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Objectives: • Review basic concepts in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and statistics

Negative Numbers

Indicate positions and directions opposite to the defined positive direction

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

change of +3 from 1:

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

change of –3 from 1:

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

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**Operations with Negative Numbers
**

Addition:

Adding a negative number Subtracting a positive number

Subtraction:

Subtracting a negative number Adding a positive number

Multiplication & Division:

Numbers have same sign Numbers have opposite signs Result is positive Result is negative

**Exponents & Square Roots
**

Exponent: indicates repeated self-multiplication 52 = 5 × 5 = 25 53 = 5 × 5 × 5 = 125 Square Root ( ): inverse of squaring a number x2 = x 52 = 25 Alternate notation: 25 = 52 = 5

x = x 1/2

2

Order of Operations

When computing the value of an expression, operations are performed in the following order (or precedence): 1. Expressions in parentheses 2. Exponents (N or ^) and square roots ( ) 3. Multiplication (× or *) and division (/) 4. Addition (+) and subtraction (–) Multiple operations with the same precedence are performed from left to right.

Simple Algebra

If:

(expression1) = (expression2)

Then:

(expression1) + N = (expression2) + N (expression1) – N = (expression2) – N (expression1) * N = (expression2) * N (expression1) / N = (expression2) / N (expression1)N = (expression2)N

where N is any number, variable, or expression. Use these operations to isolate the unknown variable on one side of the equals sign.

3

Coordinate Systems

A coordinate system can be used to quantify position and/or direction y (m) 2 1 origin (0,0) θ 1 2 units of measure (x,y) = (1 m, 2 m) coordinate axes

(oriented at 90° to each other)

x (m)

Lines

Equation of a line: y=mx+b b : y-intercept m : slope m= ∆y ∆x (0,0) b x ∆y ∆x y

4

Quadratic Equations

Quadratic equation: ax2 + bx + c = 0 A quadratic equation has two solutions: x= – b + b 2 – 4ac 2a

– b – b2 – 4ac x= 2a

Measuring Angles

Degrees: 90 Radians:

π/2

0, 2 π

180

0, 360

π

3π/2

270 θ(degrees) = (180/π)× θ(radians) θ(radians) = (π/180)× θ(degrees)

π = 3.14159

Note: Excel uses radians!

5

Geometric Relationships

For any triangle:

α

β γ

α + β + γ = 180°

For parallel & intersecting lines:

α

parallel

α α

parallel

180°– α

α

Pythagorean Theorem

For a right triangle: c b 90° a c2 = a 2 + b 2 c = a 2 + b2 a = c 2 – b2 b = c 2 – a2

6

Trigonometric Functions

sine: h o θ a o : side opposite to θ a : side adjacent to θ h : hypotenuse 90° cosine: cos θ = tangent: tan θ = o a a h sin θ = o h

**Inverse Trigonometric Functions
**

sine: o sin θ = h h cosine: o cos θ = tangent: o tan θ = a a h arcsine:

θ = asin (

arccosine:

o h a h o a

) ) )

θ = acos (

arctangent:

θ a

90°

θ = atan (

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Law of Sines

β

a c

γ

b

α

sin α sin β sin γ = = a b c

Law of Cosines

β

a c

γ

b

α

a2 = b 2 + c 2 – 2bc cos α b2 = a 2 + c 2 – 2ac cos β c2 = a 2 + b 2 – 2ab cos γ

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Percentages

1% = 1 = 0.01 100

45% × 5 = 45 × 5 = 2.25 100

What is 45% of 5? 2 is what % of 5?

2 × 100% = 0.4 × 100% = 40% 5

% change =

(new value) – (old value) × 100% (old value)

Subscripts & Summations

Variables with similar meaning are often given the same name, but with a different subscript: e.g. v1 , v 2 , vx , vy , vknee , vhip Summation symbol indicates addition of a sequence of subscripted variables:

Σj x i i= Σ3 x i i=

5

k

= x j + x j+1 + x j+2 + ··· + x k

= x3 + x4 + x 5

9

Average (or Mean)

The “expected” value of a group of numbers

x =

Σ1x i i=

N

N

add values together, then divide by the number of values

average

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Standard Deviation

Measure of the scatter about the average value

σx σx

-5

=

Σ1(x i – x )2 i=

N–1

N

= 3.7

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 average 2 3 4 5

σx

-5

= 1.8

-4 -3 -2 -1

0

1

2

3

4

5

10

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