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Derive the Integral relations and Differential relations for Mass conservation, Momentum conservation and Energy conservation. 1. A jet plane is flying at 10 km with a cabin pressure of 101 kPa and a cabin temperature of 20oC. Suddenly, a bullet is fired inside the cabin and pierces the fuselage; the resultant hole is 2 cm in diameter. Assume that the temperature within the cabin remains constant and that the flow through the hole behaves as that through a converging nozzle with an exit diameter of 2 cm. Take the cabin volume to be 100 m3. Calculate the time for the cabin pressure to decrease to half the initial value. At 10 km, p = 26.5 kPa and T = 223.3 K. 1. Write a computer program that will yield values of T/To, p/po and A/A* for isentropic flow of a perfect gas with constant γ =1.27. Use Mach number increments of 0.05 over the range M = 0 to M = 2. 1. A converging-diverging nozzle is designed to operate isentropically with an exit Mach number of 1.5. The nozzle is supplied from an air reservoir in which the pressure is 500 kPa; the temperature is 400 K. The nozzle throat area is 5 cm2. Assume air to behave as a perfect gas, with γ =1.4 and R = 287 J/kgK. (i) Determine the ratio of exit area to throat area (ii) Given the area ratio in part (i), find the range of back pressure over which the nozzle is choked, (iii) Determine the mass flow rate for a back pressure of 450 kPa, (iv) Determine the mass flow rate for a back pressure of 0 kPa. 1. A converging-diverging nozzle with area ratio of 2 to 1 is supplied by a reservoir containing air at 500 kPa. The nozzle exhausts into a constant area duct of length to diameter ratio of 10 and friction coefficient f of 0.005. Determine the range of system back pressures over which a normal shock appears in the duct. Assume isentropic flow in the nozzle and Fanno flow in the duct. Assume that γ =1.4.

1. A constant area duct that is 20 cm in length by 2 cm in diameter is connected to a reservoir through a converging nozzle. For a reservoir pressure and temperature of 1 MPa and 500 K, determine the maximum air flow rate in kg/s through the system and the range of back pressures over which this flow is realized. Repeat these calculations for a converging nozzle with no duct. Assume that f is equal to 0.008 and that γ =1.4. 1. A constant area duct is connected to a high pressure air reservoir through a converging nozzle. The walls of the duct are heated so as to supply 250 kJ/kg to the air passing through the duct. If the reservoir pressure and temperature

are, respectively, 750 kPa and 300 K, and the system back pressure is 300 kPa, determine whether the duct is choked or not. Also, find the mass flow rate of air passing through the duct. The duct’s diameter is 5 cm and its length is 1.2 m. Assume isentropic flow in the nozzle and frictionless flow in the duct, with the air behaving as perfect gas with constant specific heats.

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