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RUANE & T P O'NElll ISSUE9 31/03/09


The literature within is supplied by Argyll Ruane Ltd by way of contract agreement whereby terms and conditions apply. This document remains the copyright of Argyll Ruane Ltd and should not be copied without prior consent from Argyll Ruane Ltd directly. This document is reviewed on a regular basis and amended accordingly to meet industry standards that apply.

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RADIOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW Principles of film radiography Radiographic quality Capabilities and limitations of radiography Duties of a radiographic interpreter X AND GAMMA RADIA TION Comparison of x and gamma rays for industrial radiography BASIC PHYSICS Elements Atoms Isotopes Ions Radionuclides (radio-isotopes) Gamma ray generation Types of radiation Activity Specific activity Decay Half life Ionisation ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING Scatter RADIOGRAPIDC EQUIPMENT Gamma sources X-ray generation Electrical circuits in x-ray tubes HALF VALUE THICKNESS RADIOGRAPHIC FILM The make-up of a radiographic film Film types Film speed CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF FILMS INTENSIFYING SCREENS General Lead screens Fluorescent (salt) screens Fluorometallic screens Comparison of intensifying screens IMAGE FORMATION Darkrooms Processing
C) RllAnc & T P O·N.m Issue 9 31/113109

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R2-1 R3 R3-2 R3-2 R3-3 R3-3 R3-3 R3-3 R3-5 R3-8 R3-8


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Developer Stopbath Fixer Final wash Wetting agent Drying the film RADIOGRAPmC Density Radiographic contrast Definition Processing and handling faults Artifacts Sensitivity Assessing sensitivity RADIOGRAPIC TECIINIQUES SWSI : source outside, film inside SWSI: (panoramic) source inside, film outside DWSI. DWDI Sandwich technique Location of defects Image shifts DETERMINATION Exposure charts Exposure calculations for gamma rays Exposure calculations using gamma slide rule Equivalence charts FILTERS GLOSSARY OF TERMS Considerations for exposures

R 11-4 RII-5 RI1-5 RII-5 R 11-6 Rl1-6 QUALITy ..•...•..•...•..............•.•...........••.•..•.•.....•......•...••.•...•.•.....•...•...•.........•....•.......R12 RI2-1 R12-2 R12-3 RI2-6 R 12-7 R 12-8 R 12-10 ••..•...•...........•...........•.....................•................••...............••...........•...... R13 R13-1 R13-2 RI3-2 RI3-3 RI3-3 RI3-3 RI3-5 OF EXPOSURE ••.••....••...............•.•...............•••••...•.•...................•..................•..••.•R14 R 14-1 R14-3 R14-4 RI4-4 R14-9 R15 R16

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Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1

X-rays or gamma rays pass through the object to be radiographed and record an image on a radiographic film placed on the opposite side. It is the wavelength of the radiation which governs its penetrating power.and can be used on materials up /0 200 mm thick. 70 A major limitation of radiography is that it will only detect defects which have significant depth in relation to the axis of the x-ray beam. . This is governed by the kilovoltage (kV) setting when using x-rays and isotope type with gamma rays. radiography will not usually detect plate laminations. RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY 50 An overall assessment of radiographic quality is made by the use of image quality indicators (IQI's). Activity is measured in curies or gigabecquerels. The thin areas of an object will be darker than the thicker areas. . unlike gamma sources. e. but x-radiography generally produces better quality radiographs and is safer. copper inclusions and tungsten inclusions. The intensity of the radiation is governed by the milli-amperage (mA) setting when using x-rays and by the activity of the isotope type with gamma rays. therefore most weld defects will show up dark in relation to the surrounding areas.e.g.the more wires visible the better the sensitivity. the commonly used type consists of seven thin wires decreasing in thickness. is also measured to ensure it lies within a specified range for optimum quality. The density of an image on a radiograph. PRINCIPLES 10 OF FILM RADIOGRAPHY Film radiography is carried out using x-ray machines or artificial gamma sources (radio-isotopes). the radiograph. spatter. the minimum through thickness depth of a defect capable of being detected is about 2% of the wall thickness in the same axis as the x-ray beam. 30 Cobalt 60 (C060) has a very high penetrating power . its degree of blackness. a crack in a weld will increase the amount of radiation falling on the film in that area due to a reduction in thickness.very short wavelength . 20 Xsradiography typically uses /50·300 k V on steel weldments up to approximately 30 mm total thickness. After exposure. RADIOGRAPHIC OVERVIE\V .. 60 CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF RADIOGRAPHY A major advantage of radiographic testing is that a permanent record is produced. The quality and amount of radiation reaching the film will be largely determined by the objects thickness and density. e. At least one IQI is pre-placed transversely across the weld being examined.. lack of inter-run fusion or cracks perpendicular to the x-ray beam. .g. 80 X-radiography vs gamma radiography X-radiography requires bulky and expensive machinery in comparison with gamma radiography. As a rough guide.' T PO'Neill l\OTES Ruane & 11 UNIT Rl . i. When the film is processed a negative is produced. some of the wires will be visible on the resultant radiograph . Le. Iridium 192 (JrI92) is 40 commonly used on steel weldments up to 60 mm thick. X-ray machines can be switched on and off. exceptions are excess weld metal. 90 100 o Roane & T P O'Neill 4sue' 31103/09 Rt-t .

