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Angular Kinetics

**Angular Inertia & Momentum
**

Objectives: • Define moment of inertia, angular momentum • Understand factors that determine moment of inertia • Understand and apply the principle of conservation of angular momentum • Understand how momentum can be transferred between segments or axes

**• Every concept in linear kinetics has an analogue in angular kinetics. Linear Kinetics
**

Relationship between: • External forces (F) • Inertia (mass) • Displacement (∆p) • Velocity (v) • Acceleration (a)

Angular Kinetics

Relationship between: • External torques (T) • Inertia • Angular displacement (θ) • Angular velocity (ω) • Angular acceleration (α)

Inertia

• Concept relating to the difficulty with which an object’s motion is altered • Inertia = tendency to resist acceleration • In linear kinetics, inertia is represented by mass

Greater mass Greater force to produce a given acceleration

Moment of Inertia

• For a particle:

mi

Ii = mi ri ²

• For an object:

ri

axis of

I = Σ Ii = Σ mi ri²

**• In angular kinetics, inertia is represented by the mass moment of inertia (I) of an object
**

Greater I Greater torque to produce a given angular acceleration

rotation where: – mi : mass of particle i – ri : distance of particle i from axis of rotation

• SI Units: kg·m²

1

Example Problem #1

Compute the mass moment of inertia of the object below about the axis of rotation shown.

C = 1 kg

**Factors Affecting Moment of Inertia
**

• Since:

I = Σ mi ri²

x' center of mass

y x'

I increases with:

– Greater mass – Greater distance from axis of rotation

0

A = 1 kg 0.1 m

.2 m

0.

15

m

B = 1 kg

0.

axis of rotation

0.2

15

m

m

D = 2 kg

x • Therefore, I depends on: – Mass of the object – Shape of the object – Location of the axis of rotation (distance from center of mass) – Direction of the axis of rotation

x

y

**Body Position & Moment of Inertia
**

• Body moment of inertia depends on body position and axis of rotation

**Computing Moment of Inertia
**

• In biomechanics, determine I using: – Formulas for geometric solids (e.g. a cylinder) – Measurements using pendulum techniques or medical imaging – Radius of gyration (k):

I = m k²

• Could lump all of an object’s mass at a distance k from the axis and I would be the same • k has been measured for different body segments

I = 10.5 – 13 kg·m2

I = 4.0 – 5.0 kg·m2

I = 1.0 – 1.2 kg·m2

I = 2.0 – 2.5 kg·m2

2

Example Problem #2

A table of anthropometic data gives the following information:

Leg Length Leg + Foot Mass Foot + Leg Radius of Gyration * 24.6% of body height 6.1% of body mass 73.5% of leg length

Angular Momentum

• The quantity of angular motion • Measured as the product of an object’s moment of inertia (I) and its angular velocity (ω; in rad/s):

H= Iω

This equation applies to two cases: – rotation about a fixed, stationary axis – rotation about an axis through the center of mass (which can be moving) • SI Units: kg·m2/s

* About the mediolateral axis of the knee

For a man with a body mass of 75 kg and height of 1.75 m, find the moment of inertia of the leg + foot about the knee during flexion-extension

**Multi-segment Angular Momentum
**

• Angular momentum of a multi-segment object is the sum of angular momentum of its parts • For special case of segments rotating about the same fixed axis:

**Angular Momentum: General Case
**

• Angular momentum of an object about a point = (ang. momentum of the object about its center of mass) + (ang. momentum of the center of mass about the point)

H = Σ Hi = Σ (Ii ωi)

where: – Ii : moment of inertia of segment i about the axis of rotation – ωi : angular velocity of segment i about the axis of rotation

Axis of Rotation

ω1

d

90°

Segment1

H = Icm ω + m v d

ω2

Segment 2

• Used to compute angular momentum of the whole body about its center of mass

ω

v

3

**Conservation of Angular Momentum
**

• If the net external torque applied to a system is zero, the total angular momentum of the system (about either a fixed axis of rotation or the system’s center of mass) remains constant

Example Problem #3

A figure skater is spinning at 1 rev/s in the position on the left. Her moment of inertia is 5 kg m 2 While spinning, she changes to the position on the right. Her moment of inertia in the new position is: (a) 3 kg m2, (b) 5 kg m2, or (c) 7 kg m 2 ? What is her angular velocity in the new position?

ω ω

**If Σ Texternal = 0, then: H = I ω = a constant
**

• Practical implications: – If I of a body increases, ω decreases – If I of a body decreases, ω increases – In both cases, direction of ω stays the same

Example Problem #4

A diver performs a backward 1 ½ somersault, as shown below. Sketch his angular momentum, moment of inertia, and angular velocity about his center of mass as a function of time.

**Transfer of Angular Momentum
**

• Applies to bodies made up of multiple segments • When momentum is conserved: changing the angular momentum of one segment changes the angular momentum of the other segments • For 2 segments rotating about ωarm a fixed axis:

I1inital ω1initial + I2initial ω2initial = I1final ω1final + I2final ω2final

ωbody

4

Example Problem #5

A skateboarder attempts a frontside 180. Case 1: starts twisting in midair with body straight Case 2: starts twisting in midair with body piked These are diagrammed below. What is the upper body angular velocity in each case?

Hinitial = 0 Iupper = 1 kg m2 Ilower = 1 kg m2 ωlower = 6 rad/s Hinitial = 0 Iupper = 3 kg m2 Ilower = 1.5 kg m2 ωlower = 6 rad/s

**Transfer of Momentum Between Axes
**

• How does a diver initiate a twisting somersault from a somersault? • Total angular momentum is constant, so by swinging the arms to rotate the long axis of the body, momentum is redirected into twisting and rotation

Ixωsomersault H = I ωsomersault H

Iyωtwist

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