily.v. AV.Yf^\oi= ' messenger.ov. T. ' AV Lastly. p. by which may be meant fellow-Jews (Ro 9'). Possibly they may not have suffered imprisonment with the Apostle at the same time and place . and unto Christ (Col l^^).

. though that he refers to earthly powers these may perhaps in some cases be included. They are numberless (Rev 5'' [from Dn 7"]. neither angel. [RVm. We . Lk 20^^). iiovala . 2^ (the world to come is not made subject to angels. ' ' ' ' ' Mk In the 1 Co dpxv. 1'^ (no angel set at the right hand of God). — ' . incorporeal powers. Hier.. Enoch. angels of power. and possibly 2 P 2'"'-. The name seraph perhaps means the burning one. there may be. and so in the resurrection life tliere is no marrying. cf. cherubim.e. The good angels are angels of light.. who divided the heavenly host into three divisions. 7) in the Secrets of Enoch (20) we read of archangels. 'equal to angels' [ladYyeXoi. 8^ dyyeXoi.di'eTai. 'glories' ('dignities'). 86 f. In I P 3-"^ angels and authorities and powers' are made subject to the 1-'. ?). the spirit the genus (Alford). if rulers of this world are the evil angels (see Demon). principalities {dpxai).*^. On the analogy of this list. Zee of ' — ' . . p. We 2'"- '^ Kvpidrris 1^^ o-pxh. St. cf. 3'" 6'^ apxo-i. xxiv. ' ' ' . But in Eth. seraphim. . 'myriads'.' The cherubim of the ark (Ex 25'^) are mentioned in He 9*. having stripped off and put away the principalities. i. ct. Very few names of angels occur in the NT. All angels are spirits. ). Paul's words may refer to tlie heavenly bodies' in the modern sense (RobertsonPlummer). e^ovaia. Ixi. KvpidrrjTes. .* non-Christian Jews are speaking. lordships. apxa-l-. There was a great tendency in later Jewisli writings to elaborate tlie angelic hierarchy. With these passages we may compare 1 P 3-^ angels and authorities and powers'. Some have thought that tiiey have a sort of counterpart of bodies.' Some have thouglit but. archangels. Eph 6'-) so. Colossians. a light shone in the cell (Ac 12^). and Ephesians no organized hierarchy is mentioned and sometimes the reference seems to be to the whole angelic band. thrones are referred to (Col l'" dp6voi. lest it should be thought that angels were of the same degree as our Lord. A. ?). Ezk P^). reverenced] both in this age and in that which is to come. xvi. Paul takes the ideas current in Asia Minor as to the ranks of the angels. principalities.(no angel is called the Son angels worship the Firstborn). In Is 6^ w e had read of seraphim in Ezk lU of cherubim. 3 (2nd cent. .' Tlie 'genealogies of 1 Ti I'* and Tit 3* are thought by some to refer to such speculations. ?). Rev 16^*. and some iSISS of ]\It 2o'*i 1 14^". perhaps 14^ 'ail ' so Th 3'^ Judei-* [see below. ' ' ' ' are not angels. It is explicitly stated in Mt 24^. both the resurrection and angelonly two categories are intended. c. made a little lower than tiie angels).' though the etymology is doubtful . Of (i^ovcrlai). The Christian Fathers and the heretical teachers greatly elaborated the angelic hierarchy of these perhaps the writer who had most influence was pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (de Ccel. made a show of them.' i. but to man v. passages in Col. of. '). Paul shows some impatience at the Colossian fondness for elaborating these divisions yet in the NT we find traces of ranks of angels.*) not to good men as opposed to bad (Clirysostom and others of the Fathers). dpxal. spirits of demons. and angels are thought by some to refer to ranks of angels if so. . though they knew worthless niysteries. cherubim.* the Pharisees are said to confess ' both. . ' .-ix. God says that He had not told His secrets even to His angels. when the angel came to St. Rev 12^) are named (from Dn 8'« 9-' 10i=*. for men will be as angels in heaven (Mt 22^". (2) powers dwdfieis 15'-'' .5« ANGELS dyYfXwJ' irav7)yvpei\). Peter in the prison. there can be little doubt that he is speaking primarily of Whatever powers angelic powers. in Eph P' he adds. A.they seem to be dillerentiated from 'spirits' ('no resurrection. St. and all the holy ones above. with the Greeks. also Ps 104^ They neither marry nor are given in marriage . lordships (KvpidrriTes). good and bad. Ranks of the angels. 5(a)]. B. in His Incarnation. 4. dvi/afxis). 3 (1st cent. powers. 19 for this idea in the Fathers see Lightfoot's note). In Romans. and every name that is named [ovo/j. ' — . the cherubim. ' . angels are not omnipresent or omniscient. that He. described in 1 Co 15'"' as celestial bodies' (Meyer. the higliest rank is 'angels. Mk 8^^. seraphim. with three subdivisions in each: (1) thrones. . vi.C. In the Secrets of Enoch (Slavonic).' who are 'greater in might and power' than the 'glories. . B. Charles. we may understand either that our Lord. and ophanim (rr'wlieels'. Eph 3'o (whether good or bad angels are there spoken of) it is implied in 1 P 1'^ (the angels desire to look into the mysteries of the gospel) and in 1 Co 2^^-. ^^ovcriai. ocpXV. i^ovcrla. in the latter passage they are spirits . where they are contrasted with flesh and blood (see also below). Ixxi. ' ' Mk . or to the post-resurrection human bodies (cf. Alford). The angel is the species. but does not himself enunciate any doctrine indeed. that He repelled their assaults. ascended Christ and so in Eph In Col 2'^ (an obscure verse). the Syriac-speaking ministry into three Churches divided the Christian classes. 500).shows that the Representative Man is meant. when principalities. (3) the holy angels only Gabriel (Lk 1'*.C.D. He 12--. But this is not so. powers. Angels are spirits (He !''• ^*). seraphim .^' 1 2' also have the proper names Satan (thirty). AA'GELS perhaps described as a 'festal assembly' one of the grave errors at Colossae (Col 2'*).' In Eph 3'" only evil angelic powers are referred to they are in the heavenly sphere (iv rois i-rrovpaviois) and so in 6^-. ' . Christ is Lord of all. But the complete subjection of the poweis of evil to Jesus will not take place till the end of the world (1 Co 15-^^-). IS^l The limitation of the angels' knowledge is also stated in Ethiopia Enoch. . So idolatry is described as a worshipping of demons (Rev 9-"). 'ten troops. i. the holy ones angels in 1 Ti —not Tliis is the meaning elect — '^ . angels of principalities. triumphing over them in the cross (so the Latin Fathers) or. Ignatius says that the virginity and child-bearing of Mary and the death of the Lord were hidden from {iXadev) the ruler of this age (Eph. In Jude ^ the archangel (jNIiciiael) is mentioned so in 1 Th 4'^ where Michael is doubtless meant. 10 (these chapters are of the 1st cent. sometimes to the evil angels. v. In v. etc. 5'^^ . as opposed to the powers of darkness (2 Co 11''* . i^ovcriaL . are mentioned (cf. which they recounted to the women (ed.^^) and Michael (Jude ». ' . 1893. putting off His bodj'. Here the evil angels are spoken of.e. who condescended to be. Eph Ro . Much emphasis is laid. on the fact that Jesus is immeasurably higher than they as in He 1*^. where the 'lordship' (RV 'dominion'). far above them all. But. nor spirit what if a spirit hath spoken to him or an angel?'). For their limited knowledge cf. must also remember that in v. though all spirits ' . 12-*). dominions. and Eph. ef. The unfallen angels are holy (Rev Lk 9-''. where the angels who fell in Gn 6* (so • sons of God are interpreted) are said not to have had the hidden things yet revealed to them. . each with three sub-classes. angels chosen to guard tiie Ephesian Church they are mentioned here because they will accompanj'^ our Lord to judgment or (Grimm) because thej' are chosen by God to rule. the host of the heavens. mights (dwdfieis) angels.D. dvvafiis. though this is perhaps improbable St. made a show of the principalities and the powers.e. P'or other divisions of angels in post-apostolic times see Lightfoot's note on Col 1"". for these are attributes of Deity. though they are spirits.' In Ac 23*^.

' i. App. {b) Toivards man. . 2 Th 1^ Rev 3") and this seems to be the most probable reference in 1 Th 3'^ with all his saints (or rdv ayiuv aiiroO) and holy ones in Jude " with ten thousands of his holy ones' (or 'with his holy myriads. i. six times). Paul alludes to this work of the angels in Gal P. nor because of the evil angels. ' ' ' ' ' and in Lk 1'^ (see above). as one who is higher than the angels. Job P 2^). Vel. cf. the 4th cent. the yovv avTi^ [Theodotion ' : ' . and Jn P^ [where the reference is to Gn 28^^]).' as Ambrose. the interpretation of the above passages as implying that the saints will themselves be judges at the Last Day is somewhat doubtful. and in Gal 4'*. 30.1» 282-6.vpLd(Tiv avroO /cat rots 0. 6^*).ej fght for man against evil. and retiecting the same stage of thought as Mk. who stood before the face of God. 20 (Uriel.). Saraqael. App.' iv d7t'ats fivpidcrtv ai>roC).) thinks that the latter reference is to 'just men made perfect. ministered unto him' . 9. as in Is 6^"''. Belial. and to be — sent to Zacharias. and Swete tliinks the reference is to the Agony in liturgic .«). He 22) . Lk 2230. but is certainly part of a 1st cent. where the seraphim worship before God. Cor. There may be a reference to these in Rev 1* the seven spirits which are before his throne' (Swete interprets this of the sevenfold working of the Holy Spirit) .??':.. — the Judgment they will be the reapers of the harvest (Rev i4''-i9. Wis 38. This is the office of angels which is most prominent in the NT see Ac 7^^(Moses) 8^« (Philip) W. in His nature. NT : ' ' — ' . 1^* . Eth. 1 Jn 4'. They worship God in heaven (Rev 5"^ 7" S^"* cf. . 24]). but cf. not because of the clergy who are present. 128£-. The angels are spectators of our lives 1 Co 4^ ' a spectacle (eiarpov) to angels . in /oc. They are the 'armies sent out by the King in the Parable of the Marriage of the King's Son (Mt 22').22.7/015 airroO. as Christ Jesus himself.] has Sariel for Saraqael. ii. ANGELS They ministered 59 to our Lord on earth. Enoch. To l2'2-i6.' For this function in the Gospels see Mt I'-^o 2'». to see whether they are true or false. after the Temptation in the wilderness (Mt4". 8^ the seven angels which stand before God (cf. Ignatian interpolator. He 13^ (reference to Abraham. This was a common ' RV . ' ' ' ' : ' ' ' ' . . Cornelius) IP^ (Peter) 12^-" (Peter in prison) 23» (Paul) 27"^ (Paul on his voyage). and on earth (Lk 2'^'-) they worship the Firstborn when He is brought into the world (He 1*). The words in Jude are certainly to be understood of the angels. v. Outlines of Chr.20^ etc. nineteen outside the Gospels). Many other names are found in see D. etc. For the presence of angels at worship cf.' In Jewish thought there were angels of the presence.' who are said to judge. nor yet because the angels do so. but. {DCG ii. Ephraim Syrus. Gabriel .e. Life and Times. xiii. (a) Toioards God. in loc.21 244. as all men will themselves be judged (Ro 14'".D. see Demon. p. Com. standing by Him (Clem.' Avith a reference to Gn ei*-. Function of the angels. see RobertsonPlummer. 19. Ps 68'' . 1' 22«).so (Peter. Rev 141"). 57"). Michael. Th. or to be 'brought with' Jesus at the Judgment (1 Th 4^^ Mt 19-8. 7 cf. i. where there is a climax ' as an angel of God. . 9. The attendance of the angels on the Great Judge is mentioned in all four 8=*8 13^7. At death the angels carry the faithful departed to Abraham's bosom (Lk 1622). . ' Mk Jewish belief (DCG i. In Mt 26^ Jesus says that angels would have ministered to Him. as Tertullian [de Virg. tradition it human Mk i| : . op. Philad. p. and in Lk 1'*. — Gethsemane [^Ascended Christ. Enoch. 1900. 26. Stone. 35 o^. and this is perhaps the meaning in Ac 7^. 34 . . (Xetroi'PYtKct irvevixaTa. They will attend on the Son at the Last Judgment (1 Th 416. Kafael. The presence of angels is not mentioned in Ex 19. 16»-^ Lk 111. which suggests that they must be proved. towards God and towards man. The present writer has argued for its being older than Lk. 1 Ti 5^' in the sight of God and Christ Jesus and the elect angels 1^. 356 f.i** 20^-^).g. 1910.. Paul and the writer of Hebrews argue from this the superiority of the Gospel as being given without the interposition of created beings (Lightfoot on Gal 3). and this makes the similar interpretation of 1 Th 3'^ more likely. . St. Beelzebub (Gospels only. They are viessengers of punishment (Ac 122* [Herod]. Raguel.19"». 162). minister {XeirovpyoOcriv) unto His will. They are messengers to man.AJ^GELiS one times. within the veil (Edersheim. before the throne of God the whole host of His angels . [e. and Jeremiel in 2 Es 4^^ (the last book perhaps is to be dated c. witnesses of the risen Christ. P^ not in Lk. and are witnesses of the Incarnation (1 Ti 3^® 'seen of angels' but Grimm interprets arf/{\ois here as the apostles. p. 90). The angels do service {^MKovla) to man as heirs of salvation (He 1^*). They were the mediators of the Law (Ac 7^. and at Gethsemane (Lk 22-*2 this may not be part of the Third Gospel. p. cf.' the highest ' order of the hierarchy. St. ). in loc. and frequently in Rev. p. the Gr. To this heavenly worship there seems to be a reference in 1 Co 13^ 'tongues of angels. § 2). Gal \^% They are helpers of our worship. * ' powers of God '). nay. Their presence at Christian worship is a reason for decorum and reverence (1 Co 11"*: a woman should be veiled in the assembly of the faithful because of the angels . veil themselves before their Superior [Is 62] . Com. the angels 'look into' 1 P 'glance at. The NT represents 5. ''• : Mk . —The angels are 'liturgic spirits' He . ^nd of judgment (Rev S^^- At . 2 Co 5'"). cit.e. . Life and Times.23. Both these aspects are found in He 1'^ (see below). when Judas betrayed Him. 124"]). 40).' or jjerhaps 'pore over' (see Bigg. where Gabriel is said to stand in the presence of God. Jq 1229 20^2 here we note that the angel of the Lord in the NT is not the same as the angel of Jahweh in the OT it merely means an angel sent by God. 67]. Rev 12". Dn 7'" iXeiTOvp- the version in our Gr. Lk 92« Gospels (Mt 13« \&'^ 243i 25«. under Michael (Jude».'*) Mt 18"* in heaven [the little ones'] angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven . This office of the angels does not exclude the Divine message coming directly to man (Ac 9* 22^ 26". this seems to be the meaning. Jewish writings Dogma. it was emphasized by the Jews as extolling the Law (see Thackeray. Ps 138^ and Vulg. in Greek. fragment [Charles. the angels as having a double activity. London. * ' ' (Rev 22«. 17]. Lk 2'^ not in He I222 where fivptdaiv is translated 'innumerable hosts'). They offer the ' prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar (Rev %^^-). In the Apocrypha we have Raphael in To 12'^ Uriel in 2 Es 4^ 5=0 10-». as spirits must be (1 Co 12'". ' LXX Three =". where the words are quoted from Enoch. the Chigi LXX has ^depdvevop avrdv) . and one of them is sent to the prophet. But Milligan (Com. and Belial or Beliar (2 Co See Devil. for 1 Co 6* see 7 below). i. A. Primasius. Gal 3'". OT] for nj?!?. the text of the latter in the Gizeh Greek fragment being ffiiv tois {sic) /j.. No doubt the saints will rule with Christ ' ' could not have been invented by the scribes [see Westcott-Hort. their ministry is an ordered one.)— the Church and its Gospel they rejoice over the sinner's repentance (Lk 15'"). Rev 19'*) and a ' host {arpaTid. Rom. 13. Mt 133'-'. they are 'armies' {(TTpaTevjjuiTa.). they assisted at the giving of the Law. and adds Kemiel [ = Jeremiel]). . Dt 332. cf. Gn 18). 122 To 12'5 Eth. 38 Edersheim. had He so willed.

which is clearly symbolic. (Tertullian applies this text to Christian baptism. Satan is sometimes destroyer (aTroWijuy. xiii. ' here. 7". like that of the Temptation itself. as in any case a good angel must. I in loc. p. Angels of the Churches. In Colossians we find an elaborate angelology. and which in the case of the wicked perish and are carried 40). of creation. Rev 9''). (b) Comparison with the doctrine offalse teachers. and In the seven angels having seven plagues. but the angel sent by God to smite the people (the reference is to Nu 16. the angels guard men from evil. In the both good and evil angels are mentioned .. Ps 104*). could by its very nature have come only from our Moreover.) or Apollyon (Rev 9". Sir 17") . of water (l&''«. Tertullian thought that the soul had a 'figure. 9). then fallen angels ' ' 19"-".— In Rev l^o 2'-8. though perhaps 1 Co 6' is an exception (see below).i. Gnostic. the Testament of our Lord (i. Passages in Eph. an angel of the Lord also troubled the water of Bethesda : ' ' ' ' ' (Jn 5*). 168. did not take hold of tlieir nature) . For Rabbinical ideas see Thackeray. 4) seem to show that the Colossian heresy was known also on the Asian seaboard. tentatively. (c) They are thought to be ideal personifications of the Churches. and the people assembled in the house of Mary the mother of Mark thought that Peter. According to some interpretations.) taught that the world was not made by God. In the end Satan is bound.and Jn 5*). the angels come to the earth to fetch Lazarus' soul (Lk 16^-) and to reap the Harvest (Mt 13»». Metaphorically the 'stake in the flesh' is called an angel (messenger) of Satan (2 Co 12^).. see Westcott on He 2'8. Against such teaching St. if so. Oesterley (SDB. Marshall maintains the complete identity of teaching between Jesus and the Evangelists. an 'inner man. cit. the pouring out of the bowls. either delegates to Patmos or the bishops or presbyters of the Churches. The difficulty is the sin ascribed to these angels. difi'erent from the outer.' unto the Lord (3'^. Co7n.*^). Perhaps also in the assertion of the unique mediation of Christ lies the significance of the rhetorical passage in which St. and forbids the worship of angels because it denies this. 16'"". but the inference is that his angels fall with him. a good angel is to be understood unless the context requires otherwise. good or bad. Air. and this is expressly said in Mt 25*'. It is an ancient idea that each human being. cf. which stand before the Father of Light. and the mention of Jezebel {2^^: 'thy wife' in some MSS). and Ederslieim. 6. Rev 3'*). angels.]). Paul says that angels will be judged by men (1 Co 6^). — NT ' . op. but not used elsewhere in the Bible (see ' — : Robertson-Plummer on 1 Co lU'"). taught by professing Christians whom St. . but we find it more clearly in the 4th cent. i. which resembled that of the Colossian heretics. Church Order. 71 tf. In the unique mediation of our Lord lies the significance of the repeated phrases in the Lord. for good angels. who quotes it {de Bapt. ' ' ' to darkness to dwell. The account of the angelic ministry at the Temptation. They intervene on earth to help man an angel of the Lord' releases the apostles (Ac 5'^) and Peter (12'). App. Paul asserts that Christis the only mediator (Col 1'^'22 2^"'^). has allotted to it one or more special angelic guards. and the angel of the abyss. as Christ judges. the meaning must be that the angels bear the sins of the Churches as representing and guarding them.' a certain corporeity. This idea is to some extent confirmed by the Avords of our Lord about the 'angels of the little ones' in Mt 18'". partly attacks. on earth. 20').' Tliese angels represent the Churches what is said to them is said to the Churches (3-^ cf. of winds (Rev 7^ .v. rules over. It is true that in our Lord's words the work of angels on earth is not prominent. who share in that rule . probably African. cf. 54^) ' ' ' of fire (Rev W«). 5). Devil. It was a popular belief that these guardians took the form of the person guarded. so will saints. if this interpretation be taken. St. This Jewish conception was long retained by the Christians. (a) They are said to be angels as in the rest of the book. over w4iich he says an angel presides. The fall is mentioned in Jude^ 2 P 2^ and probably in 1 Ti 3*. Cerinthus (q. This view accords better with the later than with the earlier date assigned to Rev. ANGELS The Incarnation was not intended to help the angels. but yet one in the twofold condition' (de Anima. as AV. 1 Co 10'" the destroj^er (dXodpevrrjs) is not Satan. though some think that two different The Gnostic element shows itsects are meant. where no angel is mentioned ' ' . nothing is said of his angels. to help. while His disciples taught (as the Jews did) that they are — — where all men have figures of their souls. Jesus did not take hold' of.. and says that our Lord taught that the abode and work of the angels are in heaven. 15'). and. {DOG . cit. not here below. RobertsonPlummer interpret this verse. this is not quite the same idea. Lord's own lips. Jesus is the one beginning' (1'8 cf. Paul Their heresy was partly Jewish. called oXodpevTTis is 2 S 24'^). but by an angel. cf. or by a series of — ' ' ' ' .60 AIs^GELS § 2). For 1 Th 3'^ see above. Demon. as tt/'X'?. and to make angels emanations from God with an elaborate hierarchy of powers. self in the tendency to put angels as intermediaries between God and man. when escaped from prison. A . 7. Fallen angels. not having cannot be judged. as meaning that. must be meant Paul.' Similarly there are angels On the other hand. 14 . falls (Rev 18 and 20) . the angels (or. Yet in Col l^* God is said to reconcile thi-ough (the death of) Christ ' all things to Himself the whole universe material and spiritual (Lightfoot) .v. Comparison of apostolic and other teaching. or against the idea of angelic intermediaries when the world was made (see Lightfoot's essay on the Colossian heresy [Col.^. but it was not by delivering them from death (Alford) the fallen angels are not saved by Christ's death. Compare and contrast the following article. The strongest arguments for this view are the writer's usage elsewhere. See further. p. This leads us to the question of guardian angels. was his angel' (Ac 12'^). (above. originating before the time of Tertullian. cf. op. though we see them not' (Westcott. {b) They are thought to be earthly representatives of the Churches. or even every creature animate and inanimate. Abaddon (q. according to an ancient gloss.i2-i8 ^^\^Q Seven Churches are said each to have an 'angel. 31.'^). in Jesus' teaching. Paul says that no heavenly powers. in Cerinthus' teaching. etc. But in Jn 1" (our Lord is speaking) the order ascending and descending shows that the angels are already active on earth. Belial. To the present writer the latter view seems to be the right one. but. fallen. where it is ascribed to pride (see Devil. if the Last Judgment is intended. (a) Comparison with that of our Lord. be meant . 7. Various interpretations have been ofiered. but when the word angel* occurs alone. 8.). See art. can separate us from the love of God (Ro 8^^). and Babylon 5 {a). 32) contrasts Jesus' teaching with that of the Evangelists and other NT writers. On tlie whole the first view seems to be the most proliable. cf. of countries (Dn 10'3-2». ' Ex the 12-'*. Adversary.) Generally. later stage of angelological error is found at tlie end of the 1st cent. with the time of Domitian than with that of Nero. but cf.e. dominions. I'') things done by the Churches are said to be done by them.

x. and his angels (quotation from Rev 12^). Jubilees. 380).€Lv) angels (can. In Mk 16^ we read only of a young man in a white robe. The immediate successors of the apostles. they took the form of men to the mind. 142. 28). Paul found a congenial soil in Asia and Phrygia. 26 Hippolytus. T. vol. if they believe not in the blood of Christ. Paul's language about principalities. (c) Comparison with current Jevnsh teaching and that of the later Jtabbis. 1908 J. ' ( have free will (Dial. 21. but they transgressed through the love of women (Apol. and the former are said to be the holy angels of God. esp. are not. A. At the death of Herod (Ac 12-^) no appearance of an angel is necessarily intended. the references are few. and its members were not allowed to divulge their names to outsiders (Jos. p.. etc. are said to become angels after death (see above. In Mt 28^ the angel who rolled away the stone was like lightning. Lightfoot. ' . toNT. God is said to 8). in bright apparel (Ac 10^'^). The apostolic teaching is quite free from the wild speculations of Jewish angelology. . 4). 35 .. In this case it would be equivalent to the dirda-roXot. B. who were ignorant of God the Mosaic Law was given by them (cf. Robertson and Plummer. but their array (rd^iv) came to naught. Hernias (for his possibly early date see Salmon. xxvi." [LXX] as addressed to the rulers appointed by God in the heavens (Dial. ' ' HE iii. tr. the latter are also holy angels. 1875) A. A ANGELS OF THE SEYEN CHURCHES.. which has led many modems to reject the doctrine of the existence of angels altogether. An angel troubled the waters of Bethesda for healing (gloss in Jn S'*). does not say that they all are so. based on St. One Jewish speculation must be The Rabbis taught that none heavens. Papias seems to date the fall of the angels after the creation of the world. ii. H. have sent to men a minister (vTryipir-qv) or angel or ruler (dpxovra). 5 [a). Angel' (almost entirelj' for OT) W. In Jn 20^^ temporary. do.) considers that St. Lightfoot. angels (Ligiitfoot. who is called the Devil and Satan. p. if . 4). see Hefele. A. referring to Gn 6^^-). do. 5. 7. and the J. 5): 'heavenly things and the ' ' ' . Paul also makes them all antagonistic to God.' To Cornelius the angel was 'a man . Thessalonians. ch.e. II. Paul to Contemporary Jewish Thought. B. Even in the 4th cent. i. But both heavenly and earthly beings can help man without being mediators. 4.. The teaching about angelic helpers. 106 ff. merely seemed to do so. (For differences between it and current Jewish ideas see Edersheim. Mt 28*. ' . iii. for the great dragon. we have in the a wise reserve. J. Thackeray.. ANGELS OE THE SEVEN CHURCHES 61 of the gi'ossest sort (Caius in Eusebius. art. op. . Colossiaiis and Philemon.) describes the building of the tower [the Church] upon the waters by six young men (cf. at the Council held at the Phrygian Laoflicea (c. 1900. as we see when one man helps another by intercessory prayer. If so. his raiment white as snow. It is unprofitable to ask whether angels took material bodies when they appeared to men or whether they fully. It is the proper jealousy for the One Mediator. are judged this seems to imply that their probation is not yet ended. who were created first of all . 17). art.<. 2. xiii. Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah^. The accounts of the angels who were seen after the Resurrection vary. as in a mirror. the glory of the Lord. 34. etc. 1906 B. At any rate.. .v. serm. Lightfoot-Harmer. view. 165). 36). appears to be untenable. Paul's dpxai. Angels. 151 f.D. while countless other men bring the stones . Eng. martyrs 1. . do. art. cit. 7 . above.iqaews) of the universe . do. Angels Commentaries. It was thought that new angels were always being created an idea derived from a wresting of La 3^' (Thackeray. Angelology was a favourite topic of the time but. Eefut. H. as it had been the face of an angel (Ac 6'^ so we reflect. 2 Co 3'**). etc. . In Smyrn. 141). The ' dispositions would be in the seven ' man. 330 f. of. Ign. 10. In the Epistle to Diognettis. though in some cases there was something about them that produced wonder or fear (Lk l^^. yea. xiii. 142 and App. ' . 12. 748 (Appendix. For an argument that the appearance of the angels was 'objective' see Pluminer on Lk I'l . He claimed to have had angelic visions. viii.' used in this connexion. 2. 4). which had a decided Gnostic tinge. See above. Stephen's face was filled with superhuman glory. op. ii. Lk 7^^ 9®^. Edinburgh. Ignatius says that the knowledge of angelic mysteries was given to martyrs (Trail. i. For Clement of Rome see above. li. 3. ii. 5 (b)). v. while affirming that some evil. Hehreusi.. Paul. Cerinthus is the link between the Gnosticism at Colossse and the developed Gnosticism of the 2nd century (for his doctrine see Irenjeus. Introd. 754). 6 it is said that the angels.). The fact that in the Apocalypse official. B. 521) says that to some of the angels God gave dominion over the arrangement (5iaKocrfj. Contrasted with these ideas. without examples of its being used to indicate ordinary 'messengers' (cf. the old serpent. A. Fathers. or contradicts the doctrine that Christ is the only Mediator between God and there are two angels in white. 87 . Apocalvpae of St. Speculations such as those attacked by St.). Swete.^^ 'vision of angels'). however. An elaborate may — hierarchical system and numerous names were invented for them (above. ' ' . Nature of NT angelophanies.ANGELS powers or angels. Thackeray (p. Apostol. who deceiveth the whole earth.a. Millig-an. 1906 G.' would be St. Christians are forbidden to leave the Church of God and invoke (6vo/j. in white apparel. which refuses to go beyond the things which are written. 3). Col. Edersheim. and on the idea that all the angels are the enemies who must be put under Christ's feet (1 Co 15^). few Jewish speculations — BJ A be mentioned. Col P^). that they opposed the creation of man and w-ere jealous of him (Edersheim. Papias (quoted by Andreas of Csesarea. NT We £KK\7]cnQv (2 Co S'^ . . the literature of the sub-apostolic period being very scanty. cit. Councils. In the Martyrdom of Polycarp.—The general practice of writers points to the conclusion that the word 'angels. In Ac 1" there are 'two men . Justin interprets Ps 24^.). who were in some sense the v. 317). Ph 2^). he contradicts the teaching both of our Lord and of the other But this Avriters (above. cit. powers are St. NT ' ' — Literature. Davidson in HDB. Mk 16^). . i. rulers. The Relation of St. p. i. St. London. delegates of one Church to another. in Apoc. was cast down. J. London. i. NT dispositions (ToirodedLas) of angels. F. Westcott. See also above. powers. NT noticed more of the angels was absolutely good.) Of Jewish speculations the most elaborate were those of the Essenes (q. seen and unseen' (cf. is employed to denote superhuman and celestial personalities. was cast down to the earth. and musterings of rulers ((rvaraaeis dpxovTiKds). Edersheim. To angels was committed the care of man and of all things under heaven. 1911. p. on the other hand. In Lk 24* there are two men in dazzling apparel (cf.). 9. and was a millenarian . but the six are superior to them Vis. 1 Corinthians. so potent an antidote to materialin no way asserts that we are to pray to God ism. — A. iii. through the angels. The righteous will become angels (Eth. ii. like men.. Hcer. 10). The angels taught Noah medicine (Book of 150). This Jewish sect had an esoteric doctrine of angels. John. op. etc. Ja 2^. See also Lightfoot.. 'Development of Doctrine in the Apocr3rphal Period. but this is largely a matter of dehnition. Maclean. 1900 (1st ed. Enoch. sitting. 1S97. Marshall in DCG.). Fairweather in HDB.' § iii. The dpxovres. vii.

Lightfoot. wraths {9v/xoi). for the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God (!"• ''"). on the NT). * Be not prone to . who finds cause for marvel at the care shown by God for men : ' forasmuch as He suffers Hia angels to be blamed and rebuked on our behalf ' {horn. Col 3*). 1904. again. On the other hand. bel (Rev 2-» cf. the messenger or plenipotentiary of the synagogue for. de Vir. while it is conceivable that the chief minister of a Church should be styled dyyeXot Kvpiov (cf.). If this use of the word by the author has led to confusion and obscurity. it is difficult to suppose that the writer intended the words to be understood as referring literally to angels who presided over the Churches. and we need not be surprised to find it applied to Churches in their corporate capacity by a writer whose teaching on the activity and functions of angels is so advanced. Condemnation of the abuse of anger is not wanting in the apostolic writings. in the period immediately subsequent to the Captivity. 52Ufl'. may not only be permissible but commendable. no doubt. cf. . 3 cf in Luc. 158). Taking into account the symbolism of the whole book and the obviously symbolic mention of Jeze- A Dn 10"". As we have already seen. under certain conditions and within certain limits. St. Paul fears lest he shall find these evils in the Church when he comes to Corinth (2 Co 12-»). slow to wrath. The same conception is attached to the expression by the 6th cent. and capable therefore of declension and punishment' {HDB .62 Ai^GELS OF THE SEVEN" CHURCHES ' Als^GEE. Human anger. the evils of human nature. ' ' § 6 of the preceding article. There is.' If we can accept the textual purity of the Ascension of Isaiah. even in a work as highly symbolical as this is. ANGER. R. of Isaiah. In supporting the contention that by the angels' of the Churches are meant the bishops. as God's steward. who in his commentary on 1 Ti 3^ adopts a similar interpi-etation and Socrates [HE iv. ' ' MixctTjX 6 dyyeXos. The passages adduced from the OT in support of this view are certainly irrelevant for. no valid reason to suppose that the author. or doubles.' of Parsiism. similar belief with respect to the guardianship of individuals is referred to incidentally as held by Jesus (Mt 18'"). 67). however. 1. shows that the author invariably employs it to describe a spiritual being attached to the service of God or of Satan. 23) describes Serapion as ' the angel of the church of the Thmuitse' (cf. it may not be amiss to refer to the remarkable parallel in the fravashis. Literature. can the contention be sustained that the expression had its origin in the office of the sMiah zibbur. v. strife. ). There is. attaches an essentially different idea to the word when he speaks of * the Angels of the Seven Churches. — art. supported by some Greek MSS. See the works referred to throughout the and the Commentaries on the Apocalj-pse. ad loc).' Even on the supposition that the Ethiopic version. and probably is. Its ready abuse has. illustr. ad loc).' we are confronted by the primitive identification of the Church and its angel (see Charles. JThSt iii. XX. the strange conclusion has been maintained that in the words Ty)v yvvaiKa [o-on] 'lej'dSeX (Rev 2-**) the author is referring to the Thyatiran bishop's wife (see Grotius. ]M. as they were refracted by the medium of Hellenistic culture and Hebrew thought. it is difficult to understand the application to him of the designation dyyeXos iKKXrjaias (Rev 2\ etc. The holy hands lifted up in prayer must be unstained with anger and strife (1 Ti 2^). these messengers were not permanent officials (see HJP II. are. iii. It is enough to say that the angel is the personified embodiment of the spiritual character and ethos of the Church. but becomes a complete spiritual counterpart of the nation or the church. where he mentions Serapion as * Thmueos Egypti u?-bis Episcopus '). The bishop must be blameless. is a correct translation of the original. as Schiirer has pointed out. Many ingenious attempts have been made to employ the expression as a collateral or subsidiary proof that episcopacy had already been established within the lifetime of the Johannine author. confronted with the difficulty of accounting for its presence here in a sense so completely different as the episcopal theory involves. a natural inclination to see in his use of the plirase a reminiscence of the princes of the Apocalypse . Willis. which is in the heavens. and the simple word Church is substituted for angel of the Christian Church. Compare and contrast iv.— Except by the stoical mind which finds no place for strong emotion in a moral scheme.pxo}v ^aa-iXelas UepffQv. Whatever the connexion between Persian and Jewish angelology and it is not necessary to insist on a direct borrowing it seems to be certain that. James bids his readers be swift to hear. p. In Christian circles. however. . The nexus may be. . jealousies. . St. not so mechanical and direct as J. The fravashi is no longer a being necessarily good. The Letters to the Seven Churches. 1892. anger has been recognized as a quality Avhich. must be regarded as inevitable. at least indirectly and remotely. apart from its connexion with the Churches. Perhaps the most curious feature of the letters to the Asian Churches is the way in wliich the writer expresses himself in terms of stern reproof ' An We 991" cf. ' ' or of encouragement to their 'angels. Jerome. Age. Dissertations on Apostol. Primasius the African {Com. it seems as if a relationship of some kind between the allied forces of Magianism and Zoroastrianism. but persons chosen for the time by the ruler to pronounce the prayer at public worship (cf. of Daniel (6 S. tliere is a remarkable parallel: 'the descent of the angel of the Christian Church. whom He will summon in the last days. the development of Hebrew thought. Parsi influence shaped. H. It ought to be pointed out that this theory is as old as Jerome. ' — — ' reflexions on Rev P". xiii. ' ' ' ' ' not self-willed. .). indeed.'-').) and Cassiodorus the Italian (Complexiones in Apoc. ii.' The objection to this difficulty is considered by Origen.. Annotationes in Apoc. there seems to be no interpretation more in harmony with the spuit of tlie writing than that which sees in this expression the personification of the characteristic spiritual tone and genius of each Church. Thefravashi of a nation or community is a conception found in three Avestan passages. Ramsay. commentators. led to its being commonly placed among — J. cf. examination of the use of the word iyye\oi in the NT Apocalypse. If we accept this conclusion as being most consonant with the general trend of thought throughout the writing. . 15. One of the marks of the greatest of Christian virtues is that it ' does not blaze forth in passionate anger {ov Trapoi^iverai [1 Co 13^]). therefore. Nor. The teaching of the early Christian Church recognizes both aspects. slow to speak. the reason lies probably in the limitations of that symbolism which was the characteristic vehicle of Jewish apocalyptic literature (see W. Asc. these angels of praise are to such a degree the recipients and blame would seem to put both these ' simple interpretations out of court. factions (Gal 5'-"). Milligan on Rev IQi-s in Scliatfs Fop. 99.) in their . all bitterness and wrath and anger must be put away (Eph 4*' . Hag P' and JNIal 2' see also Is 4-4-" and Mai 3^). 57-73). pp. Com. Among the manifest works of the flesh are enmities. Moulton seeks to establish. not soon angry (Tit 1'). in Num. in Apoc.

objection that anger. sudden violent anger' [Salmond]). provokes a vigorous anger (Ac IS'**. such as the resentment which. as one may rightly be. Peter to the face (Gal 2i'). due to Adam's sin. but expressions of the one attitude towards contrary sets of human circumstances.). The idea of the Divine anger this attitude of Deity towards certain courses of human life is a justifiable inference from the intuitions of conscience. The one Lord whose name is Truth and Love is. On behalf of the purity of faith St.g. was not in harmony with their conceptions of the Highest. Christian morality recognizes a righteous anger. physical trine. Paul's passion against the high priest (Ac 23^) as an expression of the Apostle's principles of non-resistance rather than as an acknowledgment of priestly rights. but the attitude of Christian ethics to this type is governed by the law of nonresistance laid down by the Sermon on the Mount.53» 7"'-). reverses of fortune. 2). 1 Co 1'^ 5^ etc. One is tempted to ' certain principles and attitudes which no more depend for their quality on the element of agitation than the existence of steam depends upon the appearance of white vapour which we ordinarily associate with it. nor contentious. The wrath against which the warning cause. and does not necessarily indicate the disapproval of God (He 125'-). sciousness of the holiness of God it was inferred that there must be Divine displeasure. etc. prophets such From the conas Amos argued for coming doom. The turning away of the Divine anger. or anger in a lasting mood. The early preachers would have been poor souls had they been able to hide their indignation at the murderers of Jesus (Ac 313.' i.' On the other hand. Against the popular doctrine that misfortune indicated Divine dis])leasure. was felt by Jesus towards the Pharisees to the end of His life. ' Be ye angry and sin not. might.e. Paul claims that. must exist in God. 'for anger leadeth nor a zealot.' says the Didache (iii. although in a form which we cannot adequately conceive. Anger provoked by personal injury may have a protective value in a lower stage of tiie world's life. The Divine anger is actually involved in the Divine love (Tertullian. But there is an altogether different attitude when that which is to be defended is a righteous principle. This underlying quality we may attribute to the Deity. Men realized that tiie world. Christian character. anger seems to have been regarded as compatible with. ^ye may be lielped to some extent by recognizing that beiiind the human agitations of personality in love. ' (Ro 10-'). there are let ' ( ' — ' — observed. The worthy regard the apology which followed the momentary outburst of St. because of this. we try to conciliate' (1 Co 4'-). The Epistle to the Galatians is a piece of passionate writing. a consuming flame to wrong (He lO^i 122«). seeking to hinder a work of gxace. The obvious danger of mistaken zeal for a cause or creed must. The violation of the law of brotherly love. Yet even in early times the idea of the Divine anger did not rest wholly on the facts of human suffering. owing to our inability to realize absolute conditions. for murder also is the outcome of : ANGER is ' 63 these. Paul has drawn attention. then. nor to murder quick-tempered. pestilences. and later. manifest in the anger of Mt 5^^. Divine anger.' But we may allow and must do so unless we are prepared to deny personality in God— that the quality. when persecuted. (cf. which we find expressed under human conditions as the righteous anger of a good man. when reviled. and a note of indignation runs through the later chapters of 2 Cor. There may be a zeal for God. e. as they found it. with the commercially-minded.ANGER anger. the sorcerer. But even legitimate anger may readily pass into a sin.6s a noun which differs from op-yT] in denoting.. The case of St. not according to knowledge ' ' ' Martensen. pity. Did not. etc. when no ethical cause could be recognized. and thus in times of prosperity. Could Peter well have been calm with Ananias and Sapphira Ac 5'). Two — — — . unlike love. according to this theory. The chieftain punished those with whom he was angry. when slandered. we bear it patiently . etc. is commended by him (2 Co 7"). Similarly. in the series of woes. Hence the calamities. Elymas. however. whatever the Self-control is a cardinal Christian virtue. Paul's early life provides an illustration (Gal P^. We should hesitate to acknowledge a man as morally and spiritually great who could remain unmoved in the presence of the world's wrongs. 2 S 21^ 24. Augustine. provoke a legitimate wrath. to have been — '•* ( given seems indicated by the following clause not the sun go down on your Trapopyta-fj.). defeat in battle. we bless . let him be accursed dvadeixa {\ Co 16'^). St. the author of Ecce Homo claims. or the one who preaches a false gospel. Human suffering has educative values. here expressed only in finite and conditioned forms. religious adventurer. do not allow the passion to become an evil by its excess. if angry. Man must return good for evil. and the Neo-Platonist theologians generally. but another and an unsound argument ' ' — played a part in the historical formation of the docIn the early stages of religious thougiit the conception of the wrath of God would naturally come to men's minds from contemplation of the ills of human life. and indeed expressive of. In these instances. The section of the Sermon on the Mount which teaches that whosoever is angry with his brother is in danger of the judgment (Mt 5-^'-) is primarily aimed at something other than passion it is an emphatic condemnation of the spirit wliich despises and seeks to injure a brother. The man who does not love the Lord Jesus. indicate the displeasure of Deity (Jos 7. JSIost minds must have felt the objection expressed by Origen. however. The ills of life especially death suggested later a world lying under a curse. not the disposition of anger. indignation. Passions beyond the control of the rational self can hardly be justified. a weaker brother. or the faith or ethical standard of the Church. 2. leave retribution to God (Ro \2^^-^'^). either by direct action or by withholding his protection. have their perfect and unconditioned being (Lotze). terrible in intensity of language. would indicate God's contentment with His people. show kindness to his enemy. the Book of Job is a protest. but exasperation. pronounced by Jesus against the scribes and Pharisees (Mt 23^^'*'). There is no reference to deliberate indignation on a matter of principle. be kept in mind.)? Such misfortune. Simon Magus (S'^"'*)? A certain principle of discrimination seems. which. that A\e cannot treat the Supreme as a magnified man and attribute to Him such perturbation of mind as is suggested to us by the term anger. apostolic caution of Eph 4-'*. is unof the highest moral personality (Marcion) may be met by the answer that Divine love and anger are not two opposing principles. Paul resists St. Ph 3''). Anger at personal insult or persecution was discouraged.^^). indeed. thus following the example of Jesus (1 P 2-^). Paul burns if another is made to stumble (2 Co 11-"). the Church at Ephesus is congratulated on its hatred of the Nicolaitans (Kev 2*^). St. the violation of tabu) and of nonethical propitiation. The indignation (ayavaKTrjais) of the Corinthian Church against the guilty person in the case of immorality. to which St. would encourage the doctrine of unwitting and non-ethical offences {e. in whom life and

). in addition to repentance. the teaching of Jesus is not favourable to the view that legal right claims a compensation beyond repentance. in accordance with prophetic teaching. prayer. as that of repentance unto remission of sins. the description of the preaching of the Baptist. Sacrifice '). and. during the persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes. ' ' NT The difficulty in the doctrine of propitiation does not lie in the fact that no ultimate distinction can be made between the Power to whom propitiation is offered and the God of love who offers it. From this point. the Acts. even as early as the 8th cent. If men had not been selfish. The teaching of the Acts of the Apostles agrees with that of the Synoptics. One of the seven brothers. there was a upon by tendency to assert the need of supplementary' means in order to bring about the reconciliation of God and man. and men's — The justification of this law of sacrifice Ever by losses the right must gain. art. although He did teach that the spiritual ministration involved sufi'ering and sacrifice. but towards men. The death of Jesus may also be regarded as part of the penalty of human sin. He rises from the dead. Jesus is. Paul.' which. we must accept the paradox that the same God who works under the limitation of law ordains the law which limits Him. The passage of the Suiiering Servant' (Is SS'*'. not of purchase or compensation. (' ' ' Mk ' displeasure or opposition. since Adam. But. In order that love may have significance. which is doubly terrible since the sufi'ering which it creates falls upon the just as well as upon the unjust. 4 Mac ju 924 j'j'20-22 jg4j_ These passages supply an interesting link between the old Leviticism and the doctrine of the sacrificial death of Jesus. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit a broken and contrite heart He will not despise (Ps 51"). Ro 3^ 5^.' whose dues the death of Jesus was conceived as satisfying. B. and as an equivalent for their life {avTlxpvxov) take my own' (cf.' nor can we be satisfied with a presentation of an angry God. 1 P l^*. who. .). Lk 23'*^) is that forensic conceptions are altogether inappropriate in the religious sphere. and representative of the rest has no longer dominion over Him Ro 6^). the wrath of the Almighty may be appeased 4 Mac 6^ gives a prayer. Jn p9. Let my blood serve for purification.. l'^-". 2 S 24i«'). Jn 3^^. are but a thinly disguised form of God's retribution for Adam's sin. bringing about in them a repentance which makes possible their harmonious relations with the Father. or in the primitive view of sin as having a material existence of its own which called for an appropriate ritual treatment beyond the mental change of repentance. fasting. pardon follows repentance (cf. The Preacher']) is that it makes possible the expression of moral qualities.' 1*). St. He is able to bring about a change in the hearts of men. Every good have its birth of pain' [Whittier. etc. Paul also holds the idea that the — gression. Atonement in JE). This dark law that the innocent must suffer tlie results of transgression along with the guilty has an educative value in demonstrating the evil and disastrous nature of sin.""•) suggested. The — — . But these world-powers of darkness. the atoning value of the sufferings of pious men] which attained wide development in later times and constantly meets us in the teaching of the Jewish synagogues' (0. described as a 'Saviour. ' Elements . The Resurrection is a sign that Death one of the elemental principalities and powers. the sins of an evil and adulterous generation fell upon Him. etc. and especially the sutierings of the righteous. Paul must be satisfied by the prior transaction of Jesus on the Cross.e. were regarded as substitutes for material sacrifices (see art. as labour and self-denial. have held the world under their grievous rule (HDB. Harmony witli God is a matter of attitude. indeed. St. In virtue of race solidarity. p. The conception may have originated in the practice of oflering a propitiatory gift or leiral compensation to an outraged person (Gn 20'6 3213 cf.' but in the sense that He gives repentance to Israel and remission of sins' (Ac 5*'). (2 Mac 7^). It would ' . Whitehouse). The prophets of that period do not recognize the need of any means of reconciliation with God after estrangement by sin other than repentance' ' The stumbling-block ' ' of Jesus upon the to the Jewish mind (Hos 14-. ' Am became the Christian's boast. Independently of the interests of this particular doctrine. Paul follows the anti-legal teaching of Jesus in asserting that ' justification right relations with God depends on the new attitude of faith. there would not have been the tragedy on Calvary. The moral of the parables of the Prodigal and the Labourers (cf.' not on works but legalism with St. for conscience. or as a transaction with the world-powers of darkness. i. P'rom the period of the Exile. 95). a sacrificial operation was needful even in cases of moral trans5-'-"\ Is 6«-8). as directed not towards God. of a propitiatory value in the death of Jesus. Eng. and find the recon- * work of Jesus. for which ethical repentance was strictly impossible. the writers of the NT are strongly influenced l)y the propitiatory theory of the deatii' of Jesus. seem more satisfactory to follow the suggestions of the Synoptics and the Acts. or over those in faith union with Him. The doctrine of propitiation receives no support from the teaching of Jesus as given in the Synoptics. as recorded in this work. But we cannot accept the interpretation of the death of Jesus as an exalted Levitical blood sacrifice. Mic On the other hand. This demand of law is obviously not indicative of Divine uplifting. also Wrede. apathetic to goodness and justice. it must pay a price— must be written upon a hard resisting world. There is no hint in the early preaching of the Church. sometimes even more upon the former than upon the latter.64 AIs^GER Ais^GER upon the ignominious death Cross.C. The death of Jesus may be regarded partly as a ciling vicarious sacrifice of the order recognized in the Synoptics sufiering and self-denial for the sake of the Kingdom of God. prays that in me and my brothers. and the Epistle of James. attitudes in regard to this problem appear among the Hebrews. Jesus does not appear to have ever taught that reconciliation depended upon His own death as a propitiation (see DCG. while repentance Avas always insisted Israel's religious teachers. who needs compensation or some mollifying gift before He will turn away the fierceness of His wrath. Ultimately the propitiation is still made to God. How the sacrifice was regarded as operating is not clear the analogy of Levitical blood sacrifices was evidently sometimes in the mind of the writers (Ro 3-^. being more than man. art. a doctrine which seemed to throw light ' ' ' death of Jesus is a sign of His human submission to the elemental world-powers of darkness. although originally made in view of ceremonial faults. although the emphasis is drawn from the wrath of God to the love which inspired the propitiatory action (cf. But. or in the customs of Levitical sinotlerings. ' — — ' ( ' ' ' — ' ' ' . hj'pocritical. Is 53 is the earliest expression of a conception [viz. Moreover. almsgiving. so that the death of Jesus might be figuratively regarded as a 'ransom for many' (Mk lO*^*''^). 1 S 26i9. must have come to suggest that. 1907. before the Father will forgive. with the exception of the authors of the Synoptics. tr. Repentance and new life are the conditions of the restoration of the Divine favour.