Check the parent material on the radiograph for arc strikes. have salt intensifying screens been used when only lead intensifying screens are permitted? Has a fast film been used instead of a slow film? e. c. Mask off any unwanted light on the viewer. when applicable. e. has gamma been used when only xradiography is permitted? d. grind and investigate. visual check. e. each radiograph is correctly identified to the weld it represents. 4. 40 View radiographs under subdued background light. Check the weld on the radiograph for defects. MP] check.also ensure the IQl's are of the correct type and correctly positioned. b.g.. e. remove the entire weld. repair. 5.g. as far as is reasonably practicable. Measure radiographic density.' J 1103/09 Rl-2 . e.g.normally already known. A radiographic interpreter must have access to the relevant specification(s) and must know where to find and interpret relevant information. 80 90 100 Q RUJllle &T P O"Ntill Usu. e. 60 7. Ensure. Ensure that the weld locations are identified. reshoot. Assess radiographic contrast. Assess the quality of the radiograph: a. accept the radiograph and weld. hard stamping.g. Do artifacts interfere with interpretation? Check the radiograph to determine if any obstruction between the source of radiation and the film interferes with interpretation. 20 Specific duties when interpreting radiographs of welds are typically as follows: ] . Assess definition/graininess. State action to be taken. 9. Identify the type of weld if possible . gouges. Calculate IQI sensitivity . lead numbers.g. 8. 50 6. 30 3. minimum seam offset etc. 70 10. 2. ultrasonic check. has the correct number tape been used. stating type and region.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll :\Ol[S liNIT RI • RADIOGRAPHIC OVERVIE\\' DUTIES OF A RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETER 10 It is the duty of a radiographic interpreter to ensure that all radiographic interpretation and any associated actions are carried out in accordance with the relevant specification(s) for the work being carried out.

see half-lives. xrays produced by conventional x-ray equipment. e. produce better quality radiographic images than Ir192 or C060 isotopes. The size also allows for gamma sources to be used in difficult and inaccessible areas for x-ray machines. The intensity and wavelengths of gamma radiation cannot be adjusted. however. Gamma sources must always be returned to their shielding containers when not in use. 70 80 90 100 o Ruane '" T P O·N. Most conventional x-ray machines will not penetrate more than 50 mm of steel although there are huge x-ray machines. whereas there is a constant emission of radiation with a gamma source. the quality will be the same. and usually more than.g. If the wavelength from the gamma source is the same as the wavelength from the x-ray set. gamma sources deplete in output and must be replaced regularly. Certain gamma sources have a very high penetrating power which enables them to be used on very thick material. 150 mm steel. e. 50 Cost Gamma sources and containers are much cheaper than x-ray equipment. although the intensity (activity) reduces with time .RUBne & 11 TP OWell1 l\OT[S UNIT R2 • X AND GAMMA RAJ)IATION COMPARISON 10 OF X AND GAMMA RAYS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY Safety Using x-ray machines is normally safer than using gamma sources because x-ray machines may be switched off like a light bulb. This makes gamma more expensive in the long run. the linear accelerator and the betatron which can produce radiation of a wavelength which can penetrate as much as. 40 Handling Gamma sources are easier to handle in comparison with bulky and fragile x-ray equipment. Ytterbium 169 (Yb169) may produce radiographs comparable to those produced by using x-rays.g.g. 60 Versatility The intensity and wavelengths of x-rays can be adjusted from the x-ray control panel. 20 Quality of radiographic images 30 Assuming variables such as test material thickness. say up to 300 kV.i11 Issue 9 31103109 R2-J . film type etc. because these x-rays have longer wavelengths than the gamma sources. gamma radiation. remains constant. on pipe racks. e.


-...charge) • .-. ' ~ ! 40 A [MASS NUMBER] Neutrons Element and protons E Z 50 [ATOMIC NUMBER] Number of protons in the nucleus Element Symbol Number of Electrons N K 60 I L M 0 P Hydrogen Helium Lithium IH 4 2He 3L 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 7 · 70 Beryllium Carbon Aluminium 4Be 12C 6 9 2 4 8 8 8 8 8 27 A 13 27 59 3 15 16 18 18 2 80 Cobalt Nickel Barium Co 1 59 · 28N 56 2 2 2 18 137Ba (Wolfram) 134W 74 192I 77 r 8 12 15 2 90 Tungsten Iridium 2 2 32 32 2 2 8 18 100 e R•••• Issue & T PO'Ntm 9 311O. • .--~-~ N shell 10 . / 30 -. K shell .. .. .. ----. • • • ~ '- • • • • 0 • • • Proton (+ charge) Neutron (no charge) Electron (. M shell Lshell • 20 :' ---_ _...J109 R3-1 .TP Ruane& 11 O'Neill UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS l'i01 [S .

Electrons are small. lOO o Rnne &. with most of each atom consisting of free space.Ruane& 11 TPO'Neil1 U~IT R3 . Protons and neutrons have an unusual attraction for each other and tend to pair together. They are positively charged and have a rest mass of 1. argon (Ar). i. very light weight particles and have a rest mass of 9. are said to be held in stable orbits around the nucleus by the attraction of the protons in the nucleus.g.27 kg. Atomic number The atomic number or Z number is the total number of protons in the nucleus and this defmes the element. e. These orbits are referred to as shells. He = 2. 10 This There are over one hundred elements known to man and these have been placed within a table referred to as the periodic table. krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) are grouped together because these are inert gases or gases that cannot react chemically with other elements. All atoms of the same element are similar in construction. when it is not an ion. The size of the sub-atomic particles are small. There are other sub-atomic particles. these are very active elements which readily combine with most of the other elements in the table. Helium (He). 0 = 8. the positron. e. between these are all the elements that make up everything on earth. chlorine (Cl). ATOMS 40 An atom is the smallest part of an element that can have the element's properties. neon (Ne). bromine (Br) and iodine (I). 20 30 Elements range from hydrogen (H). to uranium (U) with an atomic number 92. T P O'NtU1 Issue 9 JI/OJIIl9 R3-2 . K. with an atomic number of I.g. C = 6. atoms of different elements have different constructions. They have a negative charge and orbit the nucleus in restricted shells according to the rules of quantum mechanics. the heavy particles in an atom and are found in the nucleus. 80 • 90 Atoms will have the same number of protons and electrons when the atom is in equilibrium. electrons. L. which is of similar size and mass to the electron but with a positive charge. H = I. 70 Sub-atomic particles • • Protons are along with neutrons. Mshells. I09 x 10-31 Kg. are neutral and are found in the nucleus. this places elements into groups and periods with reference to their chemical characteristics.673 x 10. An atom is a very small particle which is made up from a number of sub-atomic particles grouped together.g. Neutrons are similar in mass to a proton having a rest mass of 1.e. BASIC PHYSICS ELEMENTS An element is a substance that cannot be separated into any other constituents. The halogen group includes fluorine (F). The sub-atomic particles in the centre (core or nucleus) of each atom contain the heavier particles consisting of protons which carry a positive charge. statement is with reference to the chemical nature only. Hydrogen (H) is the lightest element and is taken as the reference element. however. 50 60 The lighter particles. They have no charge. and neutrons which carry no charge. e.675 x 10-27 kg.

