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Objectives: • Understand projectile motion and how gravity influences it • Understand the effects of projection speed, angle, and relative height on projectile motion • Learn to compute the maximum height, flight time, and flight distance of a projectile

What is a Projectile?

• A projectile is a body or object that – is in the air – is subject only to the forces of gravity and air resistance (i.e. the object is in free fall). • The motion of the center of mass of any object in free fall is governed by the laws of projectile motion

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Influence of Gravity

• Gravity: pull of the mass of the Earth on a body • Gravity accelerates an object in a vertical direction towards the center of the Earth. • Acceleration due to gravity (g) is always straight downward at a constant 9.81 m/s2 (32.2 ft/s2). velocity velocity

g = 9.81 m/s2 upward velocity decreases

g = 9.81 m/s2 downward velocity increases

**Gravity & Vertical Velocity
**

• From the laws of constant acceleration:

(vvertical)2 = (vvertical)1 + (-9.81 m/s 2) * ∆t

• Vertical velocity changes linearly with time

vvertical (m/s)

decelerating upward

vvertical vhorizontal

at max. height time (s)

0

accelerating downward

g = 9.81 m/s2

2

**Gravity & Horizontal Velocity
**

• Gravity does not change the horizontal velocity of an object. • From the laws of constant acceleration:

**(vhorizontal)2 = (vhorizontal)1 + ahorizontal * ∆t
**

For gravity, ahorizontal = 0, so: vvertical vhorizontal vvertical changes vhorizontal remains constant g = 9.81 m/s2

(vhorizontal)2 = (vhorizontal )1

Projectile Motion

• Gravity causes a projectile to move in a parabolic path that is symmetric about the apex (the highest point in the trajectory)

Height (m)

apex

Horizontal Distance (m)

3

**Influences on Projectile Trajectory
**

• Three factors that influence projectile trajectory: – Angle of projection – Projection speed – Relative height of projection

= (projection height) – (landing height)

ion ject spe ed

Pro

Projection angle

Projection height

**Influences of Projection Angle
**

• Effect of projection angle on object trajectory

(projection speed = 10 m/s, projection height = 0)

6 5

15 deg 30 deg 45 deg 60 deg 75 deg 90 deg

Height (m)

4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8

10

Distance (m)

• Trajectory shape depends only on projection angle

4

**Influences of Projection Speed
**

• Effect of projection speed on object trajectory

(projection angle = 45°, projection height = 0)

5

2 m/s

gl

e

Height (m)

tio

n

an

4 3 2 1 0 0 2

4 m/s 6 m/s 8 m/s 10 m/s

Pr

oj

ec

4

6

8

10

Distance (m)

**Influences of Projection Height
**

• Effect of relative projection height on object trajectory

(projection speed = 10 m/s, projection angle = 45°)

5 4

(-2) m (-1) m 0m (+1) m (+2) m

Relative Height (m)

3 2 1 0 0 -1 -2 -3 2 4 6 8 10

Landing Height

12

Distance (m)

Relative projection ht. = (projection ht.) – (landing ht.)

5

**Optimum Projection Conditions
**

• Projection angle for maximum distance depends on relative projection height – rel. projection ht. > 0 optimal angle < 45° – rel. projection ht. = 0 optimal angle = 45° – rel. projection ht. < 0 optimal angle > 45°

Rel. Proj. Height +1 m 0 -1 m Optimal Angle 42.4° 45° 48.1° Max. Distance 11.15 m 10.19 m 9.14 m Distance @ 45° 11.11 m 10.19 m 9.07 m

• Projection angle for maximum height = 90°

**Actual Projection Conditions
**

• In real-life, often cannot attain theoretical optimum conditions • Trade-off exists between projection speed, angle, and height due to anatomical constraints

Sport Long Jump Ski Jump High Jump Shot Put Actual Projection Angles

**18 – 27° 4 – 6° 40 – 48° 36 – 37°
**

(Hall, 2003)

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**Trade-off Between Factors
**

• Can obtain the same distance or height with different combinations of projection speed, angle, and height

6 5 Height (m) 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Speed = 10.75 m/s Angle = 60°

Speed = 10 m/s Angle = 45°

Horizontal Distance (m)

Maximum Height

• At the apex, vvertical = v0 sinθ = 0 • From the laws of constant acceleration:

**v22 = v 12 + 2 a * d 0 = (v0 sinθ)2 + 2 (-9.81 m/s 2) * (yapex – y0) yapex = y 0 +
**

where:

yapex y0 v0 θ = height at apex = projection height = projection speed = projection angle

y0

(v0 sinθ)2 2 * (9.81 m/s 2 )

v0

θ

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Example Problem #1

A high jumper leave the ground with a velocity of 6 m/s at a projection angle of 40°. Her center of mass is 1 m above the ground at take-off. What is the maximum height of her center of mass during the jump?

Flight Time

• From the laws of constant acceleration:

**d = v 1 * ∆ t + (½) a * ( ∆ t)2 (yfinal – y0) = (v0 sinθ) * tF + (½)*(-9.81 m/s 2)* tF2
**

Solve the above quadratic equation to find the flight time tF (choose the largest positive answer)

where:

yfinal y0 v0

θ

= final height = projection height = projection speed = projection angle

v0

θ

y final

y0

8

Example Problem #2

A figure skater is attempting a jump in which she performs 3 complete revolutions while in the air. She leaves the ice with a velocity of 7 m/s at a projection angle of 30° If she spins at 3 revolutions per second, will she be able to complete all 3 revolutions before landing?

Flight Distance

• During projectile motion, vhorizontal = v0 cos θ is constant • From the laws of constant acceleration with a = 0:

d = v1 * ∆t dF = (v 0 cos θ) * tF

where:

dF tF v0

θ

= flight distance = flight time = projection speed = projection angle

v0

θ

dF

9

Example Problem #3

A kicker is attempting field goal from 40 yards away. The ball is kicked with an initial velocity of 24 m/s at a projection angle of 30°. The crossbar of the goal post is 10 ft above the ground. If his aim is correct, will he make the field goal?

**Effects on Projectile Motion
**

Variable Horizontal velocity Vertical velocity Maximum height Determined by: Projection speed Projection angle Projection speed Projection angle Vertical velocity Projection height Vertical velocity Projection height Final height Horizontal velocity Flight time

Flight time

Flight distance

10

**Influence of Air Resistance
**

• In real-life, air resistance will cause both horizontal and velocity to change while in flight. • Forces created by wind will also affect the trajectory

No Air Resist Air Resist Tailwind

Height (m)

Oblique Trajectory

Horizontal Distance (m)

11

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