Nor can a view of reconciliation held by the most sternly ethical of the OT prophets. and minimizing the grace of pardon. with its darker aspects. Eph 2^). Seeley. strengthen. and refresh the body . — (1 Th 4^'). Annas was deposed from the high-priestly office in A. monopoly arrest and examination by Annas Jn ( ' 18^*'-'*). retained office till he was deposed by Valerius — Heb. Dale. Lodge. If we must judge the anger of God from the righteous indignation of a good man. he retains the title all through the NT. 21-23 . a human instrument carrying out in this age the Divine retribution. 116. entered largely into NT thought (Mt 3^ 722. Tlie ANNAS 'A was. when the sinner seeks His face. the reference (Ritschl). . R. Literature.ANGER penalty of sin indicates the Divine displeasure towards sin. tribulation and anguish (v. Anointing was used in antiquity in three chief connexions: (1) as a part of the toilet. Avhich. treasuring up for himself wrath in the day of wrath (Ro 2*). — and 8 . do. 1867. ' The ' ' — ' ' . His wealth and that of his sons Avas acquired by the institution of the booths or bazaars of the sons of Annas. Talmud accuses the NT ' n.' Even where the Divine anger is described as having The NT Ro 5'. but to all his l^redecessors who were still alive. where the Divine anger is spoken of as the wrath of the Lamb'). 1S59.). vu 36fif. Bonn. [1883] p.' which enjoyed the ' Israel's still more ancient conception of the Day of the Lord. Jer 18**j. Eevelation). p. 274. Paul argues from the fact of present reconciliation with God that the saints will be delivered from the 'wrath of God. Derenbourg. Ananos]). Jesus of Nazara. The clouds were already gathering for that consummation which the Apostle was expecting in his own lifetime VOL. 465). ^vrongdoing. 1900. for obviously God cannot be conceived as being angry with innocent sutierers. prophetism had conceived a darker side to — Gratus in A. Redemption 0/ . Boyd. LT iii. : cl». BULCOCK. uniformly Both Josephus and the writers of the give the title ' high priest not only to the actual occupant of the office at the time. W. The phrase in Lk 3^ ' in the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas' is unique. 1900 7 . and bj^ the purest soul of the NT. I know what God Himself must be' (Whittier. Neither must we regard God as angry with a repentant sinner because he continues to reap what he has forgiveness of sin is distinct from the cancelling of its results. 15 (Jos. 1878 D. Rev IP* 6'®-". be considered as weakening the sense of sin. Eng. Lk 19''^) aroused the hostility of the priestly party and led to His .D. an avenger for (Divine) wrath. etc. 3). 57a]). Essai sur I'histoire de la Palestine. F. From the Fourth Gospel we learn that Joseph Caiaphas. That 'great and notable Day' (Ac 2-"). 1). ' ' ' ' ' sons of Annas of serpentlike hissings (or whisperings [Pes. and the provision of these days of grace modifies the conception of tlie Divine sternness The Law. The interview with Annas ( significance of dpyi) deoO is illustrated in St. S'**-. A. possible. . 1S99.^. Simon. Man:^. 31. 'merciful' [in ' OT The Day of Wrath. ii. 5) or on the Mount of Olives (J. or needing any propitiation to induce Him to forgive. 15. some historical manifestation of God's wrath upon the 21^ (i(pdaaev 5i iir aiiToi>s Th W. do. 2). From the last-named sprang (4) the use of terms of anointing in a metaphorical sense Jews has already taken place. Annas the son of Sethi.12. where (Jn 18^^"^) determined the fate of the prisoner. Lk 10'2. he was able influence. Literature. Keim. to exert the powers of high priest long after he was deposed. J. Jesus of Sazara. Paul may — regard such an indication of the Divine anger as the preliminary movements of the Day of Wrath. Man and the L niverse. by His reconciliation of man and God. Josephus. But the emphasis is upon the wrath to come. as we have seen. pp. These booths were situated either in the temple court (Keim. but Christ. chs. the high priest at the date of the Crucifixion. this interpretation. v. (3) as a part of religiouceremonial. 29. Justificaand Atonement. Their attitude towards Jesus and the apostles as revealed in the NT seems to bear out Although. Schiirer. His removal from office in A. vol. E. Probably the meaning is that they exerted private influence on the judges and perverted justice for their own ends. Ant. EcceHomo. ANOINTING. 6 or 7. . R. Gardner. Butler's Sermrms. Edersheim. we cannot think of His cherishing any vindictiveness. P. already had 1 its manifestation. appointed high priest by yuirinius in A.. r) may — really be eschatological The aorist of 6py^ els riXos) seems to indicate that. xvill. Josephus. Essays and Letters. 1866. 430. although genuine repentance would apparently avert the coming anger (Jl 2. when upon every soul that worketh evil shall be wrath and indignation. Edinburgh. XX.' in making transgression (Ro 9--). Edersheim. 8 and 9 . From the time of Amos. f:n. must run their ance course. tr. 2 Th P'-. Some of the Divine indignation may be manifested in the present operation of moral law the penalties experienced by the ungodly heathen seem to be part of the Divine wrath which is being revealed (dTroKaXv-n-Terai) from heaven (Ro 1'^'-) and. Josephus tells us that he was regarded as the most fortunate of men. [1886] 263 T. The Atonement'. cf. For human anger J. for he had five sons who all held the office of high priest {Ant. chs. to beautify. It is to this coming Dies Irce that the actual term wrath of God [opTfT] Tov deou) is almost uniformly applied by NT writers. but St. 1.— See Eschatology. de Ira Dei. HI. In Ac 4® Annas again appears as the head of the party who tried the apostles and enjoined them to keep silent about the Resurrection.D. Tolstoi. according to 13^ the temporal ruler punishing evil-doers is a minister of God.' i. and probably Annas was the chief instigator in compassing the death. Am for the sale of all kinds of sacrificial requirements. . 275. moral The sinner is law only imperfectly operates. ' The important and induential position held bj' Annas even after his deposition is proved by the fact that it was to him that Jesus was first sent before He appeared at the more formal tribunal of the Sanhedrin Jn 18^^).e. 'worketh wrath' (Ro 4'^). but not necessarily towards those who pay the penalty. ANOINTLNTQ 65 tion O.' In the present age. ix. (Gr. W. do. One's trust in the forgiveness of God rests upon the sense of the divinity of human forgiveness By all that He requires of me. was a son-in-law of Annas (Jn 18^^). . 1867-1882. in accordwith educative moral law. (2) medicinally . 15 did not by any means diminish his Being extremely wealthy. Antiquities. Exploraiio Ecanijelica. LT i. Repentance before the Day of Wrath will save one fi'om the coming doom (Ac 2-^ ^' **. The words of Jesus regarding the unholy traffic (Mt 'iV^. H. pasHm. I. vi. Ritschl. delivers the believer from the 'wrath to come' (1 Th 1'" 5®).D. A. GJV* ii. and may be accounted for by the fact that the combination had become so familiar in connexion with the history of the Crucifixion that St. ANNIHILATION. so^vn. Luke couples the two together here (Ewald. involved in the results of others' sins. 1908. in the Apostle's judgment. London. [1907] 256.D. It would be a time when human much of which was apparently overlooked in this age. as well as to all the more influential members of the families from which the high priests were selected. 270. would receive its sure reward.

Galen (Med. of his full Apostleship. and. and in Mk Mk 14^ and the 16'. 8) must not be pressed into an advocacy of it as a panacea against all forms of disease. And it seems probable tliat something of this sort 6'^. of anointing. 1 Co 9'-). and was no doulit employed because of the open and running sores on his body. where Enoch. tion from anomting by the Essenes (Jos. AliSWEK ing dead bodies are found in imparting of the Divine Spirit. space given to these apologice and j)ersonal rejoinders is remote from our modern habit of mind.' but that does not mean that he would have advocated the indiscriminate use of oil in cases of sickness due to various causes.66 A^OmTING parallels. Paul. 3). and to the demand that as a Roman citizen he should be tried before Ca?sar. and so the grace of the Holy Spirit.. Jn and in Mt 6" anoint thy head. In 2 Ti 4'^ St. Instances of the second occur in Jn 9'" ". V^). Jameni. whose authority rested upon anointing. literature there cited.g. e. anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. RV . he migTit have been set at liberty. In Is 1* and Lk 10^^ oil is used as a remedy for wounds. and that he was a ringHis leader of the Sect of the Nazarenes (24^). Rd. Xoyiofxai.. 5). 1906.crroixew) the Jerusalem that now is' . Philo's praise of oil for imparting vigour to the tlesh [Somn. are those which speak of tiie Christian answer or 'defence' (so usually in RV) against critics from within or without the Church (dTroIn the life of St.g. of being rude of speech (11"). if he had not appealed to Ctesar. which evidently inspired certain obscure references St. and the — EBi . for the development of the doctrine of Extreme Unction in the Church. Kautzsch. ii. ii. ii. Berlin. With these instances may be compared the remarkable answer of St. the kings.' and Ja 5^* Is any among you sick ? let him call for the elders of the church and let them pray over him.g. The charges brought against him were that he had incited the people to sedition (24^ 25**). 442) as a protest against the priesthood. not the act. 212) as a part of an attempt to return to the simplicity of nature . xxxiii. p. his 'answer' or apologia before Felix (Ac24'''^*). and leave it to be understood that the apostles in the Gospel and the elders in the Epistle are thought of as making use of the simplest healing remedy known to them. and wash thy face. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . 'Anointing' in ERE. but that all men forsook him (cf. lie 1" (OT quot. 659). awSKpccns). Herod in his last illness was placed in a bath of warm oil (Jos.' and are generally found in Mk 6'* they anointed with oil manj' that were sick. e. and is purged from earthly passions. Paul's answers to those who denietl his Apostleship. 3. It is uncertain whether the speaker is Christ or the Christian.. A ' knowledge (11''). See the artt. The use of anointing in religious ceremony was very varied. Ja 5'"*. of :St. The same metaphorical !ise is found in 2 Co l'^^ He that hath anointed us is God' and in the passages in which Ciirist is spoken of as having been anointed. or at least the most characteristic and polemical portions of then). and of other things not mentioned. diroXoyia). 4. whether to the Messiah or to the Christian disto signify. Of probably even greater interest than these defences before civil tribunals are St. corresjionds with. of his com])etency to utter forth the gospel from fullness of ' ANSWER.' cri. and of his abundant suii'crings and The large self-denial for the sake of his converts. to the conciliation of his judges. such as the charge of being mean in appearance (lU^"'"). Rev 3''^ 'eyesalve to anoint tliine eyes. is anointed with holy oil. EBi.' duTtXeyu) in Gal 4^' again' (AV this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and anstvereth to (i. SDB. e. pp. ) ' — HDB Mk ' ' the very large number of occurrences of this word in the common sense of * reply (a-n-oKplvofiai. of being a visionary (12^). Allusions to a custom of anoint' ' Lastly. That is to say.' 2. when carried into the presence of God.).' may be referred to liere. Mayor on Ja oi'* (Ep. Stephen before the Sanhedrin (Ac 7). viii. Paul we have.^. that he had profaned the Temple (24**). BJ .-\ 1894. but having made the appeal he could no longer withdraw. e.). B. Enoch (22'*). but consecrated the patient to God. examples be found in the anointing 12») of the Lord's feet ' (Lk 7^. and before Agrippa (26'*^). however. 233. reference should be made to the abstenII. and healed them. BJ I."^. by Bousset (Bel. Temp. of the Divine Spirit (see E.' his anointing reacheth you all things. 1910). defence was skilfully directed in each case to the rebutting of the charges. 383 . but this was only one amongst several methods of treatment used in his case.. Se7)i. Thus in Tit 2" slaves are enjoined not to 'answer 'gainsay. passage in the recently discovered Odes of Solomon (36^). 'Anointing'). and also the communication to. EEE. J. the Judaizers who followed him from place to place and attempted to undermine his teaching and influence among his converts in his absence a fact to which we largely owe the letters to the Galatians and the Corinthians. This method of interpretation does not seem satisfactory.q.e..— Passing over . Before Agrippa and Festus he defended himself so successfully that they agreed that. Instances of the metaphorical use of anointing to signify the communication of the Divine Spirit are to be found in 1 Jn 2-'''. with the result (56'^) that he needs no food. the ciple. in Ro 11* St. des Jud. first may use is concerned. It must remain doubtful whether the two NT passages can be reasonably understood to mean that oil was used as a siinjile medical remedy without deeper signitication. and brought other charges against him (IP-*-". Paul's apologia throughout these chapters.-' 'ye have an anointing from the Holy One. bk. It was applied both to persons as. speaks of oil as the best of medicines for withered and dry bodies. not for internal sickness. discussing the despair of Elijah. Ac 4-' lu^**. because the parallels quoted do not bear out the point. but it should be borne in mind that every educated man in these days was expected by the Greeks to be reatly to take free part in polemics . and and. The same or otlier enemies charged him with inconsistency (1 Co lO'-''^' etc. underlies the passages The anointing oil was not merely medicinal. in v. So far as the witliin onr period 1. LiTERATiTRB. but it seems clear that it came to signify the consecration of persons and things to the service of God. He hath anointed aie from his own perfection. WiLLOUGHBY C. This is not the place to investigate the original signification of the act of anointing in religious ceremonies (see liobertson Smith. anointing liad in part the nature of a sacrament. HDB. asks What saitli the answer Divine oracle') of God unto him ?' (Xpv/^O'Ti-ci^^^i The passages with which we are most concerned. ALLEN. Paul is represented as complaining that at iiis 'first answer' (before Caesar) no man took his part. there are one or two interesting usages to note before we come to the most theologically significant use of the term. see also ExpT xvii.. was the means of conveying to him the Divine healing We may compare a passage in the Secrets of life. HDB. meets these charges with a vehement assertion of his innocence. art. to the kings and high priests and to inanimate things.' 'Anointing' here means the material.' The commentators on these texts generally quote passages to prove that the use of oil was well known in medicine. This is explained by Schiirer (HJP li. before Festus (25^^-). together with prayer. [190G] 418 S.

1893.ANTICHEIST of this kind. pp. Is. And the preoccupation of the later Judaism with utterances like these. Cf. and must have become familiar to the Hebrews from their earliest settlement in Canaan. That it actually did so Bousset has sho-v^Ti by a comprehensive treatment of the later Christian exegetical and apologetic literature.' of which those of Justin Martyr and Tertullian are two outstanding examples.) interprets it of the baptismal question or demand. and so would the picture in Daniel of the little horn magnifying itself even against the prince of the host (8'^). . Antichrist in the NT. (1) Earliest of all was the ancient dragon-myth of the Babylonian Creation-epic. His Kingdom and people. But it was characteristic of the forward look light. ' ' NT 1. ch. Ezekiel's prophecy of the overthrow of Gog and Magog (Ezk 38) Zechariah's vision of the destruction of the destroyers of Jerusalem (Zee 14) . Christianity would naturally carry the Antichrist tradition with it as part of its inheritance. . In v. as in the Babylonian Creation-story. on the passages cited. an idea original to Christianity.g. LiTERATUEB. Belial '). Apoc. and above all in the Apocalypse. The Jewish Antichrist was very far from being a mere precipitate of Babylonian mythology and Iranian eschatology. in loc. — ' ' RV ' ' ' ferred from cosmogony to eschatology and represented as a culminating episode of the last days (Is27'. art. and its successors in the long line of Ante-Nicene 'apologies.' in the sense of a definite and reasoned defence of the Christian faith and position. the princess of chaos and darkness. and trod the sanctuary under foot (v. cf. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen. and to defend himself vigorously against attack. a counterpart of the Messianic idea.a can hardly mean answer. The NT references to the subject cannot be rightly appreciated without some previous consideration of the corresponding ideas that were present in Judaism before they were taken over by Christianity. 39) would lend themselves to this.' (3) But the development of the Messianic hope in Judaism was a more determinative influence than either of those already mentioned. it was natural that the various utterances of OT prophecy regarding an evil power ' ' — which was hostile to God and His Kingdom and Christ. The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roma n Empire. 15 . F. for Babylonian religion offers no real parallel to a belief in the Devil. in the story of the Temptation in Gn 3. of a world-power that waxed great even to the host of heaven (Dn S^"). which evidently rests on a tradition that is only partially dependent — . iwfpwTT]/j. but an adaptation of Jewish conceptions which. Sol. But it seems possible to distinguish three chief influences that went to the shaping of the Jewish conception as it existed at the time of — the old serpent.^^ of the same chapter the answer (AV) of a good conscience towards God' is a difficult phrase. And when. Bigg {ICC. 192-197). R. with its representation of the struggle of Tiamat. but the idea further appears in the Gospels. and Cheyne's suggested derivation of NT The Apologetic of the Sew Testament. Gwatkin. above all. Dn7). It had its forerunners in the speeches of St. ii. 1895 T. It is not. 40. canonical and extra-canonical. has little to recommend it. or His Messiah. and we have a striking illustration of it when in Wis 2^ and elsewhere the serpent of the Temptation is identified with the Devil. with reference to Antiochus Epiphanes. The strands that went to the composition of the idea were various and strangely interwoven. In 1 Gh 2P Satan is evidently represented as God's adversary. as that was derived from the prophets and evolved vmder the experiences of Jewish national history.g. 2 Co 6^'). and the commentaries should be consulted. In 1 P 3'° we have the well-known injunction to be ' ready always to give answer to A2TTICHEIST 67 of Prophetism and Messianism that the idea of a conflict between God and the dragon was trans- every man that asketh you a reason concerning the hope that is in you. where.. by a process of synthesis. against Marduk.' whether before a judge or which should probably in informal conversation be interpreted in this sense. Griffith Jones. Paul already referred to. The Beliar idea was a much later influence than the dragon-myth. it would be revived in their minds through their close coQfect with the Babylonian mythology during exilic and post-exilic times. a King who should represent Jahweh upon earth. ferences to Gog (chs. Jubilees.— The word is found only in 1 Jn 2^». the Pauline Epistles. 1909.^' 4^. (2) Side by side with the dragon-myth must be set the Beliar {Belial) conception. the natural forces of chaos and darkness. . The Church in the Roman Emjdre. e. but all the hostile powers of moral evil. the goddess of the under world {EBi. Ramsay. as in Rev 12" 20^. the scattered elements of Messianic prophecy began to gather round the figure of a personal Messiah. ^2). The Epistle to the Hebrews has been called the first Christian apology.^) all contributed to the idea of a great coming conflict with the powers of a godless world before the Divine Kingdom could be set up. the representation in Daniel. Scott. the god of order and to the to have belonged stock of Semitic ideas. if indeed it was not part of the ancestral tradition carried with them from their original Aramajan home. above all.side of Persian dualism. Bar. M.' is explained to be the Devil and Satan. sharpened as it was by hatred of the heathen conquerors not merely as political enemies but as enemies of Jahweh and His Kingdom. Although the word Antichrist does not occur till we come to the Johannine Epistles. 2 Jn''. C. where 'the dragon. In any case. Comm. and in the later apocalyptic literature a dragon represents the hostile powers that rise up in opposition to God and His Kingdom (Pss. and much obscurity still hangs over the subject. Rev 12^ 20-. — E. with its idea of an adversary in whom is embodied not merely. Glover. the name from Belili. we have many evidences in pre-Christian Je\vish literature. ' ANTICHRIST in the (dvrlxp^ffTos). xi. a contribution to Jewish thought from the . 1907 H. 2. the Devil or arch-demon {e. and stood up against the Prince of princes until it was finally broken without hand' (v. 38. Deriving from Judaism. Early Church History. E. just as we find him in later Jewish and primitive Christian thought.' and the translates interrogation (see a long note in Huther in Meyer's Com. and similar works W. 4^"i^). Traces of this dragon-myth appear here and there in the OT. that there was a widely spread idea of a supreme adversary who should rise up against God. And in the interval between OT and Beliar is frequently used as a synonym for Satan. 29). M. the serpent=the dragon. had developed before the time of Christ into a full-grown Antichrist legend of a hostile counterpart of the Messiah who would make war against Him but whom He would finally overthrow. as Bousset has shown (The Antichrist Legend). It was. But a subsequent fusion of Beliar with the dragon was very natural. St. The Antichrist of Judaism. The myth appears common people should also be combined in the conception Fzekiel's frequent reof a personal adversary. would render all the easier that process of personalizing an Antichrist over against the Christ which appears to have completed itself within the sphere of Judaism (cf. 1909. Asc. however.

the earlier Antichrist tradition is taken over with important changes. Man OF SiN.). That Nero is referred to in 13'® is most probable. in the great eschatological discourse. so that some culminating manifestation is evidently expected probably in — NT — .^* 311. he that is called the Devil and Satan' (v. Satan (Mt 4i« 12=6. (v.' or more correctly man of lawlessness. the champions of that worldly idea of the coming — — Kingdom which He had always 16-^. Sib. For its subject is the speedy return of Christ to subdue ' ' —A enter here into any discussion of the conflicting interpretations of the symbolism of the dragon and the beasts that appear and reappear from ch. (4) In the Johannine Epistles. But. And the legend of his return from the under world of the dead explains in the most natural way the healing of the beast's death-stroke (13^"^^) and the statement that it shall ascend out of the bottomless pit and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder when thej^ behold the beast. familiarity on the part of St. . But in ch. etc.* with Dn 7^ ll*'). but in each group of writings it is treated differently and with more or less divergence from the earlier Jewish forms. were the false Christs and false prophets by whom many should be deceived (245. i. which were chietiy responsible for the growth of the Christian Antichrist conception. but as a false Messiah from within the circle of Judaism itself. the idea is spiritualized as nowhere else in the except in the teaching of Jesus. It is most probable that the false prophet represents the Imperial priesthood as propagandists of the Ca?sar-cnlt. by the Roman armies a calamity which He had already foreshadowed as coming upon the city because of its rejection of Himself (23*^^.*). ch. It would be out of place to etc. not after the fashion of the later Judaism as a heathen ]iotentate and oppressor. Jn 6^"). as in the Apocalypse. even while the author attributes to it functions and powers that belong more properly to the ministers of the Emperor-worship . some critics have seen a parallel to 2 Th 2i"'. Lk 212"). If they were uttered by our Lord.spoken of (1 Jn 2'^). but a sf>irit of false doctrine rising up from within It is true that Anticlirist is . [1904-5] 472) that the Beliar-Satan conception underlies this whole passage. c. Or. . and who is clearly represented as the Antichrist (w. characters ("lop p"u). l^ 10^8. but to which rejected (Mt 4"^the Jewish nation obstinately clung. and the Johannine Epistles. who is to work by means of false signs and lying wonders.>^). who is also described as 'the old serjient. and wiiose works He had come to destroy (Mk 1^. 26. where he introduces the figure of the 'man of sin. Paul with the Antichrist tradition is suggested when he asks in 2 Co 6". the number 666 being the equivalent of Nero Caesar (NEPiiN KAI2AP) when written in Heb. the Antichrist is conceived of. 12. and so to turn men's hearts away from that love of the truth which brings salvation (v. 23). The Antichrist is not. whom the Lord at last shall slay with the breath of his mouth and bring to nought by the manifestation of his coming' (v. with its thought of an opponent of Christ. reproduces both the mythical dragon and the later Beliar-Satan conception. Nero."). so far as the is concerned. but it seems not unlikely that elements in the representation are taken from the legend that had grown up around the name of Simon Magus (cf. and shall come' (17*).). (2) In the Pauline Epistles. EBi i. and is not. — In these writings. In the Sj-noptic Gospels it (1) In the Gospels.' Nestle has shown [ExpT xvi.)• For the adversaries of the Son of Man. with its dream of a Nero Redivivus who should come back to the world from the realms of the dead (cf. but the destruction of Jerusalem . from Daniel onwards. .and an evident allusion to the Jewish Antichrist tradition but they do so on the presumption that the words were not spoken by Jesus Himself and are to be attributed to a redactor of the original source.' This familiarity becomes evident in 'the little apocalypse' of 2 Th 2'^-'^'^. it seems most probable that they portended not any apocalypse of a personal Antichrist. v. cf.). and clearly applies to a hostile and persecuting world-power represented by its ruler.68 on the AiVTICHRIST A^^TiCHKLST His enemies and set up His Kingdom (Rev F 2'^ 3". 11 'the beast that cometh up out of the abyss was evidently suggested by the dragon-myth as embodied in the Jewish Antichrist tradition. which occurs is existence of a . a material world-power threatening the Church from without. ' . and especially to the differences in their conception of the Messiah Himself. de Civ. 119 ff. Mliile the 'great red dragon' of 12^. Hcer. Suetonius. from its subject and from its literary form. and a hostile world-power the Apocalypse contributes two others which are peculiar to Christianity and which play a large part in the Christian tradition of later times. Simon with his magic arts and false miracles was the arch-heretic and the father of all heresy. how that he was. — — . But the distinctive character of this Pauline view of the Antichrist is that. He 2'^% But from all the crude and materialistic elements of the earlier tradition His teaching is entirely free. In the reference to the 'abomination of desolation' standing in the holy place (:\It 24" cf. Elements of the conception appear in the Gospels. while features in tiie picture are evidently taken from the description of Antiochus Epiphanes in Daniel (cf. As follows naturally both (3) In the Apocalypse. and suggestions of his legendaiy figure loom out from the description of the second beast (IS'^"'^). the scarlet-coloured beast of 13^"'° and the realm of the beast in ch. To the early Church.^''^. But to these pre-Christian forms of the Antichrist tradition the dragon. the Apocalypse. 41 Augustine. 180 ff. further. the Pauline Epistles. and its form is an adaptation to Christianity of the ideas and imagery of those Jewish Apocalypses. cit. etc. NT NT NT — everywhere apparent that Jesus recognized the kingdom of evil under the control of a supreme personality. cf. i. or Beelzebub (I\It \2-'^^-\\).-^) in other words. where the word 'Antichrist' appears for the first time. ). The first of these is found in the application to Christian ideas of the Antichrist of the contemporary Nero-saga. APOCALYPSE. XX. (op. Dei. 15^ etc. . as still to come (2'^^ 4^). 7). Dragon). At the same time it must be noticed that nothing like a single consistent presentation of the Antichrist idea is given by the as a whole. Satan. who is to be identified with another beast' of 13i^^-. 17 are described in language which recalls the apocalyptic imagery of Daniel (see esp. variously called the Devil (Mt 41 1339.^). Apol. Apocalypse. iv. the Apocalypse is more permeated than any other book in the NT with the idta of the Antichrist. 19). who sought to interfere with His own Messianic mission (4^'" 16^||). or Antichrist. See also art. ' . See.*). '11 to the end of the book (see artt. What concord hath Christ with Belial ? and when he speaks in Col 2" of Christ triumphing over 'the principalities and powers. Justin Martyr. the real representatives of the Antichrist spirit in His eyes. Again. The second contribution was the idea of the false projjhet (1613 ' ' ' 19-'» 20'0). Mk 13". In Daniel that power was the kingdom of the Seleucidte under Antiochus Epiphanes here it is very plainly indicated as the Roman Empire (n^-a-isj -with the Emperor at its head (13'^"*). due to the ilitierences between J udaisni and Cliristianity.. 56 Irenaeus. now fused into one appalling figure.

it fell into the hands of Tigranes of Armenia. Cramer. and dissolute character of the Syrian. but its moral repute was never high. In no city of antiquity was the enjoyment of life so much the main thing. C. or union of four cities (Strabo. 4). Cicero flattered Antioch as a city of most learned men and most liberal studies' {pro Arch. Pompey made it a civitas libera. W. 2 Jn ''). utterances regarding the AntiWhen the christ are looked at in their variety and as a whole.— 1. which separates the great Lebanon range from the last spurs of the Taurus.000. 1). to a Church which To the Apocalyptist. it had two broad colonnaded streets intersecting at the centre. probably owing to one of those seismic disturbances to which the region has always been peculiarly subject and a fourth. 2 Jn ''). on the lowest slopes of Silpius. PRE ' ' HDB ' ' J.v.—About 20 miles from the Mediterranean. and christ' in . ANTIOCH ('AjTt^xem). the Asiatic portion of the vast empire of Alexander the Great. the refusal to acknoAvledge the Son as well as the Father .C.. however.-Tlieol. perhaps by Antiochus I. 10 miles in circumference. truly cultivated in Syria and more especially in Antioch. No Greek region has so few memorial-stones to show as Syria . 5 miles W. dently influenced in their treatment of the subject by contemporary situations as well as by an inheritance of ancient traditions. C. op.—See Law. [1904-6] 472. During the Jewish wars (69 his army from Antioch. ii. Ant. 4). and. 3). Moffatt. after Jerusalem. Antichrist was the Roman Empire represented by a ruler who was hostile to Christianity because it refused to worship him as a god. Revelation in EGT. Bkiinburgh. Eng.. The Evolution of the Messianic Idea. Planned by Xenarius. and EBi. This people valued only the day. is a spirit of heresy such heresy as flourished in Asia Minor towards the close of the 1st century through the doctrines of Cerinthus {q. artt. Al^TIOCH 69 But even . Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch. 1912. Eng. the Orontes. xxiii. present in the world already but destined to come power. iii.) is restraining power. each rather infected the other with its characteristic vices. .. London. . 20]). 10 miles long ana 5 wide. Thereafter it was the capital of the province of Syria. Here Seleucus Nicator. has come down through history with an evil name. who made it a colonia. 1908 . s. navigable river and a fine seaport: Seleucia of Pieria made it practically a maritime city. Schopfung und Chaos. In the 4lh cent. And the very essence of that spirit is the denial of 'the Father and the Son' (2--). Clemen. The Antichrist Leoend. which B. do. discovered an ideal site for the capital of his Syrian kingdom. The spirit of Antichrist. The authors were eviof evil. tr. J. it is said. while — — — — NT caravan roads converging from Arabia and Mesopotamia brought to it the commerce of the East.). and is named among the Seven of the Jerusalem Church (Ac 6^). tr. more explicitly it is the refusal to confess that Jesus Christ is come in the tiesh (42. attracted by the offer of ' privileges equal to those of the Macedonians and Greeks (Jos. . BJ iii. and warns us against false Christs and false prophets who proclaim a kingdom that is not His own (24^'*).'^. and here he built the most famous of the 16 Antiochs which he founded in honour of his father Antiochus. and embellished it with new streets and public ' Vespasian took with him the metropolis of Syria. like all the Hellenistic foundations in Syria. And it was the mixture of national elements in the Churcli pure Greeks with Greek-speaking Jews of Antioch that peculiarly fitted her to play a remarkable city. ' New City. writing had known Nero's cruelty and now under Domitian was passing througli the flames once more. XVI. — H. ExpT xvi. ' ' — — . Lambert. O. Gottingen. 1896 . and Juvenal flung one of his wittiest jibes at his own decadent Imperial city when he said that the Orontes had flowed into the Tiber {Sat.ANTmOMIANISM a definite personal form. The Jewish nation had the greatest multitudes in Antioch by reason of the size of They made proselytes of a great the city. In 83 B. with its sanctuary of Apollo. flooding Rome with the superstition and immorality The brilliant civilization and perfect of the East.). cit. p.. In Syria. the third city of the empire. 'AntiMan of Sin in 3. the eastern side.v. (tj koKt) Antioch was called ' the Beautiful i.e. it yet did much to prepare the city for the gospel. the great Antioch. H. brought them to be a portion of their own body {BJ\ll. art of the Greek failed to redeem the turbulent. 130. 1895 . iii. and the residence of the Imperial legate. Bousset. Silpius. after a sort. and the spirit of Antichrist is already in the world (1 Jn 4^). ' Amidst all this luxury the Muses did not i3nd themselves at science in earnest and not less earnest art were never . and thereby. is so closely associated with the Apostolic Church. from whom it was wrested by the Roman Republic in 65 B. after his defeat of Antigonus at Issus in 301 B. has to say nothing of the land of hierogljTjhics and obelisks left behind fewer inscriptions than many a small African or Arabian village (Mommsen. Such was the magnificent Greek substitute for the ancient and beautiful but .C. enters a fertile plain. Bib. To St. whose power was shattered by the Romans at Magnesia. . its groves of laurel and cypress. in other words. From its very foundation it had in its population a strong Jewish element. in fuller Literature.000 were then Christians. The Seleucid kings vied with one another in extending and adorning their metropolis. The early emperors often visited it. was evidently one of that great number of Antiochene Greeks who had previously felt the spell of the Jewish faith. Lex. as in "Antioch upon Daphne. In the Johannine Epistles. and without dispute deserves the place of the third city in the habitable world that is under the Roman Empire. The pleasure-garden of Daphne. and certainly made no such contribution to the permanent thought of the world. Paul. there are many antichrists (2^^ cf. Chrysostoni estimated the population at 200. Antichrist is not a persecuting power but a heretical spirit. Gunkel. ANTINOMIANISM. 131f. ' was ii.' was built by Seleucus Callinicus on an island similar to the island in the Seine at Paris which has since disappeared. writing out of his own experience of Jewish persecution and Koman justice and protection. and such it remained till the time of Antoninus Pius. 1909. [1911-12j 97. noAv. XII. E.C.C. Prov. Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources. but tlie sober verdict of history is diflerent. difficult to derive from tliem any justification it is for the view that the Church should expect the advent of a personal Antichrist as an individual A too essentially Semitic capital of Syria Damascus. While the Judaism of Antioch did not assimilate Hellenic culture so readily as that of Alexandria. its sparkling fountains. ii. Infickle. iii. ' home — — ' — — . A second quarter was added on the a third. Oesterley. turning abruptly westward. Daphnici mores were proverbial.' and Rome the beneficent embodiment ' NT buildings. stead of either race being improved by the contact. 62). was the work of Antiochus Epiphanes. Henceforth the city was known as a Tetrapolis.' who was early won tu Christianity. and its duties so incidental. significantly called' 128). the original city occupied the level ground between the river and Mt. . (Mommsen. many of the Greeks perpetually." as the city ' [A then. ERE. No . from the city. both in magnitude and in other marks of prosperity ' (Jos. and probably he did not reckon slaves and children. of whom 100. It attained its highest political importance in the time of Antiochus the Great. Judaism was the man of lawlessness. its colonnades and halls and baths.). or Omphalus. The ultimate authority for our thoughts on the subject must be found in the words of Jesus when He leaches us to pray for deliverance from 'the evil one' (Mt 6'^).^. iii. ' ' . i.

Their wit never spared anybody who seemed worthy of their attention. on the skirts of the long Sultan Dagh. jt ^vas at this time and in this place that 'the disciples were first called Christians' (112®). In 39 B. ^ irphs llta-iS/^ koKovviii. But contact with the great world and sympathy with its needs probably did more than the force of reason to lighten the Antiochene Church of the dead-weight of Judaism. At some time before 6 B. do. and to Antioch that he returned again and again with his report of fresh conquests (1428 1822). i. ' ' was one blooming garden and one spots on earth Literature. 1893. overlooking the great plain which is drained by the river Anthios. Guided by Strabo's description of the place (XII. Grasping the situation.' Arundell identified it in 1833 with the extensive ruins of Yalowatch. Mark Antony gave it to king Amynt'as. Her heart was not in Judaea but in the Roman Empire. in especially active progress during the reign of Claudius (A. St. Kai Trpbs Tobs"E\\r]vai many is probably the correct reading. — — But the 'Christians' gratefully accepted the mocking sobriquet bestowed upon them. In Antioch the two men exercised a united and fruitful ministry for a year (1122-26). Cremna. the Romans made Antioch a free city. Ramsay. At a still later period Pisidia was constituted a Roman province. W.). Its importance increased when the first emperors found it necessary to pacify the barbarian highIn the mountain-land proper landers of Pisidia. the sense is still much the same (see Galatia and Phrygia). Comama. 1895. she became the first Gentile Church. who quickly noted the new phenomenon in their midst. if not to assist in the work. in which St. Citizen.). That the victory over Judaism was not easily won even there is proved by the fact that not only Peter but Barnabas vacillated under the alternate influence of cosmopolitan liberalism and Judsean narrowness. 2. xvi. do. After the battle of Magnesia (190 B. commanding the great trade route between Ephesus and the Cilician Gates. Augustus raised it to the rank of a colony Pisidarum colonia Ccesarea and made it the governing and (Pliny. and only here difficult task.-vii. On the South-Galatian theory. chs. Miiller. Paul. C. Between the years 252 and 380. 14). Conybeare-Howson. in spite of all neglect. full of Jewish filial gratitude and devotion. — ' The only talent which indisputably belonged to them their mastery of ridicule they exercised not merely against the actors of their stage. The work of pacification was Parlais. and some Cypriotes and Cyrenians among them inaugurated a new era by going beyond the Hellenist Jews for an audience and preaching to 'the Greeks also' (Ac 11^*).' While Julian 'met their sarcastic sayings with satirical writings. 41-54). 'A.C. Roman roads connected Antioch with all the other colonies founded in the district Olbasa. while unquestionably the daughter of the Christian community at Jerusalem. changing it into the most honourable of all titles (cf... While Antioch was never wanting in respect for Jerusalem. The diaspora that followed the death of Stephen brought many fugitive Jewish Christian preachers to Antioch. 336 f.) about the same time as Syrian Antioch. 134. Emp. Weizsacker. ten Councils were held at Antioch. contributing liberally to its poor in a time of famine. and justified their reputation for the invention of nicknames. And the first Gentile Church was now to become the first missionary Church. 135). the one used by the Greeks and the other by the Roman government. Above all. tliat. A. ii. in distinction from Antioch ixiv-q [XII.. McGiffert. Ac 16*). and it was accordingly at the instance of the Church of Antioch that the Council of Jerusalem sent to the Gentile converts a circular letter which became the charter of spiritual freedom (Ac 152^2»j. but no less against the rulers sojourning in the capital of the East. stretching from east to west. 1872. i. Provinces. It was the master-minds of Christian Antioch who at length changed the pathetic dream ' of a light to lighten the Gentiles' into a reality. B. London. Eng. Gottingen.D. In Ac 1823 the region is simply called Phrygian.C.. Edinbur^'h. .C. In Pisidia( Ac 13^* RV. and the vigilant Church in Jerusalem sent Barnabas down. with Antioch as its capital. tr. moved northward till it included most of Southern Phrygia. ' Pisidian Antioch. 1 P 4'®). Luke already calls it 'Pisidian Antioch.' which is the correct reading. O. Apostolic Age. till Paul's arguments and rebukes convinced them of their error (Gal 2*"i*). and the ridicule was quite the same against the actor as against the emperor. Provinces. 74 fl"). as many think. 1897. he went. the Antiochenes at other times had to pay more severely for their evil speaking and their other sins ' (Mommsen. most charming — 129). 14]). 1839 M. Antiquitates Antiochence. The new evangelism resulted in many conversions (IP^). Luke as belonging to the Phrygio-Galatic region (t7)v 4>pvylav Kal raXan/cJjj' X'^po-v.70 AXTIOCH human suestia ANTIOCH limitations of Jesus. but St. ^pxrylav is here to be taken as a noun. ttjv IlKndiav. St.. . ii. C. about 3600 ft. and flinging himself impetuously into the novel movement. to Tarsus to summon Paul to his lifework. It was intended as a garrison town and a centre of Hellenic influence in the heart of Asia Minor. Antioch gave rise to a school of Christian thought which was distinguished by literal interpretation of the Scriptures and insistence upon the to acquire this district for peaceful settlement' (Mommsen. viii. no trace of Hellenistic settlement is found. in the form advocated by Ramsay (Church in Bom. Emp. Christians of Hellenic culture and Roman citizenship taught her a noble universalism. as standing ' on a height to the south of a ' backbone of mountains.C. London. V. The fresh ideas of Christian liberty and Christian duty. Phrygian being a geographical term and Galatic a political. Antakiyeh is now but a meagre town of 600 inhabitants. instead of This city was probably founded 'A. The city was not yet ' Antioch in Pisidia' (AV). It was the merit of Barnabas that he could not be a mere onlooker. 1897. v. the designation probably coming from the lively populace. above sea-level. after whose death in 25 B. it was from Antioch that Paul started on each of his missionary journeys (Ac lU-s 158« 1823). though its environs ' are even at the present day. found ready acceptance in the freer atmosphere of the Syrian capital. Church in Rom. and still less did the Roman senate apply itself to this Augustus did so . Tijs Iliffidlas). it became a city of the vast Roman province of Galatia.' and if. Apostolic Age. also . a Her distinction was part in the Apostolic Age. which cost Antiochus the Great the whole of his dominions north of the Taurus. her distinguishing characteristic was her evangelistic originality. in the whole Greek coast we meet a series of colonies of Roman veterans evidently intended by Seleucus Nicator (301-280 ' HN — ' ' ' which the mother-Church at Jerusalem was slow to entertain. and Lystra. at least to supervise it. and the mother of all the others. 24) military centre of the southern half of the province. Antioch is regarded by St.' to ditt'erentiate it from Antioch The boundaries of Pisidia gradually in Syria. (Mommsen. ' of the ii. Paul's first mission to Antioch ' ' ' . being another of the many cities which he called after his father Antiochus. C.C. — ' on the Mseander . being correctly styled by Strabo ' Antioch towards Pisidia ('A. apparently without consulting anybody. Paul visited Antioch. and then Antioch of Pisidia became the usual designation of the city. Theodore of Mopof its best representatives. 149 ff. in spite of ancient authorities' who have EXXTj^io-rds otherwise the historian's words would be singularly pointless. St. and consulting and its leaders in all matters of doctrine practice. Paul the Traveller and Roman .

COBB. Later Greek tradition made him bishop of Pergamum. ad loc. (shorter form of Antipater [Jos. London. As the salutation which follows is that to the household of Aristobulus. du Talm. and a ^ove of the best trees for magnitude was round about it this he named Antipatris. Wolfe Expedition to Asia Minor. that the Christian Church at Pergamum is praised for its opposition to the heathen Pan. While the native Phrygian type of religious feeling was more eastern than western. 1899. Roscher. 2) and the influence of II. martyred under Uomitian by being thrown into a brazen bull which stood at the temple of Diana. Hor. where a river encompassed the city itself.— See Type.' The historian elsewhere identifies it with Kapharsaba [Ant. do. even though it was Jewish persecution that compelled him to leave the city for a time (Ac 13'^-s"). as the latter place cannot be described as well-watered. 5. C. again. ' — Arundell. having attached to it a multitude of temple slaves and tracts of sacred territory. Apocalypse. sufficiently perhaps Nothing to be called to the ministry (cf. and thus the Jewish leaven had been working for a long time before Christianity was in of town CAi/HTrarpis). Swete. ad loc. from his father Antipater. where the military road from Jerusalem to Csesarea left the hills. St.' it has been suggested that Apelles' Christian activity may have lain in that direction. Alford. do. 4). Ramsay. 139 f. or that he was a Christian who had gained : — ' ' P. 1904 C. where he chose out a fit place. 543. v. 1893. Antiochus the Great settled 2000 Jewish families Literature. is one of the most striking features in the social life BJ . and proper for the production of what was there planted.. is mentioned in Rev 2'^. 281 f. "VV. p. vi. Josephus {Ant. 15) suggests that * Neumann (Der Rom. 2) gives an account of its foundation : women ' (ras a-e^ofi^vas yvvalKas. Church in the Roman Empire^. with their yielding and easily moulded minds.. and Gow's suggestion. many whom must have found a home in Antioch. . xv. and Buhl all favour Basel-' Ain. Paul was brought thither by night. so in ancient times a Jew called Abel might choose the name Apelles]). ' ' edge of the Plain of Sharon. 80 f. country (Conybeare-Howson. McGiffert. T. ANTONIA. M. St. Allwoethy. pp. Assuming the Roman destination of these salutations. and so roasted alive.v. Emp. The u. not only in Antioch but in Asia Minor generally. XII. 193) and their spiritual influence Avas at least as great. otherwise unknown. In no other Asian city. iii. . Trade doubtless attracted others to so important a centre. B. Under the protection of a body of Roman cavalry and infantry. do. . Apelles would no doubt find in his household many members of his own race.— See Hkrod.). Boston. is called the approved in Christ (rbv ddKifiou The phrase may indicate that he had iv Xpto-Tfp). Introduction. familiar theme in ancient writings (Juvenal. Hist. as modern Jews take a Gentile name which closely resembles their Hebrew name.'*^). was the influence of his preaching so farHis success was no doubt in great reaching. — F. Nicolaitans. B. p. Discoveries in Asia Minor. Conder. a Helof Palestine. 174).218L James Steahan. at the source of the Aujah. Apelles. therefore. Com. ' ' ' APOCALYPSE. Philip>pians'^. i. Cf. both for plenty of water and goodness of soil. Strabo [loc. G. ad loc. 1890. S. xx. and Silvas of Silvanus). Com. Antipatris was a border town between Judsea and Samaria (Neubauer. devout proselytes in St. this Antipatros was at first called Antipas'] as Hermas is of Hermodorus. W. that. 130 f. 901 . V. on Gal. tr. It is not — — impossible. The early Seleucid kings settled Jews in many of their cities. W. ). APELLES ('A-Ke\\rj%. XIII.—^6'.) mentions another fact which may help to explain the rapid progress of Christianity in Antioch In this place was established a priesthood of Men Arcaius. passihi J. If Aristobulus (q. and his presence attracted ' the whole city' to the synagogue (13**). 1878. he was probably a Jewish convert residing in Rome as a member of the Imperial household. Paul. The general sense is ' instruction concerning Divine — . Ac 13'*) was a 'Herod erected another city in the plain called Kapbarsaba. 1868. Test. . 196-213. Ramsay. population. no doubt increased their power among their neighbours by their freedom fi'om bigotry. XVI. 204 f. James Strahan. except Ephesus. Literature. women of honourable estate (ras durxniJ'-ovo-^). 1). and apparently common among Jews of the Dispersion [cf. Ant. Stoat word 'apocalypse' in the NT. ANTIPATRIS lenistic Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. The character of the Apocalj^pse. Eng. naturally concludes that the site must be the modem Kefr Sdbd . the Phrygian Jews. . than in any other part of the Roman world' (Hist. Smith. is known of Apelles beyond this reference. i. 288) maintains that he was the first of a long series. H. Age. Church in Rom. saluted by St. XIV. . The attraction of the Jewish faith for Gentile ' .. and Robinson (Biblical Researches. 3 : ' — the approbation of the Church. Paul. ' Warren. Church in Bom. 1 Ti 3'°). followed by Schiirer (II. Jos. Careful. —±. Balaam. but. F. M. Paul in Ro 16^".— Antipatris.— See Care. iii. i. i. been specially tested and tried by affliction or persecution. measure due to tiie strong Jewish element in the APOCALYPSE cities in 71 was which Pergamum of Asia Minor no record of his worship at is extant under the strong influences Arcadian and Peloponnesian cults. Gcogr. ) was the grandson of Herod.. Weizsacker. and after it was reached there would be less danger of a Jewish attack. Ramsay. a Greek name possibly contracted from Apollodorus. ANTIPAS. Apostolic Age. and thence. to Ctesarea (Ac 23^i. Sat. whose laxity gave deep oflence to the rigidly orthodox. 1894 A. Lucas of Lucanus. of the : ANXIETY.. cit. a little farther south. Gr. Paul found many Antioch (Ac \Z^). Ant. of Christianity in the Apost. but Ramsay {Letters to the Seven Churches. ANTITYPE. [1866] 3 ff. H.). i. 1369. It was borne by a famous tragic actor in the time of the Emperor Cains (see Lightfoot. 1888. 219. J. V. i. A. April. Emp. airoKd\v\l/is ('revelation ') occurs some eighteen times in the NT. . iv. The name Apelles is known to have belonged to the Imperial household. finding them to be trusty supporters and often real Hellenizers. Antipas. with a diminished escort. Hist. admits the hypothesis that the name refers to the Ciod Pan. — I.AJ^TIPAS so successful that the whole political regio of this colony was the centre soon heard of the new faith (Ac Vi^]. and thus had a certain natural affinity with the Semitic type. and gave them the same civic rights as the Greeks. Sterrett. 1872. 1897. Conybeare-Howson. Antipas was the only martyr who suffered in Pergamum. 67).' This drastic action of the Romans had removed one of the greatest obstacles to the new faith the vested interests of an old and powerful hierarchy. 1834.* The name has been allegorized as anti-pas ( = ' against all ') or anti-papa.. St. 100 credat ludceus Apella. R. Pan was worshipped at Ephesus and in many ANTIPAS i. dif allgemeine Eirche. It was abolished after the death of Amyntas by those who were sent to settle the succession to his kingdom. ii. Letters to the Seven Churches.— See Castle. on Gal. stood at the eastern introduced. 1897. Ramsay thinks that the Jews are likely to have exercised greater political power among the Anatolian people..