C = 12 and 0 = 16. Carbon also has three isotopes: C612. HII. beta particles or neutrons pass through matter. RADIONUCLIDES 60 (RADIO-ISOTOPES) Radionuclides are radioactive isotopes.9 T P Q'N. and also give off excess energy known as gamma radiation.u. uranium 238 or thorium 232. GAMMA RAY GENERATION Ganuna rays used in industrial radiography are emitted from artificial radioactive isotopes. this varies from a fraction of a second for some isotopes and to thousands of years for others. HI3 = tritium. this is the time it takes for the activity to drop to one half of its initial strength. Every radionuclide has a half life. Ions are created when x-rays. 40 50 The process of producing ions is known a ionisation. it spontaneously emits corpuscular and electromagnetic energy.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :\OTES UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS Mass number The mass number or A number essentially refers to the weight of an atom and is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Note that the mass number is not always twice the atomic number. also known as radionuclides.g. gamma rays. Mass (Aj number for He = 4. 'Activity' is a term which 70 relates to the number of dlsintegrations per unit time. e. If a material is radioactive. whilst the atoms losing electrons are positive ions due to their unpaired proton(s) in each nucleus. A radioactive isotope is an unstable state of a chemical element which has a different number of neutrons to the normal state of the same element. the ganuna radiation is a by-product produced from the disintegration of the radioactive isotope. carbon 13 and carbon 14 respectively. All elements with atomic numbers higher than bismuth (atomic number 83) are radioactive and are elements which result from the decay of either uranium 235. Among the 100 or so known elements there are some 300 different isotopes. Le. C6\3 and C614 conunonly referred to as carbon 12.iU 31/03/09 R3-3 . the mass number or A number will be different to the mass number of the other isotopes possible for the specific element. therefore. alpha particles. 80 90 100 o RUin. As with all isotopes." ls. because this number refers to the number of protons in the nucleus which have not changed. 30 20 IONS An ion is an electrically charged particle which may be positive (+ve) or negative (-ve). the different number of neutrons will result in a change in mass. Activity is measured in becquerels (Bq) or Curies tco. the disintegrate by releasing sub-atomic particles. all the energy is absorbed in exciting the atoms or molecules so that electrons are ejected producing electrical imbalance. The atomic number or Z number however will be the same for all the isotopes of the specific element. 10 ISOTOPES Elements that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are varieties of the same element and are called isotopes. H/ and HI3 are three isotopes of hydrogen HI2 = deuterium. When particles or photons of energy (quanta) pass through matter. The ejected electrons (having negative charges) are negative ions. Radium produces radon gas.

Giga= 109• I gigabecquerel = more 109 becquerels. 40 50 Natural occurring radionucIides There are two main radionuclides which occur naturally: Radon and Radium.1.5 days 30 years 74 days 31 days 127 days Output* 1. 90 of Gamma Ray Sources Gamma ray Approx.26 years 118. Fission produce separation.29 . disintegrations per second it is usually = I curie. 60 Radon Radium 226 is no longer used for radiography because of the hazards presented by its alpha decay and its gaseous radioactive daughter Radon. 100 c RUlIne & T P O'Ntill 1ssee 9 31103109 R3-4 . 3. There are three methods of producing artificial radionuclides: 1. divide by 37 then multiply by 10.203 0. The higher the activity value. gigabecquerels (GBq).17 . Artificial radionucIides Artificially produced radionuclides have replaced natural radionuclides for use in industrial radiography.0.0. x-ray enerales MeV equivalent kV 1.052 . The activity of a radioactive isotope does not relate to the penetrating power of the gamma rays produced. Radioactive isotopes are used taking into consideration their half-lives. 10 I becquerel = I disintegration per second.000. has a half life of3. The most widely used radioisotopes are shown in the following table: 80 70 Characteristics Source Cobalt 60 Selenium 75 Caesium 137 Iridium 192 Ytterbium 169 Thulliuml70 Half life 5.0.308 300 0. the greater the intensity of gamma rays produced. Iridium 192 (IrI92).48 0. Cobalt 60 (Co60) is produced by bombarding C059 with neutrons in a reactor.7 x 1010 becquerels therefore.590 years. Cobalt 60 (Co60).66 700 0. Cobalt 60 (C060) has a very high penetrating power and may be used on steel components up to 200 mm thick.7 x 10 10 1 curie. Neutron activation (neutron bombardment in a reactor). Ytterbium 169 (Yb169) and Selenium (Se75). = 37 gigabecquerels 30 1 curie.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill :\OTES UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS The activity or strength of a radioactive isotope is expressed in curies (Ci) or becquerels (Bq). because the gamma radiation emitted has a very short wavelength.825 days and Radium has a halflife of 1.Exposure rate factor: Emission in roentgens per curie per hour at I metre (RlCi/hr at I metre).084 80 Range in steel -mm 50 .063 .0.32 0.33 0. penetrating power depends on the wavelength of the gamma rays produced and this depends on the specific radioactive element involved.401 400 0. = 3.066 . For example. 3. Bones are especially susceptible to damage from radiation emitted from radium 226.125 0.33 1200 0.200 mm 4 -28 mm 45 -75 mm 12 -70 mm 2-17mm 1-\3mm * . practical to talk in terms of 20 For industrial radiography. the half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time it takes for the activity to drop to one-half of its initial strength.0025 To convert RIhICi 10 pSv/hlGBq. 2. Charged particle bombardment (via high energy x-ray machine). There are four main radioactive isotopes used for industrial radiography.61 600 0.

