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Negative Numbers

Indicate positions and directions opposite to the defined positive direction

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

change of +3 from 1:

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

change of 3 from 1:

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Addition:

Adding a negative number Subtracting a positive number

Subtraction:

Subtracting a negative number Adding a positive number

Numbers have same sign Numbers have opposite signs Result is positive Result is negative

Exponent: indicates repeated self-multiplication 52 = 5 5 = 25 53 = 5 5 5 = 125 Square Root ( ): inverse of squaring a number x2 = x 52 = 25 Alternate notation: 25 = 52 = 5

x = x 1/2

Order of Operations

When computing the value of an expression, operations are performed in the following order (or precedence): 1. Expressions in parentheses 2. Exponents (N or ^) and square roots ( ) 3. Multiplication ( or *) and division (/) 4. Addition (+) and subtraction () Multiple operations with the same precedence are performed from left to right.

Simple Algebra

If:

(expression1) = (expression2)

Then:

(expression1) + N = (expression2) + N (expression1) N = (expression2) N (expression1) * N = (expression2) * N (expression1) / N = (expression2) / N (expression1)N = (expression2)N

where N is any number, variable, or expression. Use these operations to isolate the unknown variable on one side of the equals sign.

Coordinate Systems

A coordinate system can be used to quantify position and/or direction y (m) 2 1 origin (0,0) 1 2 units of measure (x,y) = (1 m, 2 m) coordinate axes

(oriented at 90 to each other)

x (m)

Lines

Equation of a line: y=mx+b b : y-intercept m : slope m= y x (0,0) b x y x y

Quadratic Equations

Quadratic equation: ax2 + bx + c = 0 A quadratic equation has two solutions: x= b + b 2 4ac 2a

b b2 4ac x= 2a

Measuring Angles

Degrees: 90 Radians:

/2

0, 2

180

0, 360

3/2

= 3.14159

Geometric Relationships

For any triangle:

+ + = 180

parallel

parallel

180

Pythagorean Theorem

For a right triangle: c b 90 a c2 = a 2 + b 2 c = a 2 + b2 a = c 2 b2 b = c 2 a2

Trigonometric Functions

sine: h o a o : side opposite to a : side adjacent to h : hypotenuse 90 cosine: cos = tangent: tan = o a a h sin = o h

sine: o sin = h h cosine: o cos = tangent: o tan = a a h arcsine:

= asin (

arccosine:

o h a h o a

) ) )

= acos (

arctangent:

90

= atan (

Law of Sines

a c

Law of Cosines

a c

Percentages

1% = 1 = 0.01 100

45% 5 = 45 5 = 2.25 100

% change =

Variables with similar meaning are often given the same name, but with a different subscript: e.g. v1 , v 2 , vx , vy , vknee , vhip Summation symbol indicates addition of a sequence of subscripted variables:

j x i i= 3 x i i=

5

= x j + x j+1 + x j+2 + + x k

= x3 + x4 + x 5

The expected value of a group of numbers

x =

1x i i=

N

average

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Standard Deviation

Measure of the scatter about the average value

x x

-5

1(x i x )2 i=

N1

= 3.7

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 average 2 3 4 5

x

-5

= 1.8

-4 -3 -2 -1

10

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