1-36. Hellenic apocalypses. and is therefore close to the Christian era. 1891) under the alternative title Psalm» of the Pharisees. In regard to (c).72 APOCALYPSE APOCALYPSE 3. 1897. Vienna. (k) The Book of Eldad and Medad (I) The Apocalypse of Elijah (m) The Apocalypse of Zephaniah. and. under names which have authority for such readers. accepted it. one and the same. The a mystery would remain it it is an 'open secret.BGr v. after a.D. The NT Apocalypse of John as the type of apocalyptic writings. As a prophet is one to whom ' unknown. which we convert here into the more concrete question. (B) Under this head would fall not so much apocalypses written independent!}' by Jews who were Christians for.—<d) Apocalypse of Baruch (. despite much controversy in the early centuries. Of these (a) are by far the more frequent. 10.)not later than a. under the leadership of Ilippolytus.* an explicit reference to other apocalypses. . synthetically. . of John probably to the persecution of the Christians under the Roman emperor Domitian (a. 'the glory with which He will return from heaven ' (Grimm-Thayer). H. They are the work ot Hellenistic Jews. Though in the sense of the Christian creed the whole Bible is by pre-eminence — the literature of apocalypse or revelation. This circumstance alone might warrant tlie almost exclusive devotion of this article to an account of this book. which we may date roughly from the fall of the Jewish State in A. The Sibylline Oracles (q. usually cited as Fourth Ezra ( = 2 Esdras [q. and such an example as that of Jude^f. which includes : (a) The Ethiopia Enoch.). events which strike the general eye.iroKd\v\f/is of the Lord Jesus Christ' (2 Th V. and the mode may be vision or ecstasy (2 Co 12'). pp.' chs.J3). 215 that the Western Church. and (/) are best accessible to the English — — — NT reader in the careful editions of R. such books are hardly known to have existed— as (a) Selections from Jewish apocalypses of matter embodying beliefs common to Jews and Christians. 3-14). and (b) Christian interpolations of Jewish apocalypses.g. H.among the Christians to extend the range of the Canon . There is the general question as to how that age of early Christians came to value and even to produce apocalyptic books. there is only one writing belonging to the Apostolic Age which is as a whole of the apocalyptic class. En. are the best instance under this head.v. 1891). It is. v. 25 f. 72-108 (c.. ii. interwoven with an actual situation— a crisis on which the mind of the apocalyptist reacts. { The canonicity of the A])ocalypse was controverted. Patriarchs (q. 3». Eel. iii.d. [1895] 297.D.d. examples of Christian interpolation may be found in The Ascension of Isaiah. .c. (1891). we have. (js) The Slavonic Secrets of Enoch. 1908. 1905. — 1913. and which.' or to speak ip dTTOfcaXi'i/zet (1 Co 14^'. See L. • Jude Hf- . 141 f. (Ko 16^). a.g. a large part of which was edited for the English reader in 1892. (2) chs. Dn 7'3). besides.d.— The Ascension of Isaiah (q.d. so to speak. and 15 and 16 of U Ezra which are sometimes quoted as 5 and 6' (i) Closely related to the apocalyptical books are (g) The Psalms of Solomon.. showing them to be sons of God .w. but whose direct debt is probably only to Daniel (see esp.Christian. of dTro/cdXui/'is is God or Jesus Christ. probably before Christ. — Ezra (C) respectively.). and in chs.) the Apoc. 37-71 ('Book of Similitudes'). e. In addition to these extant books are 4. i. if one may not say. 1900).''). ' the righteous judgment of God' (Ro 2'). 1912). Charles. 1 Co 1''.q. i. R. perhaps the 1st cent. so far as the is concerned.C. Paul when he wished to express his independence of the first apostles in reference to his knowledge of the gospel and even to the steps taken to come to an understanding with them (Eph object of diroKa\v\f/is is.). based on 14 MSS. Non-canonical apocalypses of the Apostolic Age.) Jewish part = the Martyrdom of Isaiah (21-312 and 5--1-*). especially through the operation of the Holy Spirit (1 Co 2'") ' (GrimmThajer). 19. Box's The Ezra-Apocalypse (London. which are known to us only through citations in Origen and other Fathers 0) The Prayer of Joseph . there is only one book in each Testament to which the name has been given.e. The East finally yielded to the West. both the Apocalypse and the other books of the NT contain implicit references. but such concentration offers. 100 B. and are written in Greek hexameters for Gentiles. before a. and say that the creepers have not suffered from the oversliadowing of the cypress. in addition to the scholarly editions of James and Bensly. of.). taken along with the implicit references to apocalyptic writings which are found in the Apocalypse and other books of the NT (see below). The word was important to St. § Verg. It includes (1) chs. It is a fact of much suggestiveness for the subject of this article (see below) that. Oxford. : — : . Ex uno disce onines. Strong claims to canonicity were made tor it in early times. 28S-92 . 1893. En. produced under more decidedly Hellenic influence than is to be found in works of Jewish origin. e. (d). See now also R. 147.d. — ' • t Denney.v. t It thus appears that. In the NT we have the Apocalypse of John and in the OT we have the Book of Daniel. G. what he utters may be called an dvoKd\v\//is. They may be classified under three heads: (A) Jewish.v. tilings before unknown especially those relating to the Christian salvation given to the soul by — — — (iod or the ascended Christ. (6). The latter is apart from what may be called apocalyptic fragments in the older prophetical writings. 70. (Schiirer). 90. 2. James (Cambridge. which thus covers upwards of 260 years (say 168 B. 1 and 2. a list may here be given of the non-canonical apocalypses. The fact that they have been subjected to considerable Christian interpolation testifies to the extent of their circulation. however. in at least one case. 295). 1 P P. Oxford. (a). For (e). As. The return is called the ' d. 276 ff. et al. i.e. vii. a. edited by Ryle and James (Cambridge. lieview (July 1877) Deane's Pseudepigrapha Charles' Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha.—{h) The Book of Jubilees. The Timss of Christ. however.] of English 'Apocrypha. Edinburgh. with (A) Under this head fall : (a) The cycle known as Enoch. * diroKdXvrpis of the sons of God' (8^®). as also the end or object. Daniel belongs to the time of the persecution of the Jews under the Greek-Syrian kinp Antiochus Epiphanes (168-165 B. (/) The Testaments of the XI J. and he himself may be said to ' have an dwoKd\v\pis. ' dTTOKciXt/i/'is of the glory of Christ '(IP 4'^). which is unmistakably both in style and substance of the same literary genus.C. Eth. which belongs probably to the early days of the Herodian dynasty. Daniel and the Apocalypse of John mark respectively the beginning and the end of what may be called the apocalyptic period.' which Hilgenfeld and others have ascribed to Christian interpolation. chiefly in : ' — (e) truth comes not from man but from God. In this book t occur those references to the pre-existent Messiah under the title Son of man. Muirhead. probably the 1st cent. It maj' also be. a fact worthy of special notice that at an early period. indeed. 96). and it was not till a. (B) Jewish . 70. the advantage of showing the leading features of the apocalyptic style as they appear. (b) Assumption of Moses (Q. H. and of others whose existence may be inferred from quotations of them found in the early Fathers. Tlie gospel without it Gal 2^). it points at the same time to the large amount of matter. A. and has served as a model for subsequent writings of the class. Much the best edition of them. Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT. Is 24 the oldest known Apocalypse. 64-40 b. both within and bejond the Canon. (c) Apocalypse of Ezra. either wholly or partly extant. 1896.C. after studying the Ajjocalypse. so called because it survives an Ethiopia Version. The OT was the Bible of the early Christians. therefore. apocalyjitic literature begins to lose interest for the Synagogue in proportion as it gains it for the Christian Church. if we except the Apocalypse of John. in the Kastern Church. Charles' edition (London. about the same time as U Ezra. [1894] 710. — — See Charles' translation in JQR vi. Charles. (cf.d. esp. reveals a tendencj. 81-96). 19).'* The source. may be mentioned the A/mcnlt/pse of Peter. while there is an apocalyptic element in practically all the books of the NT (see below). cf.v. 2f.v.B.d. This fact invests the apocalyptic literature with a peculiar interest for the student of the Apostolic Age. As an example of distinctively Christian work. which is Christian in all but 21-312 and 52-14 . t 4S-'f 622 etc. that was common to Jews and Christians. we have the edition of M. 'the glory that is manifestly given to some. In regard to the uncanonical apocalypses. 1892). quoted by Moffatt (. and its teaching largely influenced later Christian ideas 'Jewish works under a heathen mask ' — HJP .' one may remember the attention paid to the lesser apocalypses during the last halfcentury. is that of Rzach (Oracula Sibyllina. to A.! has held its place among the books of authority recognized by the Christian Church. How could it produce the Apocalypse of John ? There is the dogmatic question. the prophet and the apocalyptist may be considered The Testament of Abraham. (C) Hellenic or Gentile. English readers may consult Schiirer's ii. Ediiih. What are the elements in this book which entitle it to the position of authority it holds to this day ? For (b).

and where they were spirit that is On the side of good. behind which the apocalyptic writer found it necessary (even were it in the interest of his message) to conceal himself. t The apocal^Tises survive for the most part not in their native Hebrew or Aramaic but in Greek. of John] is Jewish. U Ezr. in nearly every case pseudonymous. to be spokeji. Dn 73ff-. Jer 25iif ). This obscurity of style is connected with the fact that apocalypses were. and tiie Kingdom comes to the faithful and the patient. is the Messiah). accompanied with decline of religious fervour dissensions between the lax hellenizing and the puritanical patriotic party). is more concerned with the course of world-history (Porter.. prophet might be arrested in the street. The apocalyptists are the instructors and encouragers of the people in the name of God in reference to that Kingdom which. books written with the names of the saints. we have (to take great examples) God and His throne. we have Satan. as to the necessity of eluding the hostility and even the suspicion of the Syrian authorities. from whose Messages of the Apoc. we have an index of the limitations of the ideal. ' ' . that a text does not become the word of God until it is released from bondage to its historical meaning. when he appears at all. If an interpreter had thoughts of his own regarding the literary structure of an apocalypse. Tiff. ' i. and the explanation is given none can find out what is in the depths of the sea. there is a certain impressiveness in the fact that questions regarding the real state of matters (in the literary sense) do not seem to have emerged. — — — . which belongs to the period of the Maccabaean struggle. varying fortunes (political importance.before John writes. not so much to the feeling * that he would not be accepted by his fellowcountrymen as a prophet.5f). Probably in the case of the author of Daniel. we may see the high-water mark of spiritual faith reached by this ideal . See L. as it is to be read within the limits of Judaism. as it were. They rage like wild beasts and seem to be of great power . but their power passes. There is. like the Jewish apocalypses. t Yet what is here said is not altogether true of the Jews of the Dispersion. * The feeling was. The Kingdom. at least for later readers. the kernel t of the nation. but some perhaps to fear neglect. Muirhead. It is difficult for us to conceive how any one able to handle a pen could have been A deceived by such fictions.APOCALYPSE It Is as strongly Greek as Revelation [the of heaven and hell. Besides community in general ideas and in pseudonymity. however loftily conceived by the seers of the nation. p. which. The troubling powers are fierce and violent. and the ultimate seeming extinction (capture of Jerusalem by Titus A. the tribulation is real. and even increase. he suppressed them. On the other hand. The depth of the sea rather than the height of heaven seemed to 'Ezra' the surest ' : . and in the dialects of the districts where they were received. is yet to come to them from God and to be realized in the world. becomes. angels such as Michael and Gabriel. like the prophecies of Isaiah or Jeremiah. was still in the actual tiiought of the orthodox Jew too much of this world and of his own nation. the pseudonymity was due. deceiver. the new creation with its wonders On the specialized in the new city and temple. which sometimes takes the of a grotesqueness. It is a record of great hopes and fidelities. apocalypse must be considered as of purely Jewisli growth. Within this period fall the comparative victory (Maccabaean triumph). however. Some of the parables of Daniel are puzzles to this day. Readers and interpreters of the apocalypses were concerned with their message for their own time. is a veil though a transparent one— between God and the spirit of the reader. or angelic beings resembling men (of whom the chief. perhaps.* As we have seen. At the same time their artificial literary style takes from the spiritual value of the apocalyptic writings. so none of the inhabitants of the earth can see my Son and his companions save at the hour of his day' (v. accuser. the monster of the deep (dragon or crocodile). Period and general characteristics of apoca- lyptic literature. + a man of lawlessness who ' ' The however. and leading ideas. Before passing to an account of tiie Apocalypse of John we must try to form a definite idea of the characteristic features of apocalyptic literature its design. side of evil. and there is special bliss for those who lose life for righteousness' sake. read more by C'liristians than by Jews. It is a question of some moment how far such criticism applies to the canonical Apocalj'pse of the NT. A. Between this How and ebb lies the history of apocalypse. wild beasts of the land. the fiction of history. Long. In the last passage the t Ct. If real history. But what could the Syrian do with the infiuence of writings that were three centuries old ? The example of the author of Daniel made pseudonymity a fashion. London. in so far as it deals with the past. The Eichatology of Jesus. the nivthological conceptions have passed through the mill of the — obscurity of imagery. having a close relation to the Greek Orpliio Literature. His instinct told him. author's appeal to books is a confession of it (Dn 9^ of. The great apocalypses were written in periods of stress. Daniel was not written. and of an incongruity in details. the opposer. Death does not end everything eitlier for the faithful or for the lawless. In Daniel. From the point of view of tlie student of the NT. the period within wliicli apocalyptic literature was produced occupied over a century and a half before the birth of Christ and about a century after. Writers. questions as to the affinities of its phraseologj' and conceptions with those of heathen mythology belong rather to the study of the OT. the greater the stress tlie truer the inspiration of the apocalj-ptist. a sample stock of images always accessible to the apoca- — lyptist. 7 ff. form. ISif-. It will last for a measured while. § Dn 122 is fairly cited as proijably the only passage in the OT that clearly teaches a bodily resurrection for individual Israelites. the most salient distinguishing feature is a certain * That is to say. Kev figure of ' one like a man ' (the Messiah) rises from the sea. undoubtedly present. It was written to be read. the paradise of God with its trees of healing and nourishment. Parables that are puzzles can hardly be edifying. the Jews of the stricter synagogue. we may say. 1. in spite of the greatness of the world-powers that are their rivals and the enemies of Jahweh. a veil that is opaque. The resurrection would seem to be universal as regards Israel (though this is doubtful). in the fact that after the fall of the Jewish State.§ As to the literary form of the apocalypses. rise out of the deep. 70) of this ideal.D. which are excusable only upon the supposition that the awkward imagery was capable of the twofold task of convej'ing the meaning to those for whom it was intended. Judging from Daniel.3'ff-. so far as we know. finement they need is supplied by the mill of the Christian fulfilment. these lists are mainly taken). It is thus the accompaniment and interpretation of the last great struggle of the Jewish people for that political independence with an implicit idea of supremacy which seemed to be due to the Chosen People. ' APOCALYPSE form 73 whereas Revelation. Tlie leading ideas are simple but great . apocah'pses have a certain community in imagery. as its equivalent tells the modern preacher. ' ' What further redistinctive of the Jewish faith. It concerns the lot of souls after death. Writers who had no cause to fear arrest. a living author might be traced to his desk. and As then flies among the clouds. but nothing is said of the heathen. and of veiling it from others. wrote in the names of prophets or saints of bygone days. ceased to cherish the apocalypses and perhaps even suppressed J them. but also of great disappointments and of failures both in conception and fulfilment. 1904. Apoc.

Though the time of the testimony of the two witnesses in v. where the Lord was crucified (v. Schopfunff u. on the eartli.etc. The Blessed Consummation.— ±.i-2). returned from heaven. 0. 17. 14-8. and 19) describes the fall of Rome. and Greek myths. In view of this sameness of the underlying imagery. the urgencj^ of which lies on his spirit as a burden of the Lord. but he is of the Messiah. but they are entirely true to the writer's thought (li). chs. a.") belongs to the time of the siege of Jerusalem (c.7»^. better knouTi to (fi) modern students of the Apocalypse (through Gunkel's ScAo?)/. (a) Introduction. He describes the conflict between the worshipiiers of the Beast and the followers of the Lamb. op. and in the General Resurrection and Judgment. Joel. But it is equally evident that the author is hampered in the expression of this message by a superabundance of borrowed and not quite congruous material. chs. 12. II. however. the general aspect of conflict between them the inherent strength of God's rule and the imminent collapse of the devil's remains to the prophetic eye the same. theme (P"of is 5®* ^-^•)- Christ Crucified.' a phrase in which the of seems to incluae both a subjecti\^B and an objective meaning* (19^". the book leaves the reader with a strong impression of its spiritual NT OT ' ' NT his prophecy are 'the testimony of Jesus. and generally all tlie portions of the which describe visions of God or offer pictures of bliss or woe). one of which (represented by w.i) in language appropriate to a goddess.4. The warrant. and its inheritors are the worshippers of God and the Lamb (1«. with visions of the victory and bliss of the faithful. vv. while he uses his hand in fragments of Jewish apocaIj-pses. chs. abstractly considered. and the other embodies a portion of the Antichrist legend. (1) In spite of its being. attaching to its needs and prospects a certain finality. Then she appears (v. saturated with reminiscences of books of the OT (esp.). 4 and 5. to the purpose of his message. 10). still permitted to persecute the Messianic community on earth. that the first Beast tiie is special points stronghold of secrets that should be inaccessible to men. Until less than a century ago.' see Porter. The messaifes of Christ to His (Dhurches represented by the Seven Churches of Asia. The Dragon is then cast out of heaven to the earth (v. and Tert.S). again. attestation. as a few examples will be sufficient to show. Jer. the 7 trumpets. including the opening of six seals. there is no book of the wliose claim. 18. 189. may — . 70). The teaching of 'John' is. It is evident. while * as a dragon. (c) Last stages of the Judgment.") The words the ' in the person of the second (the lamb tiiat 'spake the priesthood of the Imperial ' is the spirit of prophecy are a gloss (see the Conunentaries). composing the body of the book (chs. l^^-). be raised up by God or His angels Gabriel and Michael (see Bousset's Antichrist . especially the imperial cultus (the 'Beast'). he does so not to exercise a literary gift but to convey a message. de ally Anima). 12.e.' v. including salutation. 10-20. and the destruction of one-third of mankind at the sounding of six trumpets. C. borrowed material.. Chaos). 6-9. imposed by his choice of the apocalyptic form. 230 ff. (22i8f. As with every prophet. An obvious criterion of the rightfulness of iiis claim to be a prophet will be the ease and freedom with which he is able to adapt the material. t the salvation of the faithful. the originality of an apocalj'ptist is to be seen more in the use of his material tlian in the material itself. 11-3. Satan has been overthrown by the birth and ascension He has been cast down from heaven. If his wrath is fierce. The forces of good and evil remain the same.APOCALYPSE embodies all blasphemy. without explanation. Let the persecuted lend their ear to the loud voice saying in heaven 'Now is come salvation and the Kingdom of our God' (vv. and what was previously described (v. 19-20. but the modification of this view through the clear perception that both prophets and apocalyptists wrote for their own time. 12 of the Messiah-mother and the Dragon seeking to devour her child. 14.** An example of composite structure.d. cf. Ezek. seems a cumbrous and partly alien literary form. 21 and 22.. cit. see Gunkel. Is. 179 f. • In an obvious sense.. has been less a matter of subsequent doubt.S). 7. — ' — ' — (2) Of problems turning on more instances in ch. 2 and 3. Examples : (o) Ch. however. the Apocalypse was supposed to contain a forecast* of the entire career of the Church in time. the lioinan Empire embodied Emperor.2) as the holy city becomes spirituSodom and Egypt.3 corresponds with that during which the holy city is to be trodden under foot bj' the Gentiles (cf. For a brief and lucid attemiit: to conceive the in possible process through which the immediate and remote materials passed in the hands of ' John. Porter in his invaluable manual (op.v of Jesus .Seer receives a new commission. We may feel in general. once admitted. testimon. and 19. T))e ' ' ' — Superscription.2 any more than the holy city of the latter verse corresponds with ' Sodom and Eg^^jt of v. it is because his time is short. On the representation of this idea in the Genesis narratives of creation and the relation of the latter to the Babylonian myth of Marduk and Tiamat. The 7th seal contains. and much the greater part of the judgment portion (chs. 13). is. but more difficult to exhibit with precision. cit. Note that both the Epilogue and the Prologue of the book solemnly emphasize the claim to be considered 'pro- phecy 2. which is an abbi-eviated version of that given by F. — — A few specimens be given of the many fascinating problems which emerge for the student regarding: (1) the literary structure of the Apocalypse (2) the sigExamples of the problems. evident enough. including the coming of God general purpose to teach that the worshippers of the true God are safe (vv. where she finds refuge and nourishment in the wilderness. t There are pauses after the 6th seal and the 6th trumpet.5. the book did contain such a forecast. but persons and events change. The writer is His central positive Risen. Scheme of the book. which borrowed and combined Babylonian. Dan. has not altered the belief of Christians in the permanent spiritual value of this unique book. who would. as it were. nificance of some of its vhotq prominent details. 11 is made up of portions of two apocalypses. more than almost any other book of the (see below). is the vision in ch. we have good satisfied 13. although this ejection seems already to be assumed at v. and form with 1 Co 123 an interesting witness to the test applied to prophets in the early Church. and spirit a Christian and a prophet. It is not possible to supply in this article anything like a Commentary or even an adequate Introduction to the Apocalypse. Cliaox. theme. ' APOCALYPSE to dwell with men and the descent of the Heavenly Jerusalem.17. Whatever ditticulties were felt by the early Fathers in giving it a place in the Canon. In the Apocalypse. The scene begins in heaven. however. and the 7th trumpet contains the 7 bowls. Visions of Judifment. that. and the woman is described (v.. and that the powers of wicked men will not prevail against the testimony of law and prophecy to the true God (vv. B. 11.3). Note that a lar<re portion of this section consists of assurances to the faithful and of songs of triumph. . and on the earth he pursues the woman to her retreat in the wilderness.l. the Apocalypse of John shines in a light which no student of early Christian literature can call other than brilliant. that this general unity goes along with great looseness in the assimilation of unitj'. It is clear. A.2. (a) Visions of God and Clirist respectively performing and revealing. the situation of the city at v. Judged in this way. l*-322. he would not have expressed his meaning in the waj' we find in this chapter. . The Apocalypse of John. Egyptian.).o). A Cliristian meaning can douljtless be put into it all. chs. 4-20) intersected at chs. but no one narrator could ever spontaneously have told the story this way. Enoch becomes Moses. apart from a desire to use materials which laj. of course. The Seven Messages. most likely within his own generation. In his case it is to come 'shortly' i. which related how Antichrist would slay Enoch and Elijah. (6) First stajres of the Judgment. issuing in the final overthrow of Satan and Rome. chs. The apocalyptist of truly prophetic spirit lias his eye fixed on God and his own time and. the end is within the vision of the writer.3-12) is evident. (6) (c) The Seer's Call. and his vision of the wrath of God in seven bowls.The world to come is imminent. and Ascended substance. M. cf. Yet it may be useful to precede a discussion of some of its salient features with the following scheme of its contents. The .l3 does not correspond with that indicated at V. a ' great whore who incarnates all the abominations of the heathen world.

crucified. t6 Karexov) is the Certainly the representation Roman Empire. art. fied also that under the imagery of the first Beast the author must have thought both of Nero and APOCALYPSE them.mel's fourth beast to be Rome. nearer the truth in saying that portions of all of them must have passed through his mind than in deciding dogmatically in favour of one of ' ' • The letters of both the Greek and the Hebrew alphabets have each a numerical value. To St. serious difficulty (see Mollatt.he would consider Da. objections to this view (see Moffatt). In the Apocalypse the Roman Empire is clearly the instrument of Antichrist. and especially in the province of Asia. the objection that v. he also thought of Caligula. Dn V-^ff-). the first persecutors were not heathen in name.«ecuted under Imperial authority simply because of their Christian profession. was also the number of a There are serious linguistic man. leopard.Like U Ezr. have seen that (a) The historical situation. 64. and how much it is. 616? These three questions are interdependent. Augustus (healing) end of the Julian dynasty in Nero (wound). it is contended that. 1 Th 2"^-. viz. and it is obvious that in 'John's' time. He was certainly capable of adopting a fixed style of writing and carrying it through in the way that st}'le on the whole required. It is found that the Greek letters * of the phrase meaning the Latin ' give the number 666. not improbably. Paul the power of Antichrist lay in the jealousy of the Jewish synagogue. Nero sought to fasten on ' ^ . just because it was supreme and Divine.APOCALYPSE cultus exercising a lamb-like office with all the may be satisferocity of dragon-like tyrants.^^ speaks expressly of the 'number of a man. of which the number 7 was the symbol so near yet so far : off. and ascended. with the yod ['] in Csesar '). 44). rise of the Flavian dynasty (healing).' rightly spelt {i. this may simply mean that the number is to be reckoned in a human and not in (v.e. op. (b) the relation of apocalypse to prophecy.5 with the description of Antiochus Epiphanes in Dn 1136ff. where also the Lord was crucified' (Rev IP^ cf.'-)? Who is the ' man whose number ' is the number (c) Is the 'number' 666. when. It has been argued that. They were the representatives of the city which spiritually is called Sodom and Eaypt. perhaps. has shown that the Heb. or. may it not be a sign that he considered himself and his companions in the ' kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ ' to occupy a sphere which. and a testimony to Jesus as the Christ. 2 Th 21-12). Antichrist. cit. t ip''p not TDp t Cf. xv. On the other hand. we should still have to ask. But early the sacrificial spirit was called forth. whom he conceived as Nero Rcdiriviis (17"). the whole passage is too intense and too definite in its reference to exclude particular Emperors from the view of the author or his readers. which no Greek scholar supposes to be due to inadvertence. as Lord and Messiah.jiD"ip Dinp(r'Ao?w kadhmdnlyah=' the primiIt might be tive monster') give the number 666. O the little more. Enough has perhaps been . closely as the Beast is rather the Empire than an individual Emperor. Attention may be fastened on three matters (a) the historical situation. on the analogy of 21". t gives not 666 but 676. Still the questions remain deadly wound that was healed is the ' ' : (a) What (6) (v. This might explain the variant 616. Accepting this point of view.said to show that questions regarding the importance and function of apocalyptic literature in the faith and life of the Apostolic Age are best answered in connexion with a study of the Apocalypse of John. — . in so far as it was inconsistent with the worship of the Emperor (P 13'^'-). like the New Jerusalem. Christians were per. and there is no likelihood that any such writing existed.' meaning All these varying views of ' John's cannot be true in every particular. while the value of the letters in 'the Italian Kingdom' is 616. combines in itself all the ferocities of Daniel's first three beasts (lion.' it is replied that. (c) the hortatory and dogmatic teaching of the Apocalypse. The Apocalypse of John as a product of the Apostolic Age. to receive testimony and tribute ' from every quarter ? 3. ' ' apocalypse of the OT is contemporaneous with the great sacrifices made by the elite of the Jewish people to maintain the national testimony to Jahweh. It seems to the present writer that John may have thought of Domitian as combining Caligula and Xero in himself in much the same way as the Beast. but was open. Nero.Doubtless there were ditterences in the administration of the law. Yet we are. yod in writing the Hebrew form of Csesar is not a :J: Finally. The Dragon gives power to the Beast (IS'').). He must have thought of Nero. The man who had the literary genius and the prophetic inspiration to write the songs of triumph and the hortatory portions of the Apocalypse may be believed to have had a method in his carelessness. traditionally familiar to him. the wound should refer to some event To of public rather than of personal import. apart even from v. was not hermetically sealed to the rest of the world. but the tone of the Letters to the Seven Churches (chs. supposed. that what struck 'John' was that the number of this primaeval beast. 70 We Domitian. which is Rome (133). but it may suggest to us that the number containing three It may have sixes had a traditional meaning. and it would seem from the passage in 2 Th 2 that the power 'that restrains' (6 Karexwi'. meant the constant eflbrt and failure of what is human to attain the Divine perfection. attitude to the Christians may perhaps be found in the summer of A. and we are presented with the alternative theories : assassinaaccession of tion of Julius Cajsar (wound). If he left some strings flying for his readers to cut or fasten up as the spirit might lead them. therefore. V. bear. to whose attempt to set up his own statue in Jerusalem the Apocalypse of the blasphemous beast (considered as material borrowed by 'John ') Kingdom ' It seems to the present writer that the loose way in which the prophet and pastor who Avrote the Apocalypse dealt with the traditional material that lay to his hand was probably as intentional as the frequent grammatical anomalies and harsh Hebraisms of his text. of the Beast as in some MSS. 12i0ff. The sacriticial spirit passed into the community that confessed Jesus of Nazareth. Almost as certainly he must have thouglit of Domitian. which is the The omission of the of Caligula's name. the period of apocalyptic literature is roughly the 250 years of the last struggles of the Jewish people : — We for political and religious independency The first number might be supposed to have originally referred. '8. No known apocalyptic writing of the same or greater bulk is comparable with it in vitality of connexion with primitive Christianity . finding the Bab.251W-)(16" Between the ministry of St. words n. and. Christianity was a crime punishable with death. . original of the Beast in the chaos-monster Tiamat overcome (in the creation myth) by Marduk. Gunkel. Paul and the time of the Apocalypse a change had taken place.i^)? a heavenly or angelic way. as Tacitus informs us (Ann.D. What were the events that were respectively the inflicting and the healing of a deadly wound. cf. Very risen. in the Acts of the Apostles favours this view 21^2 2225ff. 2 and 3) and of the whole Apocalypse indicates a time when the worst might be The beginning of this Imperial apprehended. Against the identification of the Beast with Nero it is further argued that the Hebrew equivalent of 'Nero Csesar.

We judge so rather from the correspondence existing between his claim to direct access to this source and the still operating influence of his personality upon the conscience and conduct of mankind. and John ' was. and that probably as much in pro])ortion of John's' Apocalypse as of St. it has been held that the Apocalypse belongs This view to the time of the Neronic persecution.' do not know enough regarding the Churches of Asia in the 1st cent. to say witii confidence that only one who was as higlily esteemed as John the Apostle (Ram.76 APOCALYPSE to APOCALYPSE it is the Christians the odious charge of incendiarism. 13* with 17'MIt was under Domitian that persecution of the Ciiristians first became a part of the Imperial It is this legalized persecution and the policy. that 'John' conceals his real name. of Peter. — — •Porter {op. under favourable conditions. more than possible.' yet the authoritativeness of his message for his own time and ours lies not in this but in its correspondence with a situation of crisis for the Kingdom of God. it contains the answer to two closely related fjuestions: (1) Is the writer. of the whole Apocalypse. message short of that contained in the Apocalypse could have seemed worthy of God or a testimony Prophecy is never in vacuo. tion to emerge in which we cannot obey man's law without dishonouring God's.). in view both of the literary apocalyptic convention of pseudepigraphy and ' ' whom he is a figure of the past. the Apocalypse will be an authority ready for use in the hands of the godly. with those he addresses. It may be probable. a preacher. only a pale shadow of a prophet ? Must not John be conceived. oil. and. or so as to flash the light of the Divine judgment on the darkened conscience of an unbeliever. just. it was the spirit of prophecy. but surely we may say that no one could write as John does without being. Nero is certainly a figure in the Apocalypse (see above). the Apocalypse must have been to its first readers a message Its appeal lay in its inof comfort and power. and the Church since the beginning of the 3rd cent. and in a much greater part (the centuries between the Exile and ' ' — — supposing them to ' world itself. a 'companion in tribulation' of those to whom he writes (P). so not simply from what is told in the Acts or We from what he himself tells regarding the source from which he derived the contents and manner of his preaching or the directions necessary for his missionary journeys. but and On the other hand.' God's word is in the mouth of His prophet because it is first in the events which His providence or' It would be difficult to rate too highly the literary and spiritual genius of 'John. it was addressed. Paul himself must have pos(1 Co 1422--«. seems to be as destitute of probability as of proof. to stand to a Daniel speaking prophet. What. or does he.^S. it is the fact that — — have been fictitious here the fiction ends. separates it longo inter callo from apocalyptic writings of the purely Jewish type. rather disconcertingly: 'Our imprts-iion is that it is secondary. only a writer. fact tiiat the centre of the storm lies among the Cliurches of Asia that rouse the spirit of prophecy in the autiior of's act of warrantable prudence. Otho. And. but the suggestion that he tried to personate any one. of Jesus Christ. considered as Xero Hediviviis. 13'^ seems to indicate an edict actually in force or about to be issued. so far as he was concerned. But the matter of real importance is not the question whether the names of person and place are name was an fictitious . If this view is (6) Apocalyptic and prophecy. and to 'John' it seemed justly a challenge of God's supremacy. The ' eit'hth that is of the seven '(v. Paul was a preacher. The He is in the same situation writer is a Christian. what measure have to judge of that which is primary? we by which . though it is far from certain. or even from Christian apocalypses like the Apoc. 183) asks whether the Apocalypse is 'a direct or a secondary product of that new inspiration ' [Christian prophecy]. no evitableness. it may be asked in reply W^hat do we know of Paul the preacher that we do not learn best from his own writings? No companion of 'John has told us (as Luke did of Paul) how he preached. 2 and 3. fictitious. say of Ephesus. from the peculiar genius of its author. author solemnly claims to be one of them. has taken him at his own estimate. which resemble the Jewish type in the feature of impersonation. write under the name of some great personage of the i)ast? (2) Is he really a proi)het as well as an apocalyptist ? (1) The former question should be kept apart from the question whether the writer can reasonably be identified with the Apostle John. and Vitellius from Anjrustus to Nero. that gave him tlie certainty that the Lord Jesus would come quickly to deliver His people from a situation in which the choice lay between death and unfaithfulness to Him. v. which God and His Quite apart Christ could not delay to take up. assuredly.' No one has a better right to speak with authoi ily than Porter. and so from the ' ' of the probability that concealment of the . moment though the moments of God and history may be long that cruelty and violence can reign or the meek and righteous be oppressed.* (2) But is not an apocalyptist. judge sessed the gift in an eminent degree. or souglit any authority for his message other than what belonged to it as the testimony of Jesus given to himself.are the seven emperors exclusive of the usurpers Galha. esp. There is nowhere in the book the slightest hint of a <laim to apostleship 21''* and 18'-" suggest rather tiiat the author distinguished himself from the 'holy apostles and prophets' and from the '12 apostles. If it be said that St. like other apocalyptists. He neither desires nor attempts to place himself in the distant past. and not of delusion. In the situation as described. and that (almost by consequence) the banishment in Patmoa was. cf. Every prophet is an escliatolugist. But if the inspiration of the Apocalypse is secondary. as he re^^resents himself. The Beast is alive in his bestial successor Domitian. under which ordinary contracts of exchange should not be legal apart from vows of allegiance to the Emperor as a Divine person. Paul's Epistles might have been ' ' . ipso facto. he had the xap'o'Ma or gift of prophecy yt. as regards inspiration. He sees the end of what is opposed It is only for a to tiie will of holiness and love. This meant that Christians were excluded from the business of the world. as stands to the real Daniel or to some prophet of the time of Nebuchadrezzar ? It seems to the present writer that the entire absence from the Apocalypse of such a fiction as that in Daniel. Rev 19'") ? If a Christian could speak so as to bring home to his brethren the reality of the promised Kingdom. as we venture to think. may now be regarded as superseded. tliat John was not the autlior's real name. So long as it is possible for a situatlains or permits. in which the past is in one part (the alleged writer's time) adorned with legendary features.H) is Domitian. and' he rejilies. we may ask.say) or John tiie Presbyter (Bousset) could be confident that his message would come with authority to those — the Syrian Persecution) is treated fictitiously as future. so far as we know. whom 'John' considers Nero Redivivus * (cf. We ' ' ' * The ' seven kitifja ' of IT^W. including Daniel. is a Christian prophet but one who has an diroKaXv^ii (revelation) from God through Jesus Christ concerning matters pertaining to His Kingdom (1 Co W*^-. The Our Christian Church has its own jH'ophets.

among — — || framework polated. Matthew has 37 direct quotations from the OT against 3 in the Apocalypse. is a prophet.' which would thus retain its OT sense (Is 212. fatal. but patience and faith prevail. The — — world in the (S-"-" 6«ff- T^-^ 8^^- \\^^«- 12'o-i2 139'- 141-7- 12'- 151-4 191-9. and the note of the triumpliant thanksgiving of the faithful sounds."• "• -^ 3«. goes beyond it. as it claims to be. not dominated by but manifested through suffering for the power is redemptive pervades the book. (c) The. though that book was written by a man wiio also wrote a Gospel ? Are they marked or even. so far as the Apostolic K^^ is concerned. tory has i^roved that the day of martyrs is Hisemi- * 110. 'he that hath ears. 77 or stands to his own nently the day ignored. la ]14 63iff-. in view of the emphasis in some cases excessive which many scholars have laid on the Jewish character of the Apocalypse. and Ezekiel of This is eminently true of the messages the NT. we may venture to say that once at least this ideal unity of apocalypse and prophecy has been realized. unnaturally separated (througri the spirit of aj'tilice). few direct quotations from the OT in the Apocalypse but there are more OT reminiscences in it than in almost any other book of the NT. According to Huhn. (Alttest. the Isaiah. : Dn 73 Reminiscemen im jNT. with 474 reminiscences. at all present in the Epistles which bear the names of Peter and John ? Notoriously they are so little marked in the known writings of the greatest hgure of the Apostolic Age that their absence has suj^jjlied its one position of apparent strength to the 'modern Gnosticism' associated with the names of Jensen and Drews. At first sight the change seems more formal than real. 2 and 3 of the Apocalypse did they not proceed from one who was thoroughly conversant with everything in the environment of the Churches of Asia which had a bearing on their spiritual condition. the book produces on the mind of the critical no less than of the ordinary reader. indeed. is due largely to the comparatively stereotyped character of the apocalyptic imagery. etc.f This. We do not know all that St. All the other books are much behind Si • That . On the other hand. in the latter case. yet it is hardly likely that iv would be used both in the instrumental and the local sense in one short sentence and the analogy of 173f. Two things. etc' (2'. The book is written. when this Wlien it is remembered how apocalypses incom- liberty is denied parably inferior in spiritual quality to the Apocalypse were cherished by the early Church and even quoted as Scripture. in a sense. etc. beyond the features of His death and resurrection. have come together again. The description of the Figure in V. a thing of Jewish origin and growth. . Mt 2652).22). however. patience is not mere passivity.). If our argument is sound. it will not seem hazardous to assert that in the Apostolic Age the distinction between apocalj'pse and prophecy. he would have used a verb of transference (' I was carried by the Spirit tn. claims to stand to those whom he addresses in the relation of a speaking prophet Those who remember the function to his hearers.2-. its affinities with pagan mythology may be belonging to the sphere of OT research. one is that the absence of the human features of Jesus is scarcely more marked in the Apocalypse than it is in every other book of the NT outside the Gospels. may justly feel that the onus probandi rests with tiiose who deny the claim.' whether he speak it or write it. Thus Matthew conies near the Apocalypse in this respect Luke. 'John 'is.* The inspiration came to John on the day in which Christians remembered the Resurrection of the Lord. in an atmosphere of worship.' though this rendering cannot be said to be grammatically impossible and though it has the advantage of attaching a good traditional meaning to 'Daj' of the Lord.' has ceased to exist. but it was too vital to the spiritual situation to be intended as ornamental. ' Compliance ' is — to the Seven Churches (chs. But. 'The vital connexion of this teaching with the situation is obvious. but. 1900.The ' Day of the Lord' is. in spite of its eclectic form. propounded by Vischer in 1886. Am 5-^). The book is a message from the Lord in heaven.'). the day of worship. The command to worship the Beast The must be courageously disobeyed. these chapters still serve in that best type of Christian oratory in which preaching is prophesying. and 22"--').' and the man who has a revelation. no doubt. cf. yielded to the strong impression of its unity and Christian character. that the book is a Jewish Apocalypse set in a Christian First ' ' .owes more to Daniel. It is realized in the Apocalypse of John. 1904) probably exaggerates the extent to which the writer may have had in his mind facts of geography and history relating to the places mentioned but such a book from the pen of an unrivalled authority on the antiquities of Asia Minor could — . through the Spirit. in the Day of the Lord (or the Day of Judgrnent). J Zechariah. But the latter has 453 reminiscences against 437 in Matthew. But the immediately edifying elements of the Apocalypse are not cf. 2 and 3). (chs.* There are. The opinion of scholars is against the renderings : * I was. and another was Luke. tiiere is nothing in the description of the sublime Personage who overwhelms 'John' with His manifestations (l^'') suggestive of any feature distinctive of the human Jesus of the Gospels. those who have their part in the second death are the fearful (2P). The best proof of the soundness of the above argument lies in the abundance of hortatory and dogmatic material of permanent value to be found in the Apocalypse. two considei-ations seem specially relevant. The prophet is the man who has a revelation. ' ' ' ethical teaching of the book is perhaps best seen in such passages as 6^-'' IS*-'" H^'-'^ 20"^-.^^. 105ff-. The sense of holy omnipotent power. Mt 13^-*'. 269 ff. as t is to saj'. Yet one of St. . || . The worship-element book is exquisitely beautiful as literature.APOCALYPSE preached as it APOCALYPSE contemporaries. Paul either — — ig-nort-d. Paul and Jesus of Nazareth a main task of modern A])ologetics.'^'^^• and in IQ""'. § Zee 1210.). Such a fact gives a certain colour to the view. loudly behind the curtain of judgment that shrouds the wicked ' ' This extreme view has. A writer who closes each message with the formula. and slightly inter- confined to these chapters. 2110 suggests that. etc. The crucial element in the situation is the liberty of Avorship.§ and Isaiah than to anything that is original in the Gospels. Paul's companions was Mark. the Christian Sabbath. As we have seen. which is marked in the pre-Christian period by the separation of Daniel in the Hebrew Canon from the Prophets. The Apocalyjjse comes from Jesus Christ (P). Not less but even more obvious is its connexion with the dogmatic teaching of the book. hortntory and dogmatic teaching of the. The weapon of force is not permitted to them (13'" . the Apocalypse must be considered. therefore. throughout. — not have been written of the messages in chs. Those who read and obey are blessed because the time of their deliverance is at hand. Are references to the human Jesus frequent or marked in the Acts of the Apostles.). Ramsay's Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia (Lond.11-16 20^-6 21. Citate u. Jeremiah. and has made the effort to exhibit real points of contact between St. a word seems necessary on the question of how far the distinctive Christian belief that Jesus is the Messiah has modified the type of teaching peculiar to a Jewisn apocalyptic book. The essential virtues of the saints are patience and courage. Apocalypse. 1-3. which. had the author intended this meaning. As to the alleged absence of the features of the Christ of the Gospels. p. Its refrain is Glory to God and to the Lamb (P'-).

It was believed by all the NT writers of the first generation that the return of Christ to His own in glory and power would be witnessed by some in tiieir OAvn time while they were yet in the flesh. above cited). as the nature of his theme requires. . in which those whose names are not found in the book of life' are cast into the lake of fire. T^. though on the wiiole it hardly afl'ected. Christ will come to confirm and receive His own to Himself in the glory of God. Even if we put out of account the limitations of apocalyptic literary method. Then follows the General Judgment. and. is his combination of an earthly and a heavenly view of the Consummation. the contemporary of Jesus (who yet possibly never saw Him in the flesh). having a desire to utilize traditional material that was too good to be neglected. should be concerned rather with prospects of the Lord's coming and glory than with reminiscences of the days of His flesh. and passages in sull'ered (2) that . he might fairly be conceived to reply For the past. in part. that might not have been conceived by ' Daniel or any other OT prophet. Would the modern religious man. well within the Apostolic Age. cit. In the rest of his book. in so far as they were not occupied with matters of immediate perplexity and duty. Uut surely we may credit the prophet with being aware of the inconsistency.APOCALYPSE spoke or ^vrote. Men possess reminiscences of personalities who have exercised a determining influence upon tliem long before they think of committing them to writing. while the destruction of the colossal imposture of the Roman Imperial cult is the last preliminar}' to the Consummation that comes within his definite conviction. for a Christian example. and had concerned brother-prophets before him (cf.(the 'day' of the Creation-narrative) \vith Ps 90'*. but we do know that. With 'John' it is the reign of the Messiah with His faithful mart3Ts.(cf. whatever may be its defects. the last obstacle to the glorious advent of the Kingdom will be taken away. and it is a matter much discussed how far it is due to convictions definitely entertained and expressed by our Lord Himself. why should those of a man some thirty years younger. and. Satan. 21 and Why does the prophet not close his book at 1910? It is 22).cf. has such a fact other claim of Christianity to fulfil OT prophecy. Kev O^"'-) the earth needed to be prepared for the final glory by the prevailing presence in it of the saints (1 Co 15'2-'. Rev 20^"') (3) that there were special rewards for those who made special sacrifices. and the prophet is practical as well as inspired. In En. and of course neither they nor He die at the end of it. supplies the norm of the religion which is final. and that every detail in it has to the author's own mind a significance. . for the sake of the Kingdom (2 Ti 2iif. even in regard to the future. 91i-ff-. say anything. the poorest conceival)le answer to saj* that he continues his text for literary reasons. Paul. we shall require of the Christian prophet John only that he accomplish his declared : . 4^0 and Secrets of Enoch 33if-) the seventh day was the reign of the Messiah. the claim of this Christian seer to be in the succession of the prophets (P 10"^.ig^" 22^^"-)t Once it is seen that it is the work of a Christian. En. and never un wholesomely. of our prophet would be obtained in a somewhat similar fashion bv combining Gn I'"'. his ethical teaching. the book must be allowed to possess a unique value for edification both in itself and in reference to the place assigned it by Christian authority that of closing the canonical record of revelation contained in the significance But what than that of illustrating. is unbound and leads the powers of evil in a final assault upon the saints of the earth. including the reign of the Jlessiah. If. he drops special reference to the Asiatic Churches. is divided into heavenly weeks. 728 the period of the reign of the Messiah is 400 years a number whicli. and. But the reason may well be that. and the rest who are faithful join the saints of the Millennium in the final bliss. He is overthrown and cast into the 'lake of fire' with the Beast and the False Prophet. The 'day ( = 1000 years) is the rest-day of God's In the Jewish tradisaints. Paul. to St. 20 cf. who are in particular the martyrs. Bar 40^. in general. larger use of material that is more or less common to all imaginative religious speech • 1 Co 729«. in particular. a demand for written reminiscences of Jesus arose both in the Jewish and in the Gentile portion of the Church. tion (cf Jub. and who writes to them in prophetic vein. the — Bible. seems to the present writer an illustration rather than an exception. It is that of what may be called the eschatological outlook of the Apostolic Age. What is important to him is not to reconcile discrepant details. a Christian prophet of the time of Domitian. warns him against the danger of confounding . do not. There is scarcely a detail in the wonderful lament of triumph over the fall of the Roman Babylon (ch.). In 4 Ezr. surprise us. Mk 102Siti-B. And it was manifestly important to him. Bar 40^) we find a scheme according to which all human history. Paul had been asked to state his essential creed as briefly as possible. cf.* APOCALYPSE He has the definite belief that the last instrument of Antichrist is the Roman Imperial system. if not usually as witness the cases of Matthew and ^Nlark the task of writing is undertaken only by request (Euseb.. the last thing we shall expect such a writer expressly to deal with will be reminiscences of the historic Jesus. and often. which are of account for the whole Church and world of his time.b'^f. And here the traditional idea of a reign of the saints preliminary to the Final Consummation came to his aid. One matter that genuinely concerned him as a prophet. on the whole just as he might be conceived to speak. which we may consider part of his prophetic equipment. as it was also. Paul belongs to them a fortiori in reference to a writer whose express aim is to show to the servants of God the things that must shortly come to pass' (P). in particular the sacrifice of life. a complex instinct. oflend us? The other consideration is more positive in character. that is really difl'erent from this ? Whatever worth may belong to these considerations in reference to St. large doings of God permit of fluctuation in detail. ' ' ' purpose in a manner conformable both to the situation he has in view and to the spirit and teaching of the apostolic faith. to ex))ri'ss the ideas (1) that believers who died before the Advent The — ' ' . and again at 1921. contemporaneously with the accomplishment of his mission to the Gentiles. . Paul (1 Co 15". but to express through them ideas of destiny that are worthy of God and His Messiah. at least. It is obvious that these details are not strictly reconcilable with those of the Apocalypse that ends at 19"'. was the question what special reward would be granted to those who had maintained their faithfulness to God at the cost of their lives. The binding of Satan and the thousand years' reign of the martyred saints precedes the final destruction of the Antichristian power and the descent of the Heavenly City (ch. with chs. definiteness of result with definiteness of time and manner. 18) that has not its close parallel in Isaiah and Jeremiah (for the details see Porter. It was certainly entertained by St. 1 Th S^^ff-) . who had been for the most part his own converts and catechumens. op. * A good instance of the author's eclecticism. 99) explains. Rev. iii. and makes. He handles his manifold material freely. devotes himself to the recounting of visions. suflering from the Roman persecution. . No critic contends that chs. as in U Ezr. If we assume that the Apostolic Age. If St. 39). whose creed has any title to be associated with the NT. then. the silences of St. Christ rose and lives for our justification for the future. 2 and 3 do not indicate a writer who is in the matters of main account in close touch with the communities he addresses. Dn 12iff-. It is true there is nothing in his general estimate of the situation of the worshippers of the true God. determined by his own attitude and that of his readers to the Messiah who was crucified (!"• 11^ 12^^). — — — ' HE 267). acting under control of spiritual insight. however. as the Talmud {Sank. it surely explains why letters to fellow-Christians. Tlie expectation appears in the Gospels (Mk 9^ 13||). 1 Co IS'-O". 91i'-f. Christ died in the flesh for our sins for the or. and that with the removal of the 'Great Whore' (19^)—the 'Babylon' which is Rome especially the cult of the Emperor.* or literature. on fair consideration. ' : no disadvantage above others (1 Th 4'^'''. mainly of final judgment. The 1000 years is obtained by combining Gn 15-^ with Ps 90^5.

' so there is a certain fierceness in the first hand. It is the fact that Jesus. On the whole. They 1. His 'Avrath' is the Christianity itself.' and no sacrifice is too lyptic element in the NT is considerable and great (2'° 2P^). cf. ing what is commonly called the apocalyptic eleNo doubt the 'Lamb' is a leader and a warrior. For they also have BOOKS OF THE AND IN CHRISTIANITY.^). or longer The saints must show no half-hearted timidity passages in the apocalyptic style occurring in writin resisting the order that is supreme in the world. ings that do not on the whole bear the literary The resistance is to be maintained in the sense in character of apocalypses. and yielded to the apostasy of his time than for the (2) Grace peace come from Him equally with Him who is Beast and the False Prophet who have led it. the Prince of the kings of the chance hearer. denot accidental.. Those who They moved from place to place.' and the innumerable multitude of the tion whose containing sphere is the Person of Jesus glorified faithful in heaven are those whose robes Clirist (Col 2^-^). the prophet himself). confiicts and triumphs of the saints. The its splendours real is none other than God Himself and the Lamb. or to the processes through which it will come to The sun that lightens the city of pearls and makes earth. rank to the apostles.' the early Fathers (see Didache. it canworship was denied. ment' (1) in the other books of the NT (2) in whom His servants follow. Gal P 2-). The guests at the marriage.' On all it is the revelation of Him (1^). It and mediation. similarly. let him take the water of life freely. Eph 4'i). sentences. The prophets these points and others might be named the are those who have the testimony of Jesus. and that worship in spirit not be said to be impossible that He spoke the and in truth is the loftiest expression of the soul's contents of 13|| substantially as they are reloyalty. and as from the Xameless who theeartli' (!"• 7"). viz. e. already the Bride. The view of the NT and of have been 'made white in the blood of the Lamb. believe that there is much more chance of repent(1) The Messiah is the historical Person of the seed of David.D. Yet what distinguished the the fundamental virtues of the saints are patience apostles from the prophets was accidental. Evangelism is scarcely to be expected in In the Gospel of John matters lie in a different — ' ' ' ' — ' ' : ' — — ' NT — — ' : . because it maj' well of His power 'in the midst of the throne' He appear from our study of the Apocalypse tliat the remains for the Christian seer a ' Lamb as it had whole of Christianity is an apocalj-pse or revelabeen slain. Its bliss is the life of its citizens life reflected in the NT is saturated with the super(7i5ff. God and who spoke and acted by dTro/cdXi^i/'ts (Ac 4^* 20--'. the testimony. who was ance for the rank and file of those who nave crucified at Jemsalem (5* 11^). The and faith . In view of the emphasis laid on worship is noticeable. the apocahim that overcometh. in detail. Paul gratitude of those who have been forgivea aju^ (1 Co 1228. The expression apocalyptic (5) The conception of Christian duty and bliss. is profoundly ethical and spiritual. In the sub-apostolic Church these should make allowance for the dramatic style of functions probably passed over largely to the tlie book and should not forget that at bottom prophets. It is due to the twofold fact that clared Himself the Messiah in words that were the book reflects a situation in which liberty of virtually a quotation of Dn 7^^ (Mk 14''^||). He is the faithful witness. though. however inevitable in apocalyptic may surely be said with truth and reverence that literature or even in the thoughts proper to our Lord Himself was the best example of a speaktrue religion. 223ff'). Twice over. The Gospels. men who had 'seen the Lord' (1 Co 9^). the spirit of gracious evangelism that finds expression in 22" deserves acknowledg. Spirit). in the book is not only mediated by Jesus Christ. Yet the last word of the hookapocalyptic equivalents for the Father and the as from the Spirit (in.21io«-. 66-70). and founded find fault with the vindictiveness of the Apocalypse churches. The saying recorded in Lk 10^ would alone be sufficient to prove the (6) Finally. In discourses of Jesus notably.g. and concerned so teaching of the Apocalypse on detiuite articles largely with the Judgment. supper of the Lamb do not wear jewellery. The Jewish-Christian apocalypse which gave the subworship of angels was a heresy not unknown in stance of our Lord's utterance in a form adapted the Asiatic Churches. however.Agreeably with this. i97ff. The apocalyptic element in other faithful believers in Jesus. 'John' does not of the Christian creed. element' indicates phrases. relating to the order that already exists in heaven and participation in all the privileges of sonship. The emphasis is negative as well as ported.7*^*). Yet even in the glory lyptic element' with reserve. or of the union between apoca218ff. when before Caiaphas.APOCALYPSE APOCALYPSE 79 The following examples may be given of the a book announcing finalities. say. the wear the ' croAvn of life. The promise is to superficial glance that. We use the phrase 'apocadestruction of His enemies. The of the other books of the NT is obvious. 11) regarding the The motive of service even in heaven is the Christian prophets is that expressed by St. a word may be said in conclusion regard(4) Tne fundamental work of the Messiah is the redemptive self-sacrifice. so understood.| which reference to the fidelity of the servants of God. Perhaps John felt that to the case of the Christians in Jerusalem at the the elaboration of the conception of angelic agency time of the Jewish-Roman war (A. perhaps.)^ lypse and prophecy.' the First. as there is a wrath of the apostles were received as witnesses of Jesus at Lamb. for there is not much spirits which are before the throne' (manifest time (F22i<'^-). prophet is a feUow-servant and companion of all III. feel that apocalj-pse is a leaven rather than an ingredient in the NT. — — — Mk ' ' . are entirely in the apocalyptic style.natural.point. and was and is to come' and with the 'seven There is not much chance. it is probable positive. m^t. ' ' ' • ' . who in any case were one with the the battle between the saints and their oppressors apostles in the essential qualification of having is a battle between patience and violence (18^ received their commission not from man but from 139'. Col ing from the Church. the seer is warned not to that the Evangelists incorporated in their texts a worship him that showed him these things. They are made OTophets as well Though it is impossible to treat the subject here as priests and kings (P. Mk 13. It is obvious even at a which maintenance is victory.' as from begotten of the dead. that they are next in cleansed (14^-* 19^^^.' and close touch of the Apocalypse with the teaching the latter is the 'spirit of prophecy' (19^°). had its dangers (19^" 22^.I41-). Besides words and phrases. we shall.' and the ' fine linen of Synoptic Gospels contain long passages of alleged the righteousness of the saints' (2^° 19^). The reward of this holy sacrificial when we remember that it includes phrases directly attitude of the will is complete union with Christ.— (3) The 'revelation' contained is above everj' name is Come whosoever wUl.