0 4. Neutrons are produced from nuclear reactors.0 1.0 2.5 7. they are normally prevented from entering the surrounding air space by absorption by the mass of the radioactive pellet or its surrounding capsule. not have an electrical charge.Ruane & 11 TPO'NeiIJ UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS x0 TI: S Corpuscular (particulate) radiation 10 Corpuscular radiation is the flow of sub-atomic particles.g. e.0 32 3. Alpha radiation travels comparatively slowly leaving the source at about 16.s" (10.0 30 8.0 15 3.0 140 3. These particles mayor may This type of radiation is different to x and gamma radiation by having mass and not travelling at the speed of light.0 4. accelerators and certain radioactive isotopes. 30 Alpha particles ionise atoms by removing electrons as they pass through matter but they do not penetrate deeply and can be stopped by a sheet of paper and human skin. 70 Neutron radiation can penetrate many materials made from heavy elements with ease but it is absorbed by many lighter materials.0 50 2. Alpha radiation 20 An alpha particle is a large sub-atomic particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons (the nucleus ofa helium atom) and therefore has a positive charge. Neutron radiation 60 Neutron radiation simply consists of flowing neutrons which have no electrical charge.0 95 2. Hydrogen has an affinity for neutrons. all of which produce fast neutrons.0 1.0 180 90 4. beta and neutron radiation. Beta particles travel faster than alpha particles. neutrons are called thermal neutrons. califomium 252.000 km. The main hazard is that they may enter the body through a cut in the skin or they may be ingested. particularly those containing hydrogen. these slower. Source Sizes and Maximum Activity Activity in Curies Source Dimensions Length (mm) Dia (mm) Ir 192 Co60 1. They are small and lightweight and therefore do not have a high ionising potential compared with alpha radiation. Beta radiation 40 A beta particle is a very light high speed electron and will possess a negative charge.0 210 120 80 90 100 Cl R ••••nt " T P O·NriU Issut 9 31-'1l109 R3-7 . They can travel through 3 meters of air or 1 mm of lead and are more penetrating than alpha particles but they can be stopped by a few millimetres of most solid or liquid materials.0 1.000 miles/sec) but the particles soon slow down and only travel a total distance ofa few centimetres through the air. There are three main types of corpuscular radiation: alpha.0 45 3. lower energy.0 2. 50 If beta particles are emitted from a radioactive source. These neutrons normally have to be slowed down by using a moderator before they are used in radiography.

20 DECAY Decay is the process of spontaneous transformation of a radionuclide. an exposure needs to be doubled to achieve the same density. 1 70 1 31 74 5. 3. After I half life has occurred.Ruane & I1 T P O'Nei11 :\OTES UNIT R3 . 100 o Ra. Emission of beta particles. it can be seen that a 2 mm x 2 mm Irl92 source can have an activity of up to 50 Ci but a 2 mm x 2 mm C060 source can only have an activity of 15 Ci. In order to increase Ci output. the source size must be increased. 40 HALF LIFE Half life is the time taken for a radioactive isotope to reduce its output by half.6 3 93 222 ~ 124 296 21.9 Hafflives X&:G __ 38. Emission of gamma rays (photons). ionising radiation means gamma rays. Radioactive materials decay by at least one of five primary modes: 30 I. 50 Radioactive Decay Vb 169 half life 31 days 60 Ir 192 half life 74 days Co 60 half life 5.5 186 days 444 days co 60 80 15. 5. Irl92 has a higher specific activity than C060.2 •. BASIC PHYSICS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY 10 Specific activity relates the curie output to the physical size of the source and is measured in curies per gram (Ci/gm).3 2 Vb 169 If" 192 62 148 10. 2. Spontaneous fission. 4. A loss of activity will be the result of decay and most radionucJide will decay through disintegration.8 years IONISATION 90 Ionisation is simply the formation of ions which are positively or negatively charged particles.g. x-rays or corpuscular radiations which are capable of producing ions either directly or indirectly. Emission of alpha particles (helium nucleus).tlt &: T P O'Ntitl IISU" 9 311Ol109 R3-8 . Electron capture or positron emission. From the table above. Rl·! 5 6 155 370 26. alter 3 half lives.3 years Typical replacement e.

Furthermore. photons are deflected by outer electrons but do not change in energy or release any electrons. The photon scattering is in the forward direction...-. " •. ..i11 Issue 9 31103109 R4-1 .!" .••• _. Because scatter rays are less penetrating. ..... The thicker the object being radiographed..-----""0.. 50 Rayleigh scattering In the process. a wall.. or another object close to the object being radiographed which is struck by the radiation.. 20 10 Scatter radiation is less penetrating than primary radiation from which it is derived. "" " . they can be intercepted by a sheet of lead./ 0/ -----0.. some of the radiation scatters in all directions by the atoms which form the object.. This scatter results in an overallfogging of the film and reduces the contrast and sharpness of the radiographic image.. 60 This process accounts for less than 20% of the total attenuation of a radiation beam. The intensity of ionising radiation is reduced by at least one of the following types of interaction: a..... & T P O'N... 100 'e Ruan. . ABSORPTIO~ AND SCATTERI]\G SCATTER When radiographic exposures are being made. d...: -c-. although heavier filters may also be needed if the scatter is heavy.. / ---- o 80 e cl e <.~ •.. Rayleigh scattering is most relevant when dealing with low energies of radiation passing through materials consisting of elements with a high atomic number.... the ground. Photons 70 · . Photoelectric effect.7'-. Pair production 30 40 The extent of absorption and scattering is governed by the energy of the primary radiation and the atomic number of the elements making up the medium through which the radiation is traveIling. Compton effect. Vi I-#:. Scattered radiation may seriously effect the quality of a radiographic image and may also increase the radiation dose levels in the working viscinity. i.~< ! . The photon is consumed and the excess energy imparts kinetic energy to the electron. this is also liable to fog the film.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 'OTES llNIT IU . this is one reason for using lead screens on either side of the film in a film cassette during exposure. b. . ~~-. c.e... the greater the amount of scatter.. o 0 -0--------" 90 ---Photoelectric effect The photoelectric effect is an interaction between a photon and an orbiting electron which causes an electron to be ejected..•.. they have a longer wavelength.... will partially re-emit the rays in the form of back seal/er. Rayleigh scattering.

