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Fundamentals of !ndustrial
Control WEEK 3
-This week : Pressure Neasurement
-Pressure Sensor Technology
How was it last Week?
-Recap of last Week:
-Remember the terms?
-Types of Level sensors
-Did we miss any?
-Homework done?!
-Primary Role: Collecting and Sending Data
-about a measured variable
-Displaying fRecording
-Comparing data to what is to what it should be
-Allows us to make decisions
What are Sensors?
- A device that tranforms one form of
energy to another
- can be mechanicalfelectricalfhydraulic or
combination of both
- output : make it more meaningful to user
- RANGE:NinfNax design in normal
- Zero:Where the measurment starts
- Zero Drift:When the signal varies from its
initial setting.
- Short Term Drift:Error expected
- Long Term Drift: Aging of components in
which we have no control over
- Sensitivity:The amount of sensor output
change with respect the amount of input
signal applied.
- Resolution: The smallest amount of
change in input that can be seen by a
- Response: The time it takes to sense a
change in input before it changes the
- Linearity:A sensor s function to have an
output in a linear relationship to its
- BSL: Best Straight Line method
- Examples on non linear sensors
- Hysteresis:Sensors Reaction to the rise
and fall of its initial input vs. its output
reaction to input change.
Confusion 101:
- Accuracy=closeness of the true value of
the variable being measured.
- Precision=reproducibility of doing it over
and over again.
Pressure Neasurement
- Pressure can be created either
compression( pumping)
- Or Expansion in a closed vessel
- Or by Gravitational exertion in a vessel
Force Exerted By Liquids
- !n a vessel , force exerted on the walls of
the vessel have three contributing
- Height of the liquid
- Specific gravity of the Liquid
- Temperature of the liquid
Same idea but on a closed
- Pressure will increase in a vessel if the
temperature increases which causes
Gas Laws:
- Boyles Law: P1v1=P2v2 works as long
as temperature is kept constant
- Charles Law:v1fT1=v2fT2 works as long
as pressure is kept constant
- !dela Gas law: P1v1fT1=P2v2fT2
works on the day to day applications!
Pressure Neasurement
- Law Class 101 is now finished for the
Pressure Neasurment Basics
- Nanometers: U tube and !nclined designs
- Great for low pressures
- Still used for low pressure <10 psi
U -Tubes
No. 246 solid plastic inclined style
stationary gage with 0-6" w.c. range.
-27.8" of H2O=1 PS!
U- tubes using Nercury
Well type manometers are easiest to
+ 1/2 oI the smallest graduation
Full scale verniers available Ior best
Measure diIIerential, vacuum or
gauge pressure
SWP ÷ 250 PSI or optional 500 PSI
-Used for vacuum reference principally
-30.65 inches of mercury = 1 Atmosphere
-=1+.7 psi
G and A PS!G vs PS!A
-Pounds per square inch Gauge
-= reference to atmosphere on earth
-Pounds per square inch Absolute
-= Reference to ¨Space vacuum"
-PS!G= PS!A+ 1+.7
!s !t Break Time Yet ?
Types Of Primary Sensors
- Elastic Deformation(means they move
with very little pressure)
- Diaphragm type
- Netallic and Non Netalic
- Primary use is Low Pressure
- 10 Psig and under
- Typical is inches W.C. and 0-5 psig
Dicphrcgm e|emenI: cre circu|cr-:hcpec, ccnvc|uIec memLrcne:. Ihey cre
eiIher c|cmpec crcunc Ihe rim LeIween Iwc f|cnge: cr we|cec cnc :uLjecI
Ic Ihe pre::ure cf Ihe mecic ccIing cn cne :ice. Ihe cef|ecIicn ccu:ec in Ihi:
wcy i: u:ec c: c mec:uremenI fcr Ihe pre::ure cnc i: inciccIec Ly c pcinIer.
Ccmpcrec wiIh Lcurccn IuLe:, Ihe:e cicphrcgm e|emenI: hcve c re|cIive|y
high ccIivcIing fcrce cnc Leccu:e cf Ihe circu|cr c|cmping cf Ihe e|emenI
Ihey cre in:en:iIive Ic viLrcIicn. Ihe cicphrcgm e|emenI ccn Le :uLjecIec Ic
higher cver|ccc Ihrcugh |ccc Icke-up pcinI: {Ly Lringing Ihe cicphrcgm
e|emenI cgcin:I Ihe upper f|cnge).
Mcrecver, Ihe pre::ure gcuge ccn c|:c Le prcIecIec cgcin:I exIreme|y
ccrrc:ive mecic Ly cccIing wiIh :pecic| mcIeric| cr ccvering wiIh fci|.
Wice ccnnecIicn pcrI:, cpen ccnnecIicn f|cnge: cnc purging p|ug: ccn Le
inIegrcIec fcr mec:uring high|y vi:ccu:, impure cr cry:Ic||izing mecic. Fre::ure
rcnge: cre LeIween 0...1ó mLcr cnc 0...40 Lcr in cccurccy c|c:: 0.ó Ic 2.5.
