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# Momentum

Impulse-Momentum
Objectives: • Define linear momentum and impulse • Understand and apply the principle of conservation of momentum • Understand and apply the relationship between impulse and momentum • Define different types of impacts

• The quantity of motion • Measured as the product of an object’s mass and its velocity:

M=mv
where: – M : momentum of a body – m : mass of the body – v : linear velocity of the body center of mass • Momentum is a vector quantity (i.e. has a magnitude and a direction)

Conservation of Momentum
• If the net external force applied to a system is zero, the total momentum of the system remains constant

Conservation of Momentum: Special Case
• If the net external force applied to a system is zero in a given direction, the total momentum of the system in that direction remains constant

If Σ Fexternal = 0, then:

Σ Mi = Σ (mi vi) = a constant = M
• Note: Both the magnitude and direction of total moment of the system remain constant

If Σ (Fexternal)x = 0, then:

Σ Mxi = Σ (mi vxi) = a constant = Mx

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Example Problem #1
A figure skating pair are gliding along the ice. The 80 kg man lifts the 45 kg woman into the air and throws her straight forward. Just before the man releases the woman, the couple are moving forward at 5 m/s. After being released, the woman flies forward through the air with a horizontal velocity of 7 m/s. What is the man’s horizontal velocity after releasing his partner?

Example Problem #2
A 90 kg running back is diving into the end zone. He is flying through the air with a horizontal velocity of 6 m/s. A 120 kg linebacker dives to stop the running back from scoring. His horizontal velocity through the air is 5 m/s, approaching at 30° to the running back’s right. The two players collide in midair and begin moving together. What is their horizontal velocity after the collision?

Impulse
• The motion of a body depends not only on the force, but also on the duration that the force is applied • Impulse : a measure related to the net effect of applying a force (F) for a time (t):

Computing Impulse
• When force is not constant, compute impulse by summing impulses over short periods of time:

Impulse = Σ

(F i+1 + F i) (ti+1 – ti) 2

Impulse = F t
• Impulse increases with: – Increased force magnitude – Increased duration of application • Impulse is a vector quantity (i.e. has a magnitude and a direction)

average force between time ti and time ti+1 period of time between time ti and time ti+1 Force

Fi+1 Fi 0
time

ti

ti+1

2

Impulse as an Area
• The area beneath a graph of force vs. time between two points in time is equal to the impulse due to the force between those two times
Force in x-direction

Impulse & Momentum
• The impulse due to the net external force acting on a system equals the change in the momentum of the system over the same period of time
momentum at time t1 momentum at time t2

Impulse between t0 < 0 and t1

0

t0 t1 t2
Impulse between t1 > 0 and t2

time

Impulse = Fexternal (t2 – t1) = m v2 – m v1
impulse when Fexternal is constant between t1 and t2

Components of Impulse & Momentum
• The impulse due to the net external force acting in a given direction on a system equals the change in the momentum of the system in that direction over the same period of time

Derivation of Impulse-Momentum
• Impulse-Momentum relationship comes directly from Newton’s 2nd Law:

F external = m a F external= m v2 – v1 t2 – t1

Impulse x = (Fexternal)x (t2 – t1) = m vx2 – m vx1 Impulse y = (Fexternal)y (t2 – t1) = m vy2 – m vy1

F external (t2 – t1) = m (v2 – v1) F external (t2 – t1) = m v2 – m v1

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Example Problem #3
A volleyball player attempts a block of a ball that is approaching with a horizontal velocity of 13 m/s (about 30 mph) and a downward velocity 1 m/s. During the block, he applies a horizontal force of 200 N (44 lb.) to the ball, in the direction opposite its velocity, for 50 ms. The mass of the ball is 0.5 kg. What are the horizontal and vertical velocities of the ball after the block?

Example Problem #4
The center of mass of a 45 kg gymnast reaches a maximum height of 2.4 m during a vault, and returns to a height of 0.9 m at landing. What is the vertical velocity of her center of mass at landing? What impulse is required to stop the downward motion of her center of mass? If she keeps her knees stiff, she can stop her downward motion in 0.25 s; if she bends her knees, she can stop her downward motion in 0.5 s. What average vertical force from the ground will she experience in each case?

Impact
• Collision in which a large force acts over a small time interval • The force acting during impact has two effects: – part of the energy is absorbed and lost through deformation of the objects – the remaining force changes the objects’ direction • Total momentum of the two objects just before and just after impact are equal

Types of Impact
• Perfectly Elastic: No energy is lost during impact. Magnitude of relative velocity between objects after impact is the same as before impact. • Perfectly Plastic: Objects deform and stick together. Relative velocity between objects is zero after impact. • Most impacts fall somewhere in between.
Mpre v2pre v1pre v2post Mpost vpost Elastic Mpost Plastic v1pre Mpre v2pre

vinitial F impact

vfinal

v1post

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Coefficient of Restitution
• Measures the elasticity of an impact (1 = perfectly elastic; 0 = perfectly plastic) • Determined by the properties of the materials making up both of the objects

e= –

v2post – v1post v2pre – v1pre

Mpre v1pre

v2pre

v1post Example: e = 0.5 Mpost

v2post

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