„ ^j. may help some religious men. 10 (coincident visions). Paul. It means that The Gospel is an account of the all is apocalypse. exercised under proper self-control. that there is no room for apocalypse. for His promise leads us forward to horizons that vanish and enlarge as we approach. Life is an experiment. and 1 and 2 Thessalonians. Co 5iff- 12iff-. yet cannot rest. is APOCALYPSE APOCALYPSE must happen first. who are the servants of God and the redeemed of Jesus Christ. Emmet's article {Expositor. and the Son of God was made flesh.with IS^'. Let it be in the spirit on the Lord's Day. and coming soon. The Acts of the Apostles. would quench the inspiration of the tongues (cf. 1 and 2 Cor.and U^^^ff. again. was by far the more valuable gift (W^). U-»«. would last until the Advent. and the reign of holiness and love in their hearts. It is a work in which he is involved as a partner with God. cannot be answered with perfect satisfaction to the mind without the aid of psychology and metaphysics and possibly the new intuitionalism of our day. because God must fulfil Himself. whereas the rationalistic spirit. 2 Th clearly and admirably brought out in reference to our Lord in C. i. W. Oi special interest are the earlier Epistles of St. The heart of Christian prophecy is the testimony of Jesus.". on the whole. No. Let it be 'a companion in tribulation' with the humblest of men and women. Let it never be separated from the spirit of moral discipline and religious worship. He is and was and is to come. for some.' The eschatology of St. at the same time. And yes. death by a word).)_ jj^ ^i^g ^^^^ meration in 14-''. however. The passages 1 Co 7^^^. to encourage believers to continue in patience and hope.. Yet. 6'* cf 7^'). It is the working out of God's purpose. while it lasted.and 1 Th Si"'-)In our study of the Apocalypse we have seen something of the difficulty or even impossibility of finding an esciiatological scheme of perfect consistency in detail even in so purely apocalyptical a writer as 'John. 3 (healing). because human life involves this ignorance. 11) and on its value for edification and conversion are of peculiar interest to the student of Christian prophecy as manifested in a solution of the eschatological question. In Christianity. the most ethical. where the colour of the expectation may be supposed to be more sober. Did. even in the literary sense. that history has no otiier end than the reconciliation of sinful man to God through Jesus Christ. Paul probably believed that prophecy. Gal. That does not mean. Even in the later writings. the prophet is clearly the person who has an a. In 1 Cor. could hardly be satisfied with the impossibility of searching out God to perfection unless it were permissible. because one cannot have religion without eschatology. in part so long as we believe. even necessary. but it is true as true as the more comprehensive paradox that the Bible is the most esciiatological book in the world and. and tongues of fire). however little it deserved to be encouraged. manifestation in the flesh of the Word that was — — God 2. 1 Th 4i3ff. To the religious man human history is not a mere spectacle. 7 (transfiguration. 2 (wind. 12 (deliverance through an angel) are conspicuous (the .' and He reveals Himself to those who trust and obey Him. The proposition will bear examination that in practically every case where believers are addressed in the regarding the final glory that is to come soon presumably within their own life-time a leading motive of the utterance is to insist that other important things still writer could be. yet we are comforted for the fulfilment is greater than the hope. 8th ser.80 perspective. to attempt the task. are disappointed. Epistles. But it does not proceed independently of God. Ch. Evolution no more excludes eschatology than science excludes religion. Only. indeed. Yet it is pertinent to make two remarks. (. St. citt. or.IS^^^f.' It is the confidence gained not from man but from God.* This is a paradox.* his practical motives are clear and cogent. whom mental training has fitted to desire and receive such aid.have already been referred to. but prophecy. Could Jesus be the Revealer of God and of Sonship with God and yet be under illusion as to the end of the world? Yes. it will recover (should it have lost it) the note of authority that is struck in the NT and attains such lofty expression in the Apocalypse of John.' viz. ' Is the Teaching of Jesus an Interimsis * This point ethikf . the moral and spiritual life of mankind goes its own way independently of philosophy.' Paul is beyond the range of this article... The one is that St. cf. upon the sphere of the apocalyptist."«. (11-"). the sense of the imminence of the coming glory is not lost. They are the same as the motives of John. is dominant in all these writings. 3iff. Eph 58. May we extend the paradox to Christianity itself as the spirit and power of the religion of the 20th century? Or are those 'modernists' right who say that the Christianity of the future must be stripped of eschatological delusions'? The question. as he does so markedly in tlie Corinthian and Thessalonian Epistles.. . also 2 2iff. yet we hope. is We we must prophesy that. 4 (earthquake).' and go with Him to a height where we see more than all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them because we see Him. except (for wliolly accidental reasons) Philemon and 2 and 3 John. other where ' NT — — • Loec. The Lamb' is also ' ' ' ' ' the Apostolic ' Age (142-i. And it must have an end. ' ' The — ' ' ' We We . obvious (b) (2 P NT — 3^-'3). Even John is confident that it is the last time ( I Jn 2^^). let our eschatology be a thing of dignity and freedom. Fulfilling these conditions. Our situation in reference to Him is paradoxical.' Prophecy and 'tongues' might be alike in respect of irapermanence (13^). VVe sutler. 1 Jn 3'ff). the expectation of the Lord's coming. Paul is as certain of the need and value of prophesying and of the reality of the supernatural happenings with which propliecy is concerned as any apocalyptical propliesy. associated with the name of Bergson. (a) In general. so to speak. as to John Evangelist) the appearance and action of Jesus in the world are themselves an apocalypse. in 2 Peter perhaps the latest writing in the is sufficiently 3. not a theorj'. The St.. Those in 1 Co 12ia'. Let it be reserved even when it speaks with effusion. because these are not alternatives. xxiii. But what of the religion of the future? Must we not leave eschatology and put evolution in its place? No. If we do not call this note science. The diflerence between earlier and later appears chiefly in the choice in the later writings of phrases indicating the manifestation of a Divine reality already existing rather than the coming from heaven of something new (Col 31^. and the object of the experiment is God. The apocalyptic element. because the illusion was to Him the transparent veil of the certainty that the Righteous Father lived and reigned. so to Luke in the Acts the events that mark the f)rogress of the gospel are largely sensible apocaypses of the Divine favour or power.g tests of prophecy (cf.TroKd\v\pLs. again. perhaps. Paul enters. — Just ' ' ' We instances.. Those who thus think will look rather to history and to personal and social religious experience than to philosophy for The heavenly has come rather than coming. it is because we must use a greater word and call it prophecy. [1912] 423) entitled. rest in Him. 5 (strokes of judgment.

are to think of Apollos as ' ' ' We — the modem Christian prophet thinks he can do better with the language of evolution. ' ' ' ' : ' ' ' ' . a Jewish Christian versed in the Alex(1) He was andrian philosophy. : . This conception of the work of Apollos in Corinth I is in accord with St. Muirhead. A.d. 1S52 (epoch-making for the modern method of interpretation). 1895. C. 1895 H. Die Apokryphen u. the WestPaul's return later. 1867. NT neu ubersetzt u. Schraiedel cuts the knot by making IS-"** ^^'"' later accretions.. Die neutest. — viii. There is something in God that is akin to everything that is human. Paul (Ac 19'. of Lake Bolbe (Athen. fervent in spirit. and the still valuable work of A. it is by vision and revelation. 1904 R.^. whose own instruction had been imperfect. "Without falling back on any of these somewhat contradictory explanations. The handbooks.).APOLLONIA the Lion of the tribe of Judah who has prevailed Jolm used to open the book of human destiny. The work of Apollos in Corinth is described as helping them much which had believed through grace (Ac 18^).. C.' Evidently Apollos' work self as their was not so much preaching the gospel to the unconverted as buttressing the faith of Christians. Paul's mission must have left a number of uninstructed Christians in Corinth. Hilgenfeld.' It is not easy to elucidate the meaning of the rather obscure phrases in 18^. Paul to do pioneering work pending the Apostle's return.' who came to Ephesus when Aquila and Priscilla had been left there by St. London. ern reading is interesting that the brethren who encouraged Apollos to go to Achaia were Corinthian Christians. 1904 (the two last for the Gospels). The texts are given in German translations. of Jesics.^) may be treated as disciples of Apollos. PattZiiS. and only one main stream. In this connexion. of the Chalcidian mountains. Gottingen. Lehre von der Seli. Gottingen. ' ' ' J. ' ' ' — influence of their tutor in Christ. would inevitably put the impress of his own mode of thinking upon them. Egnatia. Berlin. i. Haupt. and who Avill say that in his hands the language has not shown ' ' APOLLOS ' ' 81 or with Jesus. Evang. Jiir d. 190. London. : . But there is only one force of gravity.). ApoUonia was 37 Roman miles from Amphipolis. A. 2 vols. mighty in the Scriptures. Liicke-deWette. Bonn. Kennedy. Weiss. Perhaps they recognized the need of fuller instruction than could be given in Ephesus for such a promising disciple. do. planted Apollos watered.' But the Christian life of some was undeveloped and the powerful preaching of Apollos did much to help them. Paul's Conceptions of the Last Things. S. Paul H. 1905. as 'John' might say. For Biblical Eschatology may be noted A. do. Thus there arose a party in the Corinthian Church with the watch-word I am of Apollos. and partly by a powerful apologetic which silenced opponents and strengthened believers. Esch. Die egchat. Luke. It seems unlikely that Apollos was baptized at Ephesus. W. 1895-1900 E. ' Strahan. Lewis A. partly by an eloquent exposition of the OT. Apollos. Der Ursprung der israel. who was likely to become a powerful Christian teacher. The intermediate towns were probably remembered by him as resting-places.' their interpretation of Christian truth and duty took on the hue of Apollos rather than of St. we gather that Apollos had an imperfect hearsay acquaintance with the story of Jesus. though enough to convince him of His Messiahship. they had been much helped by Apollos. A. APOLLONIA ('ATo\\wvla). There are critical introductions and notes. in the first place in being presented in a strikingly rhetorical form. But this confirming work done by Apollos in Corinth had other ett'ects which were less useful. Wendt throws out the whole of v. d. These converts had been persuaded to believe through grace.v. Eschatol. who took him unto them and expounded the way of God more carefully. do. in Sehriften ' ' : — . Volz. Kautzsch. Literature. ' . ' was slender and whose Christian knowledge must have been elementary. A town of Mygdonia in Macedonia. Chaos. Apokalyptik. 1908. The tributaries reach the ocean only by first reaching the main stream. And. yet it may well be that nothing human reaches the end or fulfilment of God nothing. Harnack says: Apollos would appear to have been originally a regular missionary of John the Baptist's movement but the whole narrative of Acts at this point is singularly coloured and obscure {Expansion of Christianity. It appears to have been influential in determining the subsequent character of the Church. On Jewish E^chatology in general. and 37 from Tliessalonica. Tubingen. : .ikeit. Bousset and P. St. 1900. 1893. Scott's 'Revelation. Paul's reference to men who 'build on the foundation' he had laid (3"-'^). Paul's preaching.' His bold eloquence in the synagogue attracted Aquila and Priscilla (q.' in the Century Bible. APOLLOS. According to the Antonine Itinerary. Eschatologie.5. It may surely be claimed that the abiding and the loftiest witness to this in literature is the Apocalypse of John. .' whose method of teaching diflered from that of Paul.' Although some of these had been converted by St. In its passage seawards. Paul. and N. nor was there a Christian Church in Ephesus vmtil after St. E. receives the 'crown of life' or finds its name written in the Lamb's book of life save through the channel of the sacrificial will and the heart of faith. the river of life is joined by innumerable tributaries. a learned man. and to tutors in Christ (4'*) in contrast to himfather. Porter's The Messages of the Apocalyptical Writers. Leake identifies it with the modern village of Pollina. Gottingen. ed. These do not come by evolution or any involuntary process. For the Epistles of St. Titius. Moffatt (EGT see esp. ' ' ' Under the . It lay on the Via ' ' a disciple of John who was carrying on the work of his master and preaching to his countrymen repentance in view of the approaching kingdom of God' (Ajiostolic Age. Muirhead. 331 n. Apollos spake and taught carebut his knowfully the things concerning Jesus ledge of Jesus was limited. Paul passed through Amphipolis and Apol Ionia on his way from Philippi to Thessalonica (Ac 17^). Literature in the Introduction) . representing many scholars.-jiid. They come through the travail of self-discipline and prayer itself tit ? If — ' and sympathy with our fellows. Readers of German will find readiest and fullest access to the texts of most of the extra-canonical apocalypses in the invaluable work. the latter) extremely helpful. The distinctive elements in the preaching of Apollos may be gauged from two considerations. Aiissagen Jesu in den si/n. St. let him put his belief to the test of experiment. 334). ' ' . he had not heard whether the Holy Ghost was given. may be mentioned J. regarding Apollos as a Jew having no connexion with John VOL. Die jUd. McGifi'ert is of opinion that the description of Apollos as ' instructed in the way of the Lord and as teaching ' the things concerning Jesus is erroneous. Kabisch. v. Jena. largely the language of primitive religious imagination to convej" his prophecj^. 1905.' This indefinite expression does not carry us very far. If the twelve men found in Ephesus by St.^. Schiypfung u. Paul's words in 1 Co 3''. Gressmann. I. will be found Of the larger commentariea (esp. when they come.' It is justifiable also to recognize Apollos in St. an Alexandrian by race.'y H. Psettdepigraphen des Alten Testaments. A. Bousset. Gunkel.^* must have been added by St. do.— In Ac IS^^-^ApoUos is described as a Jew. On the mythical groundwork of eschatolo:. see the great relative works of W. Gegenwart erkldrt. Preaching to recent converts whose intellectual equipment ' . Tubingen.). 291 f. instructed in the way of the Lord. 1906 (' Excursuses' and history of the interpretation of the Apocalypse speciallj' valuable) J. for he knew only the baptism of John. and St. and L. for the twelve disciples are still ignorant of baptism. and F.

p. 309 A.—The term 'Apostle' (Gr. two men were friendly but they occupied diflerent APOSTLE. Like St. 252. Hort." Corinth the Traveller . Wright AT Problems. 229. but in neither case does The last NT reference to Apollos (Tit S^») con. and is the Therefore he wrote about ' the parties in a con. Oct. note so dominant in St. and him crucified' (1 in Aquila's version and also in occurs 21'^ 3 in the Co 2-).. Pfieiderer Prim. Pauls references to Apollos. dTrocrroXos) standpoints. art. 'wood. London. It seems likely that his preaching had this Jewish tone all through. It was not Judaistic it was a middle term between APOSTASY. .' It is sometimes asdiflerent type of Christian from the type St. Harnack' Expansion of Christianity'^ do. (of. and could not always agree. Lambert. Paul and (q. FriendsSome and Fellow-Labourers of St. C. Ramsay. i. his philosophical bent. whilst sincerely There is fundamental agreement between the respecting each other. St. JThSt.2 [do. however. Apollos did not away (lit. i. and his convincing reference is to the wide-spread expectation in the eloquence might win converts who had not ' believed primitive Church (Mt 2'i-*. « ' ' ' m . relations were correct. with Zenas in a kindly spirit. . ' the apostasy') come first. art. J. Alexandrinus. 290 ff.confirmed if we accept Nestle's contention (ExpT ence for the gift of tongues. in his own preaching 'not in wisdom of words' to the Apostolic Church. iterated emphasis on Jesus as the Christ. 79 A. to be educated and trained. Barnabas and Paul are first . was typical identical with of it and prehis own. 267 ff. The Christian Ecclesia. and the man recognize that he was anti-Pauline. Christianity.). in HDB on Hebrews. ' Apollos. .of sin (marg. There is no good reason for doubtaccept the invitation of the Corinthians (1 Co I6'2) ing that the title apo. 21"-!'' 3i« 12>-'). The the part of many professing Christians. Deane. by means of the Alexandrian piiilosophy and methods of exegesis' (Pfieiderer. Weizsacker' Apostolic Age.' probably a brought against St. 'Apollos. and . [1895] 97 A. Paul by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ (Ac 1828). p. hay. This cUiatory spirit. Dods (EGT). .' regarded as contemporaneous. 1897] 319-322.v. Paul of teaching all the Jews convert from the Jewish scribes. lsi)5. do. . With this we must be content (HDB ii. 1898. St. Christ chose tliem in the first inspirit in Corinth . Paul has to emphasize the work of the Holy Spirit so definitely as lie does ' W. 1906. Dn 12") through grace. undergo no radical change. 338").])— a rendering that frequently know anything save Christ. suggested by send them forth to preach and do works of mercy ' liormm Citizen.commissioner of the person who sends prepare for Christ's own preaching is a conjecture scribed with enthusiasm. evitable result of his preaching was to produce a 'lawlessness') be revealed.") when they are acting foundation he has laid to ten tiiousand tutors in as envoys of the Church in Antioch in St.of the Lord shall not come 'except the falling sued St. 28f. stance (Mk 3") 'that they might be with him. The J. cf. He he also named apostles is strongly attested). ' ' : _ .EV^ render 'apostasy. Paul's preaching. That is not mentioned among the founders of the Church the title was used in the first instance simply in 2 Co 1»».' as a travelling preacher. Paul '). the in in 1 Cor. Wv}^ ascetic ? In Corinth. and that he might Several scholars favour the theory. 146). On this hypothesis. But the in.— The Gr. 145-160 C. i. with better textual justification. London. 'Corinthians'. But the changes are Paul. 1897. or the difficulties about xvi.' Probably we must accept Bruce's summing up: 'Apollos is the kind of man wanted. where 'whom Apollos among the great Christian teachers. Paul is more definite than ' messenger (Gr. Paul's Christ who may conceivably mislead these are first missionary journey. and Schaff-Herzog-. . results of the teaching of Apollos can be recognized and HDB iii. [1904-1905] 472) that ri avoaraffia in this passage marriage.' It cannot be without significance that St. the compatible at least with St. Then in Tit S'^ St. St. stubble' as possibly built on the called 'apostles' (Ac 14*. Paul links Apollos paratory to it (Hort. In the same spirit. that the apostle has a special mission. v. Paul resolved not to (Belial [g-. A. ' apostasy from Moses In 2 Th 2-^ St. They scarcely such a revelation of the power of the Antichrist justify the remark of Pfieiderer that St. Man of Sin. Paul sumed that the word 'first' indicates that the desired. 1907. C. Apollos sought to reinforce the Gospel which was common to both [Paul and himself]. revelation of the man of sin must be preceded (2) Despite Weizsacker's disclaimer.— Artt. BDB and EBi on St. lead to must come before the day of the Lord. Literature.stle was given to the Twelve But there are hints that St. Roberts.v.he is referred to only as reference to the temporary mission of the Twelve the brother. ii. some of the in time by the apostasy (cf. of preaching. ' . In 1 Co 16'. Edinburgh. . E. &yye\os) in Avas very anxious to avoid friction in Corinth. do. Even in Corinth his efforts were to show whether the gospel he preached was in all respects common to both Paul and himself. acknowledging generously the work distinction holds good both in classical and in of Apollos. on Heb. but not as if he were p. 1908. Apollos when he arrived in Ephesus did not know of the giving of the Holy Spirit. Paul's references to which receives some support from the fact that. p.' This judgment is in harmony with that the return of Christ would be preceded by St.' see Comm. 1905. O. Apollos was less conscious of the dangers Cod. and lacked the spiritual APOLLYON. This confirms who are among the Gentiles 'to forsake Moses' the idea that Apollos maintained a Hebraistic type (lit. i.82 and also by the use APOLLOS APOSTLE Luther. is found twice in the NT. M. that Apollos was the author of Hebrews. pp. ' ' K ' ' . Paul refers in 1 Corinthians. ' ' ' ' ' m ' . and his rethe 'man of sin. Paul so relentlessly. be traced naturally to this eloquent should be taken as a translation of the Heb. A. i. 20 F. 145 f. McGiffert Apostolic Age.. Would not signifying that the apostasy and the revelation of his eloquence. Epistle to. and art. Probably. and the NT leaves him in Crete. an outstanding leader.2 to v. 1897.' where other people's work is de. 148). though not work of Apollos might be somewhat subversive of the permanent office. Paul did not reckon by Christ Himself (Lk 6i»=Mk 3'-'. In any case the Apostle's of another mode of preaching . they recognized frankly the work of the apostles during Christ's ministry and difierences between them and in a very creditable their Avork after the Ascension their functions manner each man went on his own way.) as would lead to apostasy from the faith on Apollos were on the best of terms (i. It is questionable. This is imperfect conversions ? And may not the prefer.' For authorship of Hebrews. 1 Jn 2^^.s those irregularities in the Corinthian Church to makes it more natural to understand ' first as which St. word diroaraala (apostasia) Paulinism and Judaism' (Pfieiderer.' J. : ' ' . Paul.). Apollos tried to avoid fomenting the Jiarty considerable. but hardly cordial. ' ' of Alexandrian speculation and allegorical interpretation of Scripture. 226) but the relation of v. though his Alexandrian training assures the Thessalonian disciples that the day differentiated him from the ' Judaizers' who pur. Paul's fear lest the temporary apostlesliip. by M.' In Ac 2pi a charge is nects him with Zen as the lawyer.— See Abaddon. Apollos did not biblical Greek.

. St. This extension of sphere is one of the special . and ability.' but is to embrace all the nations throughout 'all the world. It is after the murder of James the son of Zebedee that James the Lord's brother comes on the scene.' is specially remarkable (1 Th 1'. With enlarged experience. Every one who heard them felt that they were men who had an intense belief in the truth of what they stated. ' . Nevertheless. and had risen from the grave.' implying an antithesis between 'to one. The apostles did not argue they simply stated what they knew. And tiie confidence with wliich they delivered their testimony was communicated to those who heard it all the more efiectually because. versality of spliere was not the only or the most important characteristic of the new mission. although he had a right to maintenance (1 Co 9*^). the or fem. for the doctrines wiiich the Master taught them were few and simple. and the influence of the testimony was enormous. ' which — indisputable and all of them could te. equal in rank with the Twelve (Gal 1'. the Lord's brother. He says that to be an apostle at all is a great thing. But 1 Co 15^ ougiit not to be quoted as implying either that there was a company of apostles larger than the Twelve or that James was a member of this larger company. probability that Andronicus and Junia (?man and wife) were distinguished members of the apostolic body is lessened. ' marks ' ' . Thomas and Judas being absent. the Lord's brother. Disciple. But because of their simplicit}' they were very credible witnesses of wiiat they had lieard and seen. : . The Twelve seem to have been selected originally because of their fitness for bearing witness."). It is certainly given to Barnabas. Instead of being led and guided. and in the Epistles disciples are not mentioned. Paul in the address.i". They were chosen to keep alive and extend the knowledge of events that were of the utmost importance to mankind the knowledge that Jesus Christ had died on tlie Cross. ably looks back to ' the twelve' in official ' The v. Next he appeared to James then to the whole body of the apostles. but 1 Co 15^ ought not to be quoted as evidence of this. Greatly as Saul of . with powers greatly augmented at Pentecost. the other way of stating the change they have become teachers rather than is true But the purpose is the same . . It is highly probable tiiat James. Pastor Pastorum. Still more remarkable is the casual addition. especially with regard to the hopeless sense of loss when He was put to death. Avas such a person. There is no trace in either Acts or the Epistles of hesitation or doubt as to tiie certaintj. had the title of 'apostle' in the wider sense. Paul seems to speak of him as a colleague. ' all ' prob- is an and not a numerical designation. This was the primary function of an apostle to bear witness of Christ's Resurrection (Ac l'^^ 4-. But Chrysostom does not shrink from the thought that a woman maybe an apo. It is no longer restricted to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. used the apostolic privilege of working for nothing. They difi'ered in age. instead of having a visible Guide.' but it more probably means that among the apostles they were illustrious persons and' low iav may be masc.e.^^).' The tentative mission to the inhabitants of Palestine at a peculiar crisis has become one wliich has no limitations of either space But this unior time (Mt 28'^ Lk 24« Ac !«). when we might have been burdensome as apostles of Christ' (1 Th2«). like himself. and therefore to be illustrious amongst such persons : ' .' Such an antithesis. as well as the idea that James was in . They were thus well qualified to convince others. had seen and heard the risen Christ (1 Co 9^ l. who helps them to lead others. and therefore what they stated with such confidence was likely to be true. 1890. pp."*.. and sometimes surprised tiieir Master by tlieir inability to understand (Mk 7'^ 8" 9=*-). but they did not differ when they spoke of what they had seen and heard. Ko 16" probably means that Andronicus and Junias were distinguished as apostles but there are two elements of doubt iwia-qixoL iv tols clttoittoXols might mean 'well known to the apostles. and as one who. They evidently had not the wit to invent an elaborate story. temperament. is foreign to the context. and disciples is the mission work is secondary and . 1 Co 9'). 'the gospel which we apostles preach. they are associated with St. he was entirely at one with them respecting fundamental facts. they all told the same story. for only ten were there. and in both letters the first person plural is used with a regularity which is not found in any other group of the Pauline Epistles 'our gospel. Junias or Junia.APOSTLE Instruction is the usual designation APOSTLE ' ' 83 main thing. 1 Jn V-'^). without any sign of collusion or conspiracy. then to all. like them. It may be regarded as certain that this James was not one of the Twelve. We need not doubt that Barnabas continued to be called an apostle in a general sense after the mission from Antioch was over. The chief mark was the duty of bearing witness. but perhaps primarily as being an envoy from the Church of Antioch (Ac 13'. rather than as having a direct mission from Christ. the Twelve now become leaders and guides or rather. ' ' was added good when one whom they had regarded with fear and suspicion (Ac 9'^") to their company. apostle.some sense an ' . their disciples. mission is unchanged. or to retain it when it had been elaborated.jS-H.2.stle. and their unique experiences as the disciples of Christ made a deep impression upon them. The guidance of the Spirit is the dominant idea in the Apostolic Church.uht. work becomes primary and permanent. . Apostleship is now the main thing in Acts 'apostles' is the dominant ajipellation.' i. and to the amazing recovery of joy when their own senses convinced them that He had risen again. Cf. Nay. of the transfigured apostleship. If Jitnia is ri. they have to make known the Kingdom of God. He may have taken the place of his namesake in the number of the Twelve. — . 228-230). That He had died and been buried was undisputed and Tarsus differed from the Twelve in some things. 2 Th -2^*). That Silvanus and Timothy were regarded as apostles in the wider sense is not improbable. — ' ' . Yet they had difficulty in apprehending some of these. It was probably owing to St. Then to all the ajiostles probably means that on that occasion the apostolic company was complete (for Thomas was present) rather than that some were there who were called apostles although they were not of the original Twelve.of their knowledge they knew that their witness was true (Jn 21-^. the Spirit of Jesus (Ac 16^). Perhaps the simplest and most natural way of understanding Gal 1'^ is that James. that it became customary from very early times to restrict the appellation of 'apostle to the Twelve and the Apostle of the Gentiles but there is no such restriction in the NT. recognized by Peter and John as equal to himself in the mission to the Gentiles (Gal 2"). they now have an invisible one instead of Jesus. He. They had been men of homely circumstances. Latham.' There is no emphasis on 'all.stify tiiat tiiey had repeatedly seen Him alive after His burial. at this still held first After the Ascension their mission temporary. They were not specially qualified for grasping or expounding theological doctrines nor were such qualifications greatly needed. In b(jth 1 and 2 Thess. and with an enormously extended sphere of work. Paul's persistent claim to be an apostle.

The fact that there were people who claimed. The detailed injunctions the typical number twelve by the election of about ordinations and festivals.' EBi. Haupt. Paul. that slie should be even counted worthy of the appellation of apostle (Sanday! from sight . Lightfoot. 1904-5. Tiie Twelve are 57 Read the gospels which I. 24). to you this catholic doctrine [which] we have sent Andronicus. Very soon. of confirmation. though not in the NT. Verstdndnis des Apostolats 1901). were regarded by most Christians we twelve. apostolic authorship is recalled to the reader's and James. officially. Paris. . and that St. which with the election of Matthias. 163). ' Headlam. ministers who were known as He appointed by His constitutions. When it is said that this reasonable The claim made by its title (Aiarayal rCiv aylwv affirmation. Peter and Andrew. one or other of the apostles general authority over the churches which they takes the word out of the common mouth and founded. Apostle. im NT.' Philip our fellow-apostle while by as equal to the Twelve. and Paul and have written scendants. from time to time. and therefore claimed to have a better right to the title than he is ' ' J. or any who tried to. .' and v. ministers as those who are called apostles in the and Matthias who instead of Judas was numbered NT.' which such as had been in personal contact with the have attracted special attention.aK6irov re Kal firmed by the account in the Didache of an order ttoXLtov. with us. tlie title of ' apostle ' was given to the Seventy. and the other mind from time to time by casual phrases such as two probably. 72).. P. and there is Philip and Bartholomew. DCG. do. had. not a very high degree of probability.' Near the end the apostles tianity. if definitely present at all.84 is . is con. : ' ' ' ' .' were the whole ministry of the infant Church. with the problems of church life and discipline. diaconate (P^. the theological lean.-^). Belief in the speedy return of Christ Avould prevent any such intention. and James the brother of our Lord and "We must not infer that they are the lineal de. There is no good show the suggestion of the title to be unwarranted. outside the and in V. ' ' _ ' : ' We ' ' . and Lebbseus who is 'apostles' of the Didache are the same kind of surnamed Thaddaeus. twelve have delivered unto you. At the end of the would be thought worthy of the title. Paul was Divinely to the fiction is the assertion that Clement was the appointed to take his place. Galatians. In addition to the works already cited. especially in rising from the dead.bishop of Jerusalem. : . probably most of them had been His personal disciples. of whom Paul certainly. Master. The cumulative effect of the facts and probabilities stated above is very strong so strong that we are justified in affirming that in the there are — NT persons other than the Twelve and St. Monnier. especially at points where them as permanent rulers.lying in His bosom. 92-101 E. 14. although not of the number of the Twelve. that in note and it is easy to remark delinite points such Acts all three terms. . Halle. As the primary function of the Twelve was to be witnesses of what Christ had taught and done. But the fact that in the by our fellow-minister Clement. it is not clear that it was a jurisdiction which was to be passed on from generation to generation. and Junias. pp. . 7 We teach you all these things which apostolic body. Paul . . H. but they did not take up their abode in speaks in his own name. ' ' ' ' ' . It is incredible that there were people who claimed to belong to a body so well known as the Twelve. with power to supply itself with ministers and to organize them. A. tr. They trained the the reference is to his personal experience as ii. of this very high praise and * how great is the devotion woman. that made in tiie sources he used his own contribution he was set aside. ad loc. pp. especially eighth book come 85 'Apostolic Canons. . It is true that he channel of communication. 1903 1896 . 46-68 also art. Paul a curious device. APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS AND CANONS. Literature. Judaistic Christianity. ground for the conjecture that the choice of The author. ed. but based on more ancient materials) is divided into eight books.diroffTdXwv dia KX-qfievros roO" Pw/xatwv (wi. found the apostolic claim Matthias did not receive subsequent sanction. James and John. are used in connexion and the conversion of the Romans (vi.' Chief among these were Paul. and EBr^. ' ' with the addition of St. All of those who took to missionary work would be likely to be styled apostles' . Even with regard to the high authority which all apostles possessed. 1894. and it is not impossible that the ' false apostles who opposed St. La Notion de L'Eglise naissante^. It is not likely that Joseph Barsabbas and Matthias were the only persons among the 120 gathered together after the Ascension (Ac 1^^) who had the apostolic qualification of having seen the Lord . do not strike the apostolic and also the germs of future developments. ALFRED PlUMMEK. Paul and 'it would be unprofitable to waste words on the strange theory that St. . i. in I'apostolat. For any modern reader a cursory glance will The first act of the infant Church was to restore dispose of these claims. dealing. Batiffol. Eng.' The direct sub-Apostolic Age there were itinerant ministers authority of Christ is also adduced in ii. or respecting the transmission of the powers of the Twelve to others. : ' : ' . churches to govern themselves. The chief interest of its contents lies in the miscellaneous information atforded regarding the customs of an early period . see B. are difficult to were rather numerous. All who seemed to be determine the copious Scripture quotations often called by Christ or the Spirit to do missionary work support Western readings. Like the Twelve. and Simon the Canaanite. however. in rambling and hortatory fashion. without any and Barnabas had no local ties they retained a break in the discourse.— This work (of the 4th or 5th cent. : ' ' ' ' ' . 18 now we must be careful not to exaggerate the amount assembled. no transmission of so exceptional an office was possible. based entirely upon Scripture. Expansion of Chris. KaOoXLKT] 8LdaaKa\la) is re-stated in the of wandering preachers who were called apostles. as indicating proof of the possibility of the Resurrection by a both the undeveloped condition of the ministry reference to the phoenix.' conclusion and amplified in vi.s. that the James the son of Alphseus.D. ' HDB. the triumphant Matthias and it is worthy of note.' The collective apostles. meant by these false apostles' (Hort. and apostleship (l'-^). — Zu^n. personate St. The absence from Christ's teaching of any statement respecting the priesthood of the Twelve. Matthew and Jolni. 1 Concalled apostles does give confirmation to the cerning bishops we have heard from our Lord assertion that in the NT there were.. and in conjecturing that they ings. Thomas and Matthew. Paul had this qualification. Paul who were called apostles. is remarkable. and at first they in turn each deliver one or more 'constitutions. APOSTLE APOSTOLIC COA^STITUTIONS subsequently falls into the background and is lost but so do most of the Twelve. 14 I arose up from repetitions of Christ (Harnack. The apostles were commissioned to found a living Church. p. (1**). 1892. 8). without any right. There is no proof. the title of 'apostle' (2 Co IP^ Rev 2'-) amounts to proof that in the Apostolic Church there were apostles outside the Twelve ). Barnabas. to be twelve Patriarchs of the larger Israel. of workers such as Silvanu. bishopric' as the reference to the heresy of Basilides (vi.

and at the close these are specially addressed. but known only through a single MS of the Syriac version. and by still later hands (especially in which. and tracing in them. This 1903). 14). the old conjecture were revived that in the i-KiffKowov should be read title. by the Jesuit Turrianus from a good Cretan MS. now in Paris. After the first publication of the Greek text at Venice. 24). Didache. being most in practical use. The connexion of Eucharist with Agape. For a comparison of book vii. although in the Gelasian Decree they are called apocryphal. 39-136.' originally in Greek. Two deacons are to fan away flies from the cups.. compiler. for example. are various sources. Whether. is avoided. though the Constitutions' was not translated as a whole. church services and prayers.[tv. ' ' ' ' ' ' — ' ' ' ' . in which the apostles. though not noted in the complete MSS (unless. and that it must be dated in the 4th or early in the 5th century. . in the decision that a confessor must not on any account be dispensed from the need of being ordained if he still later change is seen in proceeds to ofiice. The Constitutions' in dependence of the Constitutions' on these Canons. ii.D. are based on the Didascalia. sub-deacons. in the West.D. )with modifications. The 85 Canons were translated into Syriac. the reception of catechumens. consists of an amplification of the Didache (g. and thus these 50 obtained acceptance in the West. A.D. the spuriousness The of their authority soon came tp be recognized. He refers to the Ionian adoption of Christianity (vi.secrates. Gibson with Eng. Books i. and. After some general exhortations to men and women. Coptic. 158. and. concerning tithes exorcists. in 156. the Egyptian Church Order needs to be inserted as a link between book viii. This cannot be due to pseudo-Clement. . ending with the children and orders Ps 33 to be said while the distribution takes place. has shown that the Apostolic Constitutions is a compilation made by a single writer.' To the older source the compiler of the Constituhis tions adds that the high priest puts on sinning garment' and crosses himself. Lagarde (Leipzig. He revises the account of the Passion referred to. so that feeling maj. The most noteworthy sections of book viii. who after further prayer are dismissed with the benediction Depart in peace. is pointed out by the title Aiard^ets tQv ayiuiv aTrocfToXwv vepl Xii-poroviCiv dia IviroXiiTov. Didache below. Achelis in TU xxv. in his book contra Latinos. and heterodox are to depart. connect the Constitutions with his congregation. an unhappily conceived attempt at an elaborate analogy between a well-arranged church and a ship.-vi. document is to be placed in Syria about the middle of the 3rd century. Arabic . the service proceeds with responses and praj'ers. Book vii. it may be said summarily. Deacons. by H. ' APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS 85 gation passengers. martyrs. 325). we find Nicetas (A. The main source is thought to be the Egyptian Church Order. D. ii. after KXrunevros KaVlifKoKvTov. It contemplates a large city-church attended hj all sorts and conditions. after the deacons. apparent in the Didache. Dionysius Exiguus (c. readers. The catechumens. Both of these may be compared with the 220). deaconorphans. the subject of the bishop and book viii. The first two paragraphs are thought by Achelis to be founded on Hippolytus' lost worK ivepl xa/ucryndTaji/. vi. Behind book viii. widows. and their functions and offerings. Interest is thus transferred to the task of distinguishing the older materials present. the flux of ecclesiastical usages a task in which the Church historian still waits to some extent for the textual oi'itic. 4 [1891]. 1853) is based on this text. among which the baptismal symbol in ch. to keep them quiet. book viii.v. Moffatt. 16) and pay taxes willingly is inserted. was subject to current alteration). The high priest con.3. are those containing a complete liturgy for the celebration of the Lord's Supper. as may still be seen in Eastern Christian worship. Ethiopic. The Mission and Expansion of Christianity. ' TU . but accepted the 85 Canons while. In comparison with its sources. by cooled before the days of worship. 17). The permission of warm water at baptism ' ' omitted (ch. By a strange chronology of the Passion. The rule about weekly fastdays is taken to apply to the Easter fast. Fii'st the bishop. whether as new or as in conflict with neighbouring custom. instead of re /cat iroXirov). Remarkable is laid on a ready and kindly reception of the penitent. hear of Church courts for civil cases between Christian disputants. The style throughout is homiletic. the writer goes on to 24 chapters.g. London. An injunction to fear the king (ch. Modern criticism. is of the compiler of the ' Constitutions seen in the additional Scripture references. i. (Cambridge. gathered in council. He boldly reverses the direction to follow the Jewish comEutation for Easter (ib. After there treating of the diversity of spiritual gifts. often referred to as pseudo-Clement. 500) had translated 50 of the Canons into Latin.AI^OSTOLIC COI^STITUTIOXS In 692 the Trullan Council of Constantinople repudiated tlie 'Constitutions' as having been tampered with by heretics. tjltzen (Schwerin and Rostock. constitutions' concerning the choice and ordination of bishops and other officers concerning presbyters. deacons. 157. as Achelis points out. which demands a period sufficiently subsequent to the Council of Nicsea (A. in the interests of the shorter fast of his day (v. and the ' Canons of Hippolytus has been disputed. else they would continue straying to and fro between the women's seats and their fathers.' in is — ' ' . There are some Jewish-Christian members. readers. The church building lies eastwards in the direction of the earthly Paradise and is arranged with special seats for and the different sexes and ages in the Presbytery emphasis We — — the congregation. convenient edition of W. with copious short account of this citations from Scripture. hearers. and art. a foundation is ottered for Easter regulations evidently requiring defence. shows a hardening of ecclesiastic rule. who seems identifiable with the author of the spurious Ignatian epistles that it is of Syrian origin. One leading consideration is the absence of a polemical theological note. vi. 1908). in excerpts from book viii. sub-deacons. which are to meet on Monday. . then the presbyters and deacons partake. ' ' ' ' TU ' . 1854). moral reflexions and exhortations. He makes. the suppression of all mention of porters in this book. and so forth. the congre- The work ' 2 [1884]. however. remained unj^nown. conscious of the gulf between Christians and pagans. vii.. 41 has been doubtfully attributed to Lucian of Antioch a suggestion wliich might. 2 [1904]. pp. book is given in Harnack. A. in turn. A . Mothers are to receive their children that is. 20). and in the modifications made by the . this in turn being based upon the Canons of Hii^polytus (c. A ii. but known through its Coptic and Ethiopic versions. and then the people. deliver singly. e. — his duties is treated in detail. a book originally written in Greek. where instead the Didascalia mentions persecution. 1154) quoting books v. in Horce Semiticce. indeed. unbelievers.D. adds a long list of classes of partakers. tr. with the Didache see Harnack. A number of liturgical forms are appended. published as Didascalia apostolorum syriace by P. are esses. and. the deacons being the sailors. widows. holy days. yet apparently neither persecuted nor unpopular. mentioned as special classes.

41).) about Simon Magus. ' Apostol. who are to be repeatedly asked for their consent to procedure (viii. 4).D. or oil.86 for he APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS both to APPIUS.. thieves. though they are not to be transition ' In addition to the references already given. at least 24 repeat regulations from the Constitutions . but if there is no room for a fomentation. the congregation are seated according to age and sex. . or at least would have been put after the name of Archippus (q. the others are likelier to be taken from various sources than to be original inventions. to NT. — The R. Collins. —A (in some MSS and VSS Aphphia or Christian lady of CoIossjb.' ' If it be a hollow . then comes a lesson from the Acts or Epistles. strange piece of advice follows that. the instruction to admit a slave concubine to membership if faithful to her master [ib. A A quaint story is told by Peter (vi. v. Exorcists are recognized as doing good work. 14) an elaborate comparison of spiritual and physical healing (ii. to recommend his heresies. they shall be expended in fuel for the needy rather than in food. children may stand beside their parents. though not ordain (iii. —See under Philemon. i.— See Parousia. Stephen's Day (viii. APPII FORUM. that thus comparisons and grumbling are prevented among the recipients ( different aspect of affairs is revealed by the list in iv. pt.— See Market <pl>pov. Most commentators (following Chrysostom and Theodoret) regard Apphia as Philemon's wife. : 'Apostolic Constitutions. at least as it appeared to the author's imagination — .' that before Easter. They are to be put a little later than the Constitutions. Grotius regards the name as a softened and hellenized form of the Latin Appia. 20 enjoins both days vii. 36 enjoins observance of Sabbath in ch. the usual resting-place for travellers from Rome at the end of the first day's journey. Apphia would have some claim to be consulted in such a matter as the forgiveness and emancipation of a slave. APPHIA Appia). notes will be found in H. Be not hasty with the saw. The site of the town is marked by considerable ruins. 10. Epiphany. with a great deal of consideration. 14. that the whole church be not corrupted. evening service (ii. xvii. 23 enjoins first both. are to be asked to speak. cleanse — . ch. Christmas. cruel employers. . whereupon the people cried out There is only one God.tu). usurers. from 'Sabbath' (Saturday) to (Sunday) as the day of worship is Book ii. but left unnoticed elsewhere. omitting the Apocalypse from the NT canon. requiring acuteness and tact and honour. The ' Ante-Nicene Library' (vol.' Literature. 'which is God's workmanship' (ib. Harnack. if foul. MAEKET OF names them in the preceding books . viii. 6 of those whose gifts should not be received adulterers. 3) warnings to women not to paint the face. There is daily morning and ' ' that the name is Phrygian and is found in numerous ancient Phrygian inscriptions. who. 306) and Zahn (Introd.) contains an Eng. flew in the air in a Roman theatre supported by demons. but Lightfoot {Col. laughing. presbyters. and. drunkards. or deacons are i)resent. they are to be recognized as such. especially visiting ])isliops. Deacons walk about to check whispering. In the 'bidding prayers' in book viii. The bishop is to be ordained by two or three bishops after he is chosen by the people. Before and after immersion there is anointing. Baptism ritual is elaborate. Appius. The ancient Greek Martyrology represents Apphia (along with Philemon) as suffering martyrdom under Nero on Nov. APPEARING. Kanones ' in PRE3 i. . are mentioned (v. APPEAL. Other matters contained in the ' Apostolic Constitutions* may be briefly noticed. art. cut o£f the putrid flesh . i. 11). Paul (Philem^) as K ADE). substitutes 'beloved' (d7a7r??Ti7) some MSS have both words. See also the notices in A. a touching light is thrown on the composition of the Church hj the ' ' or great gash. words of reproof . truth. MS p. cut off the putrefied member. till Peter exorcized them and Simon fell and broke his legs.. Lessons from the historical and poetical books of the OT respectively are followed i)y a Psalm sung solo. and temptation Appii Forum). I.' and. eat it down with a sharp plaster threats of judgment if it spreads. if such contributions have to be taken. translation. HeNRY CowaN. 4). as we have seen. v. Literature. [1910]. If visiting bishops. 8) . Avhen they had disappeared in practice. the reason in favour of secrecy in almsgiving. who was an office-bearer. 33 enjoins rest for slaves on both days. Presbyters can baptize. 35). of her being the sister (literally) of Philemon is not grammatically excluded if the reading sister be accepted. 22 (see Mencea for ' ' November). The possibility.. with an artistic touch modestly placing the Acts of us Apostles at the bottom of the list. As the wife of Philemon. saying first ' principally on the Sabbath. reference to those in bitter servitude (viii. 47 the language suggests both days. the deacons stand near. nourish it with a suitwith corrosive powder. Recent Discoveries illustrating Early Christian Life and Worship. J. Achelis' valuable art. 10 cf. town on the Via Appia. and the advice of other sliilful physicians. unjust publicans. after this audacity. 32]). . ' Apostol. then. 341). . as a fast. 5). . Holy Week. 1904 W. though Horace says of himself and his companion Hoc iter ignavi divisimas' {Sat. so ' by St.' then on the Lord's day meet more diligently. 1909. The 85 Canons at the end of book viii. especially in the baptism of women {ib. Canon 50 orders trine immersion. ' . wound able plaster . Jewish services. a partly independent currency : 20 are derived from the Synod of Antioch (A. It was the northern terminus of a canal {fossa). then says there is one only Sabbath to be observed in the whole year. or bandage. MARKET OF —A (Airwlov Ac 28" ' . ' following inferior testimony. for then Christ was in the tomb. Constitutions ' in EBr^i ii. Maclean. gained. the references must have been deleted from the familiar book viii. E. 15)..' The most remarkable is that which enumerates the canonical books of Scripture. and Peter rightly preaches the : ' — A umt. [Leipzig. which gives a vivid picture of contemporary medicine and surgery. A chief duty of his. 59 shows the hesitancy of a time of change. since otherwise her name either would not have been introduced at all in a private letter. in the Christian sense. W. 57) the bisiiops and presbyters sit.. 34. ordained. near the modern railway station of Foro Appio. Gesch. . 1879. as the Eutrid sacrificial meat is ordered in Lv 19® to be . . but inserting the two epistles of Clement and the ' ' neglect it and to attend heathen and ' ' ' Curiosities of thought and diction are : warnings to males against dressiness they may thus snare the frail fair (i. 15) further.' Bk. As regards other holy days. 8 f. 458) show .— See Trial. [1896]. the congregation joining at the conclusions of the verses .^. AV. designated 'sister' (d8€\<py. that is. but first try lancing. however. where the 43rd ancient milestone is still preserved. Stewart. Deaconesses are useful. Pentecost and St. idol-makers. of. is the charge of the almsgiving (ii. 59. 1893] A. and after this all stand at the reading of tlie Gospel. if it have proud flesh. full . der altchrist lichen Litteratur. which ex: AV APPIUS. 33). or sleeping. Book viii. In public worship (ii. and Phileni. the Lord's day seen in process. Konstitutionen u. London. although the thought has in view perhaps only one .

For the usage. with his imperfect apprehension of Christianity. tl". Paul contemplated. promising to return. tending to make their work more ditticult? The elementary and even chaotic state of things in Ephesus at this period is shown by the incident of knowing only the baptism of the twelve men John whom St. rather implies that Priscilla his wife was not a Jewess because her name is usually put first. however. Cruickshank.e. During this time in They lying. St. judging from the word used for body [airb rod xp''""(5s). considerable means. The deduction has been made that he used them in pursuing his craft as a tentmaker. 1898. cit. Under St. Paul to found the Church. S. they were people of in Rome. AquUa and Priscilla came from Italy to Corinth. 169. Pliny mentions Appii Forum among the muni6). their freedom from Jewish prejudices. and thereafter those suffering from disease (cf. It is not said that the aprons were the property of St. whilst their knowledge of the city. Evidence has been offeied by de Rossi that Priscilla was a well-connected Roman lady.APEOX tended. Lk 8^). but their favourable attitude to Christianity must have been a strong inducement on both sides. v.' Ramsay strongly urges this theory. that Aquila and Priscilla had been influenced in Rome by Christian teacliing. and belief under. 'because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome (Ac 18-^). like the girdle itself. the Apostle says Aquila and Priscilla greet you much in the Lord' (1 Co 16^").' where troublesome mosquitoes and marsh frogs kept sleep from his eyes. So the initial work : ' — Ephesus was done by Aquila and Priscilla. and for p. Sanday and Headlam suggest that both Aquila and Priscilla were freedmenof a member of the Acilian gens' (i^omr^i-s^. The two articles are not to be identified.). . New York. their command of money. in the way not merely of friendship but of love and service to Christ a suitable gi'eeting from those who had helped St. where they followed their trade as tentmakers. Strabo says that travellers from the South usually sailed up the canal by night. Suetonius says the ' ' * St. They shrank from the responsibility. I. Presumably the material was linen or cotton. people of importance in the early Church. . occurs only in Ac 19^-.v. though it cannot be decided whether they were already converts to Christianity. or forecloth not an essential of dress. Subsequent events throw doubt on the ability of this couple. (s. It is probable. to educate the eloquent Alexandrian in Would the Pauline interpretation of the gospel. for their house was a meeting-place for the Church both in Ephesus and Probably. As St.) came to Ephesus. 1902. When St. Ko 16^ 1 Co \&\ and 2 Ti 4'9. 25). when a Church was gathered. with her husband Aquila' [Expansion of Christianity'^. they did their best to instruct him more carefully (Ac 18-^). For this reason they were compelled to leave the country. Luke remembered it gratefully as the first of two places Tres TnberncB (see Three Taverns). Paul came to superintend the work. St. and it explains much in the story their social position. this is not impossible. The careful description of Aquila as a Jew. 791. Nevertheless. Aquila and Priscilla admired his learning and his earnestness and. Thus Harnack describes them as Prisca the missionary. i. Priscilla (in Acts). All that was needed.' and placed in an alternative relation to aovSapia (see HANDKERCHIEF). but also enthusiastic helpers of the Apostle. They seem always to have been able to maintain a fair position. was that tlie articles should have touched his person. tried to prepare the ground before St. where a parallel from Martial. Primitive Semitic Religion To-Day. Paul left them in Ephesus to do pioneering work. ' ' APRON. being the other whither brethren came from Rome to greet them and escort them on their way. Paul returned. a man of Pontus by race (Ac 18^). Paul's influence they became not only earnest Christians. Writing to the Corinthian (Church in after years. Another ' ' . p. AQUILA AND PRISCILLA (or Prisca). 9).). Ac 5^'. . and to sow the seed of Christian teaching as far as they were able. 4—15) sets do^^^l his vivid recollections of a place ' crammed full of boatmen and extortionate tavernkeepers. Potwin. parallel Avith the line of road. then. As nothing is said about the baptism of Apollos. but an accessory. Christian ferment was one cause of the edict. Paul and St. Curtiss. modern 91 f. The decree of expultheir consion was not enforced permanently nexion with a leading Roman family made it return to Rome than more possible for them to for Jews with no influence . Paul went to Ephesus.*—The references to this husband and wife are Ac 18. so he seems to have sent them to Rome to prepare the way for his coming there. The (Ti/MiKivOiov is. Still there is some doubt as to its precise nature (see L. etc. though ecclesiastical tradition has little to say about them. These passages suggest that Aquila and Priscilla were. Luke uses the form (in his Epistles). ' AQUILA AXD PRISCILLA ' 87 cipal towns of Latium (III. Aquila and Priscilla went with him and remained there to do pioneer work whilst he visited Jerusalem. This may explain their presence in Rome when the Epistle to the Romans was -written. J. recognizing that such a man must either be a strong supporter of the cause or an influential opponent. xiv. i.v. Comradeship in trade is given as the reason why St.' where at night the slaves bantered the boatmen and the ' boatmen the slaves. Paul the fonn Prisca Apollos [q. Paul found when he returned to the city (Ac 19^^'). and as the twelve men had not heard whether the Holy Spirit was given. Paul but. their social standing. . Strahax. Here and There in the Greek New Testament. 10 miles further north. HDB and S. Horace {loc. as well aa their experience in Corinth and in Ephesus. ' ' ' . tluough the Pomptine marshes as far as the neighbourhood of Tarracina. fitted them pre-eminently for such work as St. being 'a member of some distinguished Roman family. therefore. instances. and wanted the Apostle to remain (Ac 18-"). Paul's eyes. with their devotion to himself. worn by artisans and slaves for protection of their clothes during work. though their expulsion from Rome limited their resources for a time. But he urged them to stay. — expulsion was caused by a series oi disturbances 'due to the action of Chrestus (Claud. though the edict was not rigidly enforced on all Jews. The word aifiiKivdia (pi. Aquila and Priscilla seem to have fulfilled their mission with skill and courage and. Discussing this evidence. This is a warm personal greeting. who were themselves recent converts. a modified form of the Latin semicinctia. But they admit the possibility of Priscilla 420). not his presence overshadow Aquila and Priscilla. London. ' — explanation of why Priscilla's name comes first may be that she was the more vigorous and intelligent Christian worker. in St.' it seems unlikelj' that there had been any Christian baptism in Ephesus before St. and landing in the morning to travel the rest of their journey by road' (V. 151 is quoted). it is thought that she was of higher social standing than her husband. embarking in the evening. as the derivation suggests. the members met in their house (1 Co 16^^). Priscilla accompanied her Jewish husband to Corinth.' where 'the water was utterly bad. W. a halfgirdle. where it is translated 'aprons. iii. Paul lodged with Aquila and Priscilla in Corinth . cf. their influence in Rome.