5 MeV 100 e e .' .:. In this process..o _0 -----~------.'i ... Photon 50 40 ~.J. When a high energy photon collides with the nucleus of the atom. e.•.(:.. " Photons r O'NeUl R4-2 e 9 31/03109 . -- --~-".. .. a photon interacts with a free or weakly bonded outer electron.··!.._ J ri /"-0.~--~/ "0. o I ~ 30 ----. _- Ejected electron (-) -... '•.. o ~ c·---~~ 20 --- "e .--o-·-'.- ..... The photon emerges from the collision as scattered radiation of reduced energy.02 MeV).- ~ 0.. the energy of the photon is absorbed and produces an electron and a positron. ...' o Ejected electron (-) Scattered radiation ! 60 .. less than 100 keY in steel. 80 90 Photons > 1...~.~#i...5 MeV 0...5 MeY. Very soon after. part of the photon's energy is transferred to the electron which is ejected..... 8 ...._c..Ruane & 11 TPO'Nel/l :\OTt:S UI'iIT R4 • ABSORPTIO~ ANI> sex TTERING This process applies to ionising radiation of relatively low energy. and also to higher energy radiation up to about 2 MeV when passing through materials containing elements of high atomic number._ o Ruant' I••• & T ..c.. I' ••• Ejected electron (-) ..02 MeV o o CoIlison and annih~alion Ejected positron (+) . (> ••.. Pair production This effect occurs at very high radiation energies (above 1.. . 10 Photons • : r .... "'-0 . the electron and the positron collide and both are destroyed but release two photons each with energies of 0.g. / /.:> 70 .. Compton scattering This is also called the Compton effect...--.

Example configurations are: • 40 Thin discs: typically up to 3.3.0 mm diameter. 80 90 BS 5650 Category J containers are containers from which the sealed source is not removed for exposure.5 mm diameter disc to a 4 mm x 4 mm cylinder. Category IJ containers are those from which the sealed source is projected from the container via a projection sheath (guide tube) to an exposure head.A portable exposure container designed to be carried by one man alone. • 60 Class P . Cylindrical: typically up to 4 mm in length. There are a number of different designs for containers. & T P O·N.ill Issue 9 31103109 R5-1 . Class M . Rotating type (Category I). 20 30 The sources available range in size and configuration from 0. Titanium is used for Yb169 capsules and is an alternative to stainless steel for Ir192 andCo60. To comply with BS 5650 (ISO 3999).0 mm thick. • • The capsule is made from either 3 16 S 12 grade stainless steel or titanium.A fixed installed exposure container or one with mobility restricted to the confines of a particular working area. i. An exposure head will be a form of collimator. Another type of container is the larch type. Projection type (Category 11).A mobile but not portable exposure container designed to be moved easily by a suitable means provided for the purpose. This type of container should no longer be used because of relatively high radiation doses received by the user and the high risk of overexposure. mechanically or pneumatically. • • 70 An exposure container must be provided either with an integral lock or with hasps through which separate padlocks can be fitted. Spherical: 0. the most common types are: • • • Shutter type (Category I).6 . Class F . apparatus for gamma radiography is classified according to the mobility of the exposure container. they may operate electrically.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill i'\OT[S UNIT R5 • RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT GAMMA SOURCES \0 Sealed sources The source of gamma radiation. These can be stacked together. On all exposure containers the radiation can only be exposed after an unlocking operation. the radioisotope. The locks must be either lockable without the key or an integral lock from which the key cannot be removed when the container is in the working position.e.0 mm diameter x 1. 50 Classification and types of exposure container BS 5650: /978: Specification for opparatus for gamma radiography. is enclosed in a capsule sometimes referred to as a pill. 100 o RUIn. which is typically in disc or cylindrical form.

. U~IT R5 . . --'----'-. Torch type 40 Shutter type (Category I type to BS 5650) shutter 50 . . RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT The container houses the source within a torch assembly and also a short handle source holder 20 30 sealed source : ~-. - sealed source 70 Shutter type Rotating type {Category I type to BS 5650) shielding material 80 ... a spring load plunger pushes part of the assembly down producing a shielding effect so as to produce a narrow beam of radiation. .•. Direct handling of torch assembly types is no longer permitted. The handle is fitted to the torch assembly. \ shielding material / j I I 60 ~ ~.... are mostly used for casting and forgings and give a directional coned beam only..•.Ruane & 11 T P OWeiJ/ Torch type BS 5650 does not cover apparatus operated by 10 removing the sealed source from the exposure container by using a manual handling device because its use is prohibited in certain national regulations.---P'" rotates 90 Rotating type 100 Shutter and rotating types can now only be used with remote control operation.. shielding material ... : I .ill J 1103109 R5-2 . . As the torch assembly is withdrawn from the container.\ . This type of container is now obsolete. this is secured in the main container by a bayonet fixing. They c Roant ISSUt' & T P O'N..•.