-Diaprhragm Gauges P+2
Bourdon Types
- P+3 deflection of solid Tube
8curccn IuLe: cre circu|cr-:hcpec IuLe: wiIh cn cvc| crc::-:ecIicn. Ihe pre::ure cf Ihe mecic ccI:
cn Ihe in:ice cf Ihi: IuLe which re:u|I: in Ihe cvc| crc:: :ecIicn Leccming c|mc:I rcunc. 8eccu:e cf
Ihe curvcIure cf Ihe IuLe ring, Ihe Lcurccn IuLe Lenc: when Ien:icn cccur:. Ihe enc cf Ihe IuLe,
which i: ncI fixec, mcve:, Ihu: Leing c mec:uremenI fcr Ihe pre::ure. Ihi: mcvemenI i: inciccIec
Ly c pcinIer. 8curccn IuLe: LenI cI cn cng|e cf cpprcx. 250º cre u:ec fcr pre::ure: up Ic cpprcx.
ó0 Lcr.
Fcr higher pre::ure, Lcurccn IuLe: cre u:ec which hcve c numLer cf :uperimpc:ec cci|: cf Ihe
:cme cicmeIer {i.e. he|icc| cci|:) cr he|icc|-:hcpec cci|: {i.e. he|icc| :pring:) cI cne |eve|. 8curccn
IuLe: ccn cn|y Le prcIecIec cgcin:I cver|ccc Ic c |imiIec exIenI. Fcr pcrIicu|cr|y cifficu|I
mec:uring cpercIicn:, Ihe Wikc pre::ure gcuge ccn Le prcvicec wiIh c chemicc| :ec| c: c
:epcrcIicn cr prcIecIicn :y:Iem.
Ihe pre::ure rcnge: cre LeIween 0...0.ó cnc 0...4000 Lcr wiIh c reccing cccurccy {cr cccurccy
c|c::) frcm0.1 Ic 4.07.
Spiral Type
- P++
- Same idea as bourdon except very
expensive to make and lower pressure
- Also known as a helical element
When to use what!!??
- From 0-10 PS! use Diaphragm
- Bellows elements are low pressure as
well but are no longer used in gauges
- From 5-30 psi Helicals are offered but are
not price practical.
- 15 psi and higher Bourdon tubes are the
clear choice.
Dual Scale
Range Graduations
Inner Scale Outer Scale
Inner Scale Outer Scale Figure
Intervals Minor
Grad. Figure
Intervals Minor
0/9 oz./in.2 0/15 in. H2O 1 0.2 5 0.2
0/20 oz./in.2 0/35 in. H2O 5 0.5 5 0.5
0/35 oz./in.2 0/60 in. H2O 5 0.5 10 1
0/60 oz./in.2 0/100 in. H2O 10 1 10 1
Standard Ranges
Type number
63mm(2.5"), 100mm(4")
304 stainless steel, dry (1008A), or liquid Iilled (1008AL)
Fill fluid
304 stainless steel, crimped
Black Iigures on white background, aluminum
Black, aluminum
Bourdon tube
"C" shaped bronze (vac.-600 psi and compound)
Helical bronze (1000 psi-6000 psi)
Helical stainless steel (10,000 psi-15,000 psi)
Patented PowerFlexTM with polyester segment
Brass, with O-ring case seal
Brass throttle plug 0.013" oriIice in all ranges (except vacuum and 15# psi ranges)
.25 NPT lower and back
Vac. thru 15,000 psi and compound. Equivalent metric ranges available
ASME B40.1, Grade B, 3-2-3
Operating temperature
Dry gauge: -40° F to 150° F
Glycerine Iilled: 20° F to 150° F
Silicon Iilled: -40° F to 150° F
Gauge Options
Sealed case, Iield-Iillable (LJ) Silicone Iilled (GV)
Mounting hardware
U-clamp (UC), Iront Ilange (FF), retroIit Ilange (RF)
Throttle plugs 0.007", 0.02", 0.063"
psi Compound
0/15 30" Hg/15 psi
0/30 30" Hg/30 psi
0/60 30" Hg/60 psi
0/100 30" Hg/100 psi
0/160 30" Hg/150 psi
0/200 30" Hg/300 psi
0/400 Vacuum
0/600 30/0 in. Hg
0/800 34/0 It H20
0/5000 NOTE:
Equivalent standard
kg/cm2, and kPa metric
ranges are available.
-Process gauges
-are .5¾ accuracy
- Grades of gauge Accuracies
-3-2-3 rule!
Diaphragm Seals P+6
- Primary use: to !solate the process from
the gauge Allowing thick process and
toxic chemicals;erosive;corrosive to be
read accurately
- Automatically derates to 1¾ BFSL
- Types of Fills:
- Glycerine:$ Freezes,Common and
- Silicone: more $$ but temperature stable
- Fluorolube: $$$$ food Grade and Stable
Diaphragm seals
- Siphons: to isolate waterfvapour from
high temp steam.
- Throttle the flow into and out of the
- Oversnubbing can block the flow and
gauge will not move!!
- Subject to plugging!
- Use only on clean solids.!
- Throttle screws can plug up too...
Electronic Neasurement
- Strain Gauge P53
- Capacitive element P5+
- LvDT inductance P55
- Piezo Crystal P56
- Capacative and Strain Gauge=90¾
market share!!
Strain Gauge:
Capacitive: Requires more movement
to sense .But is reliable technology
Rosemount first ot come out with it.
Piezo Crystal
variations of gauges and
Differential pressure
- With orifice plates principally
- used for flow detection and signal
- differential in Filters;room pressure
- equivalent of two sensors interacting to
one another.
That's it for Tonight!
-Pages 95-1+7 Temperature and Weight
-!n trouble.Email me!!