Aquila and Priscilla have been selected by some scholars as likely authors of Hebrews. 228. Ramsay. is different. A. Apostolic A qe. Paul's life. ' . 106]. v.sen (Provinces'^.' ' Corinth. 1.C. Their devotion to the Apostle was signalized in some remarkable fashion. do.e. Arabia (Apa^La. Every one used to denote that particular hinterland whose tribes and peoples were more or less known to him . Sanday . HDB ind . he says that . it must have taken place not much later. and their migratory life is fully explained if they were people of means. 1S95. ' LiTERATtTRB. p. while it had a character and history of its o^vn. St. the discussion of a Jew's difficulties by such a vigorous mind as Priscilla possessed may have qualified Aquila to write Hebrews ' with his wife's help. and have attested their worth as independent workers (cf. the prairie. 'Romans. Primitive Christianity. ' They 394). invests them with special interest as having assisted St. and St. At the same time. from — a"y!. raises a difficult historical problem. and Rendel Harris favours it. furnish the most beautiful example known to us in the Apostolic Age of the power for good that could be exerted by a husband and M'ife working in unison for the advancement of the Gospel' (McGitfert.*. pp. It did not denote a country whose boundaries could be defined by treaty. . Provinces'^. the Arab tribe of the Nabatseans had become a powerful nation.' p. Paul's missionary labours. 267 ff. Paul the Traveller and the Homan Citizen. and the suggestion is naturally made that he bought over Aretas by ceding Damascus to him. . however. 4).' and when it became an ethnographic proper name it was long in acquiring a fixed and generally understood meaning. It is supposed that both were Jews (so Weizsacker. cf. though their subjugation was not accomplished at that time. 1897. Staatsverwaltung Leipzig. 1878. Edinburgh. B. 8th ser. The influence of the Roman wife probably preponderated over the Jewish influence of the husband. denotes the great peninsula lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. His description of them as my fellow-workers in Christ Jesus. Pfleiderer. Talking of the voluntary submission of the city of Damascus to the king of the Nabatseans. 1909. viii. sets them side by side with the Apostle. xii. as king of the Arabs' (5®). with Petra as their capital. M. To the north their territory reached as far as ' ' ' : ' ' ' Damascus. i.2 [do. 560.D. which has an important bearing on the chronology of St. 1906] 246 A. 383.' Harnack has argued strongly for this suggestion. to put him under arrest soon after his conversion (2 Co IP-'-). McGiffert. i. the Romans sent an expedition. Weizsacker. on Persian inscriptions another. apparently when he was in danger. interposed between cultivation and the sheer wilderness. But the two reasons relied on are not strong enough to carry the conclusions. that the suggestion implies a closer intimacy with Judaism than seems likely in their case. In the time of Josephus tliis people 'inhabited all the country from the Euphrates to the Red Sea' (Ant. and p. 2 Mac. [do. andiii. § 3. E. Originally it meant simply 'desert' or 'desolation. 1. speaks of Aretas. the hereditary king of the Nabatseans. J. O. Lightfoot on Fhil. Damascene coins of Tiberius indicate that the city was under direct Roman government till A. Expositor. London. which was under their protection. This episode. ROBERTS. 253 ff. Weizsacker. as the legate of Syria was engaged in hostilities with Aretas till tiie close of the reign of Tiberius.' 'Corinthians'. Dods says All that we know of Aquila seems to tit the conditions as well as any name that has been suggested (Com. Rornans^.). Not only would they have trade connexions with the city.). it Western mind. that there was no part of the semidesert fringe extending from the lower Tigris to the lower Nile which was not at one time or another called Arabia. The fact that no Damascene coins bearing the Emperor's image occur in the reigns of Caligula and Claudius is in harmony with this theory (Schurer. who for my life laid dovra their own necks unto whom not only I give thanks but also all the churches of the Gentiles' (Ro 16^^). and from that time onward Arabia began to be identified. xl. 25) still another. i. ) . . i. In particular their return to Ephesus at a later period (2 Ti 4^^) is quite comprehensible.. I. ii. Edinburgh. 718f. 'Arabia' shifted like the nomads. The Apostolic Age. To the prophets of Israel the word had one meaning. It was the dim border region. following Marquardt (Rom.. C. Xenophon. that was his Arabia. whether their authorship would harmonize with the independent use of Pauline thoughts characteristic of the Epistle (cf. skirting the confines of civilization.d. 427 f. 405). and whom he selected to do pioneering work in Ephesus and in Rome. Paul in his missionary labours in a unique way. V.— Artt. it impressed the imagination like the steppe. C. M. 428). They have laboured along with him in a pre-eminent manner. VII. 'Acts of Apostles. They were not Christians of the Judaistic type. 1908. with the Nabat?ean kingdom. which now ARABIA. ii. against the Nabatseans (59 B. possibly from Petra. Harnack. however. 149). ' probably this dependence of the city on the Nabataan kingi subsisted so long as there were such kings [i. 418420 W. not so wholly unproductive as to be incapable of supporting life. still distinguishes the Nabatseans from other Arabs (5^ 9^^). 34 and. . EGT. and enclosed as with a girdle the whole of Palestinian Syria' (Mommsen. but cordial workers on Pauline lines among Gentiles. Too vast and king' was foiled in the attempt. shown by landmarks. To the settled races of Mesopotamia. But the accession of Caligula brought a great change. The Nabatsean kings made use of Greek official designations. 148 f ). in JSJSi (by Schmiedel) on ' Acts' and 'Aquila' in SchafF-Herzog on 'Aquila'. From the fact that tbe . and of their valuable pioneering work. 371 ff. From the days of Augustus the kings of the Arabians were as much subject to the Empire as Herod. ). So uncertain was the application of the term. and even beyond Damascus. 357 f. 1897] 307 ff. ' Hebrews.C. HJP I. it is very unlikely tiiat this emperor yielded up Damascus to the Nabatsean king. from the beginning of the Roman period till a. ii. 1885. on 'Hebrews [EGTl 234). it meant any part of that hinterland. probably made at the instigation of the Jews. The Arabians who were present at the first Christian Pentecost (Ac 2'^) were most likely Nabatseans. especially in the I. pp. also pp. and. It has to be said. Lond. 1902. Soon after taking possession of Judaea. drifted like the desert sand.' pp. but also their presence would be specially welcome because they had been actually the founders of the Church. p. in on ' Aquila. and they had the whole region between Herod's dominions and the desert assigned to them. and to Greek writers (Herod. and Palestine. Syria. was in ancient times a singularly elusive term. and set down in a map. under Marcus Scaurus. 273. who became enthusiastic helpers in St. ii. king of the Jews. It is a question. But by the 3rd cent.' ' Priscilla.88 AEABIA vague ARABIA for delimitation. Paul relates how 'the governor' (6 idvdpxr}s) of Damascus under Aretas the . McGiffert .. or the veldt. which was the campingground of wandering tribes for ever hovering around peaceful towns and spreading terror among their inhabitants. Expanaion of Christianity-. The view of Momm. Introd. 16)— though Priscilla was probably a Roman ..Headlam. The references to Aquila and Priscilla have been used as arguments against the historicity of parts of Acts and in favour of treating Ro 16 as not part of that Epistle. While 1 Mac. The recognition of the social position of this devoted couple. 75 and 79 . v.' Introd.

and RV AV ' aV ' — . in EREi. Entingr. of the Acropolis at Athens. 37 .^^ 'Mars' Hill. Paul's three years' abode at Ephesus.^ A2i. Kome won the nomads to her service and fastened them dowTi in defence of the border they had otherwise fretted and broken. — two had been engaged together during St. cit. worn stairway of sixteen steps. demanding from himself earnest watchfulness. 1903 and the art. yorth-Semitic Inscriptions. Behind this Roman bulwark there grew up a curious. that Archippus lived with Philemon at Colossfe and also laboured there. of Laodicea. which was not many miles from Colossge and the mention of him in Philem.) of the Seventy of Lk 10 is quite incredible. which was famous in the history of the city. Under the strong new regime the desert tribes were for the first and only time brought under control.D. and Acts makes no allusion to this When he quitted the city under cover of episode. Cooke. 87 f. HJ'P i. in fellowship with. Paul was writing. Schiirer. further. op. He is addressed by St. 'Arabs (Ancient). 659. (3) the tradition (embodied in the Apost. J. Paul states that after his escape from Damascus he went away into Arabia. without otience. the peninsula of Sinai was about 400 miles from Damascus and. Paul (through Tychicus.' like St. with the result that no small part of the desert was changed into the sown. Lightfoot {Gal. Paris. the rock is precipitous. darkness. supposes that the apostolic message is purposely made public. broke up the dominion of the Nabatsean kings. Noldeke. the incentive of sympathetic exhortation and warning. along with Philemon. not so much to suggest Archippus' special need of admonition.ARAMAin with the heads of the Roman emperors. as it preserves the ambiguity of the original). London. v. Altdorf. de Archippo. 30Sflf. Stanley {Sinai and Palestine. and he is regarded by most commentators (after Theodore of Mopsuestia) as his son. but the inclusion of his name in the pseudo-Dorothean list (6th cent. religious. and others conjecture that he sought the solitude of Mt.D. Constitutions. A. for the desert lies in close proximity to Philem. ' ARAMAIC— See Language. . Against this inference Lightfoot adduces (1) the mention of the Damascene oasis.— In Ac ' ' title Areopagus. there follows doubtless its dependence on Rome and therewith its selfadministration. 42 f.W. London. .' by . ii. But he could scarcely have avoided specific reference to so memorable a journey.e.' etc. . compares the admonition to him with the censure on account of lukewarmness administered in Rev 3 to the angel and church of the Laodiceans. Archippus Laodicea (2) : .. . His alleged eventual episcopate or presiding presbyterate at Laodicea is at least possible. Les Arabes en Syrie. Between the hill and the Acropolis was a narrow declivity. but not its non-dependence on the Roman vassalprince such protectorates assumed shapes so various that these arrangements might well be compatible with each other. an evangelist. — . and at the foot of the precipice the worship of the propitiated Furies as the Eumenides was carried on.— See Quotations. with which he seems to show some acquaintance in the same Epistle (Gal 4^). Dietelmaier. by an old. In A. and in the service of. however.E. to deal in like manner with brethren under himself. 1894. near Laodicea. Vincent. Theophylact. More probably. and even probable . (a) The name denominated a rocky eminence N. as it Archippus had been remiss or unfaithful in the discharge of official duty and Lightfoot. where the Apostle had severe conflicts with assailants (1 Co 15^^). It is approached from the agora. instead of being conveyed in a private letter. now largely filled in. Sinai. if he were himself an official of the Church to which St. see also Literature under Philkmok. to Archippus can hardly be regarded as necessarily suggesting more than that his work was specially important and arduous. or market-place. in Col. but in the Laodicean Church under Archippus. vii. Smith. Th. The message. a convert to the Christian faith at Athens. ARATUS. the expression refers to the general fellowship of the two men in evangelistic work (cf. but he does not further dehne the place of his retreat. office-bearer of the Apostolic Church referred to in Col 4" as exercising a ministry 'in the Lord.— An 17^^ the the Areopagite is given to one Dionysius. Berlin. the RV is correct in rendering Areopagus in both places. Possibly he went no further than the fastnesses of 5aui-an. In the Greek Martyrology. A. in his commentary. Christ. or a prominent teacher at the time when St. 106 the governor of Syria. power pushing ' ' ' . imitating Rome. ARCHANGEL. From Areopagus (Ac 17^ and RV. 1SS5 H. more natural and probable. a leading deacon. The usual supposition. Archippus appears (in the Menoea under Nov.' or presiding presbyter. Aretas.— J. 345 ff.' evidently for solitary communion with God . Lightfoot. The Hellenism East . on the whole. On the N. . ii. Besides. however. Paul as ' fellow-soldier a designation possibly occasioned by some special service in which the ' J. JAMES StEAHAN.) to imply a rebuke. Paul. but at heart Semitic (G. and literary point of view' (Mommsen. Paul wrote. A. ARCHIPPUS ("Apx'TTros).— See Angel. pp. was a church its militant.. a unique civilisation talking Greek. and constituted the Roman province of Arabia. while Damascus was added to Syria. Colossian^. a thoroughly conquering way in a political. 1879.) is held by Lightfoot {Coloss. For the whole region the change was epoch-making. Literature. implying that he was a member of the council of the AREOPAGITE. Accordingly. Liter ATT-RB. 1751 B. E. The military figure may have been suggested by the Apostle's environment at Rome. 1877. — the probable year of St.). appears. and from an older 'fellowcampaigner. Archippus may have been a presbyter bishop. believing that Archippus held office at Laodicea. HGHL. AREOPAGITE. The tendency to acquire these domains for civilisation and specially for Hellenism was only heightened by the fact that the ' — Roman government took upon of the itself the work. Aulus Cornelius Palma. he had not a long way to flee to a place of safety. 1907 G. The message conveyed to Archippus (' Take heed [look] to the ministry. AEEOPAGUS 89 See. which would have brought him into a kind of spiritual contact with Moses and Elijah. 46) that Archippus became 'bishop.he appears to have been a member of Philemon's household. it is generally supposed (after Chrysostom) that Archippus was an officebearer of the Colossian Church. as to enable him. AREOPAGUS. so that the locality was invested with awesome associations. 22) as having been stoned to death. Paul's conversion it would scarcely have been possible for a stranger to pass through the centre of the perturbed country without an escort of soldiers. is accounted for by supposing that St. economic. p. as military operations were being actively carried on by the legate of Syria against Aretas in A. 50).' 'Areopagus'. HeNRY CoWAN. Lond. 627). . . immediately after a reference to the alleged unlikelihood of Archippus being addressed in Col 4" indirectly instead of directly. 152). Nabataische Inschriften aus Arabien.' city struck coins . the bearer of his letter to Philemon) might have suggested that Onesimus should be employed not in the city where he had lived as a slave. however.' i. Ph 2"^). ' In the Galatian Epistle (1") St. Lightfoot infers that Ai-chippus fulfilled his ministry at Laodicea. p. at Chonae.

: ' . p. 144). education and morality. ii. ii. who babbled apparently of two new deities. to wit. before he took the Augustus was angry that Aretas had not sent to him first kingdom yet did . 27). It thus fulfilled the functions of both court and council. ap. but the war which Scaurus waged against him left his power unbroken (Ant. xxviii.. 5. It seems probable tliat this Stoa became identified with the discussion of religious questions. see W. — Ramsay. do. WOESLEY. From time immemorial Deor. Resurrection was contempt.C. in Expositor.' this being the superscription of the earliest Nabati^an coins that are known.C. von Athen. in order tliat the judges should not be under the same roof as the accused. There is no reason why the Stoics and Epicureans should have carried away the Apostle to an isolated spot. McGiffert. BJ . 1891. Justin. . and it was there that Socrates had been arraigned on a matter similar to that which exercised the minds of the philosophers in the case before us. The royal dynasty was founded by Erotimus ('A/J^ras. see also Conybeare. Paul the Traveller. Further. Ath. Pericles and his friend Ephialtes (c. the Apostle's speech was not a philosophical disquisition but rather a popular oration. The questions which arise out of the narrative of Acts are these Was St. thougli the piiilosophers may liave hoped that something of tiie sort would be the outcome. Paul. viii. Eng. B. 1897. St. (6) The expression was also used of the court itself (Cicero. while religious matters seem to have been controlled. wliich would have revolted at such an insult as that this stranger should harangue them about his foreign deities on the spot where the Athenian elders had judged the god Ares and the hero Orestes' (St. whose capital was Petra in Arabia. It is of little importance wiiether the phrase they took him and brought him implies friendly compulsion or ' ' still be seen the rough. He was originally called ^Eneas. 528 f. A. Besides the authors quoted. R. p. Yet it can hardly be said that the proceedings were even remotely connected with a judicial inquiry. Literature.Y. the His designation as ' prince Gr. and no doubt a somewhat . 1900] 368 f. to its meeting-place. by refusing to treat the matter seriously. XIV. Renan. 40). . 5). ii. ad Fam.-A.D. 9 n. The whole picture..) set themselves to limit the power of the court (Aristotle. and N.. EBr^. A few w^ere ready to hear more on the subject. adsiduis proeliis consumpti in xxxix. One member of the council. xiii. and that. imbelli an tea. ii. art. appear to be exaggei'ated. outwardly and visibly. 3 after was permanently under the suzerainty of 3. HDB ' contemptum finitiniorum venei-int praedaeque Arabuni genti. [1895] 209. . \. Lond. and the Apostle left them. 1. 1894. 1895.C. 460 B.—1hQ Gr. ii. if their attention was drawn to the subject. As to the origin of the court. 5th ser. at least. p. inimical intent. I. The feelings of the listeners would be very mixed. a disappointed. The council was in the habit of making pronouncements on the subject of new religious cycles of thought. however. Deor. in tiie Roman period it regained its former powers (Cicero. it was a most natural impulse to hurry the newcomer. in EGT ii. I. Knowling'. He incurred the displeasure of the Romans by interfering in the quarrel of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. ARETAS of a Arab. 3) in connexion with the siege of Gaza by Alexander Jannseus in 96 B.the last and best-known. tt'. but on coming to the throne lie assumed the favourite name of the Nabatican kings. 685 attributes its foundation to Athene. Aretas IV. in many respects. that the question miglit be settled as to whether or not lie was to be allowed to continue. i. tr. at least in part.. Haritha). Under him the mountain fortress of Petra began to assume the aspect of a Hellenistic city. Stadtgesch. is known . . vi.90 AREOPAGITE. Aretas III. xiii. It is evident that there was much in the address of St. He soon found it necessary to ingratiate himself with Rome. remarks: 'Curtius' explanation seems to me untenable . 1890. 14. (ripavvos) indicates that the hereditary chieftain of the tribe had not yet assumed the dignity of kingship. possibly a minority suggested a more formal examination but the result of the hearing. ut ' . 262 f. In any case. or preliminary investigation. 1). Gesammelte Abhandlungen. ever tending to become wider. form name borne by about 110-100 B. BJ Rome. The second Aretas.c. [London. p. rock-hewn benches. called o'Apd^uv ^acnXeiJs. and its influence. this court held its meetings on the hill in question. 74 Rep. by the King Archon. Edinburgh. Paul taken before the council or to the hill? Or did he appear before the council sitting in the traditional place? Was he in any sense on trial ? The King Archon held his meetings in the Stoa Basileios. 244). The first known to history. but iEschylus (Bum. He could not. 2. Paul that awoke sympathy in his audience. In ancient times it had sul^reme authority in both criminal and religious matters. was converted. was failure. 261. Moreover. official proceedings would follow. is in favour of this view. v. ) . 193 f. and they would quite naturally be excited by the curious message of the new preacher. AREOPAGUS AEETAS no anakrisis. The professing teachers were all interested in new ideas and yet resented unwarranted intrusion. 4. i. 74). Jesus and 'Resurrection' (for so tliey would understand him). Ramsay truly remarks The Athenians were. History of the Apostolic Age. [1899] E. 5. XIII. in i. Dionysius. Const. The council of the Areopagus made judicial procedure impossible. F. J. It was ' ' who reigned from about 85 to 60 as 'Aretas the Philhellene. There may have been others. W. as was evidently the case. 25).. Lond. and the Nabatsean sway was extended as far as Damascus. But the general ettect produced by the mention of the . which appeared at the time in defence of the court. 1909. but Harnack. 'Areopagus'. ' Aretas. prevent Lollius and Metellus from taking possession of I. reserving its old judgment-seat for cases of murder (so Curtius.. Berlin. fuerint' (Trog. Pomp. If the council happened to be sitting. Acts of the Apostles. M. de Nat. p. attected laws and offices. 5-6). flipjjant but their flippancy was combined with an intense pride in the national dignity and the historic glory of the city.C. prince of the Arabians. Philopatris. 5 de Nat. upon which the court sat in the open air. which thereDamascus (Ant.' is said to have had the fugitive highpriest Jason shut up at his court (2 Mac 5^ . upon the top can — . C. ad Att. 108. XIV. it held its meetings here. But the reforms of Ephialtes mainly concerned interference in public affairs and tlie statements of ^schylus in the tragedy Eumenides. also x. i. when the council of the Areopagus regained its full powers. and was at once the most ancient and most revered tribunal in the city. 257 ff. indeed.^neas send an epistle ' . as of the visit. forming three sides of a square. and Egypt had lost so when the Greek kings of Syria much of their power. had a long and successful reign (c. suited to tlie general populace of idle Athenians and dilettante Roman youths whose education was not considered complete until they had spent some time in the purlieus of the ancient university. 1). text is doubtful). and it was no doubt felt tliat. and it became largely a criminal court. irritated man. is mentioned by Josephus (Ant. several rulers of the Nabataean Arabs. according to popular legend Ares was called before a court of the twelve gods to answer for the murder of Halirrhotius (Pans.

When ' the Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon were written. He is first mentioned on the occasion of the riot in Ephesus. and a crown of gold of the weight of talents.D. One of his first imperial acts was to give the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias to Agrippa (Ant. — ' ' ' ' . see Literature appended to art. He may. XVI. 1879. Colossians and given Damascus to Aretas as a peace-offering.D. it is more probable that Aristarchus shared St. Ramsay (St. of the art. without consulting Rome. 10). 'Lover of his people. Luke accompanied the Apostle on the voyage as his personal slaves. W. [1900] 414. thinks that Aristobulus was a grandson of Herod 405) and Mommsen (Provinces'^. when the tidings of the Emperor's death (A. J. In Ro 16^" St. —A Macedonian T. There is circumstantial evidence. ARISTOBULUS ('ApKXTd^ovXos. 9). To the (perhaps known as Aristobuliani. Tlie belated expedition Avhich Vitellius. Ramsay. 4. 6. he was rushed by the excited multitude into the theatre (Ac 19^^). and was deputed along with Secundus (q.v. he attacked and defeated Antipas (A. St. An interesting account of the successive phases of modern opinion regarding the former ark will be found in EBr^^ (s. See Lightfoot. 106. wooden chest or box.— The LXX and . i. ii.). While the idea — when and how Aretasbecame overlord of Damascus. art.D. 1. . the culture he was a Nabatfean patriot first and a the Herodian dynasty. probaljly of Derbe." and the phrases in Literature. as a terminus technicus both for Noah's ark (njg). that Tiberius' successor Caligula favoured the cause of Aretas. ARABIA. Aretas. than from any Nabatsean reign. 37) caused it to be abandoned. I. p. Paul's prison in Rome.D. 316) believes that both Aristarchus and St. It is not certain that he accompanied St. brave Nabatioans. do. however. there are the strongest objections(see Schiirer. Hellenist afterwards. posed and banisiied in 39. have disembarked at Myra (Ac 27^).v. that which the last chose for himself was Qm -lay. 149). a Greek name It was only for a short time. 36 (so Turner). Aristarchus was with the Apostle in Rome. The Emperor 'admitted Aretas's ambassaand after he had just reproved him for nis rashness in not waiting till he had received the kingdom from him. was ^i\i\. Lightfoot i.entals and Jews. art. p. The question is thus raised and seems to have remained in Syria during the two years of the Apostle's imprisonment in Ctesarea. had only got as far as Jerusalem. XVIII.reference to the ' household of Aristobulus ' is strong evidence for the Roman destination of ful reign that Josephus had in view when he wrote of the extension of the Nabatsean king. Paul's arrival. (Jos. Boyd. The Christians in the housedom from the Euphrates to the Red Sea (Ant. .D. but the faTnilia or establishment of freedmen and slaves image of Nero appears from 62 onwards. After his death it is supposed that his household passed over to the Emperor. ARK. led against Petra. for which the view of Marquardt [Rom. Xtivos. 4). and. borne by several members of the Maccabaean and There are Damascene coins with the figure of Herodian families). — In addition to the authorities cited in the body have no knowledge as to whether the vv. The writer of Hebrews (IV). . who divorced her in order to marry Herodias (Mk 6^''). 236. .v. 316 J. which Christians. It is inconceivable either that he captured the city in face of the Roman legions in Syria. pp. and rela xed her direct hold upon the old Syrian capital. and the fact that none them which are of the household of Aristobulus has been found with the image of Caius or Claud. St. though perhaps too slender to be quite convincing. like himself. F. namely. 174 f. that Damascus was continuously the Great. B. ' We ' ARISTARCHUS ('Aplarapxos). While the standing title of Aretas III. Ant.e. 1878. at Tiberius' command. In Philem'^'' he is called 'fellowlabourer' of the writer. at this new junctiare. private station (see Jos. vi. Again acting. XX. 1909. — . and it is not impossible that he came later with contributions from the Philippian Church to the Apostle.) to convej' the contributions of the Church to Jerusalem (Ac 20'*). This Aretas' daughter became the wife of Hei'od Antipas. Paul the Traveller^. seems to have been an influential member of the Church of Thessalonica.In recalling this fact he mentions a detail (2 Co 11*^) which the writer of Acts omits. which ' usually indicates physical restraint. and P. apparently made up (cf. In the former (Col 4^") he is called the fellow-prisoner (<rwaLxiJ'<i\u}Tos) of the writer. ]\Iore coins and inscriptions date from the time name of their former master. BJ II. as Lightfoot supposes (Phil. Lightfoot. 1885. Ewald. 354). 1897. in subjection to the Nabattean kings from the beThis Aristobulus lived and died in Rome in a ginning of the Roman period down to A.AKiSTAKUHUiS Caesar.). some time after. the Christians in his ius is significant of a change of regime .v.' He set country above immediately follows.' in PRE3. 34. Paul on his third missionary journey. that Rome frequently adopted by Romans and Jews. X. suilered martyrdom under Nero. But it is probable that Caligula favoured the enemy of Herod Antipas. the Apostle's mind may — who in the end of his reign was strongly ceded it to him. PauP. It was probably this success. Paul was converted probably about A. but retained the I. and brother of Agrippa and Herod.. Christian and a native of Thessalonica who became one of the companions of St.these salutations. master himself was a convert. Antipas was ultimately deW. 279. Knowling. governor of Syria. Greek phrase would be equivalent). Allworthy. the Jews of Damascus conspired to kill him (Ac 9-^'-). Pkilippiang*. and for the ark (\\-\^) of the covenant. JaMES StRAHAN.v. and confirmed him in the government ARK 91 and presents to many dors. Literature.* 34). 28) and again fortune smiled on his daring disregard of consequences. Nothing is known of his According to tradition he subsequent history. 1878. based on 2 Co IP-. Paul salutes Tiberius down to A. in JEGT ii. It Philemoni. where along with another companion of the Apostle named Gains (q. On the other hand.). hold' would naturally form one of the distinct communities of which the Church at Rome was xii. Ant. Tiberius. artt. v. Staatsverwaltung. ix. Border disputes gave the injured father an opportunity of revenge. and therefore probably some The name Herodion (q. In any case Aristarchus was present in Rome soon after St. and he may at the same time have London. either as a suspected friend of the prisoner or voluntarily as tlie Apostle's slave position which he and Epaphras may have taken alternately.(tous iK rCiv 'Apia-To^ovXov). Paul's arrest. Philippians*. that it was the governor (^dvdpxrp) under Aretas the king who doubtless at the instigation of tlie Jews guarded the city to take him. i. suggests a connexion with If Lightfoot is right. ii. He was thus present in the city at the time of St. Cf. or that be that Aristarchus. M. p. do. and we find the same term. He the NT use kl^ut6% = q. xi. was taken captive by Jesus Christ. Paul to Rome.' . The household of Aristobulus' would naturally include many Oriof Aretas IV. he accepted his presents. for we find him embarking with the prisoner on the ship bound for the West (Ac 27^). Arabia.) in Philem-^. hostile. B. HJP 2). 34 was better policy to befriend than to crush the in HDB and in DBi R. applied to in Epaphras (q.6-15).

on entering. over his brows he places his helmet (kw^t]) with nodding plume . and the temple of God in heaven is opened. x. and especially ERE(R.. and the sword of the Spirit. a buckler slung from the horse's side. The detachment which attended the commander had a round shield {dairls. scutum). the Tabernacle with all its sacred furniture was hidden by Jeremiah (or. straight. but it did not displace the older phrases. iv. in E DD (J. In his enumeration of the weapons of spiritual warfare St. The Roman auxiliaries who garrisoned Judaea were recruited wholly from the Greek cities of Palestine. iii. ivwiriov tQv napTvpiuv. The thought of that emptiness oppressed the minds both of devout Jews and of Jewish Christians. (1) Homer lets us see his TTpdfiaxoi arming before they go forth to battle. There is no defence for the back. it was impossible for Christians not to be profoundly interested in the brave men who were taught that it was didce et decorum pro patria mori. S. 5). refers to Noah's forethought as a supreme instance of that faitli which is the conviction of things not seen a faith by which he not only virtually condemned the world. with a broadsv/ord (fj. was historically later than the ark of Jahweh. therefore. with the possible exception of Simon the Zealot. imagines Christ. Ex 16^^ . In the second and third Temple the Holy of Holies contained no ' In ark.spear (^yxos) in his hand (cf. — (3) Josephus (BJ ill. a baldrick sustains the sword {^i^os) that glitters at his side .dxaipa).) cases his limbs in greaves {KVTjfildes) . emphatic testimony {BJ V. The heavy-armed had a helmet (Kpdvo^). his great round shield {adKos) is then displayed . x. xi. and two long javelins (va-croL. Paul omits the spear. Pompey. and a greave protected the right leg. the sandals of readiness to carry good tidings. Kennedy).). XIV. & pilum (^v(tt6v). 106). defensive and ottensive the girdle of trutn. R. 5) describes the equipment of Roman soldiers under the Empire. JaMES StEAHAN. v. and in Rev IP*. therefore. St. supplementing a tradition which is found in the Book of Enocft (6-16. ' ' 25^^ (iaujOev ' /cat e^wdev . which was used for both thrust and cut . bringing its careless infidelity into strong relief. this was nothing at all. ARMAGEDDON. to the spirits in prison. In Kautzsch's Heilige Schrift it is rendered die Lade mit dem Gesetz. The golden pot of manna (the adj. Besides the artt. according to the Talmud. S.'inPiJ£3.— See Hak-Magedon. Ant. 13 f. and last of all he grasps his .. in a bayonets. V. It was a contraction for the ark containing the tables of the covenant.ipa). the helmet of salvation. 4 feet by 2 J. 6). found vacuam sedem et inania arcana (Tac. and there arose a tradition that before the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B. 364 tt'.' which was probably coined by the writer of Deut. almost as large as spears. Couard. 5). Bk. preaching. 2 Mac 2*). — As — The Christian soldier is clad cap-^-pie in supernatural armour the panoply which is the gift of God. The wealthier soldiers wore a cuirass of chain-armour (lorica).C. condemned rebels Avho in vain sought the intervention of Enoch on their behalf in that time of Divine long-sufiering when Noah was preparing the ark in which he saved himself and his family (see R.92 AEMAGEDDOI^ AEMOUE taking the story as he finds it. 2. The heavy-armed carried an oblong shield {dvpeos. pila). — ARMOUR. //.' When the Decalogue came to be known as the testimony. a long sword worn on the left side and a dagger on the right. The desig- nation the ark of the covenant. see R. 15 fi. by Josiah) in a cave of Mt. of Jub. to find that St. 1902.' the new name ij Ki^orrbs rod /jLaprvpiov was introduced. which in the original narratives were laid up before the Lord {ivavrlov tov deov. Jews.' the Decalogue being a summary of the terms which Israel accepted on entering into covenant with God. The ultimate fate of the Ki^wrd^ is involved in obscurity. scutum (6vpe6s). the poorer a bronze plate 9 inches square. 'Bun. a lance. H.oPeter (1 P 3'^^-). Kraetzschmar. the ark of the covenant is there. 'Die relifriose nationale Bedeutungder Lade. unhappy children of the unlawful union between angels and the daughters of men. and that he transfigures the armour of the Roman legionary into the panoply of the Christian soldier (Eph ei'^-). or. and pointed.' and the ark of God ( JE). Jn 18^"). Nevertheless. the ark with the law. SOU (A. 43 ff. but became heir of that righteousness which — tary service. R. clipeus) and a long spear The cavalry wore armour like that of the (Xdyxv)infantry. H. and a. none of the disciples ever wore armour. Charles. to St. as a bodiless spirit. Marburg. the helmet (TrepiKe<pa\ala) of bronze had a crest of three feathers. — . but made a very blundering use of it (Mk 14*'^. the breastplate of righteousness. St. For defence they all carried a Spanish sword (ix6. Nu 17^") are supposed by the writer of Hebrews to have been within the ark. The popular imagination could not entertain the idea that the inviolable ark was irrecoverably lost. They had the privilege of da-Tpareia. Jubilees. Kennedy). Descriptions of the equipment of soldiers are frequent in Greek authors. xix.' ' . The writer of Hebrews mentions the ark of the covenant (ttjv Ki^dirbv r^s dcaOriKrjs) as the innermost and most sacred piece of furniture contained in the Tabernacle.cra)(7ets avTTjv). Probably. xvi. Hist. and earlier than ' the ark of the testimony (P). [1S92] Volck. H. and several javelins (dKovres).)^/)i. which should never need any. the disciples of our Lord not to speak of Himself were exempt from mili- sheath or quiver. Lond. It is not surprising. His description of it as completely overlaid with gold (irfpiKeKaXv/xfievTiv iravTodev Xpvclqi) corresponds with the directions given in Ex cf. which were either hurled at a distance or used at close quarters like modem crown and reward (ttjs (card Tria-nv 8iKai. The only sword of which Christianity approves is that which is the symbol of the punitive ministry of the magistrate (Ro 13'*). Kennett). p. Die Bundesmrstellvng.. 130 ff. Peter once caiTied a sword. incurved into the shape of a half-cylinder .). whence it was to be miraculously restored to its place at the coming of the Messiah. . such as Sebaste and Csesarea. 328 tt". 9). 1896. Paris (//. — deslade. Literature. The complete equipment consists of six pieces. except that we should expect the helmet to be donned before the shield was taken on the arm' (Leaf's Homer. 23) describes the armour of Roman soldiers in the time of the Punic wars.xa. became skilled in the use of weapons. Macpherson and A. Peter (himself like a spirit in prison during those three days).' is Josephus' ' ' ' ' ' . 132 «:. i. Nebo (2 Es 10=^ cf. Paul regards the valour and endurance of the world's conquerors and the Empire's defenders as worthy of emulation. double-edged. and Julius Ctesar to those of Palestine {ib. which Lentulus conceded to the Jews of Asia (Jos. when the seventh angel has sounded. the shield of faith. and Christ Himself sanctioned the use of illustrations drawn from the warfare of kings (Lk 14^').' inZATWxii. 'AH we have willed or hoped or dreamed of good shall exist not the semblance but itself. in which they would naturally be put on.. is faith's (Tiivtis). These are the disobedient and. v.). a splendid cuirass (6upa^) covers his breast . art. in the days between His Passion and His Resurrection. and by implication adds girdle and shoes (^warrjp and caligce). a cuirass. is an embellishment upon Ex 16^^) and Aaron's rod that budded. 'The six pieces of armour are always mentioned in the same order.— (2) Poly bins (vi.

governed by a procurator. Paul was escorted from Jerusalem to Antipatris by 200 foot-soldiers.a is used instead of the more correct cnreLpa). . in — SDB. to the Empire. military ditticult question. and thence to Caesarea by the horsemen alone. Augustus initiated the policy. mentioned in the period A. 51). of the provinces. 1-2). long-service army of 400. and art. or Tychicus. The little force thus described (Ac 23^') was a fraction of the vast army which maintained law and order throughout the Roman Empire. III.000 men. It is estimated that the two forces together made up a regular. and on discharge the legionary received a bounty or land. ixvv ri^ aTparevixaTi (AV 'with an army. The term of service was 20 years. Rev 9>« ARMY. XIX.'Exercitus'in Smith's 2)tct.' clothed. his own and those of Lepidus and Antony. 49 ff. Italy itself was garrisoned by the Praetorian cohorts (see Pr^^torium). Ramsay). R.E. 6 (Schurer. and the deserts of Arabia and Africa on the south he charged them to guard the borders which were exposed to the attacks of restless barbarians.D. see art. ii. ii. Hist. and Meyer.o/(?r. I. ' Army (A. Augustus developed a new order of auxilia.AEMY The next day they took him [Christian] into the armoury. Isaiah (59^^) had already suggested the In 1 love. which they regarded as idolatrous. and He shall sharpen stem wrath for a sword. The legions were recruited from the Roman citizens of Italy and the provinces. Kennedy). Ant. and Rom. 1891. an ala of cavalry and five cohorts were stationed at Caesarea (Jos. ness as a breastplate. — HJP .) mentioned in the story of St. a year after the battle of Actium. The supreme authority was now entrusted to a legatus legionis. meaning apparently those who grasped their weapons with the right hand') is very doubtful . ii. Paul urges Titus to ' ' give diligence to come to send Artemas unto thee. the Euphrates on the east. for the purpose of providing 93 Each legion bore a ' ' title homes and a (Bunyan. v. At the time of the death of Herod Agrippa (a. Many colonice ' e. of Gr.' in Smith's Diet. 70 horsemen [lirireh). The Civil War was ended. and even to the same mind at different moments. On the outbreak of a tumult in the Temple at Jerusalem. without attempting to enlarge its limits' (Gibbon. enough of this to harness out as many men for the service of their Lord as there be stars in the heaven for multitude' ' AKTEMAS were formed for veterans. 500 to 1000 strong. and the State had no more foreign foes to fear. which was respected by his successors down to the time of the Antonines. Studies in Roman History. St.' This implies that Artemas was capable of relieving Titus in the oversight and organization Therefore he must have of the Church in Crete.. E. . 1891 (by W. ' HJP A Holy City [irapefjL^okT). London. VI. London. term occurs in Ac 23^.'^. Julius Caesar's edict granting this privilege is preserved by Josephus (Ant. But the legions were not the only guardians of the peace of the Empire. as he afterwards reported. and shall array Himself with judgment unfeigned as with a helmet He shall take holiness as an invincible shield. single cohort formed the normal garrison of the ' number. Gallica at Antioch. and in Pauly-Wissowa. such as Scipio and Caesar had wielded. That significant act was the beginning of tlie Pax Romana. 1. (Jos. (by Liebenam) . it was not (like Syria) garrisoned by legionaries. Ant. the chief captain of the band came on the scene. when I shall . the Rhine and the Danube on the north. was now past. The efficiency of the soldiers depended largely upon the 60 centurions. and might easily become a menace. helmet. BJ V. not the citizens. see Schiirer. shield. By ruthlessly eliminating inferior elements he obtained a thoroughly efiicient force of 25 legions. in ' The barracks the same narrative) loco.. The precise function of the de^ioKdjSoL (an exceedingly rare word. who formed the backbone of the legion. were recruited from the subjects. Probably they had once belonged to the army of Herod the Great.3. 67. corner of the Temple area (see Castle). from which they derived their names. viii. XX. who had their headquarters in Ca^sarea. thought of a panoply in which God Himself is and the writer of Wisdom had worked it out thus (5"'^®) He shall take His jealousy as complete armour He shall put on righteous. 6). 'Armour. James Strahan. as sword. 1906-09 and art. . St. Paul's arrest at Jerusalem and transference to Caesarea (Ac 2123) certainly belonged to the Judaean auxilia. As Judsea was a province of the second rank. His conservative policy determined his use of the army. tribune (xtXiapx^s). of maintaining the dignity of the Empire. : ' . but by auxiliaries. him. 44-66 (Ant. amounting to 45 legions. Hardy.— Artemas is mentioned only in TitS^^^. At the Jewish festivals a stronger body of troops was drafted from Caesarea for the purpose of keeping order among the pilgrims in the crowded Temple precincts.D. and they were finally drafted into VespaThe relation of the Italian sian's army in A. Augustus found himself master of three standing armies. Each consisted of 6000 heavy infantry divided into ten cohorts. In the first month of 29 B.. — — used six times in adjoined the fortress of Antonia. 8. a7idRom. Kennedy) in SDB. E. 7). breastplate. where they showed him all manner of furniture. . ix. i. Distributing the legions in the frontier provinces of the Empire which had the Atlantic as its boundary on the west. and formed a second force equal in numbers if not in importance to the first. The legion was no longer under six tribunes commanding by turns. The time for great field forces. The auxiliaries were more lightly armed than the legionaries (see Armour) they were not so well paid . R. S. and on their discharge they received a bounty or the Roman franchise.' The Jews were expressly exempted from military service under the Roman banners and eagles. An army that could be swiftly mobilized was no longer a necessity. S. . the gates of the temple of Janus at Rome were closed for the first time in 200 years. Ant. JaMES StRAHAN. with a troop of 120 horsemen to act as dispatch riders. and had been taken over by the Romans after the deposition of his son Archelaus They are often in A. 1). Art. Th 5* the breastplate (dvpe6s) is faith and In the realm of the imagination a happy idea will present itself in various aspects to different minds. and Augustan cohorts (see AUGUSTAN BAND and Italian Band) to these auxiliaries is a The cohort {airdpa). Schurer. G. 56. London. 44).' RV 'with the soldiers'). such as Cohors Sebastenorum. close to the N. vi. and centurions (iKaTovrapxai. 'Arma.g. and shoes that would not wear out. where rdyfj. LiTEBATiTRE. and 200 spearmen (5eftoXd/3ot).—This 1914. In addition to the sources cited in the soldiers now do at Easter among the Christian sects in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. He at once undertook that task of military reorganization which was perhaps his greatest and most original achievement. I. who was the deputy of the Emperor as commander-in-chief of the whole army. Literature. Pilgrim's Progress). Regiments of infantry (cohortes) or cavalry {ales).d. ARTEMAS. ch.D. X. as the Turki. The cohortes and alee were recruited from the Greek cities of Palestine. XIV. Victrix stationed at York. Arms' (A. And there was all-prayer.' or 'Tyriorum.C. 19 (jjj ^jjg ]a^g|^ three instances referring to armies [ffrparevfjiaTa] of apocalyptic vision). which the Lord had provided for pilgrims.

1 P 33. with dye (producing purple. art.). BeIS--. etc. relating to the The numerous references 6. were owners of land. the sickle. adorned with precious stones and pearls. embracing tlie coarser fabrics involved in the tent-cloth (see Tent.' 'business. [I9I2-I3] 'Work. 203*. has been replaced by 'trade. 1 Ti 6' . for which Cilicia was famed. do. 1 Co 10'"). 1912. however. embroidered. Ac IS^").']. which in reality was a meat partition' (Eph 2'*. the yoke (so tion of leather for foot-wear (see Shoe. Next to the arts concerned with food supplies come those connected with clothing and shelter. wrought (Ac 18^ — — — ' ' ' ' ' — . Epistle to' .g. Ph 43. Building arts. Thus it came the fact of Simon's house having been by the seaside about that the carpenter. pagan (Ac 14'3. Rev where view of Theology and Philosophy.metaphorically in 1 Co 3'2. etc. The care of the person was then carried to a many departments. About one-half of the references to labour passim).. but there had arisen millers and bakers. The which were found in the same district or quarter. we shall art of the tailor was less in evidence. culminating in articles relationships proceed upon a work-basis. LiTEEATURE. This point is emphasized by Deissmann (Light from the Ancient East^. XIV. The preparaagricultural community. . 2 Co 119. Ac 9*3 lO"' 32). few. Pauline and other Studies. and fashion them. 76). 1. 1 Ti 2^. millstones (Rev IS^'* ^2)^ weights and Age witnessed great activity in building within measures (Rev 6®) all these more or less called for Palestine. from data furnislied by the NT. I Th 4". forum. Paul are numerous indications of the close contact of the Apostle with the artisan class. inwrought with gold and silver.tious projects. Art may be co-ordinated with 'craft. While agi'icultural implements coald not at the same time an important craft. and the fig. The conwoman's work in the house (or tent). 2. . however. Ac 93**). 1 Co 9^ Rev 6'3 11* the art of the smith must have been familiar in those days. 1 P 2-5. and in the figure of cance as a trade centre.' j_ and ^ ROBERTS. servants (slaves). and harness in The first part of the Apostolic 5.' The importance of the olive in particular has been shown bj' Deissmann (»S'^ Paul. The plough. probably within the apostolic writings refer to agriculture. general. perhaps reminiscent of the and provision market. cf Ramsay. Ro IV"-^. The barber (Ac 18"* 212*. The care of the and salves (Rev 3'^ 18'3). . 1). speech employed in Col 2'*. e. Rev 6i« I3i«). the Gospels excepted. London. References to building particular exercising their craft in shops. etc. bond. etc. Toilers on the land are here regarded place being taken by the weaver and by the women more in their relation to craftsmen of whatsoever in the home (cf. 1911. Gal 5'. Paul's companions from whom . such as the 218. although at this time it was also an important culture (Jos. sheep. (Eph 2-"). I P royal apparel of Ac 122' (cf. his omit them. the goad (Ac 26'*).94 AETEMIS as matters of AETS common knowledge (Rev 6* IS'"). cf.e. The treatment of the material. the foundation and chief corner-stone such as every great city of the time could boast. work of the mason underlies such passages as Ro 1520.' 'works' (ami derivatives) figure p. The elaborate system of baths which Behind the actual tillers of the soil stood those who prevailed must have provided work for many. the smith. The builder's measuring-rod (reed) is The market-place (dyopd. It may be noted that the palm figures only in Rev 7**. In the writings of St. This article surveys the industrial arts of the Apostolic Age. etc.He was a necessary coadjutor of the maker of struments for reaping (e. : 1906. ARTEMIS See Diana. ' ' — KV 'craft' also survives). Ac 17'''). was not without signifi. but in towns querors took up the like work for themselves. 316 tf. Aquila and Priscilla. then. p. I xh 2». 39 flF. Rev. 2 Th i% and the Col 3-3. cf. while in the raw state. although in Talmudic times craft (Rev 18^^). with many booths or shops.v. 2 Ti 2^\ Tit 3^. the worker in was due as much to enforced separation from the leather. Sandal) frequent in St. In rural parts mill. Paul's metaphors 2 Co 6'''. ). London. only in quotation).27) 'craftsman. No doubt it was largely extraneous 14'*'-)i hut the products of wine and oil are named . Rev 18'=*). great degree. 2 Co 5'"-. notably the com])letion of Herod's ambithe skill of the artisan proper. 1 Co 38ff-. such as are mentioned in Ac including the apothecary. Workers in metal.(cf. Tent-making) made of goat's hair. In so far as these references the process of fulling). but products come to light in the industries of tanning and weaving. only to ing and baking may indeed have continued to be be demolished again by the Romans. 219 tf. From the prevalence of sacrifice. 317). although mentioned in Rev 11'. the olive. who supplied unguents 43' 5iff. was an allied industry (see are quite general. tliis was a despised one.). the latter in along lines of their own. to the industrial arts. viii. which. crop and of animals occupied so much time that 1 Co 11"-) had also a well-established position. Artt. and at the making of which St. Rev 14'*) articles for house-furnishing. Many social finer sorts for human wear. spice. masters. 1 P 2»fl'-. Temple). as aforetime. is but slightly referred to (1 Co 9^ Ja 3^. Spinning and weaving were fundamental industries. etc. the is ' apostolic legates . The name about 'Titus.18. Clothes. we may also infer that this gave support to several important branches of industry.he figures among other artisans. Carpentry appears only put to many other uses. Paul and his companions. at least to advantage. Certain articles of commerce enumerated in Rev 18'^ cinnamon. HDB on 'Artemas. but cf. also belongs scarlet. the muzzle (1 Co 9^ 1 Ti 5''. see art. Basket. bondmen (Eph 6'* ^.g. The tanner has been brought into prominence had to be made over to others. . p. vine. the bridle (Ja 3^). He 33'-.'s 1520> 29 g^gj jjq jggg j^j^^n Jewish. ture was a self-contained industry there were now 3. The rearing of cattle. perhaps. ' were tells selected.' in (see Ac 18^ IQ^^. prominently in the Pauline vocabulary (Eph 2^" 4^^. p. Col 3". or purely metaphorical. harness-maker. and free to devote liimself to Christian worlv one of St. many of in the Apostolic writings are. EGT on Tit 312. commerce in grain (Ac 27^^. presuppose at some point or other an activity in intensive arboriculture. as is still the practice in the East to-daj\ Specific We read once of the shambles (fjidKe\\ov = parts of buildings are named in the middle wall of macellum. which is to be expected in view of what is known concerning his own manner of life. The workers with by one instance (Simon [_q. .' which. The time had passed when agricul. found their customers largely among the town as to the necessities of business. was but a small part of the tanner's occupation. horses. The as are common to literature in all ages. and such especially Ac 16'* and cf. in the widest sense of the term. 'Titus. Specialized forms of agriculture. Josephus. 1 Co 4'2. and with minerals for bleaching (i. been a Christian of considerable experience and of high character. ARTS.' 'craftsmen' being retained (Ac 19^** ^s. Greek but that in nothing his nationality. and also of the and for threshing. are less frequently to arms within the apostolic writings show that alluded to (Ja 3'^ cf. For basket-making. iv. Life. Rev IS^^) and in stock 4. in. The Temple was finished. ). and much subdivision of labour. Ant.

