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Mechanical Work

Work, Power, & Energy
Objectives: • Define and learn to compute work, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, strain energy • Understand and apply the principle of conservation of energy • Understand and apply the principle of work and energy

• Mechanical work done by a force (F) is the force’s magnitude times the displacement of an object in the direction of the force

W = Fx ∆px + Fy ∆py
where: – Fx , Fy : x- and y-components of force – ∆px , ∆py : x- and y-components of displacement • Units of Work: – English: foot-pound (ft·lb) = (1 ft)(1 lb) – SI: Joule (J) = (1 N)(1 m)

Positive vs. Negative Work
• Positive work : results when force and displacement are in the same direction. Indicates that the force is acting to speed up the object • Negative work: results when force and displacement are in opposite directions. Indicates that the force is acting to slow down the object Fbrake Fpedal If bicycle moves displacement ∆px: Fpedal does positive
work

Example Problem #1
At the start of a bobsled run, a bobsledder pushes on the sled with a constant force of 70 N, at an angle of 30° below the forward direction. The bobsledder stops pushing after the sled has moved 30 m forward. How much work has the bobsledder done on the sled?

Fbrake does negative ∆px
work

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Power
• Power = the rate of work production • Power calculated as work done in a given time:

Instantaneous Power
• Instantaneous power represents the rate at which work is being performed at a specific instant. • Instantaneous power is calculated as force times the velocity in the direction of the force:

Power =

Work Change in Time

P=

W ∆t

P = Fx vx + Fy vy
Since:

• Power can be generated (P > 0) or absorbed (P < 0) • Units of Power: – English: horsepower (hp) = 550 ft·lb/s – SI: Watt (W) = (1 J)/(1 s)

P=

W ∆t

=

F x ∆px + Fy ∆py ∆t F x ∆px + F y ∆py = ∆t ∆t

Example Problem #2
A weightlifter lifts a 200 kg mass from the ground to a height of 2 m in 1 s. He holds the mass in the air for 3 s. He lowers the mass back to the ground in 2 s. Assume that the work performed by the weightlifter is the opposite of the work performed by gravity. What is the work performed by the weightlifter during each phase of the lift? What is the total work performed? What is the average power generated/absorbed by the weightlifter during each phase?

Kinetic Energy
• Energy = Capacity to do work • Kinetic Energy (KE) = the energy associated with the motion of an object • KE equals the amount of work the object can do in being brought to rest

KE =

1 2

m v²

where: – m : mass of the object – v : magnitude of the object’s velocity • Units of KE = Units of Work (Joule, foot-pound)

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Potential Energy
• Potential energy (PE) = stored energy that can be converted into work • Associated with an object’s position/configuration • PE due to gravity = the weight (W) of an object times its height (h) above a reference height

Strain Energy
• Strain Energy (or Elastic Energy) is potential energy due to the deformation of an object • Is the work that can be done through a return to the original shape

PEg = W h = –mgh
m : mass of the object g : acceleration due to gravity (–9.81 m/s2) • Units of PE = Units of KE, Work

PEse =
W h

1 2

k x2

x

where: k : spring constant (stiffness of the object) x : deformation from unloaded length

Conservation of Energy
• When gravity is the only external force acting on a system, the total energy of the system remains constant:

Example Problem #3
When a 70 kg diver leaves the 2 m board, her center of mass has a projection speed of 10 m/s, a projection angle of 60°, and a projection height of 3 m above the water. Make a rough sketch of kinetic energy, potential energy, and total energy vs. time What was the maximum height of her center of mass during flight? (use the principle of conservation of energy)

KE + PE = constant
1 2

mv12 - mgh1 =

1 2

mv22 - mgh2

• Projectile motion is one case when conservation of energy applies.

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Principle of Work and Energy
• The work produced by an external force is equal to the change in the total energy of the object acted upon:

Example Problem #4
During a cheer, an 85 kg male cheerleader has to catch a 45 kg female cheerleader. At the time that the man starts to catch her, the woman’s center of mass is 2 m above the ground and is falling downward at 4 m/s At the end of the catch, the woman’s center of mass is 1 m above the ground. How much work did the male cheerleader do during the catch? What average vertical force did he need to exert?

W = ∆KE + ∆PE + ∆TE
where: – W : work – ∆KE : change in kinetic energy (KEfinal – KEintial) – ∆PE : change in potential energy (PEfinal – PEintial) – ∆TE : change in thermal energy (TEfinal – TEintial)

Friction
• Shear force acting over the area of contact between two bodies, and in a direction that opposes motion • Two types of friction: – Static Friction : applies when the objects are not sliding relative to each other – Kinetic Friction : applies when the objects are sliding relative to each other

Static Friction
• Static friction is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the sum of all other shear forces • Their exists a maximum static friction force:

Ffriction ≤ µs N

ΣFshear Ffriction N

v Ffriction

where: µs : coefficient of static friction (a property of the two materials in contact; 0 ≤ µs ≤ 1) N : normal force between surfaces

• If required static friction force exceeds maximum static friction force, object will begin to slide

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Kinetic Friction
• Magnitude of the kinetic friction force is proportional to the normal force between the two surfaces:

Ffriction = µk N
where: µk : coefficient of kinetic friction (a property of the two materials in contact; 0 ≤ µk < µs ) N : normal force between surfaces

v Ffriction

N

• Direction of the kinetic friction force is always opposite to the direction of sliding

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