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Fault Tree Analysis

Failures in Process Industries
• Single Component Failure
– Data for failure rates are compiled by industry – Single component or single action

• Multiple Component Failure
– Failures resulting from several failures and/or actions – Failure rates determined using FTA

86 .Failure Rates Data Instrument Controller Control valve Flow measurements (fluids) Flow measurements (solids) Flow switch Gas – liquid chromatograph Hand valve Indicator lamp Level measurements (liquids) Faults/year 0.14 3.29 0.13 0.12 30.6 0.70 Level measurements (solids) 6.60 1.75 1.044 1.

044 0.42 0.027 0. Valve positioner 5.22 0.44 .41 0.88 1.Failure Rates Data Instrument Oxygen analyser Faults/year 5.14 0. Thermometer temperature meas.65 pH meter Pressure measurement Pressure relief valve Pressure switch Solenoid valve Stepper motor Strip chart recorder Thermocouple temperature meas.022 0.52 0.

00 x 10-09 Component Pump Seal Failure Alarm Failure Operator Error Hose Rupture Failure Frequency (hr-1) 8.00 x 10-06 1.00 x 10-07 1.00 x 10-07 1.00 x 10-05 Valve Rupture 1.00 x 10-10 1.00 x 10-05 2.Failure Rates Data • Some data are per hour Failure Frequency Component Gasket Failure (leak) Gasket Failure (total) Pipe Rupture (> 3 in) Pipe Rupture (< 3 in) (hr-1) 1.00 x 10-08 .00 x 10-05 2.

e.24 Control Valve Controller DP Cell Failure Probability P=1-R 0.75 0.Frequency. Reliability and Probability Component Failure Rate m (faults/year) 0. m is the annual frequency and t is time period (i. 1 year).41 Reliability R=e(-mt) 0.25 0.45 0. Conversion is important in OR gate (dimensional homogeneity) ..55 0.29 1.76 p = 1- -mt e where p is the annual probability of occurrence.6 0.

Frequency and Probability . the annual probability of occurrence is:  1 x 10 -7 8760 hr 10    8.72 x 10 3 year 1 p  1  exp     hr year   .Example taking the case of gasket failure and assuming that we have 10 gaskets.

• The system failure mode to be considered is termed the “top event” and fault tree is developed in branches below this event showing it causes. .What is Fault Tree Analysis • Fault Tree is a method by which a particular undesired system failure mode can be expressed in terms of component failure modes and operator actions.

Fault Tree Analysis • Fault tree analysis is typically carried out by a group or people or an individual. • These individuals must have knowledge on the process so that causes of undesirable events can be understood • The following information is important • • • process and equipment description and specification process flow diagram. process instrumentation diagram and design information plant operation. human factors and environmental factors .

Two basic Element • The two mostly used gate symbol are “and” & “or” gates. Signify the TOP EVENT by a double box. – “Or” gate is used when output event occurs if any one of the input event occurs. “And” gate is used to indicate that output event occurs if all input event occurs simultaneously. . – • Event symbol mostly used is “Rectangle” to show any event.

Decide on the hierarchical construction of fault tree 4. 3. Quantify the base events 6. All inputs to a particular gate should be completely defined before further analysis of one of them is undertaken. 5. Quantify the top event .FTA Procedure 1. Choose events identified by hazard identification method (i. Construct fault tree. Define top event 2.e HAZOP) which can lead to this top event.

Analyze results to determine the significance of particular base events or combination events 8. Carry out sensitivity analysis to test the following factors: – – uncertainty of basic data effect of improving reliability of plant and control systems effect of varying method of operation on the plant effect of plant modernization effect of improved training of operators – – – .FTA Procedure 7.

Underlying Principles • Causes of undesirable events can only be understood with knowledge on how the system functions through: chemical/physical processes in the plant specific information on the whole process data on hazardous properties of materials process flow diagram and process instrumentation diagram – equipment specification – plant operation – human factors and environmental factors – – – – .

consider failure modes listed here. • Construct a fault tree with the top event “no flow to the process”. one of the pumps is started and acid passes through the feed pipes. • To make your life easier. • The system function automatically. • Is there any other notable failures not listed should be considered? . if no acid is detected in the feed pipe the second pump is started.Example: Pump • A system to pump acetic acid from the supply tank to the process is illustrated in figure. • When the regulator is energized.


Failure Modes to Consider Component Symbol Failure Mode Cables Electricity supply Feed pipes Manifold Pumps Regulator tank C1 + C2 E F1 + F2 M P1 + P2 R S short-circuit power cut rupture of pipe rupture fail to start fail to open on Supply level too low .

Fault Tree NO FLOW TO PROCESS PROBLEMS WITH PUMPS GENERAL PROBLEMS PUMP P1 PROBLEMS PUMP P2 PROBLEMS Tanks level too low Regulator fails Manifold M fails Power cut Pump P1 fails to start Pipe P2 ruptures Cable C2 short circuits Pipe P1 ruptures PROBLEM 1 .SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM Cable C1 short circuits Pumps P2 fails to start .

Unit on Fault Tree and Rules Frequency (failure/year) = probability of failure per operation × number of operation per year AND GATE rules : can multiply P and P = unit of probability can multiply P and F = unit of F cannot multiply F and F = unit F2 (for example failure/yr2) OR GATE rules : can add P and P = unit of P can add F and F = unit F cannot add F and P =different unit RULES for AND GATES P(A.PB F(AB) = FA.PB .B) = PA.

(M+Z) = M. W.M +W. .Boolean Algebra and Minimal Cut Set Boolean Rules Differences to numerical manipulation Indempotent A+A=A A.Z ……can redraw the FAULT TREE….Z +W.Z = M+ W.Z = (M + M.Z A CUT SET = combination of basic events which will produce TOP EVENT In the example : M..M + M.(A+B)=A For example : (M+W) .M.Z +M.Z = M + M.Z are all cut set But Minimal CUT SET is a CUT SET if any basic event is removed the TOP EVENT will not occur Therefore MINIMAL CUT SET is M and W.M +W.B=A A. W. M.Z.W) + W.Z +W.A=A Absorption A+A.

SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM Failure of Power Supply M Pump B Mechanic al Failure Z .Example – Minimal Cut Set PUMP FAIL PUMP A FAILS PUMP B FAILS Failure of Power Supply M Pump A Mechanic al Failure W PROBLEM 1 .

Probability of pump fail = 0. P = 0.1225 – After minimal cut set.1625 .Unit on FTA • • • • Quantify Fault Tree Electrical supply failure.25 Referring to Fault Tree : – Before minimal cut set. P = 0. Probability of pump fail = 0.1 Single pump failure.


Boolean Algebra-Minimum Cut Set TOP EVENT A B D D E C E C .

E + C + D. (C + C.D + C. (C.E + D.E + D.C + D. (C.E + D.E ) = (A + B) .E) ABSORPTION LAW = (A + B) .C + D.E + D. (C + C.C + D. (C + D.Boolean Algebra-Minimum Cut Set (A + B) .E + D.E + D.E ) INDEMPOTENT LAW = (A + B) .E ) = (A + B) .C + D. (C + C. (E + C) + (D.E ) .E + C.E ) = (A + B) .D + C. [ (C + D) .E + D.E) ] = (A + B) .

Boolean Algebra-Minimum Cut Set TOP EVENT A B C D E .