'. the pigtail and source are moved along a guide tube by means of a cable until the source reaches the exposure head (which is fixed in the working position). There are two interactions responsible for the production of x-rays. T P O'NtiU Iss. The source is attached to a special connector called a pigtail. encompassing an anode (the positive electrode).. strike a solid target. The cable is retracted to return the source to its container at the end of the exposure. X-RAY GENERATION 70 X-rays used in industrial radiography are produced from electrical machines usually referred to as x-ray sets. These are: 80 90 100 o Ruane &. 30 I i ~ lock assembly 40 . the x-rays themselves being produced from within an x-ray tube.. The cable is driven along by means of a hand-cranked wind out mechanism. or it can be pneumatically or electrically controlled. The cathode contains a filament within a curved reflector or focusing cup.e 9 Jl/Ol/ll9 R5-3 . An x-ray tube consists of an evacuated glass bulb. The beam strikes a target set into the anode which results in the release of energy. X-rays are produced when high speed electrons. . source assembly connector S-lube 50 shielding material sealed source Projection type CoUimators 60 Collimators are usually used with gamma sources during exposures for safety reasons and sometimes to improve radiographic quality by reducing scatter from walls or objects close to the beam.. The projection type can be further classified as an S-type or straight-through type. 20 handle i I reI . produced for example in an x-ray tube. When the filament is heated to a white hot state by a current flow of a few amperes. X-radiation is also a form of electromagnetic radiation and differs from y rays only in its mechanism of production. and a cathode (the negative electrode). this energy consists of approximately 97-99% heat and 1-3 % x-rays for conventional x-ray tubes up to 300 kV. Rusne & // TP O'Ne/1f UNIT R5 • RADIOGRAPHIC Projection type (Category 11type BS 5650) EQUII)I\1ENT 10 This type is also known as a remote control or wind out type. While y rays are a product of spontaneous radioactive decay... electrons are emitted and are attracted towards the anode in a concentrated beam formed by the focusing cup. x-rays are generally created artificially by an x-ray set.

the energy of which is equal to the energy difference between the two orbits. I 70 Gloss envelope ~----------~------~------~~ 80 90 100 Because of the high amount of heat energy produced. c RUin.. b. EQUIPMENT . The radiation produced by this interaction is referred to as 'bremsstrahlung' radiation (bremsstrahlung is German for braking radiation'). . and this process again results in the emission of x-radiation. '" T P O'Nrill Is••• 9 31103109 RS-4 . Bremsstrahlung radiation is emitted in a wide spectrum of energies. copper has a low melting point. U~IT R5 • RADIOGRAPHIC a. the anode is made from copper to conduct away the heat. Except for special applications. An electron from a higher orbit falls into the vacant space that remains in the inner orbit and in doing so emits a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. it is the bremsstrahlung radiation that constitutes most of the x---rny output. The x-radiation produced by this process is referred to as 'characteristic' x-radiation. But. so to prevent the copper melting. Incoming electrons will also be slowed down by the field of force around the nucleus. 20 Production of x-rays 30 characteristic x-rays 40 path of incoming e bremsstrahtung x-rays 50 60 Thus a typical x-ray energy spectrum will be of a continuous nature and will show characteristic spikes at discrete energies that are dependent on the target material and the difference in the energies of its electron orbits (see figure 9). a slip of metal with a high melting point is recessed into the anode at the point which is struck by the electron beam. Ruane & 11 T P O'Ne/1f :\OTlS . 10 The incoming electrons have sufficient energy to eject an inner orbital electron from the target atoms.

•.. & T P O·N. RADIOGRAPHIC ... the higher the atomic number of the element struck by electrons." EQUIPMENT . and its high atomic number of74. gas.C. The area on the target which is struck by the electrons is called the focal spot...c . I \ I \ \ . 90 100 e Ruan. circuit . lead lined container. TP O'Neill '\OTt:S Ruane & // . FWRC is known as a Graetz circuit. The tubehead is controlled from the control panel.. '. x-rays can only be produced when the current is travelling from the cathode (-ve) to the anode (+ve). because.. UNIT U5 . .-. 10 The target serves another purpose.. I I . the greater will be the intensity and energy of the x-rays produced. oil or water normally being employed for this purpose. In an x-ray tube. + -. this area should be large enough to avoid local overheating. / •. this produces full wave rectified d. on the direction of current flow... 60 Graetz circuit + 70 80 By reversing the half cycle by rectification.. although from the radiographic image quality point of view.c. the complete unit commonly being referred to as the x-ray tubehead.(self rectified) 40 I /. When used in x-ray sets. The cooling system and the insert are contained together in an earthed. 30 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN X-RAY TUBES A. The target is usually made of tungsten because of its high melting point of 3370°C. ..i11 tssue 9 J IJOJI09 RS-S .. 20 Additional cooling is required to cool the anode. \ \ I 50 The effect of a. '\. the focal spot should be as small as possible to provide good definition (sharpness) on the radiograph.

is to use a circuit incorporating diodes and capacitors in series with the high voltage transformer.T UNIT RS . \ .. 10 j I j I I " " ' \ I I I I \ I I I I I ~ ...•.. When used in x-ray sets. . from a.c. \ -I \ I - . This circuit doubles the peak voltage from the transformer and produces a waveform as shown above. this smooth constant potential (CP) waveform is known as a Greinacher circuit. . ..(constant potential) + 50 60 Further improvements can be made to the FWRC waveform by introducing capacitors which flatten or smooth the rippling to produce the waveform shown above.••.. RADIOGRAPHIC Villard circuit . 70 80 90 100 o Ruan... .. When used in x-ray sets which use this kind of double waveform. .. EQl1IPME!. Greinacher 40 circuit . .. 11< T P O'NtiU 1•••• 9 31/03109 RS-6 .-"' . Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 l\OTES . it is all in the -ve half of the cycle and is therefore direct current. \ + I \ -. . .c.•. Although the waveform is oscillating. 20 30 Another means of obtaining d. it is known as a Villard circuit.