4«152). took high value (Rev 9'-" 18'-). of the At any rate. being skilled in alloys. most precious . Eph 6-». See also Eph prisons e. engraving. The account in Lk 24^"'^^ can hardly apply to any other parting than the Ascension. chains (Ac 12« 213^28-". 1 Th 58.)."• 2" LXX.g. Peter's vision (Ac 10^"). etc. 'Brass' should in all probability be replaced by bronze' or copjjer throughout the NT. vireXa^ev. and in the act of blessing He was taken up. some Old-Lat. Tablets of stone ^vere also fashioned for commemRev 2'^). and also of the vessel received up into heaven in St. and a cloud received Him out of their sight (Ac 1").' with 'Western' texts. The Church in the Roman Empire. also 6^). As seriously taken as any were the gymnastic arts running. etc. and precious stones. Thus far the crafts have been regarded on a : Literature. Simon Magus (Ac 8^'^-).ARTS to Palestine.' Another very complete list of a specialized order appears in S. in warlike imagery chariots (9» IS'^). Glass appears (Ro 9-^). and omits them once. even if with Western authorities (DA. and is unlikely to have been the real one (Swete. yielding welcome archaeological evidence. free use of iron at this time it is probable the coppersmith worked mostly on ornamental lines. appended An exhaustive list of SDB may be conauthoritative works will be found W. silver. ' Arts and Crafts in ' . the conclusion of which (after 16^) Ave have lost. These elements entered into dress and personal ornament (1 Ti 2^ 1 P 3*. The referas also into house furniture (2 Ti 2^**). Archdulogie. A whole system of trade (Ac 12^0 27-* ®. which lies in a hollow . so took them.v. The works of M. Rev 9"-"). M. 2 Co S^*. but see C. they possible to antiquity.g. etc. Schwalm. : ' seems to be an and. Appearances. only figuratively (Rev 2p8. London. The correspondence necessitated by trade and by the diti'usion of knowledge must also have given occupation to many who prepared the . includ. papyrus. There had been no record of angelic appearances when the risen Jesus was seen by the disciples. stone.). Cruickshank. 'dvaXiji/'ews). MSS. etc. if so. 1910. it reads when he Syr-sin is also quoted for the omission blessed them.) is expressly named in 2 Ti 4'*. graven by art and device of man (Ac 17^^). refining. wood. The place of the Ascension was Olivet (Ac V^. This was part of a wider practice of fashioning idols in the precious metals (Ac 17-". . sword (P" 2^2 etc. to the art. Lamp. 95 materials for writing (parchment. ' wai separated. art. giving a livelihood to merchants. dveX-^cpdi]) and Lk 9*^ (' the days of his assumption. Diana). for the Gospel story does not carry us so far. Although these here appear as seen in vision. 2 Co S^attached to statues. ' ' ' . as has the Latin Vulgate. Krauss. In connexion with ships and boats the smith's (and carpenter's) art must also have been largely in evidence anchor (He 6'"). 2 Ti li«). usually called the Mount of Olives. . Paris. abbreviation of the fuller text. The Ascension. is a new subject. v. certain parts of the warrior's equipment metal (Rev wood : the balance. Augustine*) we omit the last half of v. La Vie privee du peuple juif a I'epoque de J^sus-Christ. ASCENSION 1. (cf. 1909-10. Armour. and the masters of the Philippian maid (Ac 16'"). (Ac 23-3). the curious arts [to. cf. Rev 2-'). cup. ii. 1910-11. of gold. if made of this This is equally true of working in idols (Rev 9-'") thyine wood.®^ was carried up into heaven. the final departure. : and detention. Syr-sin also sible but less probable omits 'and they worshipped him. p. . this activity stood largely apart from the life of the early Church. torical account of the Ascension is given in Ac r-^"'^. in juxtaposition to ivory (Rev 18^-) footstool (Ja 2*) vessels (2 Ti 2^").. The coppersmith With the iq. Jesus lifted up His hands and blessed the disciples (Lk 24^"). Leipzig-. orative purposes (Ac Yi^. being maintained. and the description of it begins a new book. There were also workers in stone and clay (including terra-cotta) along artistic lines. as we might have expected from Jn P' the angels appeared only to announce the Resurrection and to explain the Ascension. boxing (1 Co 9-'**^').' On no other supposition can the 'joy' disciples be understood. Still finer was the work done in gold. however. a steersman (Ja 3''). p. the reputed site overlooks Jeiusalem. further.. and wrestling (Eph 6^^). to be a witness against the omission (the tr. 249. The NT is full of references to the Ascension. Paul's voyage. — ' HDB ing garments (girdle. Elymas (Bar-Jesus."). isiirrors (1 Co 13'2. etc. many spearmen. Ja 4^*^ Rev 18"'-) was built upon the practice of such arts as have here been passed in review. money-lenders. and the inscriptions in certain cases remain. See artt. 619). 8.. 'EXaiuv so. 103 . Ramsay and A. The silversmiths of Ephesus (Ac 19-^) were a powerful gild. is useful. iron gate (Ac 12^"). p. and even altar and throne. This work is very important. 571-. B. e. The omission may be due to homoioteleuton.^"^-) with great joy (Lk 24^-). in art. viz. and also taxcollectors. etc. But. burnishing (Rev 1'5 218). Deissmann are also helpful. This is the case whatever view we take of the text of Lk 24*1. Ac 13'''''-). ' . 1893. the making of silver shrines or models of the Temple of Diana (see Ramsay. Ja 2^). tombs. NT statements The his- large scale. On the other hand. It is called an 'assumption' (dvd\T]^Ls).E. for behoof There and elsewhere of the conquering' Romans. in the Appendix to Mk. Silver. we ought to read the word in Lk 19-" 21^'). according to some editors. pen. in coinage should not be overlooked. art. But iron-work 18'-) : (see Iron) took finer forms (Rev e. but only a brief summary of the inThe First and Fourth Gospels end before cidents.—The sulted. as that in any case is no detailed description of the event. W. The same verb as in Ac P. and they went back to Jerusalem (v. •The Peshitta Syriac has the full text (with ethpresh. angels (' men in white apparel') appeared and assured them of His future return to earth. rudder (Ja 3*) cf. Warren. As they were talking. ences in Rev.).' which ' ' : Two ' '^'-^ K ' ' . Serious as most arts were. etc. lie was lifted up (ettrim) from them. in the hymn quoted in 1 Ti 3'^ (' received up [dveXrjcpdT]'] in glory'). looking down on Bethany. 'taken away' is posD-Iat has discessit '). are too numerous to mention. requiring a shipmaster and mariners (Rev 18'^). and so probably did the Second. Games. etc. New Testament Times. Ja 1^) were among the articles produced (see MiRROR). 'for the first verb). and therefore on the far or S. Gold. the person who inserted the words. in iii. See art. articles for food and drink (bowl. Cf. ' HDB V.).g. Paul with a well-known metaphor Interesting details regarding Jewish pottery of this period are to be found in Conferences de'Saint-Etienne. ' ' : G'sff-. we yet learn that spent their lives in following after pseudoarts. ASCENSIOis^ ink. 99 fi". 112 ff. side of the hill.^i was quite a common article of manufacture at this time (see. written from the sociological standpoint. it was an industry that attected the early Christians being associated for the most part with adversely. the last of the series of the postResuirection appearances. The potter's ai't (see Potter) was as necessary as ever for liousehold use (2 Co 4^ 2 Ti 2-". Sir 48") and of is used of Elijah (2 Enoch (Sir 49^'*). 7. irepiepya) of Ac 19^^ . It must be remembered tiiat navigation was itself an art. It was ' over against Bethany (Lk 24^"). the narrative of St. The Apocalypse is especially rich breast-plates of iron (9^). l^almud. whether the Evangelist or a scribe. all of were them The use When especially marble. ''. But it cf. silver. working at a particular craft. and art. as in the case of arms. we read of an ascension (dfd/Sao-is) in * Augustine inserts the words once. It provides St.). (16'".

not into a holy place {dyia) made with hands. Paul. For this reason Irenanis speaks of the Ascension as an ' assumption in the flesh [ivcrapKov a. a 'lifting up' (Ac P. So in Jn 3" those who had died had not 'ascended. does not mean that the incident or condition described is mj'thical. in both of which places RVm reads 'at' for by or 'with.. Just as symbol was necessary to describe the Temptation of our Lord. inferior iKidiffev) . The symbolism used life is that 123«. Kadla-aura ^k de^iQv Tou HaTpds) .' This verse would hardly have been recorded if the Evangelist had not assumed the Ascension of Jesus as a historical fact. X. . He 1'22. as in the Creed of Jerusalem (Cyr. a quotation from Ps 110'). . The Avord ' ascension has less of a mystical mean. 7^*^ 'made higher than the heavens'). "pjjg Ascension was a 'departure' (Jn 16^. used of the nobleman who Avent into a far country. Ap.. p. de Virg. . guided by an old Jewish interpretation (Robinson. Session and exaltation of our Lord. 26).twice ('of God '). The disciples did not look for any other appearance such as had taken place in the Forty Days. eirripdr]. Ac 2="'-. the Ascension is described as the parting of Jesus from the disciples at the last of the Resurrection appearances . defines it as 'indirect ' first St. SUdT-q). The fact that men were accustomed to speak symbolically of heaven being ' above was doubtless the reason of the la. p. in loc. of which the Bible from beginning to end is full. ' 'assumption. Mt 9-). but a state . so in (see below). of the Bangor Antiphonary (7th cent. a verb used of the taking up of the disciples to the Mount of Transfiguration. While the former method of expression emphasizes the historic fact of the Ascension on a certain day. David did not ascend.). In some passages it is said that He sat down' {iKAdurev. or standing. also Rev 5^ 14^). Com. the Ascension is a transition rather from one condition to another than from one place to another (Milligan. in his striking lecture on The Symbolism of the Bible' (Life of Christ in Recent Research. especially in the 4th cent. according to many MSS a 'carrying up' into heaven (ib. where our Lord's death is so called {dve\rj<pdT]) by the Docetic author.g. Lk 18^^. The glorified body is received by a cloud as it gradually vanishes from the disciples' eyes. in the 'Constantinopolitan' form of the Nicene Creed (KaOe^dfi^vov . according to Pearson 8^*. The Session is 'at the right hand of God' either the former in Ps 110^ [LXX] ('at my right hand') and in the qiiotations of it 1238. Oxford. but into heaven itself (912.' and emphasizes the historical side of the matter. Paul at his conversion and to St. 13. a verb 17^ used of lifting up the eyes to heaven. 14^^ and allusions to it in Mt 268'' (both 'of power') and Lk 22«9 ('of the power of God') and ' 16'9. ^c 2^^ He I'*.va\T)\piv [ffcer. sedit) in different Creeds. Col 3'. Ro He 10'^ (though v. 1]. for thereafter there were no such manifestations as those in which Jesus had been touched by the disciples and had eaten in their presence (Mt 28^. I.' The symbolism of Session. 1907). 1 P S-' (all these have 'of God') so He P ('of the Majesty on high') 8' ('of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens') 12. Cat. Other words are used elsewhere in the NT. and in Rev 3^1 Jesus says I sat down {iKadLua) with my Father in his throne (cf. so was it necessary in describing the heavenly life of Jesus.('of the (' his right hand '). 1 Th 4'^ (Kara^rjaeTai). but is a continuous. Mk . throne of God '). Tertullian. Peter says that David did not ascend (aui^-q) into the heavens. But St. 14®^ and KaO-Ziixevos) . where Ps 68^8 jg qiaoted. . until He should come at the end of the world. The use of symbolism. Eph With these phrases cf. sitting. 110) the Egyptian and Ethiopia Church Orders. ' ' W^) or 'hath sat down' {KeKdOiKev. Paul was probably latter differing from it. Jesus is the High Priest who has passed through (die\ri\v66Ta) the heavens (He 4^*) the reference is to the idea of seven heavens (cf. so in Eph P* it is said that God 'made him to sit' (/ca^tVas). Jn 17-"). action.). 'sedisse. 'sedentem nunc'). This variation in biblical usage is reflected in the use of both ' sitteth and ' sat down ' [sedet. ' ' ' ' . . and in Eph i^'-.' iK Sf^iwv or €v Se^iq. though it does not assert that our Lord had at that time actually ascended ing than ' ' ' — description. 1 Co 15-^ He \\3 ioi2«-. dvecpipsTo [see above]. see also Swete. 'assumption' may be misinterpreted in a Docetic sense. (ed. [oLva^i^-qKev). Sanday. clause nearly following the LXX. the ASCENSIOis^ by an apparently upward movement.\v\j/is} of the Lord Jesus in 2 Th 1^ 1 Co l'. The latter point of view is seen also in Ro S^-*. and it is in effect a prophecy of that event it asserts the pre-existence (Acara/Sds). He 'entered' {elffijXde) within the veil as a forerunner on our behalf (6^").st disappearance taking the form that it did it would seem that when Jesus disappeared on former occasions during the Forty Days (for the Gospels describe His Resurrection body as being not bound by the ordinary laws of Nature) He did not vanish — to describe our Lord's of Ps 110^ which is quoted directly Mt 22«. Lk 24^^ and probably w. as it is in the Gospel of Peter. and of the Missale Gallicanum (Mabillon) . Codex Bobiensis). John in Patmos were of quite another nature. 70). 8) . and in Ac 7^"* where Stephen sees the Lord 'standing' at the right hand of God ready (such seems to be the meaning) to help His martyr (cf. and points forward to the Ascension. Ac 2^ being therefore by the 5'*' right hand of God exalted. 12^). the latter denotes that the Session was not an isolated. In the passages given above.96 Jn the 6^2 ASCE:N'SIOi^ 20". Lk 19^^). Peter. or the overthrow of Satan by the efibrts of the Seventy disciples (Lk 10^'''-)." is l''^" ( ' ' ' .' vtf/wOeh) ('him did (iod exalt with his right hand'). Vel. and the writer of Hebrews prefer iv Se^K? . in ascended Mk ' Mk MSS ' ' ' Mk || ' — the Verona Latin fragments of the Didascalia Hauler. 2. The Ascension. 27. The former is the usual form. Creed. He 18 81 10^-.3^). e. as no human language can adequately describe the new conditions. nor is it a place at all. also in the in Mt 22".^". in the Testament of our Lord (ii. and a 'journey' (1 P 3-^ iropevdels. or the eventual triumph over evil foretold in the Apocalypse. a parable looking forward to the Ascension. of the Gallican Sacramentary (7th cent. But the latter is sometimes found. But up and down are sj'mbolical words heaven is not a place vertically above the Mount of Olives. St. but that it cannot be expressed in ordinary human words. Ac 1^^'. also Tert.' as in Col 3^ (iffrlv . 24J diriXdci}). though he died and was buried (Ac 229. cf. de Prcescr. cf. In the description of the parting a symbolical tinge is seen. Jn 202^— though St. In other passages Jesus is said to be sitting. and in the Creeds of the Abbot Pirminius (8th cent. 1 P 3^^ (' who is at the right hand '). Thomas perhaps did not actually touch the Lord when invited to do so and possibly 20''') the appearances to St. 1. The Ascension is implied by the expected return or 'descent' of our Lord. — Mk Mk || || Mk ' : ' . and indirectly in numerous passages which speak of Jesus being. xiv. a return called a 'revelation' {dTroKd. ) so in Ac 2^* St.35. In the statements about the ascended life of our Lord symbolism has to be still more freely employed. Jer. And we note that in Ps 110^ [LXX] the imperative 'sit' (KdOov) marks the continuance of the Session (Westcott on He V^). 5. on God's right hand till all His enemies are subdued. The Ascension of our Lord was not a death. a 'parting' (Lk 24".

72 tf. 78 f. ' ' suggest. and opposition. Ephesians. while others point to one in heaven only. but over all. The High-Priesthood of Christ is one of the great ' ' ' . Jn H'*").This is illustrated by the outpouring of the gift of prophecy upon the infant Church the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy' (Rev lO'''). art. It expresses the exaltation and glory of the Ascended Christ as Man. and is King of kings and Lord of lords He reigns with His saints for a thousand years. Ro 8^*. The Priesthood of Christ is one. (414-16 620 7->7 83 97. p. 10 717. Paul speaks of both intercessions in the same context (Ro 8-^*. completed by the Ascension. 229. Jesus did not merely return to His former glory (cf. p. But the last parting was the definite act of Ascension. falling in the sphere the heavenly Priesthood. — — — . Yet. see also Milligan. Spirit in the hearts of believers are one. ' He : . disturbance. i. ' It has long been disputed when the High-Priest- not day nor ni^dit from the unintermitting energies of heaven. the kingdom of the world is become the Kingdom of our Lord [the Father] and of His Christ Jesus has many diadems on His head. not speaking from Himself. . 19-22). 1 Ti 3'® ('received up in glory'). 93). p.12. heaven sends the Holy Ghost to intercede within This double conception is parallel with that of the Holy Spirit coming down to us here on earth at the same time that we are taken up to the heavenlies' with Jesus (Eph 2®). the priest upon his throne of Zee 6^^ and His Kingship assures us that good will triumph over evil. as formerly. quite the same thing. Until Jesus was glorified it was not of emptying and self-humiliation). the Divine Majesty to the Divine Jesus all shall do homage (see Lightfoot's note). so Christ did not fulfil His Priesthood till the Ascension (see J. ' ' . St. Christ in VOL. and that there are two aspects of His Priesthood. to the Session). fQj. H.' I ascend {dva^aivu). ' ' . Paul also emphasizes the Kingship of the Ascended Christ.). p.' The Resurrection had begun the great change . I. op. as He Himself implies in calling the Holy Ghost 'another Paraclete' {5XKov HapaKK-qrov. The work of the ascended Christ. Bernard. p.^). The priesthood was thus. 14). He was the Priest-Victim on the Cross. . as it were. Yet it is clearly implied. § 2). and so the seated Christ resets ' ASCENSION us. And the earthly high priest enters into the Holy of Holies alone.11"* 1912. vi. p. at best. in ii. Ph 2^ (aiirbv {nrepv^uae. . and Ps 110''* is quoted in He Jesus is High Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.) denies the two types of priesthood. He must (Set) it is fitting that He should reign till His enemies are conquered (1 Co 152-5). in proverbs (Jn 16-*) the teaching is through the gift of the Spirit.' in consequence of the hood of Christ 20^). and power. 3'9).) and Westcott (Historic Faith*. Note on 8') says that Christ fulfilled two types. His prophetic or teaching office did not cease at the Ascension on the contrary. but. He 'appears before the face of God for us' (He G-'*). . Asc. — — — 56. is that of perfect rest from all pain. So St. cit. He was exalted that in His name every knee should bow throughout the whole universe (Ph 29'-). The earthly high Jesus priest stands to otier (10'^). — . one as fulfilling the Levitical High-Priesthood on earth before the Session. namely. He is the Priest-King. There seems to be much truth in both views. For the exaltation see Lk 24^ ('to enter into his glory' the glory which was His due). but I am ascending. In this connexion we must notice that there is no contradiction between the intercession of the Holy Ghost and that of our ascended Lord. and some passages in Hebrews point to a Priesthood on earth. 157). But we must notice two differences is between the type and the antitype. and guide us into all the truth. This is specially emphasized in Rev (P S"*. for he shall take of mine and shall declare it unto you' (16'^'*). (a) Jesus has ascended to make intercession for us as our Priest. and is worthy to receive the power and the might . Christ. Jn 7^ 12'®. (h) Jesus has ascended to rule over and to fill all things He is our King. that is. though the insufficiency of human language makes them seem two.e. but the mode by which we are given a new life. . He 2* ('crowned with glory and honour '). earth is not idle. while Jesus carries the people with Him within the veil and gives them access to the Father (vv. It is not improbable that the period of Forty Daj's was one of increasing glory. : was glorified in His human nature.' The symbolism of the right hand is unmistakable. who was to teach us all things (14^®). of which the Ascension was the consummation. while usually (though not always) depicted as sitting (above. St. Jn 17* 'which I had with thee before the world was'). and on His mediation based (1 all human intercession is Mediation and intercession are not. in the name which the Father gave Him (v. In Jn 20^'' our Lord says to Mary Magdalene. from Easter morning He was already ascending (Swete. 2i- . self- 'highly exalted him. but doubtless with the further (cf. Peter speaks of angels and authorities and powers being made subject to the Ascended Christ (1 P 3-2). is our 'great priest' (10-^). and the passages given above. leaving the people outside. see Robinson. p. His rule is with a view to the restoration of the universe to order. Hobj Spirit in NT. A mediator brings the contending parties together. not of the Aaronic order (see . Jesus is the Mediator (8« 12-^). and is not only over Christians. this The seated monarch on is. 3. But Milligan (op. Now the Ascension is intimately connected with the gift of the Spirit. All authority in heaven and earth has been given to Him (Mt 28'**). incomplete. 9. both in this and in the coming age (Eph I'-i) He ascended that He might fill all tilings (Eph 41" cf. p. One of the meanings of 'Paraclete' is 'Advocate' or Intercessor.' and Jesus is our Paraclete (1 Jn 2').^). ' I shall ascend. He is the Head of the Church. The exaltation or lifting up (v^ioais) is spoken of by our Lord in immediate reference to the Crucifixion ' ' was part (Jn 3i'» 8^8 123-- 3-1). He thereafter teaches more plainly not. Ac 2'" (' God hath made him caused him to be recognized as both Lord and Christ' with reference in addition. . 374). (c) The office of the Ascended Jesus as Prophet is not so explicitly mentioned in the NT as His Priesthood and Kingship. 2i_ themes of Hebrews. 52). 255) cf.24 etc. authority. and the other as fulfilling that of Melchizedek thereafter. The two are not to be separated they are really one act.5-^. Eph 41^'. Add. 1890. 2 Co 3'^'^®. and otiers intercession for all men (see Swete.ASCEilSIOX (On the Creed. This is the meaning of the references in Hebrews to the high priest entering into the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement below). and that the Death of this glorification. but as the earthly high priest only fulfilled his priesthood when he brought the blood of the victim within the Holy Place. as Swete points out (Ascended Christ. for in Him all the fulness dwells (Col jiHf. The Ascension was not a mere spectacle to reassure the disciples. 7r\7jpw/ia. Westcott (Hebrev:^. Jn 13^' . But our ascended Mediator goes further. The intercession of our Lord in heaven and that of the Ti ''). cit. and says that our Lord's Priesthood began with His glorification. ). Jesus is the ruler of the kings of the earth. He V^ (a perpetual intercession). He is seated far above all rule. and in all things has the pre-eminence (irp(i)Tevuv). sorrow. indeed. His very presence in heaven is the intercession which He offers. not as our looser English use of tlie present tense may thought that death leads to glory — ERE .

while the Ascension may have taken place on the Thursday. The narrative bears the same stamp of truth as the evangelical records. has been indirectly pointed out aliove of Christ for man has never ceased. it may also have happened on the following Sunday.. Paul's silence in one place when elsewhere he so emphaticall}^ states his belief in the Ascension. Creed. 20 cf. but only obscurely. However we may interpret the narrative. Martin's article in DCG i. Evang. ' explicitly mentioned by 'Barnabas' (§ 15). and has been so ob. 261<\ This i. These allegations have been ably answered by Swete (Ap. {§ 3). (see above. of St. 643^). without any note of time. In Ac P Jesus is said to have appeared to the disciples 'by the space of forty days' (5l TuxepCov TeaaapcLKoi'Ta). 1). ascended up to heaven '). these facts is that..98 ASCENSIOi^ Ap. Luke's words do not imply an exact period of forty days. -would have been irrelevant to St. The allegation that the Session and the Resurrection were regarded as one act may be tested by Ro 8^^. For fuller details. ASCENSION All that we can deduce from p. In Lk 24 we have a series of events foreshortened (probably because the author had already planned Acts). although He has never needed to repeat His sacrilife. If the second and third of these are one act. The connexion between the Ascension and the gift of the Spirit is also seen from the fact that the last words of Jesus (Ac 1*) were that the disciples should receive power when the Holy Ghost should be come upon them. It is quite intelligilile that tliose who believe that our Lord is mere ^lan should find difficulties in the doctrine that He ascended . and is i)robably referred to by Ignatius (Magn. vi. Asc. why not also tlie lirst and fourth? The argument from the interval has already been dealt with (above. where St. but it is not really ])ossible to maintain that the discijjles did not believe it. necessarilj' place. . as it deals with the facts. ..c. (6) It is impossible to regard the account in Ac 1 as a myth unless we adopt the now exj^loded theory that the whole gospel story is such. presupposes that the Resurrection body of our Lord was under the same material conditions as His body before Easter Day.^** see ii. § 1). and Intercession of Christ. Acts of the Apostles. and that in the primitive tradition the Ascension had no separate ]Aa. Creed. Paul's argument. ' ' ' . Paul in 1 Co 15^''^% and of the chief sub-apostolic writers . It is hard to see any force in the argument from St. § 4). the placing. Modern objections to the Ascension. ch. by Justin [Dial. — Tiiis Importance of the Ascension for the practical The Ascension shows that the work . and therefore it is not to be expected that it siiould be found there except in allusion. The present article is mainly concerned with the facts. such as the Valentinian idea that the interval between the Resurrection and the Ascension was 18 months. 69 f.s some conliriiiation of the suggestion that the Ascension took place on a Sunday. . Funk). For example. there can be little doubt that it represents what the eye-witnesses believed to have taken possible for the new mode of His presence to take cf. or that of Eusebius in one place {Dem.) the Ascension Avas commemorated on Whitsunday. The («/) Another Avork is referred to in He 6^°. Hence the necessity effect (Jn 7^^ 16" otherwise the grain of wheat of our Lord's death : could not bear fruit Jn 12-^). Session. He says that the special prominence given to the Ascension in the Creeds is a deviation from the oldest teaching.). 7). and the mention of the Ascension in 1 Co 153ff. however. and there have been other calculations. Tlie Christian. and when the Festival of the Ascension ' — was instituted.^the sixth Thursday after Easter was selected for the purpose {Ap. and the reader may be referred for an answer to objections from a philosophical point of view to A. There are. The Ascended Christ became a life-giving Spirit (1 Co 15''^). and. and so they would be Jesus' witnesses in all the world. — like modern all 'Lives. viii. some indications that the words forty days were not always taken exactly. Interval between the Resurrection and the Ascension..^^). This is scarcely credible. art. 105 ff. § 1). but that he learnt a more accurate chronology before he Avrote Acts (cf. Sanday Avell points out the authentic touch about the disciples desiring the restoration of the earthly kingdom of Israel (v. V. Berlin. place after the Resurrection till the 'parting' of •24^^ (see above. Barnabas makes the Ascension take place on a Sunday (§ 15) l)ut he does not say that it was the same Sunday as the Resurrection ('the eighth (lay . including the return journey of the two disciples 7 or 8 miles to Jerusalem.&(Das apost. viii. or on any day between or close to these dates. Ascended Christ has entered within the veil on our behalf as a Forerunner {irp68pofJLos [see FORERUXXER]). get in ' ' ' ' . HDB But St. Creed. tliough in that work the fortieth day after Easter was observed for another purj)ose see the l)resent writer's art. and assumes that the Gospels are what the\. Calendar. ed. Avhich do not carry the narrative so far as the Ascension (the end of Mk. Christ. and so in the PUrjrimarie of Silvia Etheria).' in DCG i.never claim to be chronological biographies. S. Resurrection. 1892). of the Session after the Resurrection as if they were one act and the discrepancy noted above as to the interval between the Resurrection and the Ascension. is lost) at best it hardly applies to Lk. to prepare a place for us (Jn 14"-.. and Mk. which is very full on this head.' see Swete. He alleges the silence of the Synoptists. In the Third Gospel he describes all the events which took served ever since. Paul names successively the Death. This interval has been usually taken as exact. 6. Const. Luke the events which happened after the evening meal at Emmaus (v. The argument from silence (always precarious) is invalid in the case of Mt. He mentions the eighth rather than the first' day because it follows the seventh day or Sabbath. and the deduction has been drawn that when he wrote the Gospel he supposed that all the post-Resurrection appearances which he describes took place on Easter Day itself. the Ascension belongs to the history of the Church rather than to the gospel narrative. not to the Ascension. (16'«). 5. in the 4th cent. having been manifested. before nightfall. for the manj^ resting-places. i.). or that of certain Ophites that it was II or 12 years. Here it is enough to say (a) that the objection that it is impossible for a body to disobey the la-vvs of gravity and to ascend instead of fall. But an allegation of Harnack must be briefly noticed here. but is permanent. As to the suh-apostolic writers. ISioreover. "With tiiis we may compare the fact that in the Eilcssene Canons (4tii cent. in some old accounts. that we may sit with Him on His throne (Rev 3-').' in the ( ' — Appendix to Mk. Objections on this head are therefore really objections to the Resurrection. ' ' ( . 38). 2) that it was as long as the Ministry before the Crucilixion see Swete. V. Ap. Lk 24'*^). Tiiere are also some speculations of an extravagant nature. in which also Jesus rose from the dead. 33. the Ascension is . This explains to us the purport of the words after he had spoken to them. Glauhensbekenntniss. and no note of time is suggested. see Swete.' This view makes St. for none of the authorities suggests that the Ascension took place at night. of which he is treating he hints at the replacement of the Jewish Sabbath by the Christian Lord's day. Avhich all the Evangelists' accounts show not to have been the case.

' in i. He worships the three. Martin. angels and demons. Composite character.D. a Christian Apocalypse (3^^''-4i*). Ephes.' The Vision of Isaiah (6-11).' in ii.whereupon Isaiah withdraws first to Bethlehem and then to the desert with his companions (2'*^^). ' Priesthood of our Lord (Baird Lecture). Manasseh. and of the stage which had been reached in the development of its organization. elaborate review of foregoing. and ascension of the Beloved. The Father commissions the Son to descend to earth. but is with us until the end of the world (Mt 28-"). There Isaiah beholds His wonderful birth. do. Milligan. Ascension. This persecution is ended by the second coming of the Lord. giving us through the Spirit the new life which enables us to follow Him. On the Creed. the curious term ' a wooden saw ' can hardly be explained except as a misrendering of : ' . communing with the Holy Spirit till the end. do. and demands Divine worship. . seven months. Lipsius). xix. 6-11. Denney. and the godless are annihilated. F. — W.' Literature. Simpson. P'urther. and foretells his own martyrdom (P''^). a matricide. S. 72. according to Epiphanius. This narrative is mainly historical in form. and by Hieracas the heretic. awkwardly introduced as explaining the wrath of Beliar which occasioned the martyrdom of Isaiah. . and finally arrives at the seventh heaven. As Charles observes that such a work was incorporated in the Ascension might also l^b-sa^ which describe the contents be inferred from of Hezekiah's vision. Ixiv. on Hebrews. and is appropriate only to the above section. Isaiah returns to his body and binds Hezekiah to secrecy concern{'y -libD. [1913] 458. Bonn). The Ascension and Heavenly lice.' in DCGi. and also by the fact that the Talmud contains a similar account of Isaiah's death. The Apostles' Creed. J. H. The author wrote in Greek. one being of Jewish and two of Christian origin. Hcer. 1. B. J. It is thus of considerable importance in the light which it throws upon the views held in certain circles of the Christian Church of the apostolic period with regard to the doctrines of the Trinity. ed.Tait. L. a brother of the false prophet Zedekiah. Com. Seth. The name 'Malchira' in 1^ is a transliteration oi]il 'i^s. and Latin texts of 6^ imply the title Vision of Isaiah. do. A. strife. Ep. to heaven. J.—This is an apocryphon now extant in a complete form in the Ethiopic Version alone. assuming in each the form of the angels who dwell in them. for 4^^ . Westcott. . apparently. accuses Isaiah and his fellowprophets to the king. ad. . Avho afterwards are transformed. He sees the Great Glory. crucifixion. The title ' Ascension of Isaiah is strictly appropriate only to the latter part of the work. . In the twentieth year of Hezekiah. There he sees all the righteous from the time of Adam. B. The Ascended Christ. Slavonic.2a. and covetousness the coming of Beliar in the likeness of a lawless king. . Above all. The Holy Spirit in the New Testament. in Origen Canon. H. A. to our knowledge of the internal and external conditions of the Church.D. and the prevalence of error. 1912. There is also a remarkable parallel between Ignatius. until the Beloved has descended to earth (O^^* ^*) and ascended again (9^^). in the presence of the king. and the princes the people of Gomorrah (2i--3^''). and finally passes through the firmament and then the air to the earth. and ascend. ch.6b-i3a gi-S^s 5ib-i4)_ This narrates how in the twenty-sixth year a wood-saw. The date of this narrative is probably in the 1st cent.ASCENSION OF ISAIAH has brought Jesus into closer touch with has never ceased to he Man. Cook has observed. . Maclean. Assumption and Ascension. After Hezekiah's death. as S. chs. forsakesthe service of God and serves Satan. ASCENSION OF ISAIAH. is taken up in mind (cf. He raises our ideals from earthly things to heavenly.d. The Appearances of our Lord after the Passion. 1912 . Isaiah. . (a) The Martyrdom of Isaiah (p. briefly stringing together various details in the manner of an epitome. Meanwhile Belchira. 1892 HDB ' ERE . Com. ii. J . to which he is admitted by special command of the Lord Christ. son of Chenaanah. but all alike apparently composed during the 1st cent. and. who drags Beliar into Gehenna. The Heavenly Session of our Lord. . 1910 j. who claims to be God. This title is given in Cedrenus i. and Asc. do. Ottley.g. 1906 R. 100.' It describes. impurity. Manasseh seizes Isaiah and has him sa^vn asunder with a wood -saw. birth. the Resurrection. and contains three separate parts of different authorship. A. who is present. art. He and Jerome) which attribute the account of the sawing asunder of Isaiah to Jewish traditions. and in the heavenly sphere is not removed far away from us. stript of the garments of the flesh. W^. The title Ascension of Isaiah properly belongs to this section of the work.' and so does Montfaucon s * ' * of his reign Hezekiah called Manasseh to receive accounts of visions which he had seen (P*^). A. Sanday. 4 (Vallarsi. 761). A.' in SL>B. The date cannot be later than A. in JThSt xiv. Jerome so quotes it. in which Isaiah is successively led through the firmament and six lower heavens to the seventh heaven. but also by the Actus Petri Vercellenses. miracles. 82fE. vi. The Son descends through each heaven in turn. and on His right the Lord (the Beloved) and on His left the Holy Spirit. The final judgment follows. in Isaiam. sets up a kingdom of the saints. p. not sitting on their thrones nor as yet wearing their crowns of glory. . London. 'Ascension. art. art. (c) The Testament of Hezekiah. by His Ascension teaches us the great Sursum Corda Lift up your hearts we lift them up unto the Lord. and claiming to have seen God. . Ixvii. Bernard. moreover. ' {b) — ' ing the vision. the Incarnation. and crucifixion. including Abel. and Enoch. art. The Ethiopic. and contains nothing specifically Christian. Isaiah dies with wonderful firmness and constancy. the original was probably written in Hebrew. art. iv. and calling Jerusalem Sodom. The first five chapters deal in the main with Manasseh's wickedness and Isaiah's martyrdom. and was a Christian with a Docetic tendency and a crude conception of the Trinity. as foretold. descent of the angel of the Christian Church the ascension the falling away of the Church. and gives rest to the godly. London. 120-121 (ed. J. 1907. warns the king of Manasseh's future wickedness. In phraseology and ideas it presents interesting parallels with the New Testament. 1894. art. and twenty-seven days. There appears to be a reference to the sawing asunder in He 1 P^. 'Ascension. S. xxiv. W. with a curious insertion (3^^''-4'^) which claims to be a vision foretelling the life of Christ and the fortunes of His Church. and his Lord and the Holy Spirit worship the Great Glory. London. Swete. The vision is quoted not only by Jerome. the Antichrist. ASCEI^SIOi^ OF ISAIAH 99 It us . Gayford. the coming and death of the Beloved the : ' . 19U9. A careful examination of the diction and subjectmatter of each section leads to the clear discrimination of three distinct sources. ' Jesus Christ. and tells of His ascension and final judgment. and this supposition is confirmed by the Patristic references {e. Isaiah. 2 Co 12^-*) through the firmament and each of the six lower heavens in turn. It is composite in structure. In its outlook it might well be Jewish. the Seven Heavens. (p. and session on the right hand of the Great Glory. The Rule of Faith and Hope. Pearson. when speaking in the Holy Spirit. works. G.' ib. of prophesying evil against Jerusalem. a. ascension. 3. resurrection. C.t^j ns-jp). In 2' a play upon words appears when the passage is re-translated into Hebrew (. and receives disclosures regarding the descent. Appendix E. Is. It adds. Epiphanius refers to it as rh 'Ava^ariKbv 'Ha-atov. Cambridge. mission of the Twelve. and persecutes the saints for three years.

Then follows [a resurrection and] a judgment. the Beliar Antichrist appearing Nero (4-. the angel of the Spirit (4^1 g^a. and in the Test. ' .'»). but its vagueness also betrays the undeveloped Trinitarian conceptions of the period.]) is regarded as the result of the dcsccnsio in inferna (cf.D. and after the Ascension sits (IP*) on the left hand of the Great Glory. The name ' Beliar' is absent from the Vision. Is. Paul asks What (c) ment — — . Sim. (b) The Resurrection is apparently a spiritual one. followed by a spiritual consummation in heaven (cf. and give rest to the godly still alive in the body (cf. and all the angels of tiie firiiiament and the Satans see Him and wor.-^). Hcz. S'^i'-i'*) His work includes the founding of the Church ('the descent of the angel of the Christian Church. ofioidJS Kai 6 davaros rod Kvpiov. is In early applied to Christ.self to win Manasseh as the subject of Beliar (P). . and cause Isaiah to be sawn asunder (IP' 5'^). Ign. p. 4"*).' and the phrase who as . ' ' ' with the Lord (1 Th 3'=* 4'^) and descend and be present in this world (4'*). study. though not yet seated on The Final Judgtheir thrones and crowned (^J^). it was probably a pre-Christian Messianic title. 5. ix.D. however. His name is as yet unknown. It is used in the OT of Israel. Ixvii. His relation to Sainniael is puzzling.^ in Charles' ' — New Testament ' . the Elect One whose name has not been made known. and the Lord will minister to those who have kept Avatcli in this world (cf. xi. Ep.\ 1 Til 4'''). Apparently an earthly Messianic Kingdom is implied (cf. wliose name is not known to any flesh (7^'). The First Person is called tlie Great Glory' (9=*" 10'« 11^-). as do also the statement that the Beloved escaped recognition at each stage. and (?) a feast (4'®). are reserved for the righteous. 11. Beliar is regarded as served by Manasseh and ruling in liis heart (P. Christian writings also . 3.'). The Protev. with the robes and crowns in the seventh heaven (4'* 7" 8'''. It is followed by a spiritual translation to heaven. xix.g. In the SibyUine Oracles. No doubt the writer thought the term most appropriate in a work claiming to be an ancient Jewish l)rophecy of Christ. e. His session with Gocl. deceive the elect. the thrones and crowns not till after the Ascension of Christ (9'2. and so would naturally be transferred from the people to the Messiah. suggests a Gnostic colouring. The 515 717.1'. So the date of this section falls between had seen the Lord A. 2f.e. inscr. The title Christ.e. Smyrn. On arriving in the seventh heaven. In 2 Co 6'^ St. and possibly a Docetic tendency.* ' 3" 5'. 63-73 to proceed from the Roman Emperors. Tiscli. both dwell and rule in the firmament (7^ 4-). He is also called Matanbuchus (2'') and Mechembechus (5*). and none of the heavens can learn His name (8"). 7« 10«. the Most High (6« 7"^ 10«. and in IP He performs munion with Him. Asc.^•').' i. He will finally be cast into Gehenna with his armies (4'*). of the real nature of Christ is tlie entire tlieiiie of lO'^-ll*'*. 23 818. at times as the source of immoral deeds. and.' 3''). however. 9. 6. Rev 20'"®). the body being left in the world (4'"). and of Aero Eedirivus cannot well be put earlier than A. ' ' It is noteworthy that the title the Beloved is bestowed on Christ by the Bath Qol in Mk 1" 9^ and it is used l)y St. but in 9" the plundering of the angel of ' is referred to in 4'^ and 10'-. as in Q^^) on the riglit hand. The 'garments. after coming forth from the tomb on the shoulders of Gabriel and INIichael. ' — (a) ' ' restored text). Asr.' It was. ' ' ' ' ' will be called Jesus (see 9^ 7iote in Charles' ed. 10'^). Pii 3-'. They stand. but they in turn vrorship the Great Glory (9^"). ix. not the Resurrection. ii. take possession of Manasseh ("2' P 3" 5'). i. In the in the form of a man Testaments uf the Ttvelve Patriarchs Beliar api>ears in both meanings. 25 912) oi- „-. 167 he is Asc. As Armitage Robinson (EDB ii. Nirodcnii. of Beliar."• " 2'.100 ASCEKSIOJS^ OF ISAIAII death' AbUi:X«lU^' OF ISAIAK (cf. iv. The angel of the Holy Spirit in 3'* must be regarded as Gabriel. IV).y Loi-^i (gi:) 93- lo'- and also once ' ' Lord of all those heavens and these thrones (8"). . 12. to come as the Antichrist. will not be realized by the angels of the world until the hnal judgment .' There is a temporary Messianic Kingdom. anil many who believe in Him will speak through the Holy Spirit. 1 P 3'^ 4"). spiritual bodies.) for 6 dyaTr-nTos (Mt 17^ the Mk title 9'^). 88 2. Beliar. . The conception of the gradual descent from heaven to heaven. are wroth with Isaiah for his visions (5" 3'* 5'). ' 'The concealment (l^iM. The idea of demonic possession is very prominent in the Blartyrdom of Isaiah. (10'-). Barn. 1 Co 15^-. Clem. In com' Isaiaii endures his martyrdom.'^). and the Holy Spirit on the left (IF-. (i. the sending out of the Twelve. one on His right hand and the other on His left (9^^). working signs in iii. 501) points out. while we can hardly doubt that it is the source of Ignatius' words in ad. and the miraculous appearance of the born babe two months after the Virgin's conception. pp. The title Son of iSIan' in the Latin and Slavonic versions of IV is probably original. In the Test. Jncobi and the Actus Petri have interesting parallels to the narrative here (IP"'*). The righteous from Adam downwards are already in the seventh heaven. a term interchangeable with the Messianic title the Elect.'"*• '®. 3. Ign.'*). Mt 27^-. Rom. He is the OnlyBegotten. Hmr. (We may compare the Hieracite doctrine in Epiph. and is tlie prince of this world (P 4-: cf. Is. Lk 12^'). Paul in Eph P. the departed) Avill come . He exerts him. At His second coming the Lord will Himself drag Beliar into Gehenna (4''*). These garments are received at once after death (S'* 9"). The Son and the Holy Spirit receive worship (9^-3"). is the distinctive object of faith to the believer in 2^ 3"*.. 16. ad. Those who believe in His cross will be saved. Ephes. really cruciHed.'*). lix. and was excluded bj' the editor of tlie present Greek version for doctrinal reasons (see Charles. and finally be burnt up. and 100. Importance for The I'rniifi/. ) are probably original to the Avork. i. moreover. iii. (jf JQ8) In His ascension He has resumed His proper form. The significance of the crucifixion is nowhere noticed. and descends to the angel of Sheol the part of Gabriel in the Annunciation. But in part Sanimael seems to be subordinate. The Third Person is spoken of as an angel. ' The Second Person ' is generally referred to as 43. etc. 21 the Beloved < ' (1^- »• "• '^ ' :V3. e. He sits down (not stands. stript of the garments of the flesh.^^ Eixing. presupposes that there were a few still alive wlio The fusion of the in the flesh. iii.^o 10^ 11*) or the angel of the Holy Spirit (3'" 7-=* 9^6 IP^). Mngn. 1 [ed. xxvi).' and the godless are entirely destroyed by fire from before the Beloved (4'*). i. with corresponding transformation in form. Herm.' He is.=diip Him (11-* cf. 20. three originally distinct conceptions of the Antichrist. ). The living wiioni the Lord finds on His return will be strengthened in the garments of tlie saints. Is. The Holy Spirit stands (9^^). 2 Th F. .e. Pn. ]i-lxxiii). Hcz. and at times as the Antichrist (see Charles. it has quite another meaning. and also is carried in spirit to the third heaven. 88 (see Charles.) The command to descend to earth is given by the Father (10^). Beliar has kings undei him (4-*').' as Luke (9'*^) substitutes 6 iKXeXeyfxevos (K B. 8 . (cat ^Xadev rbv dpxovra rod aiu)vos tovtov tj irapdevia Mapi'as Kai 6 TOKerbs avrrjs. like the titles 'Servant 'and 'Elect. and Father (S^^ cf. is. The saints (i. and as aiding Belcliira (5*). In part the two seem identical .

v. and other details are added. in every city [cf." Literature. Church organization is not yet developed. Of the Twelve. The Greek Papyri. The Holy . Beliar is finally destroyed.) a lost Greek text on which the Greek Legend Mas based (ii. and the angel of the Holy . At his word the sun will rise at night [cf. 3^1 'on the eve of His approach. with no distinction. The text. To this work the present writer would express his deep indebtedness. 1852. A. Jn 12-*i 1430 1611] will descend. I. seven heavens which we find e. Caesarworship is already a difRcuIt. imtil the sixth and seventh are reached (S'. . . It is. 209-246 . Nor is there any reference to natural phenomena or heavenly bodies in them.4 seen. Rev 131-1 1920. 1200. MBB of the Therearetwo Z«<t» Versions. the Church]. — Critical Inquiries. 1 Ti 41). except of glory. Of this Version there are three MSS. Lk 18»). (1900) has produced a critical text founded on all these autliorities. Rev 13'4. and ' ' ' '-'' ' ' . Asa. however. who challenges Isaiah when proceeding to the seventh (9'"^). 2 Ti 31. His disciples will forsake their faith and their love and their purity. authorities. The only reference to another apocryphon occurs in 4~. 2'' Beliar is the angel of lawlessetc. It belongs to c. The sins specified are witchcraft. the righteous. the Great Glory. in die Offenbaruvc desJnhannes^. 7 months. 1 Jn 4'^. In 2 Th 2'''. Is. There will come with him all the powers of this world [cf. Eph 2'in the &^ likeness of a man. ness. 778). the crowns and thrones and garments of the righteous.g. . F. Covetousness and slander are common vices (cf. — — sio Isaice Vatix. in Dt 13^^ In Asa. and reprinted by Gieseler in 1832. SK. Eph P^ 3^" 61-. pp.' For the expectation of the Coming.the two ideas appear to be fused with yet a third that of a human sovereign with miraculous powers. pp.15. In all these authorities two recensions may be traced. . cf. . in the Testaments of the Ttcelve Patriarchs and in Slavonic Enoch is not to be found in the Asc. and 27 days (4^^). the slayer Or. (c) The Greek Versions are likewise twofold (i.) The other version occurs in two fragments discovered by ]Mai in 1828 in the Codex (6) ) — — to in 1' 41s iQi-. Bonn. 2 Th 2^] him. While there is no reference to the (e) Angels. . Mt 242J. . In S^i-^i -sve have a contemporary picture of the Christian Church regarded as guilty of serious declension from its high calling. is found only in the Ethiopic Version. functions of good angels as mediators or intercessors. .D.*• 1. 274-302. 1 Ti P«). and they will sacrifice to him [cf. except perhaps in 3'^ and There is an angel of deatli (Q^^ 10"). the Beloved. In the seventh are the Patriarchs. There is an angel over the praise-giving of the sixth heaven. The judgment of the angels is referred ) — purity are the distinctive Christian virtues (as in 1 Ti 41-).''). R. Laurence. The 'faith' (3-1) is spoken of objectively. . 1 Th P".-). The Martyrdom is brought to the end. AscenOxford. Rev 19'"). The fuller two was printed at Venice in 1522 from a MS now unknown. one at the Bodleian. There are lawless elders (3-'*). where the book Words of Joseph the Just is probablj. ' be left as (d) His servants' : {4^^ . divination and augiii-ation. 1830. Is..' but is ruled by the Great Glory in the seventh. descends from heaven after our Lord's passion. This period points back to Dn 7^ 127 (cf. cf. Nero. (a) In its complete form the 3.ASCEXSIOX OF ISAIAH concord hath Christ with Beliar ? Here either meaning of Beliar is possible.*• 12].y (47-ii)."). few in those days will of 'Beliar' (cf. The angel of the Christian Church which is in the heavens will be summoned by God in the last days (315). magic. (h) Apocryphal work. Nitzsch. 2 Th 29]. Spirit. ' — Rcscriptus of the Acts of Chalcedon. and even this needs to be corrected and at times supplemented by other authorities. will persecute 71] . with the superior ones to the right of the throne.etc. He 9^. The man of lawlessness is possibly a translation ' ASCEXSIOX OF ISAIAH 101 — ' ' avdpes Trapdvo/xoi. i.^). 1534. Of this text 2^—4^ have been recovered in the Amherst Papyri bj' Grenfell and Hunt. as in the Pastoral Epistles {e. Einleit.. 761-769 see ii. and deceiving many of the faithfid (4^). And he wUl set up his image . have planted [i. This work is really a lection for Church use. . however. Col li« 2i». The falling away of 2 Th 2* is referred to in Asc. 145. Paris). Rev 121^) but in 4" the time is given as . 1819. .Spirit and the angel of the Holy Spirit (see under 'Trinity') are identical. cf. 1 Co P. Is. ) . 2'). The Church is the plant planted by the Twelve Apostles (4^). Rev 12*'. 1 P 32-). iv.. : . awaiting the coming of the Beloved. There is a genei-al disbelief in the Second Coming and in ^i). . Pseud. the Greek text from which the Slavonic and the fuller Latin Versions were deriveil.e. Rev 161^ iO'-Sj. and the persecution of the righteous. Rev 2^. world under Beliar their prince (P. who hath ruled it since it came into being . Rev 131-1]. He will say " I am God " and all the people in the world will believe in [cf. and two inferior ones in the British Museum. Each heaven is merely a duplicate of the one above. 141-180 K. Sib. LXX : ' ' : . of his mother [i. fornication. Each heaven has its angels. . and so takes liberties in the way of rearranging and abbreviating the text. .T. During this period the few Ijelievers left tlee from desert to desert (4'* cf. It consists of those who are associated together to receive the Beloved at His Second Coming (4^*).to be identified with the Ylpoaevxh rod 'Icjo-rjcp (Fabricius.. Is. Nero Redivivus is only an embodiment of Beliar Angels. in which the few faithful remaining will flee from desert to desert. And greater number of those who shall have been associated the together to receive the Beloved. 303. prophecy generally (3-^but prophecy is still existent. we ' The Antichrist are told and Nero Redivivus.g. though there are not many prophets save one here and there in divers places. cf. I. . von Gebhardt in a Greek MS of the 12th cent. and much hatred exists among the Church leaders (3^). a lawless king. (no. 5750. The Greek Legend was found by O. (ii. Is. The Neronic Antichrist is regarded as destroying one of the Twelve Apostles (4^). _ . (i. C. Manasseh and Belchira are only agents of Beliar and Sammael and Satan. Bibliotheque Nationale. The sun and the moon also have each an angel (cf. viii. .. V.' Cf.' . . The time of his sway will be 3 years. and the fuller Latin Version follow the second recension of the Greek the Greek Legend and the Latin fragments support the first Greek recension. A great persecution is regarded as imminent. Mk 132:2 contrast 2 Th 2io i-']. he will turn aside after him [cf. Vat. the Slavonic. spiritual powers are conceived of as the true cause of all action. The angel of the Christian Church (cf. the Ethiopic. The conception of the (/) The Seven Heavens.). Dillmann. pp. . self (41*). Liicke. and an IP. — ' ' — . angel of Sheol (IP**). (one thousand) three hundred and thirt^y-two days. Cod. We have mention of pastors and elders (3-^. The sixth is not under any subordinate angel or throne. A. and makes 3Ianasseh strong in apostatizing and lawlessness (cf. love.e. and powers rule in this (4-). of the 5tli or 6th century. G.e. will descend from his firmament [cf. Ph 3-". . . the king of this world [cf. Evil is found only in the firmament and the air it is entirely absent from all the heavens. Peter] will be delivered into his hands. 141. not by Michael but by the Lord Him. — In 4^ jea he Beliar the great niler. very valuable for correcting and restoring the text. (d) The Slavonic Version is extant in a MS in the Library of the Uspenschen Cathedral in Moscow. one [i. (g) The Christian Church and its circtimstances. Charles in his edition of the Asc. Faith. The 'spirit of error' (3-*) is at work among Christians (cf. the plant which the Twelve Apostles ..