states the maximum kV values for this reason. which results in a reduction of wavelength. i. typical maximum values are 200 kV.lnimum cable length) The timer is usually calibrated in minutes. The greater the intensity of electrons striking the target. i.. Kilovoltage (kV) The kV governs the wavelength or quality of'x-rays produced which practically governs penetrating power. An increase in kV. has an adverse affect on the contrast and definition of a radiographic image. The exposure time will partially govern how much radiation is going to reach the film. this value is usually at. when the equipment is activated. 20 ~ o 2 ~o TDp(1Wer ra warning l]Slcm 30 4 40 Timer 50 • -- Timer • • rox. The exposure time for an exposure is preset.e. RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT The x-ray equipment control panel 10 The three controls that govern a radiographic exposure using x-rays are the timer.e. .g. the timer counts down from the pre-set value. the value being measured across the tube. Ruane & 11 TP O'Nelll :'IoOT[S U~IT R5 . when the electrons strike the target. the maximum mA possible with the equipment for the purpose of minimising exposure time. between the cathode and the anode. 250 kV and 300 kV. The value required for a specific exposure is usually pre-set on the panel. The mA control on conventional x-ray equipment may only allow for a maximum of 6 to 12 mA to be used. the current flow through the filament is increased. Milliamps (mA) The mA controls the intensity or quantity of x-rays. which causes the filament to get hotter resulting in an increase in the intensity of electrons released. a shortening of wavelength. Certain standard specifications. BS EN 1435 Radiography of welds.a ne & T P O'Ncill I•••• 9 J llOllO9 R5-7 . i. When the mA is increased. When the kV is increased. 60 70 80 90 The kV meters on the control panels for conventional x-ray equipment are peak kV values measured across the tube. The value required for a specific exposure is usually pre-set on the panel. between the cathode and the anode.e.raJIuk (20 PI ". Therefore. e. the greater the intensity of the x-rays produced. the mA control and the kV control. the speed of the electron flow from the cathode to the anode is increased. The maximum kV which can be used is primarily governed by the tubehead. the kinetic energy is increased. or close to. 100 Cl R.

at the accessible surface of the pipe when exposed. Any control isotope used should not exceed 100 J.. Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill . it is essential that suitable warning signals are given and are capable of alerting persons in the vicinity of the crawler. they are not visible from the outside of the pipeline. Because pipeline crawlers are used inside the pipeline.h. 1 80 90 100 o R ••••• lsJ. Signals that operate automatically should be linked by some method to the crawler. The useful beam from crawlers should be restricted so that the beam width does not exceed 120 mm at the circumference of the pipe.lSv.--------r--. or they may be operated remotely via a cable with the power source outside the pipeline. Pipeline crawler equipment 70 Machines have been developed specifically for the radiographic examination of pipeline welds using either x-ray units or gamma sources. this is normally achieved by using sensors linked to warning lights which operate as soon as they detect ionising radiation.. Cl CI:S G> . battery pack or generator. 40 • >< ::I 200 >CI:S ~ 100 50 o 60 25 50 mm 75 100 Penetrated thickness. i.e 9 & T P O'Neill 31103109 R5-8 . RADIOGR<\PHIC X-Ray Tube Voltage required to penetrate steel of various thicknesses S Fine-qrain film T Medium-speed film 10 400r-------. . Note: The curves for voltage are not extended beyond 400 kV as there is no commercial x-ray equipment in use in this country operating between 400 kV and 1000 kV. therefore.e. EQUIPMEl'"T UNIT R5 .----. Crawlers available usually have an integrated audible pre-exposure alarm and an exposure alarm. These machines may have a power source attached to the radiation source.D. A separate warning signal is sometimes integrated when the crawler is in motion.•.r-----~ T 20 300 ~ 30 a) '0 > . .

1 mm. The guide consists of a series of cavities which produce gaps when the rf power is applied. 20 Electrically charged particles are made available for acceleration from a heated cathode and injected into a very high vacuum tube and collimated to bombard special targets and produce x-rays.RUBne & 11 TP O'Nel11 . Betatrons can be manufactured up to 300 MeV and an 11 MeV can penetrate steel up to 300 mm thick. 10 Electrostatic generators The Van de GrafJe electrostatic generator consists of a rapidly moving insulated belt onto which is sprayed an electric charge which is carried to a hemispherical high voltage terminal. The target size is about 2. This means that the path of the electrons can be increased over a smaller overall area. Electron linear accelerators 30 These are commonly referred to as linacs or simply linear accelerators. the 100 mm thick steel shell of a nuclear reactor at a power station in Wales was radiographed at a distance of9 m using ultrafine grain film with a 20 minute exposure. Each exposure covered 3 m of weld. . Linacs accelerate electrons down a guide by means of radio frequency (rf) voltages. The 4 MeV linac was mounted centralIy on a rotating stand in the centre of the shell. This produces a high voltage difference with respect to the lower end. 70 50 60 80 90 100 o Ruant' & T P O'N~iII Iss ee 9 31/03/09 RS-9 . 40 The focal spots can be as small as 0. The Betatron This machine is based on the same principle as the linac but the electron guide is a spiral.5 mm. This 4 MeV was transportable and could readily be moved with lifting equipment. The energy in electron volts increases with the length of the tube. the rays energy at the other side. With phased power. UNIT R5 • RADIOGR. but is not transportable.\PHIC High energy units EQUIPMENT Radiography using x-ray energies of one million electron volts (1 MeV) or greater is considered to be in the high energy range. Portable x-ray betatrons are available with energy outputs up to 6 MeV. As an example. the electrons are accelerated along the guide to a target. The voltages are applied so that the electrons reach an acceleration point in the field at a precise time.