p. . (i. though he frequently employed geograph. 1913. cit. Paul the Traveller and the .sojourn ' . 'Isaiah. and R. — — — 1^ is a clear instance of the use of geographterms in the Roman administrative sense. much sion. twice in Rev. Gebhardt. the churches of Asia (1 Co W^). one or more of whom were elected by each of a number of cities in the province. Asia had a great variety of meanings in ancient writers.) Asia almost invariably denotes proconsular Asia. A. 19^'-). is here published in full. Clemen. of Isaiah. 141-148 . Ascension of. translated from the Ethiopic Version. where he names Asia and Phrygia together as distinct countries. London. Asc. Hence Asia in the NT is always Proconsular Asia' {Gal. The First Epistle of St. Samos. 455-465.' and belongs to a class of names. derived from 'Acrla. London. and St. A. i. Charles. ' ASCETICISM.and officially retained this position till the beginning of the 2nd cent. R.D.). it is not incompatible with the other view. (i. Scriptorum veterum nova collectio. McGiffert. Charles. The only passage in which St. Edinburgh. 499-501 . T. Galatian theory. do. ii. held the view that the term 'Aaidpxv^ is equivalent to dpxtepeus 'Acrias ('high priest of Asia'). in a Gottingen programme. xviii-xxxiii. Lydia' {Flac.' Zirr. Caria. in which preaching was expressly forbidden (Ac 16*). Littmann. Its beauty. p. ii. [1S82] 29S-301 Pseudepigrapha. by Augustus in 27 B. . pp. H. o//«aia/i. xxiv-xxvii. opp. In such an expression as the places on the coast of Asia' (Ac 27^) the sense is doubtful but it is probable that.) Papyrus fragment : Grenfell and R. A. Leipzig.v. Leipzig. Charles. R. art. xxviii-xxxi. Ascension of. ASIA {'Affla). Robinson. of Pergamum (133 B. (3) the kingdom of the early Seleucids. der altehristl. its official name had to a great extent superseded the local designations of the districts which it comprised..4sc. Ll. apostates in Asia (2 Ti ' ' Though the Roman meaning of Asia is generally assumed by adherents of the S. M.' in DCB ui. Seven Churches of Revelation were all in proconsular Asia (Rev P*"). militate against the view that the terms Asiarch and high priest of Asia' are interchangeable. und Pseudepig.^. he has the province in view. rulers of these provinces were the Roman Emperor Senate.ii. See Phrygia ' ' ' — . ut opinor. Asia vestra constat ex Phrygia. 1825-38. E. 1895. Only those who find the Phrygian p. This Diet of Asia was a body Asice). 273 . whereas in Roman provincial language the greater part of Phrygia belonged to Asia. J. v-xviii G. iii.) The Greek Legend a free recension O. 388-415. . of Isaiah. 1898. For the ' Asiarchs (RVm) of Ac 19^^ see following 1 P ical — — ' ' ' article. though here separated. 155-158 . Rome. Deane. are peculiar to Eastern.C.' The word is a transliteration of the Gr. (ii. 6). ASIARCH. (a) Ethiopic Version. 1878.C. Cicero indicates its extent in the words * Namque. 854-SoG. H.' and fipxf'j * to rule. J. 'Acndpxv^. As the real provinces. — — — — : . 236-275 . afflictions in Asia (2 Co P). 714. until. 324) to assume that Asia is simply viewed as the western portion of Asia Minor. with their elected repreand the Roman sentatives. Church in Roman Empire. Ramsay. J. passim. The principal duty of tlie president of this body was to supervise tlie worsliip of Rome and the Emperor throughout the province Certain (see under art. while the Hellenic Luke. . . in Hilgenfeld's Z»'T. Paul's practice of using the technical phraseology of the Empire. The four provinces named Bitliynia and Pontus. A.e. and Galatic region (Ac 16*) in the north of Pisidian Antioch are obliged (like Conybeare-Howson.. Galatian theory. JE vi. where the historian refers to Jews of Asia (Ac 6» 21^^ 24'8). 1900. burgh. Mysia.) J. and culture made it the most desirable of all provinces. Asia was given to the Senate it was therefore governed by procoUvSuls ical : ' ' chief of chief officers of Asia and for Asia. Pergamum. being really one sum up The the whole of Asia Minor north of Taurus. more often in inscriptions and the lessons we learn from inscriptions are in direct proportion to Several scholars of repute have their number. K. 119-123. R. The foundation of this province dating very far back. which. Thus Lightfoot. so long a royal city. With regard to the duties and privileges attached to the dignities thus indicated there has been much discusThe titles occur rarely in literature. 238 f. [1904] 642 f. Mai. IL EDITIONS.102 ASCETICISM ' . Ascension of Isaiah. C. also 1897. Tiibingen. (6) Latin Versions. com. Oxford. Paul almost certainly uses the word in its Roman sense when he speaks of the firstfruits of Asia (Ro 16^ RV). pp. 1893. 1897. Beer. Isaiah. on the death of Mithridates (120 B. and made use of Roman political designations. 1891. who bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Roman Republic. and in the (where the name is found 22 times 15 times in Acts. the president of the Diet of Asia {koivov ttjs 'Aalas. 27). art. C.' for the Paroreios belonged to proconsular Asia. however. 1832. it is clear that such titles must have titles Roman been honorary and complimentary. (ii. 1877. Gieseler. together icilh the New Greek Fragment. .Worship). the Latin Versions.. London. Roman Citizen. H. pp. and it is possible that the so-called Epistle to the Ephesians was an encycla to a group of churches in that province. Edinf W. L. considerations. Laurence. Luke usually gives geographical terms their popular significance. There was only one dpxi-epei/s'Aalas (without further designation) at a time. London. also Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. an advocate of the N. both are given in the editions of Dillmann and Charles as above. Gesch. v.. Emperor. Davies. In Strabo's time the beginning of the 1st cent. {ivduTraroi. W.— See Tribes. Hort. ASHES.—See Abs-hnence. the case of Asia is an exception. naturally became the capital of the province. once in 1 Peter. Kair-iradoKdpxv^t AvKtdpxv^. Charles. 4 times in the Pauline Epistles. The word 'Affidpxv^ is never feminine. 98-139. Patmos. 157 f. Asia Minor and Syria (frequent in 1 and 2 Mac. Greek-speaking. G. The province of Asia was founded after the death of Attains III. JaMES STRAHAN. Phrygia Major was added to it. Paul's .D. 1901 (. and to St.). R. A. 1900.— F. n. It might denote (1) the western coast-land of Asia Minor (2) the kingdom of Troy (poetical) . while St. Paul the Roman citizen naturally assumed the Imperial standpoint. to all the dwellers in Asia '(19"*. Litteratur.C. and Galatia. pp. Kautzsch's Apok. Luke certainly uses 'Asia' in the popular Greek sense is Ac 2''. 118). p. Charles. H. whereas the title high priestess of Asia mune ' ' ' ' ' often api)lied to the wife of the high priest. ' '^).' in fr/)B. but the Troad and the islands of Lesbos. Ac 19^**). The province was much smaller than the kingdom had been. Asc. ' province of Asia. supra. p. and Cos should be added. (c) Greek Versions. H.) (4) the kingdom of Pergamum (Livy) (5) the Koman province Asia (6) the Asiatic continent (Pliny). was probably to some extent influenced by St. A.. wealth. Apostolic Age. Ascension of Isaiah. Peter. i. the province was ij Idlojs Ka\ov/jL4vT) 'Aa-la [Geog. Chios. UovTapxvSt ^vpi. pp. Hunt. 1893fE. cf. but long before that time Ephesus (g. Stokes. and the Latin Translation of the Slavonic. of which BLOwidpxv^t TaXarApxris.— See Heifer and Mourning. 573-579. — NT LrrERATURB. 330 ff.— . St. ii. A. 19. 1876.d) Slavonic Version. holds that. pp.dpxv^ are other ' RV RVm reads 'Asiarchs' AV The examples. pp. i.— In Ac 19^1 terms in their popular non-Roman sense. Die Himnielfahrt des Jesaja. composed of a number of representatives.) A. Harnack.) was recognized as the real adminisWhen the provinces were arranged trative centre. whereas there were a is . ASIAECH in Asia (19^^ 20'^* St. Dillmann. 84-95. IsauE. A. ASHER.

which includes the ordinary — : ' — : ( whether these Sicarii at constituted an organized body. Ramsay in Classical Reoiew. though not found in the cultivated parts of Palestine. and inaugurated the reign of terror which filled Jerusalem after the outbreak of the Revolution. See also Serpent. p. In the NT the asp' is mentioned only once (Ro 3^^: 'The poison of Here it is asps [lbs dcTTrtSwv] is under their lips'). Natural History of the Bible. • But see Lightfoot. is well known in the downs and plains S. The general meaning of the passage is obvious (cf. [1SS9] 174. B. p. etc. to Josephus. as likely to create more enthusiasm in that direction. It seems at first sight so strange that men elected to foster the worship of Kome and the Emperor should be found favouring the ambassador of the Messiah. After a considerable siege the Romans were on the point of taking the fortress when the Sicarii massacred themselves. 837.0^*. col. lb94fF. xiii. iii. and the ±iaja tripudians. for the use of the word . Natural . Literature. 'dagger-men'). 6 BJ II. or small hooded Egyptian cobra. 6) probably being to robbers ii: 6 It is difficult to say first . man who was slain by them was Jonathan the high priest. that Asiarch and high priest of Asia are two convertible terms is to be found in the Martyrdom of Poly carp (A. so that from their The first plausibility they could by no means be discovered. Murray's £>B. M. Ac The name given. 1). when they mixed with the multitude. Diana and Ephesus. p. one old woman alone escaping. we are puzzled. possibly Persian sword). XX. 3) C. 1911. but the LXX word is aairh. where the Heb. of which the Naja haje. 7). Gittin v. but he was The origin of the view eligible for re-election. HDB. xvii. 1895. SWP History of the W.D. according 21^]. whose preaching so threatened the authority of Artemis. SUB. Driver. rv. 2). and even if their friends were commg. who superintended the games (2) Philip of Tralles. with its outward respect for civil authority. 67. which. Machsh. Both the Asiarchs and the high priest disappear after the early part of the 4th cent. Their election by their ASSASSIXS British : 103 number ' ' ' ' ' ' : grass-snake. the Emperor's rival for the lordship of the Empire. This is only one. Ivi . iii. Yet there was a connexion between the two. iv. There are about ten diflerent species. p. and there maintained themselves by plundering the neighbouring country. iii. Paul. ii. 404 ff. the Asiarch was held only during a man's title period of office (probably one year*). 5). Sicarii [cf.^^ and Is IP. whom Josephus describes as an able man and a descendant of that Judas who had led the revolt against the census under Quirinius. and St. ii. G.oO. 1902. ii. especially at the festivals. or Indian cobra. 280 f. Asiarch. ' — There sprang up another sort of robbers in Jerusalem who were called Sicarii. the machinery for Emperor-worship had become obsolete. The Sicarii seem to have dispersed after the Roman war and to have disappeared from history. that the honorary position of Asiarch was inferior to the office of high priest of Asia. P. but the Asiarchs did the work and probably paid the cost. may have appeared in a favourable light to the representatives of Caesar-worship. II. and the fear men were in ot being so treated was more harassing than the calamity itself. viii. after whom many were slain every day. therefore. Apostolic Fathers. 'spider'). they durst not trust them any longer. for the obvious reason that.' ' BithyniGalatarches. Loudon. Further. as the Empire was henceforth officially Christian. The Sicarii seem to have appeared first during the procuratorship of Felix. seemed at first the strongest Artemis-worship. Romans^. who was high priest of Asia (the latter had been an Asiarch a year or two before). B. 3 . Job 2. S. . Tristram. LrrERATtiRE. Paxil' the Traveller and the Roman Citizen. Appendix. Deuteronomy'^. London. Their commander was one Eleazar {ib. i. W. vii. the murderers joined the bystanders in expressing their indignation. — {sica. as men do in war. are the best known. voL iv. Is IP 'And the sucking-child shall play on the hole of the asp'). vol. vol. but does not connect the Sicarii with him {Ant. ]r\z [pf. The name was derived from the short daggers worn by the members of the body ASSASSINS (or. vol. viii. p. p. or Egyptian asp. 270). 1SS9. VII. 424 Baedeker's Palestine and Syria^. Ja 3^ The tongue can no man tame a restless evil full of deadly poison'). also Sanday-Headlam. while the Naja haje is used for this purpose in Egypt. of a number of indications that the Empire was at first disposed to look with a kindly eye on the new religion. 2. It is clear. — H. . p. bulked so largely in Ephesus as perhaps Thus St. 412 £E. 191) and Aristotle {de Anim. viii. Tlie serpent referred to is without doubt the Naja haje. The Bible Word-Book^. which they kept concealed in their clothing and used to stab people among the crowds. 1. When we come to study the connexion of the Asiarchs with the Acts narrative. which they can dilate at noil. 1912. 7. with which they stabbed those that were their enemies and when any fell down dead. to dwarf the Imperial worship. more properly. however. Handcock. be held concurrently with the Asiarchate. ' Asiarches. Lightfoot. p.. curved. ' ' ably corrupt. iv. who slew men in the daytime in the midst of the city. Aldis Wright. The latter is the species upon which Indian snake-charmers usually practise their skiU.' J.w. a short. xiii.' in Pauly-Wissowa. whom he describes as follows ' {BJ n. although such a view would seem to be implied by Josephus {BJ They joined the Zealots {ib.. word used is a^ty^t' (a a7ra| \ey. where two separate persons named Philippos have been confused (1) Philip of Smyrna. Greek word occurs in the classical writings of Herodotus (iv. The chief peculiarities of cobras are (a) a clearly defined neck. SOUTER. 459 . The high priest presided over the games. 1S84.then) in the LXX (pethen is translated asp in Dt '62^^. p. 189(3. P. Lydekker in The Concise Knowledge Natural History. ' ' ASP —The A. and so cunning was their contrivance against detection. vii.D. moreover. until they were besieged by the Romans under Flavins Silca. introduced in a quotation from Ps 140^ (139*). Brandis. and (b) the equality in size of the scales on the back with those on the other parts of the body. VII. as in Romans. Viper. and the position of the poison-bag of the serpent is correctly described. Stuttgart. Hist. 1S97. Tristram. 1). Such was the celerity of the plotters. 79 .' See also BJ . p. 270 f. 4394 . 66. X. . arches. g. and concealed little daggers under their garments. although Josephus in BJ VII. everybody expecting death every hour. 146: R. treneral. of Beersheba (cf. 372 . and frequents old walls and holes in the rocks (cf. i. London. It does not belong to the viper tribe Viperidce) but to the Colubridce. the references to Sicarii in the IMishna {Bikkur. He has a number of references to these men. perhaps read ir'^rj. but were slain in the midst of their suspicions and precautions. viii. 155). but not with the chief priesthood of Asia. and prob{aa-TrU). but adder' in Ps 58^ 91'^). See also artt. . Christianity. vn. Josephus mentions this Egyptian as having appeared during the procuratorship of Felix. cf. EBi. Subsequently they seized the great fortress of Masada {ib. p. fellow-citizens to this honorary position was rewarded by games and gladiatorial shows. . So men kept a look-out for their enemies at a great distance. p. 1 might be interpreted as ascribing their origin to a somewhat earlier period. In Ac 21=^ they have 'the Eg3rptian' as a leader. to a body of radicals in the Jewish Messianic agitation which culminated in the outbreak of A. p. Bibleio.ASP Another (civil) office could of Asiarchs. supporter of law and order. 14). pt. .. and generally represents the Heb. pt. 'The Asiarchate' in his Apostolic Fathers.

(RV . steep ascent from the sea and the harbour. It is the picture of noble souls returning home to God. but in each instance a different Greek noun is translated by it. Davidson ('Hebrews. 178). it was re-founded. with the crier (KTjpv^). fivpidaiv ayyiXoiv. He 12--' Ye are come . referred them to the lawful (AV) or regular (RV) assembly (^ ^wo/xos ' Against this latter interpretation. if living Christians are referred to. therefore.— In the Acts and EpLstles (AV and liV) the English word 'assembly' occurs as follow. Paul. your assembly' and AVm 'synagogue': eh James. or Street of Tombs. It is a needless rehnement to find here difficulties of an ethical kind. Paul's ignorance of the fact that Ananias was the high priest. Luke's logical.s.' So also Farrar {Cambridge Bible for Schools) and Edwards (Expositor's Bible). in loco) holds that the only subject is angels.C. and translates to myriads of angels. lands. But the word occurs only here in the NT. n. — . ^KK\ri<Tia). Schiirer. AV ' : ' . iiio'lern town. i.' Students of Dante will compare the corresponding And. The result of this defence was that 1910. As Lysias called the meeting. 1901] p. probably in the spring of A. and the harbour mole can be traced by The summit large blocks under the clear water.' He. 31 ASSEMBLY (UJP ASSOS of the firstborn OLTToyeypaixfilvuv —See E. . which still extends a great dis("Ao-cros). St. Paul was Avinning over the Pharisees not merely to himself but to the Christian cause. . in the south of the Troad. Westcott (Hebreivs) contends for two classes angels and men . and explains his apology. This usage is a delicate indication (unintentional on the writer's part. and he was best able to judge. is ' which the exercise of . [Leipzig. irpwTOTOKwv ASSEMBLY.' says Strabo. On a Sunday afternoon. first ])assing along the western side of Mt. and to the Church of the firstborn enrolled in heaven.aith of Israel. ' . even a festal assembly and convocation of firstborns enrolled in heaven. (For a similar description of a Roman gathering. B. Paul states the same view more fully in 26""^ where there is no question of a clever tricK. and St. and welcomed with the 'joy that is in the presence of the angels of God.' In this interpretation he is followed by A. Peake). . having torn himself away from the Christians of Troas. p. it is a quite natural name for the sons of God.D. As to the charge made against him. This would account for St. and some another. such as the Olympic Games. writing 'to the twelve abroad. . 283). they should have carried their case before the proper court. 4. under the Roman rule. the distinction is not appreciable. for the present gathering was outside the law. GJV^i. the Stoic philosoi)her. then through the rich Valley of the Tuzla. but with the synagogues which for ages hail nourished the f. ' ' ' the people duly assembled in (Ramsay). though it is found in LXX Ezk 46^^. and renders the passage to countless hosts of angels in festal assembly.). whose dominions were converted into the Roman province of Asia in 133 B. The reference is to the council (ttcij' t6 aw^dpiof. ii.' So runs St. ' Tens of thousands is an almost technical term for angels . S. is still the chief sli'pping-place of the southern Troad. Paul. M. it is awkward to speak of their coming to a company which includes themselves (A. 2.. We are not to understand a regular sitting of the Sanhedrin.' (Neale's translation) 'Jerusalem the Golden' may also be cited as instinct with the spirit of He 12^. Besides. its ' powers ' ' ' ' ' ' : ' . Hos 2^1 9^. (a) A. 56. and had no power to transact business. but an informal meeting for what is known in Scots Law as a precognition ( a meeting of the councillors. The Revisers' change of lawful into regular is perhaps hypercritical for in practice. 22^") summoned by Lysias the tribune of the Roman garrison in the tower of Antonia. and the more part knew not wherefore they were come together. Ida. the panels of which now mostly in the Louvre are among the most The iiiiportant remains of ancdent Greek art. 5^^ The passage has given rise to Am for the and his tumultuary mob the citizens ' summoned by all was a mere mob. Luke saw nothing wrong or unworthy in this. by the Pergamenian kings. aiding the Tribune to ascertain the facts [Ramsaj']). RV : ' ' Hebrews'). On the whole it appears better to abide by the first interpretation. Ja 2-: 'If there come into (AV and Ti)v RVm RV (Tvvayuiyrjv). ' ' ' t6 awibpiov became rb irXrjdos. The walls are still Avellpreserved. Kai iKKXriaiq. In classical usage TrafTiyvpLs is the festal assembly of the whole nation. walked or rode the 20 miles of Roman highway which connected that city with Assos. under the name of Apol Ionia. 470 B. Cleanthes.' Bible Class Handbooks. 674. There is a long and well fortified w'ith walls. who iv I. who calls the gathering a riot (o-rdcrts). was a native of Here also Aristotle resided for this place. which was destroying the business of the shrine-makers. Though eKK\r]<Tla strictly denotes an assembly of 1. Its situation was one of the most commanding in all the Greek and 'It is a strong place. to the general assembly and church tribes scattered word 'synagogue. ASSOS — An W. and finally reaching the Via Sacra. this a mob's unreasonable- ness : Some cried one thing. some time' (XIII. cf. though firstborn is not elscMiiere applied to them. Paul's arrest.C. where further references are enrolled in heaven ' will be found. — . he probably presided and conducted the business. 'assembly' {^KKXrjaia) stands gathered by Demetrius fellow-gildsmen in Ephesus to protest against the teaching of St. The difficulty is to determine how many classes are referred to. of course) that tlie Ciiristian meeting had its ties not with the Temjile. and. for there were no Pharisees among his judges' (Ramsay.' uses the old familiar in ears of the Dispersion by associations of worshi]) and fellowsliip. ' — : ' {ffv(rTpo<p7]). S. indication of which may be seen in text and margin. If Demetrius and his gildsmen had just ground of complaint. TravtjyvpeL Shailer Mathews.104 LiTERATURB. Behram Kalessi. Virgil.41 ovpafoh). as this interpretation seems to imply. to innumerable hosts of angels. Ac 23^ The assembly [RV the multitude] was divided (iaxladrj to ir\rjdo$). over wliich the proconsul presided.39. 149 Saevitque animis ignobile vulgus.. Originally an yEolic colony. as his fellowpassage in the Convivio citizens come forth to meet him who returns from a long journey. for the assembly was confused. and photographic narrative. even before he enters the gate of his city so to the noble soul come forth the Bernard's great hymn citizens of the eternal life. yE7i. Pictures of the Apostolic Church. (b) On the other hand. 58). and a concourse ' ' : considerable variety of interpretation.' which had become hallowed the ' : ancient Greek city on the Adramyttian Gulf. 3. gathered for some solemnity. Peake [Century Bible. it may be pointed out that men are mentioned separately 'and to the spirits of just men made perfect' and it is improbable that the groups occur twice. i. Grant. of the hill was crowned by the Doric temple of Athene (built c. . complete.') In Ephesus the man revered for his piety and worth was the Secretary of the City (ypajifiorevs [see ToWN Clerk]). the Apostle conducted his defence in a way that won for himself the sympathy of the Pharisees. In Ac 1932. consequent upon the tumult in the Temple.

' But surelj. . the people are to be ruled for eighteen years (i. and triumphs over the Eagle (Rome).. while the ore-existence of Moses and Jerusalem is expressly asserted in I'^. ASSUMPTION OF MOSES. is raised to the stars. NT — — — ) ' ' — second visitation follows. Though unclean in hand and mind. and for nineteen years (the nineteen kings of Israel) the ten tribes shall break away. and pollute the altar with their non-Aaronic priests. gluttons. Then a king from tlie East (Nebuchadrezzar) shall come and burn their colonj' (Jerusalem and the Temple and remove the sacred vessels. which would suggest the impending deposition of his brothers.D. The date of composition is clearly fixed by the words in 6"^ and he (Herod) shall beget children who . Thereupon a man of the 'iribe of Levi. and published by him in 1861. and compels them to blaspheme the law and bear idols. v. Moreover. sons of slaves' (Jason and Menelaus). not priests but slaves. would be still more suitable. ^Nloses calls Joshua and appoints him his successor as minister of the people and of the tabernacle of the testimony. A Greek version of both. among — ' curious state of ' with regard to the so-called Assump- tion of Moses. 2. as early as St. as also do the ten tribes. The Gentiles are punished. Under these circumstances.. the sun and moon fail. 2 Barucli. At the end of ch.' As this is a prediction which was falsified by the event. ii. vii. 2J--30). Clarke. Next there are raised up kings bearing rule who call themselves priests of the Most High God (the Maccabees). the fifteen judges.' a work which is extant in a more or less complete form in a Latin fragment discovered hy Ceriani in a 6th cent. Dillmann.D. vi. and assures him that all is foreseen and controlled by God. is mutilated at tiie end. lest thou shouldest pollute me.e. Destructive and impious men (Sadducees) shall rule treacherous. i. A date nearer to the deposition of Archeiaus in A. have been a Zealot (so Ewald. and are quite out of place after ch. Date. and again at the end of ch. Trare/s and Researches in Asia Minw. The times shall then be ended.D. For him Eleazar and his seven sons had been the true heroes. tlie long promontory of Lectum 20i=*'- ). in Ceriani's Latin MS in 10'" we have the reading 'From my death [assumption] until His advent. A. The true Assumption survives only in quotations and references in the NT and early Christian writers but from certain facts it appears that it was at a very early date appended to the Testament. Assos. and the former. Fellows. Saul. On the other it affords a parallel to hand. 6. and not Judas and his brethren. J. A. of Assos. after the Exodus.' The ' title is incorrectly applied to what is really the Testament of Moses. 449) that 'the Theophany in x. and the angel who has l)een appointed chief (Michael) shall avenge them of their enemies. at the same time committing to his charge certain books which were to be preserved in the place which God had made from the beginning of the world (Jerusalem). Even the faithful two tribes sin. Jude's Epistle. Both works alike must have been written in the 1st cent. He expects the ultimate triumph of Israel.' For example.. The two tribes are carried into captivity. xi. His children are to reign for shorter periods. viii. powerful king of the West (Varus. which describes the Sadducees who Avere contemporaries of the author. and tiie human conditions prerequisite are a stricter observance of the Law and ' ' . The t^\ o tribes maintain t he Tern pi eworsliip for twenty years (reigns).' But ch.e. it is thoroughly Judaic in its exaltation of the person of Moses. vii. hypocritical. and Solomon) by chiefs and kings. Chapters viii.' Here the duplicate reading assumption would appear to be an attempt to prepare for the account of the Assumption appended to the Testament. and we cannot argue from the last reference which liappens to be preserved in it. iv. and laAvless. The king of the kings of the earth (Antiochus Epiplianes) cruellies those who confess to circumcision. exhorts his seven sons to fast for three days and on the fourth to go into a cave and die rather than transgi'ess the commands of the Lord of lords. Until thisadvent of God there shall be 250 times from Moses' death. After Josliua has secured to Israel their inheritance. In the 2500th year from the Creation. LiTERATiRE. and the three kings.succeeding him shall rule for shorter periods. Author.'". Moses replies by placing Joshua in liis own seat. The work is of great value in the stress sj)iritual religion and quietism. Burkitt argues [HDB iii.'*. At the end of the 77 years' captivity. governor of Syria) invades the land. we Hnd quotations from both works in close juxtaposition. Vmt this is to be brouglit about by Divine intervention and not by the sword. of which. The Amorites will assail Israel when Mo. and Satan shall be no more. — James Strahan. is not among them.sts in his edition (pp. and persecutes them with tortures. ' ' ' a national lepentance. they say. Clement of Alexandria. while the ten increase the Gentiles in their captivity. vii. we must ])Ostulate a date earlier than thirtyfour years from Herod's death. the present article includes an account of botli works. one who is over them (Daniel) will pray for them. and Israel is happy. and ix. London. in Hebrew. the MS breaks oH' in the middle of a sentence. They work iniquity in the Holy of Holies. They obviously refer to the Antiochian persecution. oppressing the poor. ' ' A — ( ^ — A — — ' — — — ' — ' — . who will carry out secret massacres and rule for 34 years. censure on the political and bellicose Pharisees of liis time. as Charles sugge. for Antipas reigned forty-three years and Philip thirty-seven (while Herod reigned thirtyfour). xii. Then God's kingdom shall appear. and vi. Wieseler.ASSUMPTION OF MOSES lii the haven he tance to the N. comes in well after the story of the ideal saint Taxo in ix. 2 vols. 30.. four are evil ami idolatrous. and the sea and the waters dry up. with regard to the Maccab.' x. iii.W.. In this it lays on in its and singular freedom from the Jewish doctrine of merit teaching. if not the latter. 1882 and C.'^. and crucifies some of the people. His silence Tlie author was a Pharisaic Quietist. of the same century. He suggests that the aiithor filled up his picture of the final woes from the stories of the Antiochian martj'rs. and beholds his enemies in Gehenna and rejoicesover them. 1. They are succeeded by an insolent king not of the race of the priests (Herod). are read between v. and confess their punishment to be just. between the years 7 and 29. Do not touch me. T. but very badly after the description of the wicked priests and rulers in vii.— A affairs exists has compassion on them. burns part of tlie Temple. Boston. wiiich seems to be set up as a Jewish counterpart to that of our Lord. named Taxo = Eleazar). jirophet and advocate. Contents (historical and other allusions are explained in brackets). ls52 Murray's Handbook of Asia Minor. David. which had meanwhile taken his ASSUMPTION OF MOSES A king (Cyrus) of 105 com j)an ions round (Ac ls9S . i. They are divided as to the truth. xii. The earth is shaken. joined his sliip. Jude ^. ISIS in the Ambrosian Library at Milan. however. and Origen. and parts the two tribes return. is presupposed by the quotations and parallels in Ac T^**. The author is generally supposed to 3. and are punished through the kings who share in their guilt (the Seleucids).'ean rising and its leaders There could be no severer is most significant. Joshua mourns that he is not able to take Moses' place as guide and teacher. ix.he would not need to borrow his picture of the ideal saint of the last times (and his name) fr(jm the same period.

IV. 10^ resemble those in there will come ujion them a the phrase in 8' visitation and wrath.s. we find references to a natural death of Moses.' Throughout the work Moses is to die an ordinary death (e. ii. 5. in spite of corruptions and carelessness. viii. The Devil's claim which Michael thus rebutted was (1) that he was ' ' : — We ' ' lord of matter (oti i/j-bv t6 (xQ/ui ihs rrjs v\r]s Si<nv6^ovTt.. also Ac 7^. 7^ 'the times shall be ended. Alex. — task to the critical reconstructor of the Hebrew text. ' ' — — : ' V ' ' . . and in a very peculiar twofold presentation of Moses ajjpears way. The version. The altar is polluted only by injustice (5**). and stars in while IS-*Ass. Mos. Judce (Zahn's Supplement.' It is not militancy but God's direct and personal intervention that will bring in the ' kingdom. Value for New Testament study. This twofold presentation would appear to be due to an attempt to reconcile Dt 34^'* with the Jewish Cf. 6. but said. 1897. ' . of Vassiliev'a Anecdota Grceco-Byzantina (pp. 106). 839 (Ben. ' . and keenly interested in the fortunes of the nation.' Didymus Alex. 48) seems to be a^vare of the new claims put forth for Moses' Assumption. thus claiming all creation as the handiwork of God's Holy Spirit. But. 238. 1897. : : [Cramer's Catena in Ep. ed. but the answer to the first is in fuller form than in dirb ydp St. There is also the well-known reference to the p. read in Jude ^: But Michael the archangel. legend.' The signs of the end in sun. Euodius. Sadducees (o'pns) ' dicentes se esse justos (D'pns) which is possible only in An Aramaic original postulated by Schmidt. The Latin text presents a i.— 7' 'and complainers (h) Jude^^: cf. " The Lord rebuke thee. 257-258). one is Moses "living in the spirit.).)• A Resurrection is not taught. Jude's words as a quotation from Moyseos Assumptio' or 'AvdXrjxpis Mwuer^ws. p. 121. is He is a strong patriot ToKfj-rjcrwaLV elneiv. Merx. is very literal. and even a reading \ikejinem in 2''. Deane. 15. ' ' A : .'— (c) With 2 P 2^^ cf." which is carried up to heaven the other is the dead body of Moses. 3^'^. 20 irvev/xaros dyiov avrov TrdvTfs ^KrlffOij/xev. Viypacpe 5' avrov iv Tats iepals ^£/3/\ots redveOra. The opening words have been thus restored by Charles to fill the gap in the Testamentum Moysi Quae praecepit aho vi|tae eius — MS — ' | 160: also Matthsei's edition oi Sept. . Ceriani's a palimpsest. In the next place. Greek words like ' = d\'i\pt. Jude.' and only in an interpolation (10'^) refers to it.5'. Josephus. while well aware of the Maccabaean movement. and upholding the old traditions of quietude ' and resignation' (Charles. 1840. The same arguments prove that he was no SadHis was no earthly ideal. therefore. p. contending with the devil. when. (2^). Mos. Taxo. it is not the original Latin translation but a copy. and its cessation is a cause of lamentation (4*^). . it is true.* The sacrificial system is regarded as valid '). Cath. Cf. and others is not necessitated by tlie order in P" 3^ (see Charles. Ass. in Jos. 3^) and heremus ( = €pTJ/j. .' while Josephus (Ant. in Ep.v. which presupposes 6pov in Greek [corrupt for Sp/coc]. It nowhere describes his 'Assumption. Alex. p. 239]) (2) that Moses was a murderer.' and difficult original MS is corrects Mouses' into 'Mouse' accordingly. ParalThese are confined to five lels in phraseology. iii.' is nearer Mt 24-^ than Dn 12' and Rev 16'".' The subject-matter of the extant work (preserved largely in Ceriani's Latin MS) proves it to be a Testament of Moses. Strom. Mos. horn. liv). In 7^ we have a play on the name Hebrew. in which the Latin itself has been corrected and corrupted. and objected to animal sacrifice altogether. He was The Law not an Essene. 1) adds a reproach uttered a diabolo inspiratum by Michael to the serpent serpentem causam exstitisse praevaricationis Adae et Evae. of perpetual obligation and is itself The Temple is built by God Himself sufficient. Eplst.g. deLcras ht] 5l u7rep^o\7]i> rrjs irepl ai^rdi' dpeTfjS irpbs t6 deiov avrov dvax(^prjo'ai : Schiirer. like 4* 5* 10* 11'^ (see Charles' text) require re-translation into the original Hebrew in order to explain the corruption. 122). 20 also refer to St. ii.' Jude^* 'in the last time'— Ass. ad. durst not bring against him a railing judgment. withdraws into a cave to die. but it is implied in the consummation of Israel's happiness in these verses. but that of a heavenly tlieocratic kingdom ( 10^'. Epp. ' . that the author was a in all respects the Pharisee of a fast-disappearing type.os. are distinctively Pharisaic ideas. and c'pns). quite in the manner of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (q.106 ASSUMPTION OF MOSES ASSUMPTION OF MOSES Cmo et xxmo. i. pp. however. and again in Section xiii. 3". The Sadducees are attacked. recalling Chasid of the early Maccabean times. and. quotes this verse in Adumhrat. The future heavenly abode of the righteous. Origen. 1836).. ii. Judce Enarratio. 5" respecttheir mouth will speak great things ing the persons of the wealthy. To begin with. moon. Mos. he shows his aversion to Maccabajan methods by his silence in regard to the exploits of Judas and his brethren. Vet. vol. The fragments of the true Assumption of Moses preserved in various sources are as follows. pp." Clem. The Essenes believed in the pre-existence of all souls alike. 3^^). its Greek source is occasionally evident. The Latin text. The original 'Assumption of Moses. with the words Let us die rather than transgress. 1884. in which whole verses are at times indecipherable. 1782. 2. and in 7^' ® there is a play on their name and their claim to be just (D'pn:i ducee. Mk '^''. in Acta Synodi Niccen. 6"' Its profanations are often mentioned (2** * 3. which may be derived from the original ending of the ' Testament. Mos. The Essenes did not value the Temple sacrifices. V^ 3^^ lO'^-i*). and the Acta Synodi Niccen.' and with 2^ saying that devourers of the goods cf. 1* 'lovers of banquets at every hour of the day. Pseud. in Epist. where the passages (a) Stephen's words in Egypt and in the Red Sea and in the wilderness forty years' are the same as in Ass. which is buried in the recesses of the mountains (Charles. We must conclude. and the future punishment of Israel's enemies in Gehenna. 1 Augustin. and there are dittographies also in 6* 8^ IP^. 7*^ they do so on the ground of justice (or mercy). he disputed about the body of Moses. 84). speech in Ac 7^^. Ass. Cathol. In 11. quoted above. The pre-existence of Moses in V* is regarded as a unique distinction. rivos (pdpayyos..^9 with Ass. In a Catena quoted in Fabricius (Cod. 258. Origen (de Princip. The answer to the second claim is not given.. Mos.the copyist has misread 'eum'as 'cum. Tiius in 5^ we have six lines of duplicate rendering. So Clem. while explaining the Scripture statement of his death as a precaution against deification of the national hero vi(pov% ai<pvL5iov virip avrou aravros. as it deals witii the dying predictions and ciiarges of Moses as related to Joshua. instead of taking up arms. Test. His hero. xxviii-xlv). ii. Riga. suffice to prove translation from the Greek while corrupt passages clibsis ( . Hie conlirmat Assumptionem p. and Briggs). Clement in. vi. dcpavi^erai Kara. (2^) in the place He prepared from the creation (1'*). such as has not besecond fallen them from the beginning until that time. and adds Moysi.' The Assumption finally takes place in the presence of Joshua and Caleb. and the original Hebrew idiom is frequently preserved. ii.' In Vassiliev's work the words that follow seem to be derived from the true ' Assumption.

Jerusalem is to be the place of worship till the day of repentance in the visitation wherewith the Lord shall visit them in the consummation of the end of the days' (1'^). ii. W. Mt 9^*^). Clemen. In 1 Co 2"^.' is not Israel but Christ as the goal of all creation. the commission to Peter in Jn 21''"^^]. Eph Ro 16-' the purpose precedes the creation of 3^ the world. 1904. Rosenthal.' (e) ' will forthwith ' etc. was before all things (Col 1". compassionate guide. Gal 3^''). was not pleased to manifest this purpose of creaas Spirit.' In Eph P. HJP . 13-38. but in His compassion and long-suttering. 73-83.' where ireiaojULev.' The Kingdom will will . The Assumption of Moses. xxviii. xi.' and where Tindale's it quaint translation is 'pease' [appease].ev is givings.' 'certainly. 407-424. teacher come from God. . Libri Apocryphi V. The Rabbinic (b) Justification and good works. [181)8] . il. .' putting this and 'assuredly that together. Rev 12^. But not only is Moses regarded as shepherd. Christ. . (2) It is used in He IP (RV) to translate confidence. Vier apoc. or imparting certainty to the conviction. His pre-existence and mediatorship He was prepared before the are asserted in 1". 1897 C. Ceriani. [1900] 311-331 iii. H. C. but now is manifested the nations unto obedience of faith. in R. Baldensperger. . in addressing the Stoics and Epicureans of Athens on Mars' Hill. bound by no limitations of time or space. 2 12® ' ' ' . xiii-lxv.— (6) In Ac word (jvp-^i^d^wv. [1861] 55-64 A. ' includes the bringing in of the Gentiles into the scheme of final restoration. not where the wicked and immoral sutler.' This seems to imply the Jewish view that not only was Christ buried. according to his good pleasure.) (4) In 2 Ti 3^^ the passive form of the verb is found as the rendering of eiria-TwdTjs. in Kautzsch's Apok. the object of the persuasion being the Roman governor at Jerusalem. Moses also was the appointed revealer of God's hidden purpose (1"*-^^). ed. spirit who was worthy of the Lord (cf. (1) In Ac 17^^ it is used to render TricrTts. doctrine of man's merit is entirely absent. This repentance in Mai 4* and Lk 1^* " is to be brought about by Elijah. or who is there who will have compassion on them. of which the definite and specific rendering is irXripocpopla (1 6" 10'^-). the proving (fKeyxos) of things not seen. DaVIES. Ro IP®. The body of jNIoses would know no local sepulchre. Hilgenfeld. or fears. ' . There is no Messiah. Leipzig. Cf.' Cf.' or the establishment of the theocratic Kingdom by God Himself in person. thou hast been assured of. (d) Michael is regarded as the chief antagonist of Satan and ot Israel's foes. Jn 1^ 8*^ 17'). and was the Mediator of a new and better covenant (He 8® 9^* 12'-^). 1868. Cf. ST extra Canonem receptum-. 1S76. Col 22.' assured of.' {Archie f. and His body moved from the cross to the gi'ave.' For the 'manifold Spirit. mis(n-eicrop. ' combining. original we receive no help from Gr.' (3) In 1 Jn 3^^ we find the verb employed to translate Hereby shall we know that ireljofxev from Treideiv we are of the truth and shall assure our heart before him. 12'' ' Not for any virtue or strength of mine. who was faithful in all things (He 3*). 111-152). and who will feed this people [cf. mystery which hath been kept in silence through unto all times eternal. Charles. henna (10'"). however. Cf. Biicher. we ' . . in the final restoration (10^) Israel is finally exalted to heaven (lO'*^-) and beholds its foes in Ge- In 10' .ASSUMPTION OF MOSES lost 'Assumption in Jude (generalized. A.' Cf. and . . 'concluding. LI.' referring to Timothy's training in the knowledge of the sacred Avritings which are able to make thee wise unto salvation. Oxford. Col P®. E. (6) Chief critical lnquiries. Erjorsch. pp. . (a) Chtkf BDmoNS of the Lath? text. Charles. . not omitting a single da}'?' cf. [1869] 213-228. O. .D. Moses appears to fill the place which would be taken by Clirist in Christian belief. 'faith. In determining the precise meaning of the Gr. between A. . pp. too. 25-31 .' the recalling da(pdXeiav in Lk 1*. In IP Joshua says: 'Thou art departing. HDB .— 1.' where iriaris VTrbaraffis. 2 Ti P. i. Jn 3^ 'Thou art a. In 10^ he is apS'*"" it — — ' equivalents. where is rendered persuade. 4(i6-4C8. literature in ' ' ' — its Greek — — ' ' ' — : ' ' : ' — ' ' ' ' W ' RV AV ' ' . Pseudepigrapha.. substance. . ' .' assurance is (7) The word.' itself is defined as the assurance of things hoped for. (/) Messianic Kingdom. .. . A. God's chief prophet throughout the earth. only once again employed in the NT in this sense in Alt 28i'*. Merx. . [18S5] 102-104 F. E. . .' cf. — ' ASSURAls^CE 2^'*'") 107 avenge them of ^ pointed chief. Jn P— where 'But he Christ is the final cause of creation). 1892. 67-75 R. or who will pray for them. [1871] 89-92. the Gentiles. but into which Israel's foes. . 107-135 G. 76-108. Deane. come upon a general repentance (1'") 1750 years (10^^) after Moses' death. ii. manifold and incomprehensible. Schiirer. interceding on behalf of God's people. op. translated shall assure. and for Christ ^elbstbewusstsein Jesu.' which in word of logical inference. ' Literature.' Parallels in doctrine and ideas. .' which has the meaning here of 'pledge' or 'guarantee. ii. words expressing certitude. Cambridge. Tit 3'.. 1SS5. des AT. . ZWT.e. C. de J. H. i.' is translated in has given place to the gathering. Volkmar. in 11'® he is described as 'the sacred ' ' ' parallels with the NT The Gehenna is still the place. in regard to Christ. and intercessor. tion from the foundation of the world in order that the Gentiles might thereby be convicted' (by the their own false theories). 'surely. cit. iii. Baldensperger sees in IF a definite attack on Christian views. Fritzsche. . I.' In Moses is 'appointed to pray for their (Israel's) sins and make intercession for them (cf.' 6®* 'Thou hast the words of eternal life. i. 11'^ (Ro S^^ He 7^). und Pseud.^® preaching of Jesus Christ the revelation of the .' the Resurrection of Christ being taken by St. ASSURANCE.' assuredly em(5) In Ac 2^® we find the adverb ployed to translate dcr^aXwy. of judgment to come. Monumenta sacra et profana. 1S67 Schmidt-Merx. xiv. (c) Dai/ of rejyentance. pp. {a) doctrine of Christ are remarkable. pp. The Assumption of Hoses together ivith the Text in its critically emended Form. nor would any dare to move his body from thence as a man from place to place. the unemended Text Charles. which he purposed in him. 1888. Ronsch. Das W. or setting forth grounds of certainty. as Avarrantiiig the faith. with which may be taken Th P. Mt 25^'') to be the mediator of His (God's) covenant' (cf.T. It is the theme of John the Baptist (Mk P) and of Christ (1"). He the kindred verb n-Xyipocpopi'iv passive irXrjpocjiopdcTdaL. In Eph . foundation of the world (cf. [1874] 542-562. xvii. pp. — . Ro 16-'. H. 1 Co 12i'-i3.' signifies the stilling and tranquillizing of the heart that has been agitated by doubts. Burkitt. Les Apocalypses juives. — are told the Eternal God alone . London. 95-130 Faye. the lord of the word. It is to usher in the 'visitation.' assuredly') is em})loyed in the EV to render several Gr. but that His disciples had removed it from the sepulchre (Mt28'^). 448-450 F. 700-730 R. the most perfect teacher in the world. Clemen. 'Assurance' (with the kindred forms assure. The dividing line be- tween the future blessed and accursed is a national and not a moral one. God had 'created the world on behalf of his people (a common Jewish view contrast He P. 1913. punish the Gentiles. and their enemies. F. 75 and The ten tribes share in the promises (3^) and 107. . He 7-^). Wis 3^ 7'--). xii. . be their guide by the way (cf. are cast. 1871. . — — . Paul. Die Assuniptio Mosis . . ii. Mose Prophetie und Uimmelfahrt. The word and Co 3'^ the Lord is that Spirit. was He pleased to call me. in 2 P — Yet Michael the archangel. . as a Divinely appointed mediator. .^° the mystery of God's will. Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. wissen. pp. 1S91.

Peter or of some disciple writing in his spirit at a later time. 82). come to a knowledge of him. who contends so strenuously against Docetic views of the Person of Christ.full assurance of the understanding in 6'^ 'full assurance of hope' He and in 1U-. St. 2. has been found in papyri signifying to settle fully an account. The doctrine in the teaching of the apostles. Otherwise its use is is not found at ' late period. James. and ye have no need that Spirit. and he has tion. These grounds are («) the prophetic words of Scripture finding their fulHlment not in David or any other. and not merely of charitable hope' (A. . and Resurrection as historical facts. Peter's doctrine of assurance. meets us in nearly every one of the Epistles. John's teaching in his Ejjistles lays the chief stress ujjon the etliical tests.' This Clementine passage has the verb also (irX-qpocpopy)devres) and is peculiarly instructive as to the nature of the assurance which possessed the apostles as they went forth to be ambassadors of Christ Accordingly having received instructions and having attained to full assurance {irXT^pocpopridevTes) through the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ and having been put in trust with the word of God. we find the saint and martyr employing the verb in the same sense as St. and the new and living way. ' ' ' ' ' mind (Ro 14^ RV).th into life. The prayer of St. (2) St. for these tilings were truly and certainly done by Jesus Christ our Hope. has the subjective force we have attributed to it in most of the Pauline and Patristic examples of its use. To this 2 Ti 4^ and Lk 1' may be excejitions. The anointing Avhich ye received of him. it is the voice of full assurance we hear when the author says 'We did not follow cunningly devised fables. Of Abraham it is said that he was fully assured' (TrXrjpocpop-qdeis) that what God had promised lie was able also to perform (Ro 4^'). and the heavenly High Priest. ' We . John. j^ ig ^^jjjg assurance which the Apostle holds forth to the sojourners of the Disjjersion in his First Epistle (1 P P"^). St. if we keep hia ' ' . and St. Elsewhere.' altliough it might be 'with full reliance upon the Holy Spirit.' {h) Tr\ripo<popei(7$at. in rendering in Col '2. : ' ' ' ' ' We ' ' We ' . (n the Epp. and shall assure our hearts before him' (3'").S'^. 2'^'^'* 42off. Peter. . ) ' . which might easily be added to. negatively urges it when he dwells upon the evils of the divided mind. and full assurance of V and RV brings out the proper force of the word and really expresses the Apostle's tJiought. when he bids his readers show diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end (He 6"). as an experience of the apostolic writers and their readers. speaking of the OT profjliets. AtSSUKAXCE where the word The word ' ASSUKAi^CE wrought by the Spirit in the individual soul.ivoi) in every thing willed by God (Col 4'-^). ' ' — ' . Peter's teaching is given in Acts and in the Epistles that bear his name. and Resurrection of Ciirist tnistful reliance upon the promises of God in Jesus (Jiirist His Son the exercise of the intelligem-e and the reasoning powers to know without doubt what (Jod requires of His ])eople and tlie consciousness of a personal interest in Christ and His great redemp' Paul and that they ' — . Bruce).as TTvev/xaTos ayiov is with full assurance |)roduced by the Holy Spirit. all till a however. St. He bids his readers l)e on their guard against the seductions of error and be fully assured {TreTrXijpocpopriaOai) of the Birth. And pointing to the blood of sprinkling. Abraham (Ja when he commends the ' A to Him that is able to keep them from falling to ijresent them faultless before the presence of and His We ' ' . Assurance. Jude knows the secret readers of his brief Epistle 2-'^-). Peter s speeches.' In 1 Clem. RVm ' for the perfected faith of St. The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews. set forth the grounds of the assurance of the Resurrection and Ascension of Jesus which possessed the apostles and their believing hearers.' to give satisfaction as to a doubtful matter. Paul bids each man be 'fully assured' in his own used absolute!}' in Th 1-'.' 'to be completely satisfied with regard to something that was owing' (A. (a) irXiqpocpopla is words of commendation l*^*• and. the internal witness blend in St. when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.' tion of St. his friends for the Colossian Christians is uuiy stand pjerfect and 'fully assured' (ire-rrXrjpo(popT)fj. xlii.108 •jeneral. know and have believed the love kiiotn that which God hath in us (1 Jn 4'"). (1) . means that your salvation may be a matter of certainty. This outline we are able t j lill in from the apostles' teaching in passages where the word itself is not employed. any one teach yoii (1 Jn 2-^). -fiaOai) seems to carry with it a subjective force both in the noun and in the verb. ir\-qpo(popelv . whom God hath given to them that obey him (Ac 5''*'^) the historical witness borne to the facts and the internal witness of the Holy Ghost bringing home to men's hearts the meaning of the facts' (Knowling. if be shall be manifested. of Ignatius. But St. I'assion. — . glory with exceeding joy (Jude """I. 'We /i:»o?t' [being the children of (Jod and iccipionts of redeeming love] that. His Son' (M'lgn. 8). 1910. this is weak and inadequate. . 11). therefore. with the illustrations.Apostolic Fathers. we havepasseil outof<l('. but we were eye-witnesses of his majesty Thus conviiuangly does the external and (2 P V^). exclusively NT and 1 Patristic. It occurs once in LXX (Ec 8^^). we shall be like him for we shall see know that we have him even as he is' (3-). . in his Epistle. In regard to doul)tful questions in the Apostolic Church. Paul have teaching on the subject which may be a little more fully drawn out. St. p.i. But St. from tiie . but in Jesus (b) the personal testimony of the apostles to the things which they had seen and heard (c) the manifestation of the risen Lord's presence and power in the miracles wrought in His name (rf) the inner witness of the Spirit we are witnesses of these things and so is the Holy Ghost. we are of the truth. we can gain a clear outline of the character of 'assurance. and has less to say of the inner witness. London. whom the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ had begotten again to a living hope through the I'esurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead who by the power of God are guarded through faith unto a salvation ready to be revealed Whether 2 Peter be the producin the last time. Ignatius declares that they were inspired l)y the grace of Christ Jesus to tlie end that unbelievers might be fully assured (ei's rb TrXrjpo(pop7)97jvaL) that there is one God who manifested Himself through Jesus Clirist. from which hope may it never befall any of you to be turned aside' [Mngii. John's doctrine of assuranc^e embraces great Christian certainties. referring to the Holy Spirit or a function of the abideth in you. on the day of Pentecost and afterwards.' he says.'full assurance of faith. are justihed. though gives 'much fulness' as the translation of woWtj Tr\r]po(popia. cf. -(popelv. preaching the glad tidings that the kingdom of God was about to come. B. he bids them keep approaching with a true heart in full assurance of faith' (lO--).' It embraces a C(mvictiun of the truth of the Christian history. Deissmann. Passion. Paul. The second term of the composite word (-(popia. acl Ivc. they went forth in full reliance upon the Holy Spirit. From an examination of the words employed by the NT writers to express Christian certainty. of the historical reality of the Uirtli. Not tliat the latter is overlooked. because we love Hereby shall we know that the brethren' (IV"*). and the rent veil. as uuiy be gathered from examples in the NT and in the Fathers. Light from the Ancient East. 3 fiera ttXt) po(pop'i.

and I am persuaded that he is able St. Paul cherishes this assurance and has no doubt or misgiving as to his personal salvation. not microscopic and elusive. sed multum ea philosophia' [Ep.' says a Christian writer before the middle ' 2nd cent. Wliat then think ye ? If one does anything unseemly in the incorruptible contest. the citizens were pardoned. SDB.' in CE. tr. nor height. NicoL. because as he is. which is in Christ Jesus our ' ' : We . Xeiv Hist. he attrilmtes it to God who gave him the earnest of the Spirit (2 Co 5'^-). Antioch. hnding ' : ' to guard that which I have committed unto him against that day' (2 Ti 1'-). . says For the whole period of your faith will profit you nothing unless ve be found full^. — Workman. if he be found acting unfairly. Her political and commercial supremacy was gone. and DCG art. in PiJES vi. and recognises himself as begotten of God' (Tests of Life. or 51 (Ramsay). his keeping God's commandments. There is no fear in love l)ut perfect love casteth out fear (4^"^. within the Church of Rome. and became the model of the younger foundations of Alexandria. 427).D. When. For I am persuaded that neither death. 9). ' John applies ' ' suggested that together they formed a separate or church. Paul in Ro 16^*.). doubtless. But. is taken away and scourged and cast forth from the lists. and is respected ' by the Romans' (ib. Paul's assurance rests also upon a broad basis of fact in the I know him whom I Person and work of Christ have believed. Belief.' in taintii. we receive of him. The governor had his residence at Corinth. vii. B. H. ' . F. and his love to the brethren. her Porch in the Agora. although St. he heareth us (5"). And while this assurance gives boldness and confidence in praj'er. lsS6 G. . p. which St. indeed. Provinces of the Roman Emjtire-. 2 of. writing before the close of the 1st cent. H. because we keep his commandments (3^^^-). if our heart condemn us not. Stoics. 'The Romans. The outward aspect of Athens was little altered : We must remember. 297). ). p. if we ask anything according to his will. and from the references to the Christian members of the households of Aristobulus and Narcissus (vv.. but embelli. by the childlike confidence which it works and the perfect liberty which it brings. The name Asyncritus has been found in an inscription of a freedman of Augustus is €KK\riaia. after their conquest. who wrote half a centurj' later. ' ' . They are three.-hed the city with many other public build ' . ' Athens. Her Lyceum by the Ilissus. and HDB. : his doctrine of assurance to Beloved. Allworthy. that of the Republic. 1902. Pauls teaching lays the stress upon the inner witness which we desiderated in St. From the Philhellenic standpoint. says in regard to Pericles' public edifices ' .so gives boldness in the Day of Judgment Herein is love made perfect with us. ' : Law . ' ATHEXS 109 saluted by St. Sustem of Christian CerW. maintained their independence and liberty' (Strabo. and of all the Roman benefactors of Athens the greatest was Hadrian. or. St. that he who strives in the corruptible contest. And this is the boldness which we have towards him. each with its own place of meeting. nor angels. 'Certitude. St. ATHENS — T. von Frank.ASYXCEITUS Hereby we know that we commandments (2^). when an ordinary town behaving as Athens did would have been razed to the ground.^). 'Cerwith the literature there cited. who not only completed the temple of Zeus Olympius. .and Gal 4"'-.'j. nor things present.^**. Love. ]Mommsen. Edinburgh. and seems to make the work instinct with an unfading spirit of youth (Pericles. Paul's time. 1. 48 (Harnack).3»'-). and Tarsus.perfected at the last' {Did. 258).). . of the : ' . he uses the expression we know. all the saints that are with them' (v. 1909. Patrobas). to this time. (3) St. xvi. even to them that are called according to his purpose. Righteousness. would appear from other similar phrases in Ro 16 the church that is in their house (v. And yet in his enumeration of graces under the designation of frtiit of the Spirit' we have sure evidences of the Spirit's indwelling whereby to 'assure our hearts' before Him. especially from Rome. . nor principalities. IX. or 'AcrvvKpiros. And so he can exclaim know that to them that love God all things work together for good. shall be able to separate us from the love of God. of course. 'Assurance. But Athens was still the must beautiful and brilliant of cities. Eng. Even in the INIithridatic war. even so are we in this world. and perhaps in Ac 20'-'" (see art."). Literature. in St. In two great passages. and Epicureans. a wider and more pervasive influence than ever.. 160: the art. Paul CA^^wi). the shrine of art. Plutarch. wholesome fear lest he who had preached to others should yet himself become a castaway (aSoKiixo^.she had. Ep. London. not subjective plain and tangible. Romans^. The fir. To be among her citizens was to breathe the atmosphere of culture. urbe dumtaxat et urbis ornamento. of Methmliitii. like the Macedonians before them. Cicero conveys the impression which the city made upon every cultivated mind in his time: 'Valde me Athenae delectarunt. . assumes the Roman destination of these salutations. B. the home of philosophy. and the Athenians weie always treated witii special kindness.'^^).). it al. nor depth. Seeberg-. Townsend. that. and the merchant-princes had forsaken the Pirteus for Leclieum and Cenchreae. 1 Co 9^). a Greek In beauty each of them at once appeared venerable as soon as it was built but even at the present day the work looks as fresh as ever. By his belief they are a trinity in Christ. It aptly characterizes St. nor any other creature. Lord (Ko ' 8-8. Rom S^"**^. nor things to come. ' them governed by a democracy. 1909. nor life. . Peripatetics. and be cast out of the lists as one who had not contended according to the rules. John. what shall be have to bear?' (2 Clem. The Philhellenism of the Empire surpassed 10). This. and. or trying with guile to o\erreach his antagonist. T. that we may have boldness in the day of judgment. That such little communities existed in Rome. R.' uttering his assurance of personal immortality. Edinburgh. not emotional objective. have boldness toward God and whatsoever we ask. or 50 (Turner).' in ERE. were still frequented by Platonists. Ave prayer. v. nor powers. London. a Christian man is of a gToup of five names (all Greek) of persons and the brethren with them ' — {' Aai'iy Kpiros. Eayrs. this assurance does not cause him to slacken in the fulfilment of service and the pursuit Even he is moved by the of the eternal prize. 20). 1901): R. xiii. which had remained unfinished for 700 years. rather. did their best to extend. the fountain-head of ideals. i.. Athens was the masterpiece of the world (T. John's doctrine of personal assurWith St. Nothing is known of Asyncritus or of any member of this group. Paul sets forth the witness of the Spirit to the sonship of the believer. Neither the Republic nor the Empire ever fully applied the subject-relation to Greece. ASYNCRITUS name). he that saith he abideth in him ought are in him himself also to walk even as he walked (2^''). of Barn. which is the ground of his full assurance. John the grounds of assurance ance when he savs are ethical. visited in the autumn of A. and art.some respects verj' diti'erent from the city of Pericles and Plato. there is evidence of similar house-churches at Ephesus in 1 Co 16'*'. which the Roman conquerors. Her University drew to itself a host of foreign students. however. As the metropolis of Hellenism . her Academy by the groves of Cephissus. fouling a competitor in the race. If the Ephesian destination be preferred. . : ' ' Greece had for two centuries been the Roman province of Achaia. ad Att. iv. for they bloom with an eternal freshness which defies time. tainty (Religious). the city enjoys liberty. It is in the same spirit that the author of the Didache. was now in . ami her Garden near at hand. of which Athens was not the capital. ' : ' ' ' ' (see Sanday-Headlam.

that the Apostle had a new experience reputation more than the reality of culture. the seat of commerce. yiii. . All that he said to the philoposed on with novelty of argument. It up what has been approved by you. J. 52S f in appraising the masterpieces of plastic and dra. Mommsen. The Athenian synagogue (Ac 17^^). is no flourished luxuriantly' (Mommsen. Her first-rate statesmen and orators. ii. Howson. In their case the worship of the gods form of causative connexion with the forgiveness survived only in that cultus of physical beauty to of sins and with the restoration of men to favour which innumerable sculptured forms bore silent and fellowship with God.. fostered by the attitude of the Roman government called into life among them a cultus of the past. its men of culture were given Church which placed the death of Christ in some to idolatry. Faced by an a restless inquisitiveness and shallow scepticism take audience half-courteous and haH-derisive. Silas and Timothy (Ac 17'^'). and most probably hold it up to ridicule. Gesammelte Abhamilungen. Apollon. with the prophetic zeal which seeks to replace a **ATONEMENT. and who. and 'perhaps wit- nessing the performance of a play of Euripides. and therefore the low and degrading ambition near to all men. A. Paul's address before the court or council of and thinkers. ISdS J. It is possible that he felt he had while they were talking. he was the place of high aspiration and moral enthusiasm.made a mistake. A. . leisure in Athens. Eng. Paul The decay of Athens was due less to the exhaus. W. Paul spoke the language of Hellas. 280.. that universal instinct lay in the Umitation of its sphere high ambition lacked a cor. he did not see her in his His reasoning 'in the Agora every day with those dreams.' of the gods of Greece.— Although found only once in false or imperfect religion with a true and perfect the NT (Ho 5") and there in the alone. : ' — — — . well-warranted in itself and preciation of what was highest in their rehgion. as well as to end the long reign State affairs. ance. 1877. Genand acknowledged himself a debtor to the Hellenes tiles more or less influenced by Judaism was pro(Ro 1^'*). God (12"). with a sense of putations in the same place. this one. but certainly with a new emphasis to hear the latest novelty in speculation or religion not to know anything save Jesus Christ and which any (nrepnoXSyos (picker-up of scraps of infor. tions. 4) . S. as if Athene herself had perof imitative for original work. for the university city did not attract exercised any fascination over him.evoi. they saw as they passed by. of which Grote gives destiny. quitting it of his own accord. though Athens was outwardly as splendid Oev to the existence of which Pausanias (i. . which lead to the true God who is responding aim. 43) pictvires them bustling about the apparently as a consequence.was 'embarrassed' by all the wonders that met tion of her creative energy. and The Silver Age of the Greek World. P. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen. Paul met some 'devout persons' ffejSofievoi. .5. voices. letters. . letting of a different kind in Athens. Berlin. i. departed with a crushing sense of failure. loving the however. In a word.' is to misunderstand him. i'.sort of foundation for such a fancy. in order and Hellenes the power of God and the wisdom of that they might exercise their nimble wits upon it. . beckon him Hke Rome . first ridiculed and then ignored. innate times and a quaint reverting of matured ci\'ili3at ion to its in part very primitive beginnings. her at all was apparently the result of an accident. the tragedy being that.Leipzig. 405 f. which was compounded an expression of sympathy with their sincere of a faithful clinging to the memories of greater and happier agnosticism.110 ings. who was for both Jews mation) might have to publish (Ac 17-'). Conybeare and J. . p. the product of the experience and thought of the . though unseen. The bane of Hellenic existence sense of spiritual reahties. 1869. . with the substitution his eyes in Athens. by Charles Scribner's Sons. Thucydides (.iii. The development of a is almost entirely * napo^vvofjLai is often used in the LXX to express a burning doctrine of atonement in the Divine fand prophetic) indignation against idolatry (Hos 8^. op. lost in admiration of works of genius. 2) testify (see sophy. They were consumed Jaaies Strahan.v6iJ. and to be unwilling to follow sophers of Athens was true. Corinth 'in weakness and fear and much tremKara Tr)v ayopdv el Tt AeyeTai veutTtpov). AV NT Zee 10'). Full of aesthetes and dilettantes. than to the simple haps cast her spell upon him and made him somefact that the thought and art of her citizens were what doubtful of the GaUlajan but there is no no longer wedded to noble action and brave endur. began his mission in Agorainquiringif any newer thing is being told (nvv9a. knew the Hellenic world word lias become the elect symbol in tlieologieal too well to imagine that. matic art. 1S9. . It is certain. That the address before the He was hurried away from Beroea before he had Council of the Areopagus was not entirely fruitless time to mature his plans of future action. indeed. in philo. 1906. cit. ** Cop'jriyhl. Apostolic Age. Areopagus (q.Him crucified (1 Co 2-)..v. Paul's time the Corinth the Apostle determined not. E. but it overpowered by the pleasures of the ear. did not outlive the nation's freedom. St. . She did not his compatriots like Corinth. — . 1897. I must see Athens. St. when he would she became blind to the visions. Curtius. It is significant that in Among the philosophers of St. a city Uving upon tradi.). 1916. vi. but from vanity. London. and deaf to the have preferred to be contradicted and persecuted. London. A. Renan suggests that St. Edin. 283). Each of you wishes above all to be able to speak himself. lN91. Maliaffy. Paul. They were both 'provoked'* by what Holm. tr. London. she was inwardly decadent. while such spiritual faith as they still retained found expression rather in altars *Ayvwffr(f) But. paradox. too harmless to be molested.). do. too unimportant The devouring appetite of the Athenians for to be noticed.. poets St. Though St. C.and Philostratus (Vit.38) makes Cleon say to them So you are the best men to be im. an ap'The self-esteem of the Hellenes. ATHENS and gave the name of Hadrianopolis to atone:\ient quarter. Life and Epistles of St. p. but ineffective. and despisers of what is ordinary. bling' (1 Co 2^). Demosthenes {Phil. an appeal to that groping. it was magnificent. any more than Luther in Rome. Athence Chrisliance. and he is proved by the conversion of a man holding so merely waited at Athens for the arrival of his important an official position as Dionysius the friends. while the city was 'full thought to indicate the doctrine in the Apostolic of idols' {KareldwXov). a new witness. W. History of Greece. 211 f. McGiffert. London. and art. he news had long been one of their best-known traits. He did not spend his burgh. i. you are In a modern phrase. . Another power was needed to to be amused by rhetoricians rather than deliberating upon humihate the wise. indeed. for penchant for news took the form of an eagerness the first time. . longer unknown.' That he ever visited a hvely account in his History of Greece (London. 1894-98. p. and. in which St. new ed. Philip was acting. i. 257 f. Paul.of monotheism. being. or pray that he might be prospered to who met him' naturally recalls those Socratic discome to her he never exclaimed. 237 f. yet Athens does not seem to have bably small. To picture Areopagite (q. 18S7. as ever. Greek Life and Thought. which redeem individual and collective life Not driven from the city by hostile feeling. ' him wandering among temples and porticos. Literature. _ .Unknown God). M. i. being slaves of every new did httle or nothing to storm the enemy's citadel.) is a noble attempt to find common ground with the Athenian philosophers. Ramsay. and are like men sitting was not war.

to indicate 'the expiation made by the obedience and suffering death of Christ to mark the relation of God to sin in the processes of human redemption. whatever the confusion and distress in the minds of His disciples which immediately followed the death of Christ. the consciousness of Jesus as He realized His vocation.— Briefly summarized these are: (1) The intense and consistent ethical interpretation that Jesus gave to the Kingdom He came to establish.' retm-n to the A decided modem tendency is to It more original use of the word. and identical with the wiU of God as expressed in Scripture to His disciples . and access into li\ing communion in holy love with His God and Father. the word means at-one-ment it is a sjoionym 'reconcihation' as an accomplished fact.ATOXEIVIENT Apostolic Church. (2) The Baptism and the Temptation of Jesus. and the background against which was set the teaching of Jesus. when Jesus received the first full recognition of Messiahship from His disciples. Paul's by the primitive Church differences with other apostolic teachers on other matters may have been. (3) AU the SjTioptics assure us that. Thou art my beloved Son Apparently in thee I am well pleased' (Lk 3--). To what extent can we find the more elaborate Pauline doctrine. sacrificial. judging from what He afterwards taught His disciples of its inner meaning. which was supremely a temptation to avoid suffering by choosing the easy way. For the forms look to the rehgious conceptions^—legal. or by closer exegetical or historical study of the word itself. It was no mere change of status it was a becoming in ethical and spiritual character sons of God in likeness and obedience it was actual release from the selfishness of the unfilial and unbrotherly life.). or by doing or suffering that which is received in satisfaction for an offence or injurj'' {Imperial Did. (4) Jesus described His death as for others and as voluntarily endured. ' — : .v.. and to the conception of the salvation He taught and promised as the signof its establishment in the individual soul and in the social order. In the career of one such as Jesus the violent and unjust death to which He was moving could not be separated in thought from the Father's will to which He was so exquisitely sensitive. Paul's confident assertion. substance. to minister. when 'the Son of Man was risen from the dead. but it was more. It moved along two Unes these were neither divergent nor exactly parallel. Theo. and which He came perfectly to fulfil. 14 . In theSynoptic Gospels. juridical and ethical. may be spoken of as the sources of the apc^toUc doctrine of the NT — — . the Temptation. The Uterature preserved in the witnesses to the undoubted fact that the Apostolic Church had early established a close connexion between very the death of Jesus the Messiah and the redempWithin seven years tion of men from their sins. agreement seems to be found here. win probably be seen that both uses are required to state the fullness of the apostolic doctrine. and eschatological which constituted their world of theological ideas. Here its sjTionjTQ is 'expiation' as a means to reconciliation. they were already in possession of memories of His teaching which lay comparatively dormant until they were awakened into vigorous acti\'ity by subsequent events and experiences these.—!. which initiated Him into the course of His pubhc ministry. has a suggestive value the Messianic consciousness of Jesus from the beginning was one with the consciousness of the suffering Servant He combined kingship and service in suffering from the first. Hisfor torically its usage signifies 'a satisfaction or reparation made by giving an equivalent for an injury. It was that.. was aware of this combination of Ps 2^ with Is 42^^ the Son of God as King..' His disciples were to interpret. The inference Denney draws. Henceforth His constant subject of instruction was concerning His death. it was incomprehensible. ' ' atoxe:\iext atonement. The Son of 7nust go up to Jerusalem Man must and be killed' (del) suffer 8^^. (Mk . and was definitely referred to the teaching of Jesus for its ultimate authority. Lk 9'-^) . if regard be had to the date of the writings in which it occurs. were events associated in the minds of those who preserved the Sjmoptic tradition with the voice from heaven. It is St. They correspond also to two definitions Originally and etj-mologicaUy of the word itself. The necessity associated with His death was not merely the inevitable sequence of His loyalty to His ideal of righteousness in face of the opposition of His enemies. presented in such fragments of the teaching of the fu-st Christians as we possess? How far is the apostohc interpretation of Chi-ist's death sustained by appeal to the experience and teaching of Jesus HimseK? By what means had the swift transition been made by the apostolic teachers themselves from the state of mind concerning the death of Jesus which is presented in the SjTioptic Gospels to the beliefs exhibited in their preaching in the Acts? How was the unconcealed dismay of a bewildering disappointment changed into a glorying? It is clear from the contents of the SjTioptic Gospels that. The confidence of this common witness so early in the Apostolic Church raises many interesting questions. though obviously open to keen criticism from the eschatological school.* This finds support in the accounts of its into which was cast we must — . which. ethical. He instantly met it by the open confession that His suffering and death were a ' necessity. which we shall find elsewhere in his writings. The necessity was inward. Mt 16^^. it appears to have been distinctly Pauhne in general character it held a primary place in the apostolic preaching it was declared to be the fulfilment of the OT Scripture it was set forth as the essence of the gospel. and the suffering Servant of the Lord. I. some of which must be considered. and to give his hfe a ransom (Xi^rpov) for many' (MklO^^). Whether we approach the meaning of this term (see Raxsom) from Christ's conception of His life-work as a whole. concerning the apostohc doctrine of the atonement. how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures' (1 Co 15^). . . Sources. Definite terms are selected in which the meaning more than the fact of the death is set forth. * Death of Chrht. logically it has been chiefly used in this latter sense. This much seems to be imphed in what is probably the earliest testimony. or probably considerably less of His death 'doctrine of the cross' was freely and authoritatively preached in the Christian community . substitutionary and mj'stical. This is undoubtedly typical of the teaching accepted whatever St. s. They have been contrasted as objective and subjective. 'I delivered unto you first of aU that which also I received. it is clear that the giving of His Hfe was to Jesus much more than the normal experience of dying it was a djang which was to issue in largeness and freedom of life for mankind — it was probably even f. nor is it probable that one was precisely supplementary to the other they are best considered as converging towards an ultimate point of unity in which Godward and manward aspects are merged. together with the facts of their Lord's life and the incidents of His death. 'The Son of Man came . as to it 111 . What was in His Father's will was appointed and could not be the mere drift of circumstances into which He was cast and from which the Divine purpose was absent.

Beginning to search the Scriptures to discover whether death had a place in the prophetic presentation of the Messiah. The work of the Spirit as desolation wrought by the death of Jesus in the Jesus had defined it was: 'He shall take of mine hopes of His followers to the triumphant temper and shall declare it unto you' (Jn IG'"*). Sen. : ' (Ex 24^). The redeeming virtue issues from the Death and Resurrection as from a common source. my God. . 319 f. The coming to abide with them i'. Whether this was strictly sacrificial whom ye slew. (le^^f) added to the points already mentioned the minute. . n. they are suggestive. why hast thou forsaken me ? (iVIk 15^"*) cannot easily be separated in the experience of the sinless Son of God from some mysterious connexion with the sin He clearly came to deal with by His death. more than 'on behalf of. Deiitk of Christ. The doctrine of Great Commission was perfected by the experiatonement arose out of the Cliristian experience ences of it was the issue of a new religious feeling rather Pentecost. the re-creation of the corporate confidence of the community. which 'was begotten again unto a living hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead' (1 P 1^). To complete the material provided for the apos. tolic doctrine in the Synoptics there should be As they appear in Mt. significance they are there bound up with my have. — — — We OT . 1S94. therefore. though the cross ultimately became its chosen symbol. It is at least capable of the suggestion that for a time His consciousness had lost the sense of God's presence. of the new experience: the ultimate root of the apostolic doctrine of atonement was the presence of the Risen Christ in the consciousness of the primitive Christian community for it was the secret of the restoration and enrichment of personal faith. is not definitely stated. shed Here the purpose or ground of the death of Jesus is set forth. too large for discussion here. The saying is in perfect harmony with its setting. ' ' ' ' . and distinctly favour the stand them. Both were closely and instinctively connected with the forgiveness of sins The God of our fathers raised up Jesus. The illumination of the indicates the dei)endence of the apostolic doctrine apostolic mind for its construction of a doctrine of upon another source.' was for the Apostolic which is its result in the Apostolic Church is to C'hurch the ultimate certainty of guidance into be rightly appreciated. — . The historicity of this as conveying ethical more than the legal view of the process the experience and convictions of the Apostolic of redemption they are also accompanied by evi. at least the starting-point of the ethical be preached in his name and especially with and juridical views of the atonement subsequently the opening of the minds of those who were to be developed in the primitive community they lack 'witnesses of these things' that they might underdoctrinal definitcness. . owed the interpretation of the cross. It is only just to say that Matthew alone makes the reference to 'remission of sins. whose unbroken continuity had hitherto been the ' for to give repentance to Israel and remission of sins' (Ac 5^°^). the disciples were surprised into the apprehension of the meaning of the words of Jesus spoken whilst He was yet with them they thus came to see that the Death was only the shadow side of an experience by which He passed to the exaltation and authority of His redeeming work . in the Synoptics.53. whatever words which I spake unto you while I was yet view may be taken of the position largely held. Now — — — . however. Paul's omits this reference he is followed (1 Co 11-^'-^) by Mark and Luke. Robertson Smith* and Driverf may both be quoted in favour of the view that 'sacrificial blood was universally associated with propitiatory power. and the scandal of the cross was transfigured into the glory of the Divine purpose of redemption. and the supreme authority for its provide a statement of the transition from the adequate utterance. and it affords exactly the link dences that the disciples hstcned unintelligently needed to unite what we find in the Sjmoptics or with reluctant acquiescence to the words of with what appears as preaching and teaching in Jesus concerning His death. art. but not free from critiHis life with which the death of Jesus is recorded. 'the promise of the Father' spiritual emotion must be sought. atonement resulting from the Resurrection and the 2. 'My God. with the fulfilling of the Scriptures that they were the issue of the productive activity concerning the necessity that 'the Christ should of the early Church under the stimulating influence suffer and rise again from the dead the third day of redemptive experiences attributed to the death and that repentance and remission of sins should of Christ. 'f Whilst too much should not be built upon a single authority for the precise word of Jesus. 'This is my blood of the covenant [possibly the 'new' covenant] which is for many unto remission of sins' (Mt 26-^). if the doctrine (Ac 1''). which in the primitive ness and wealth of detail quite without parallel Church was always connected with remission of in the presentation of other important features of sins. This experience was followed by ethical and spiritual certainty of His spirit. blood with expiatory value is debated.' 'in the service of. — ' .are influential for discerning the apostolic doctrine. the construction of its docj Dennoy. The apostolic experience. The elements of this experience are release them. the catastrophe was seen to have a place in the moral order of God. tion of its preaching.Church is strong. (5) The other selected term is connected with the critically difficult passages recording the institution of the Supper. it and abounding joy of the primitive faith and was 'instead of (dvTl) men.. with you . As they appear in Lk.i) than a condition of faitii. (28^^^) and in Mk. the other the Resurrection was the great theme of the apostolic preaching because it interpreted the significance of the Death.' The reference is obviously to the solemn ratification by blood-sprinkling of the covenant of Sinai The — . In this way also we shall all the truth. . The sprint^s of this new of the Holy Spirit. (G) The awful isolation of the cry of Jesus on the cross. — objection often made that the term is an indication of Pauline influence on Mark is part of the general problem of Paulinism in the Gospels. the criticism does not touch the value of the citation as an index to the mind of the Apostolic Church. they have their chief upon the event as a fulfilment of the Scriptures. This last feature the primitive society.associated with baptism. 132. To the fullness of His ministry the Apostolic Church * Ril. Him did God exalt with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour.-'. London.' The earliest account of the Supper St. and for always these two death and resurrection stood together. It was also the revealing light that brought meaning into the mystery of His death. Questions also turn on the sacrificial significance of 'blood of the covenant. •propitiation. the Spirit of Christ. they implied . hanging him upon a tree. and also the extent to which the writers insist from an excellent source. The terms of this (2) The Great Commission. (24*^*^ ). When the apostles stated the one.' iv. From what He is to pi-eaching.112 ATONEMENT ATONEIMENT This is the starting-point (1) The Resurrection. the insjjirat IIDU. cal diflHiculties.

by setting forth the IVIessiah's death as a satisfaction for sin or as a substitute for sin's penalty. the 'word of the cross' is more than an apologetic device for getting over the difficulAlthough ties of accepting a crucified Messiah. It is usual to associate with the indications of the doctrine in the early chapters of Acts the constructive tendencies found in 1 Peter. From first to last the apostolic doctrine of the atonement is the effort to interpret this experience in the relations in which it was conceived to stand to the Christian conceptions of God and man. It is certain. — : ' . In this account the sufferings and death of Jesus the Messiah have a fundamental place. Taken as it stands. — Tlie In the Acts factors of the primitive faith. The patience and innocence of the Sufferer for righteou. which we shall now consider at length but that would not depreciate its value as a witness to the faith of the Apostohc Church in its wider range. and its aim is too purely practical to warrant appeal to it on the apostohc doctrine Indeed. 'who his own self bare our sins in his body upon the tree' (2^'*).sness' sake control its theological presentation. Quite a procession of theological ideas thus emerges. appointed by God's counsel and foreknowledge. When it is remembered that nothing in the Apostohc Church is more primitive than the sacraments. 'our sins' are assumed by the sinless Lamb of God. which the writer of 1 Petei discusses in this apparently incidental way. is not without its value it is possible also that their similarities may be accounted for by their common loyalty to the accepted Christian tradition. If so. that the early Apostohc Church attached a saving significance to the death of Christ. Paul goes into the greatest detail and has most dehberately and continually reflected upon this subject. The exhortation to suffer with Christ by expressing His spirit in the hfe of discipleship obviously emphasizes the ethical appeal of His example. 'once for all'). the righteous for {vTr4p) the unrighteous. — (2) The covenant idea with its sacrificial impHcation in 'sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ' is present (1^). Only so can an adequate soteriology be reached.' The doctrine developed. but its power in spiritual renewal. In St. : — — redeeming purpose (Ac 2-^ 3^**). but its saving value is not more closely defined. Jesus is understood through the works of His Spirit the significance of His death can be apprehended only in the light of the experience it creates. this reference is significant. — 1. In 1 Peter. (2) Jesus as the Messiah is identified with the suffering Servant of the Lord (4" 8^*'^^). The cross is now more than a scandal. (3) The great the gospel remission of sins is set in direct relation to the crucified Jesus (2^ 3'^ 5^'^ 10^^). free from difficulty when used for this purpose. as elsewhere in apostolic writings. I. HI. but this is based upon a due appreciation of His sufferings on our behalf. This conception. Peter are represented as in harmony on the significance of the redemptive work of Christ. that He might bring us to God. 113 and II. as of a lamb without blemish and without spot. — — NT . Summarized. It will he obvious to any reader of the literature of the Apostolic Church that its floctrine of atonement was the subject of considerable development in form. (3) Ransomed 'with precious blood. 1 Peter is far from being of atonement. abhorrent to the Jewish mind and a sufficient ground for rejecting the Messianic claims of Jesus. however. possibly reminiscent of the words at the Supper. the central place. and also the justification of the moral gi-ounds on which the declaration and experience of remission The meaning of the words of of sins were based.' and its ethical appeal. therefore.ATONEMENT especially the moral and spiritual results in the life of the individual and of the community which were the hving verification of it9 power. even the blood of Christ (1"). It gift of — — — — — — is set forth as a motive to repentance and a means men away from sin. Both their christology and it is sureh' not the soteriolog}' are primitive in type doctrine of the 2nd century. The Pauline type. Indeed. (4) Reference to the frequent observance of the Lord's Supper {2*-). It may be assumed. 1. Paul we find for the first time a philosophy of the death of Christ in relation to the forgiveness of sins. The Epistle of James i^ too uncertain in its date and authority. but the means are clearly substitutionary. when they are manifestly at variance in other important of turning — VOL. Of course these ideas. The prominence given to this in every sermon suggests that this connexion cannot be considered accidental. that ye should follow his steps. which is ultimately based upon an analysis of the Divme attributes and their place in the interpretation of the doctrine of the cross. to the extent that the obligations to righteousness involved in. (5) Christ's death is not distinctly represented as the ground of forgiveness. this is (1) The death of Christ was a Divine necessity. then the evidence of 1 Peter will fall into the later PauHne period of apostohc to God is regarded as a high privilege obtained by a great self-surrender and not as a native right to be taken for granted. 'that we ha\'ing died unto sins. and that both of them bear implications of Christ's relation to the remission of sins. The signs of Pauline influence are too strong for its use as a source of primitive Christian ideas without some hesitation. that - — — ' Mk — — . and its profound moral issues. 2. it contains much which enables us to perceive how the primitive community was taught to regard it. the great feature of the apostohc preaching is not the explanation of the death of Christ in relation to the remission of sins. (5) The writer once again glides w4th simple ease and familiarity from the force of the example of Christ to the abiding fact of His sin-bearing (3^^) Because Christ also suffered for sins once (<iTaf. atont:ment . leaving you an example. trine. might Uve unto righteousness .) Acce. and this may suggest his influence. are closely akin to those of the righteousness by faith and ethical obedience 'in Christ' which St. by whose stripes ye were healed' shows how intimately what are termed the objective and subjective conceptions of the atonement are associated in the writer's thought the end is moral and dominates the means. The doctrise'preached. Paul discusses so fully and of set purpose in Ro 3 and 6 respectively. It was a crime whose issue God thwarted for His of the Apostles. combines the idea of the sacrificial lamb with possibly an echo of the 10^1 'ransom' of (4) The close connexion of Christ who 'suffered for you. Paul and St. Of all writers. early chapters of the Acts contain the one particular account of the earliest form the doctrine of atonement took in the ApostoUc Church . Still. with the clear interpretation of the Passion as a sin-bearing. . At the same time the emphasis he lays upon this is regarded by him as in accordance with the beUef and teaching of the primitive communitj^ it is the centre of his gospel and theirs. In tracing this the PauUne writings must be our main source. St. for it is generally admitted that some source of considerable value underhes the speeches of Peter. St. is the assertion of the vicarious principle of the righteous one suffering for the unrighteous many and also the sign of a Divine fellowship. its strongest appeal is made in regard to the moral quahty of the sufferings. Peter's contribution maj' be epitomized thus (1) Whilst the suffering death of Chi-ist holds. the abundance of the material he provides is embarrassing to any one seeking a unified doctrine. the fact that St.

Such a martjTdom neither Jew nor Greek would have regarded with the scorn they exhibited for the interpretation St. Paul's view of atonement would naturally be sought in his preaching during the fifteen or more years before he wrote the letters in which he sets forth more deliberately and with obvious carefulness his matured doctrinal judgments. Mod. for it is UTitten. indication of St. as in the Apostle's thought He had identified Himself with mankind in being 'born of a woman. That He endured the consequences of such a position and in this sense was 'made a cm-se on our behalf' is the Apostle's apphcation of This endurance is regarded as the recognition it. the sufferings of Christ — NT . to do them (3^°).* Although it seems clear that this late Jewish doctrine was a source of St. 1901. . bom under the law' (4^). guilt cannot be transferred as guilt. but it came to me through revelation of Jesus Christ (Gal 1^-). . In his earhest writings the Thessalonian Epistles we practically get no further towards his doctrine than in his preaching. as it was associated with the prophetic rather than with the priestlj' or legal conceptions. . 'Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law. Romans. . By thus making HimseK absolutely one with those under ban. Cursed is every one that hangeth upon a tree' (Gal 3^^). — . But the fact that he made the cross supreme when it was regarded as a direct antagonism and provocative by those he sought to win a scandal to Jews and fooUshness to the Gentiles imphes that it was associated with an interpretation that made it we We in throughout most important underh'ing principles ' Atonement and RighteousAtonement and Personalit j' Atonement and Newness of Life Atonement and the Universe. Paul does not deny the authority of this law he asserts it. for He is always set forth as guiltless moreover. The discourse at Antioch in Pisidia may illustrate the character of his reference to it 'through this man is preached unto you forgiveness of sins' (Ac 13^^) but nothing is defined more closely. 120 fif. it underwent partial transformation at his hands it was ethicized . — — — something different from a mart\Tdom. It was thus that the way was opened for man to identify himself by personal faith and hving experience with Christ's death. London. nor was I taught it. Paul's adds the ethical idea of atonement to the juridical. He may justly forgive the operation of grace is connected with the assertion of justice. 122. Chriatian Doctrine of Salvation. Paul construes his doctrine' in the Galatian Epistle. Paul's method of setting out his interpretation of the death of Christ in his discourses how he was accustomed to place it in relation to forgiveness of sin in his earliest preaching does not definitely appear.114 ATONEMENT ATONEMENT doctrine in the well-authenticated group of his writings to the Galatians. This is the form in which St. Paul himself gives us the only valuable account of his preaching. G. Smith. (a) Atonement and Law. common. which he purchased with his own blood' (20^^). serve the end of punishment they were representatively penal Christ took the place of the guilty as far as it involved penal consequences for special emphasis is laid upon the instrument of death the cross and upon its curse. No explanation is given. — — ' ' — .' If punishment imphes guilt.Paul's (2) The Pauline Epistles. Paul the love of God is the first and last motive of redemption. Paul gave them in order to meet their challenge for explanation. Crit. The author of the Acts gives httle hght on St. His sufferings did. that I were not . Still.' Of course this is in itself a vast doctrinal imphcation. essentially Pauline to regard the ethical as depending m . except perhaps that the idea emerges that in some way Christ identifies Himself with our evil that He may identify us with Himself in His own good meet the organized body of his (1 Th 5''-)' — — strictly penal. . but the fact that it was added to the promise for 'the sake of transgression resulted in its making men sinful. ' : ' might Christ five unto God. Neither did I receive it from man. In briefly re\'iewing these. which other passages reiterate (5'^ 6^''). f The earliest (1) St. It is. it was probably the vicarious idea. To the Ephesian elders at Miletus he speaks about 'the Church of God. it should be remembered . . for the structure of the Pauline doctrine we are shut up to his teaching in his Epistles. not in all things that are written in the book of the law. may differentiate this teaching. not the of the just requirement of the law of God ceremonial law alone. I have been crucified with — — I. On the whole. moreover. —Atonement and Law ness . . . But ultimately St. having become a curse for (vv^p) us. it seems clear that St. Paul had put to the test in vain in his seeking after personal righteousness.' * Cf. but it has are as Likely to learn from him as from anyother source what was the inner meaning of the primitive Christian behef. He removed the obstacle to forgiveness in the righteous attitude of God towards sin which could not be overcome until sin had been virtually punished. St. 59. that according to St. but also the moral demands arising out of God's holy and righteous nature. It falls conveniently into five divisions . and Corinthians. St. and especially those which empiricalty St. Paul was justified in saying: 'For I through the law died unto the law. Its dominant topic was the crucifixion 'the preaching of the cross' (1 Co 1^^) . With this curse in its consequences Christ identifies Himself. He declared that what he preached concerning the dying of Christ for our sins according to the Scriptures he 'received' (1 Co Whilst it is possible that this statement finds 15^). ' Cursed is every one which conit brought a curse tinueth. God must vindicate His law so that . and Preaching ofOT. however. though there seems nothing to justify the attributing to Christ of the position suggested by the allusion to Dt 21"^ of one accursed of God which has at times been pressed by expositors. so that St. which deals more exclusively than any document with the significance of the other death of Christ. absorbing into Himself all that it meant. A. but Christ me' hveth This conception of St. yet I hve and yet no longer (2"f-) We for its possibility and efficacy in experience upon the juridical. . Paul's early preaching. . t Cf. and that none of the atoning processes is separable from the fuU activities of the Divine Personality. preaching carries us no further towards a knowledge of any reasoned doctrine of atonement than the position reached in the preacliing of his fellowapostles that 'Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures. otherwise 'Christ died for nought. Stevens. Paul's theory. The conception here is distinctly juridical whether it is also penal will depend upon the definition of 'penal. Paul's doctrine rested upon the common apostolic data given in (1) the words of Jesus respecting the necessity of His death on man's behalf (2) the very early Christian idea that it was included in the Divine purpose (3) the conception of the vicarious sufferings of the righteous and their merit founded on Is 53 which had been elaborated in later Jewish thought. 'I determined not to know anything among you save Jesus Christ and him crucified' (2-). . . a fuller definition in his further assertion. St. in St Paul's judgment. that he appropriated it was not the hteral legal substitution and transfer. p. with a supplementary view in the Imprisonment Epistles to the Ephesians and Colossians. but the vicariousness of a real experience in which the righteous bear upon their hearts the woes and sins of the sinful.

Meanwhile it must be pointed out that the strong divergencies revealed in the interpretation of the apostolic doctrine have frequently resulted from regarding one or other of these phases of the Pauline doctrine as in itself adequate to explain the whole. : . 146. he regards it as primary in the order of thought as well as in the redemptive process. . p. and the justifier of him that hath faith in Jesus' (3-'"^). . . of the ideal and actual identification of Christ with man in his sin. viz. if. in some respects it had been actual also in the past. with exhaustively in the Epistle to the Romans the great question the Epistle discusses is How shall a sinful man be righteous with God? and the answer is By receiving 'a righteousness of God' which is 'revealed from faith to faith. . — — — end does not yet receive St. In St. righteousness is a 'gift' from God to him who believes in Christ. but it is not His personal righteousness which is imparted to the believer. that always in St.' In the interpretation of this answer we reach the heart of the apostoUc is . Paul conceived the method of deliverance from the wrath of God which was inevitable in the presence of unrighteousness it is an objective work and is in response to faith. I say. 'whom God had set forth to show his righteousness in passing over sins done aforetime. and is constrained to show how the wrath was withheld. Wprnle. the Divine provision of the satisfaction which the Divine righteousness requires to be exhibited in order that forgiveness of sins may be bestowed and a restoration of fellowship between God and man achieved. . . Righteousness is the starting-point of hia discussion it is seen in 'the wrath of God revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men' (Ro 1^*). whereby was provided and set forth the means by which the 'subjective' work of Christ in personal union with the believing soul might be possible indeed. to show his righteousness. Paul's attention his mind is preoccupied with the means. Any view which failed to appreciate this problem would miss the characteristic solution that St. To this he devotes his utmost strength. as well as to all teaching.'* Consequently the whole Christian life is resolved into a response to God's love exhibited in the death of His Son. Tubingen. not another. they were for him really two for he thinks of the unity of the process with the end as exhibiting the perfectness of the Divine purpose of grace. — — . . He is not even at present intent on demonstrating the necessity of this ethical transformation he is in subjection to the arresting fact that all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men was exposed to the Divine wrath. Paul's conception of atonement. Paul. Paul is confining his thought entirely to the 'objective' work of Christ in the atonement. the atonement. but he felt that sin made a difference to God it was sin against His righteousness and His righteousness had to be vindicated against it it could not ignore it. Anfonge unserer Religion. God's righteousness was the affluent. 146 . For more than the briefest hints here given of the points of exegesis involved. * Bruce. In the last analysis God is presented as removing His own obstacles to forgiveness the death in which His righteous law is exhibited is the provision of His antecedent love the commending of His love is the prior purpose resulting in Christ being 'made a curse on our behalf. Paul the righteousness of God means the mode of procedure which is consistent with God's having the salva- NT . and at the same time inspires the faith which conducts into ethical conformity to Christ in man's experience. indeed. St. by his blood. The PauHne doctrine does neither. taking hold of human fives and .' Ritschl's view. Steveiis. To St. and when at length he found it he gave to it a name expressive of its infinite worth to his heart: the righteousness of God. however full of personal renewal in righteousness its ethical implications may eventually become for the destruction of sin and the gift of hfe are regarded as depending upon a free bestowal on sinners of a righteousness The interpretation of this crucial passage of God. and upon it the great bulk of later historical discussions has turned. because of the passing over of the sins done . All have sinned not one is righteous the necessity for a righteousness apart from the law is obvious. without any reference to the problem sin has created. The nearest approach to the Pauline sense in the teaching of Jesus is the grace of God in the free pardon of sin. aforetime. StiU he is nobly loyal to both conceptions. overflowing source of aU the goodness in the world. is the Divine atonement. pose.' The idea expressed in the former term occupies the central place in St. Paul unceasingly presents in the 'propitiation' in the blood of Christ. . yet it is not his personal righteousness of character. he receives it. in the forbearance of God for the showing. Paul. This point will be discussed later. Paul distinctly states the two sides of the meaning of atonement referred to in the beginning of this . He is dealt with as righteous. This is dealt (6) Atonement and Righteousness. This was not primarily to be sought in the measure in which men might be arrested by the fact and cease to sin they must and would do that in proportion as they received the atonement. of his righteousness at this present season that he might himself be just. 1901. Righteousness was his passion its quest the summum bonum of his life. . The provision of this. it does away with the hindrance to forgiveness in God's law. But his intere. of course. Christian Doctrine of Salvation. essential to his doctrine. which is His essential attribute. It also belongs to God. . and its context depends upon the meaning assigned to the terms 'righteousness of God' and 'propitiation. provides the satisfaction. 'he had sought it long in vain. Paul's conception of it does not occur in the Gospels. and of man with Christ in newness of fife and also in the identification of both with God in His unchanging righteousness and in His eternal love for St. filling them with its Divine energies. St. reference should be made to commentaries on the Epistle. . in its completion a great moral and spiritual change in the nature and character of those who have received the atonement that . Thus St. This imphes. .'* To this title 'a righteousness of God' he firmly adheres it is distinctive to him it is something belonging to the Christian man. God can never be at peace with sin. ' ' . * Cf. Ethical theories have sought to ignore the juridical means juridical theories have often stopped short of the ethical end. through faith. 'Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus whom God set forth to be a propitiation. ATONEMENT . for sins had already been remitted by God. is not Paufine. But for the time being St. 'even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ unto aU them that beheve' (3--). St. Paul's Conception of Christianity. P. Paul with ceaseless loyalty carries all the processes of redemption in time up to the initiative and executive of the Divine purarticle. To regard the righteousness of God as essentially self-imparting. 115 . Both are met in the conception. 67. . .ATONEIMENT Paul's conception really transcends these contrasts for it is God Himself who in His love provides the way to be both just and gracious He. where the term stands for the righteousness of which God is the centre. . Law brings no righteousness 'by the law is the knowledge of sin' (3^°). : primarily absorbed by the efficient cause of at-one-ment as the ideal end.

righteousness of God in him' (2 Co 5^^*^). which now sin on our behalf.' unto himself. (c) Atonement and Personality. art. Paul would show God righteous in His Pauline doctrine receives its most satisfying and forbearance in 'the passing over of sins done probably its most permanent interpretation in the aforetime. * overlooks the emphatic contention of the Apostle. t L>e<Uh of Chrifl. — . Paul thinks. much more being reconciled. He is the Justifier. Paul finds his apology for. Christ's death. While we were yet sinners. f pitiation in the blood of Christ. Love is essentially self-imby His blood. passage reaches its climax. ii. . as though God were entreating by beheving sinner. He would. God 'made him who knew no sin to be sequences has been due to forbearance. centre of his thought that is a gracious fact and Love. When the Pauline view of 'pro. this latter is the class referred to in the Psahns and Second Isaiah. 1 . . by evoking in sinful souls propitiation to exhibit their unity and consistency the response of a personal surrender to the ne-^vmess with each other. Sin has never been a trivial matter any This is based in the Pauline thought upon the Divine omission to mark it by inflicting its full penal con.of life to which it constrains. Moreit has in one place say in v. Paul's writings on the sin for a God who would justify sirmers. therefore.-.' 'not reckoning unto men their tres05.116 atoxe:mext ATONEMENT ness.' that there might be identification in the propitiation justifies itself to His righteous. the wTath fails. that it is the ungodly to whom God is gracious rather than the faithful within the covenant privilege. in providing a righteousness of God reconcihation. a strains us to identify ourselves in Christ with God. God cannot be charged with moral partation. explanation of. Propitiation). without a much closer definition he Himself His love provided the propitiation there clearly relates it to the vicarious principle lying for was no constraint upon Christ. as well as to justify the readiness and desire of God to remit the sins of any man who 'at this present season' 'hath faith . Does the doing of this impugn His identification with others is the ultimate of fellowIdentification is the principle on which an righteousness? St. . 'that we might become the righteousness of * Rerhtfertioung und Versohnung. God had invested with privilege those whose sin deserved the manifestation of His wrath.' is accepted doctrine of atonement. Ritschl's conception is an attractive presentation of the meaning of the term in other relations. and conalways been slow to anger and of great kindness.ment of redemption in its ethical value proceeds monized as complements in the true meaning of from the death of Christ as the supreme demonstra'propitiation.' This e. St. . . that the righteousness of God means simply His moral activity in harmony with His true character. God. sense which belongs to it as a summary of St. and ship. To show the Justiin respect of sins done aforetime or 'at this present season. Saviour. suppressed His righteousness. That both us we beseech you on behalf of Christ. and the perfecting of these in a background the forbearance of God becomes the fellowship of holy love. to whom God exhibited His righteousness in presence of the wrongs done them by their enemies. that we might become the Paul seeks to bring out. Ckrist died for us much Paul's gospel and in another say in v. Reconciliation is an exchange. The St. St. leaves unanswered in any distinctive Pauline fashion the question what means God takes to secure fellowship . Paul does not leave the presentation of Chi-ist as a means by which this fellowship may be instituted. or at least for one of His essential at. . t Th. . . be ye these meanings are present in atonement and are reconciled to God. If. Why has God never dealt expression of the Divine Personality. lU 1 ff. and having committed unto us the word of same time.' they cannot be discussed apart we see them har.of righteousness as well as of love in the reconciliation. ' — . 117. the universal graciousness of God in interpretation of reconciliation most easily proceeds the propitiation wliich He has set forth in Christ (see Reconciliation). Paul's distinctive meaning.' But. For if while to it elsewhere in Scripture as a sjoionym for God's we were enemies we were reconciled to God through character. 'at-one-ment' is its issue. We are ambassadors therefore on through faith. CJod in him. who discusses these views at length. constrained with sinful men according to their sins? He has God to identify Himself in Christ with us.the death of his Son.the half-technical over. Him who knew no sin he made there harmonized with one another. the and receiving of love. which stands to the good of the behalf of Christ. as he defines the effects of the restoration of acceptable personal relations between propitiation.' to be Himself just. have tion of believers as His end. is what St. . he leaves the wrath of God in the God and man. . to be sin on our behalf.xaltation of the forbearance of God as the ultimate explanation of the propitiation is intended to make known the ultimate fact that thewTath of God against sin lies within the supreme constraint of the love of God His own love ' which He commendeth toward us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us (5®^) Christ was set forth by God — ' . — — ' — . But these two views are not unrelated shall we be saved by his life' (5^^). fier.-® the more then being now justified in his blood shall we larger and more general sense which might belong be saved through him from the WTath. was something more than a great ethical appeal of the love of God in suffering for sin to the heart and conscience of men it had been rendered necessary by the remission of sins in ages before the Advent.initiative. not reckoning unto them their tresGod is the Just in His o-mi character and at the passes.' whether it be for us there was no conflict between the Divine taken as a strictly sacrificial term or not (see. and their reconciliation set forth in the proDenney. 'AU things are of God.' as 'relative to some problem created by the classical passage in St. the perfect must be accounted for. . and stand distinctly side by side. so to speak. The suggestive view of the term expounded by Seeberg in Der Tod Christi. where the love has prevailed. gracious God and merciful sins done aforetime were Personality finds its perfection in fellowship selfpassed over. the two senses of the and gave unto us the ministry of reconcihation to righteousness of God in it 'have sifted themselves wit. wnth sinful men so that He may act towards the ungodly in a way which does justice to Himself.' Christ is set forth by God as a tion of the Divine love. the giving indifference because He has always been God. in Jesus. . Paul whether ' ' holds the setting forth of His righteousness by the propitiation in the blood of Christ to be necessary. that God was in Christ reconciling the world out. in a substitutionary sense and the argument of the who reconciled us to himself through Jesus Christ. in ^Tath and the Divine love they were reconciled in addition. but it is irrelevant to St. This may introduce pitiation. He gave Himself up him in his elect word 'propitiation. St. The achievetributes. the norm of which is that He should institute and maintain fellowship with men that if He did not do so He would not be righteous and would fail to act in His proper character. apart from this. . The wrath is the maintains that the righteousness of God has not expression and minister of the love mere self-conthe same meaning throughout this passage (3^'*^) sideration is unknown in the Divine activity. .

Is the former an addition. t Dogmntik.cussed. Paul's fuU doctrine requires both their death is die in effect with Christ to sin on His cross. in which the juridical reconciliation to what God in Chi'ist has done out.' There is something in sin in regard to its consequences. Christian Doctrine of Salvation. . Through their the order of thought He must first die their death. 2i«f-. rather than solely a death union of life with Him is unfolded. The great which would otherwise have been died by all in it Pauhne conception 'in Christ' is required to comtheir trespasses are not imputed unto them. ever. Weizsacker. . in whom the race is gathered into an ethical — . The ques