g. \0 Half value layer (HVL) is alternative terminology used. by changing kV or isotope type. so it is assumed that the exposure time for Figure I is higher to compensate in order to give the same density on either side A or side B.5 6 12 Steel HVT(mm) 4 6 12 15 13 20 Concrete HVT(mm) 22 26 28 31 40 65 30 200kV 250kV 300 kV lrl92 Co60 40 The HVT of a material can also be used to explain subject contrast in relation to wavelength (kV): Figure J shows that side A of the specimen has four times the intensity of radiation emerging from it in comparison with side B. Figure 1 . concrete and steel.g.0 1.Ruane & 11 T P O'Nelll :\OTES UNIT R6 . Figure 2 shows that side A of the specimen has two times the intensity of radiation emerging from it in comparison with side B. Note: The radiographic density produced in Figure J will be lower than Figure 2 if the exposures are identical.200 kV . for the construction of a radiation work bay in a factory. If the initial intensity of radiation increases. e. HALF YALUE THICK!\'ESS The half value thickness (HVT) of a material may be used as a guide for determining the thickness of a material to be used for shielding from radiation.g..3 0. if the wavelength (penetrating power) of the radiation is changed.----L u 70 !! 4R IR !! 8R 4R 80 Therefore. The lower the kV (longer the wavelength).5 1. The following table shows examples of the HVT for lead. the higher the subject contrast and therefore the higher the radiographic contrast. the resultant radiograph from the specimen in Figure I will display higher radiographic contrast (because of an increase in subject contrast) compared to the radiograph produced in Figure 2.250 kV . e.steel 60 SO Figure 2 .. The HVT of a specific material is the thickness which cuts down the radiation intensity by one half. However. by increasing the mA when using x-ray equipment.steel !! 1 16R !! ! ! ! ! 16R !! ! 12mmn-~~~~~~~~~~~TVTI':i. e. 100 o Ruane Issue & T P O'N~i11 9 31103109 R6-J . the HVT will remain the same. The tenth value thicknesses 90 (TVT) 0/ a material will reduce the radiation intensity by one tenth. Energy l50kV 20 Lead HVT(mm) 0. the HVT of a specific material will alter.


and higher radiographic contrast. The reason for two layers of emulsion is to give a faster film speed. 60 70 80 Supercoat (anti-abrasion layer) 90 Radiographic emulsion is susceptible to mechanical and chemical damage. i. These layers consist of millions of silver halide crystals (usually silver bromide). whereas slow mixing at high temperature produces emulsions with larger grains. with a solution of gelatine. Various shapes of crystals exist. the sizes of the crystals are usually between 0. 40 Base The physical characteristics of emulsion do not allow it to be used by itself without support. When large grain structures are required. it must allow for chemical reactions to take place in the processing tanks. therefore it is applied to a substrate known as the base. or at least reduce this. The sizes of these crystals and the distribution.e. are widely employed for such applications. rapid mixing at low temperature produces the finest grain structure. e. oil from the skin during handling.g. some silver iodide is usually included in the formula. the emulsion is coated with a layer of hardened gelatine.1 and 1. Glass is an ideal substrate to meet these requirements. on pipes. chemically inert and must not be susceptible to expansion and contraction. The base must be transparent. the base of a film is not totally transparent.g. Film emulsion is produced by mixing solutions of silver nitrate and salts. Polyester and cellulose triacetate. e. it is necessary for a flexible base to be used. the larger the crystal size the greater the sensitivity to radiation. although not quite as stable as glass. effect the final radiographic quality/appearance. to produce a fast emulsion. The rate and temperature of mixing governs the grain size.0 micrometers (urn) and are suspended in a gelatine binding medium..e. the material employed for this is gelatine plus a base solvent. Although the supercoat otTers some protection against chemical attack. 100 c R"an~ &. i. emulsion and supercoat. the radiographs can be produced quicker. but these shapes have virtually no effect on the final image. 20 30 The base is normally tinted blue and will therefore possess some density. Emulsion The layers of primary importance are the two emulsion layers. so to prevent.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill :\0 rES Vl\IT R7 • RAI>IOGRAPHIC FILM THE MAKE-UP 10 OF A RADIOGRAPHIC FILM Radiographic film is usually made up of seven layers: a central base layer and three coatings on either side consisting of a subbing layer. such as potassium bromide. Subbing layer (substratum) 50 The subbing layers adhere the emulsion to the base. but for applications where the objects to be radiographed are curved. T P O'NeiU 1•••• 9 ll/OllO9 R7-1 .

Film manufacturers may have their own scale which may work in the same or opposite way to the SCRATA scale. The terms used are usually relative. & T P O'NriD IQU' 9 31103109 R7-2 .g. Fine grain .poor radiographic quality but fast speed. The SCRATA scale is a scale often used for film factors. the smaller the film factor the faster the film. Salt screen type films are designed to be used exclusively with salt (fluorescent) intensifying screens. 30 FILM SPEED 40 A film factor is a number which relates to the speed of a particular film and is obtained from a films characteristic curve. 50 Example to the SCRA TA scale: A film with a factor of 10 will be twice as fast compared to a film with a factor of20. Radiographic films are also divided into two types: direct-type or salt screen type. a fine grain film may be considered la be fast or slow depending on what it is being compared against.TPO'Nei// Ruane & 11 U~IT R7 • RADIOGRAlll-llC FILM FILMTVPES Radiographic film may be graded in terms of grain size or speed: The terminology used for 10 grain size and speed can be misleading. Coarse grain . This means to say of the film with a factor of20 took four minutes to expose. They are able to produce radiographs with minimum exposure and are widely used in medical radiography.slow speed. e. Types of film with their corresponding SCRATA film factors: 60 Manufacturer Agfa Gevaert Dupont 70 Name RCF NDT91 NDT75 CX AX 07 NOT 55 D4 MX 02 Speed Fast Fast Medium Medium Medium Medium Slow Slow Slow Very slow Grain Coarse Coarse Fine Fine Fine Fine Very fine Very fme Very fme Ultra fine Film Factor Dupont Kodak Kodak Agfa Gevaert Oupont Agfa Gevaert Kodak 20 25 30 35 80 95 120 200 80 Agfa Gevaert 90 100 e Ruan.exceptional radiographic quality but very slow speed. Medium grain .medium speed. Some of these films may be suitable for use with fluorometallic or salt (fluorescent) intensifying screens. Direct-type films are intended for direct exposure to gamma or x-rays or for exposure using lead intensifying screens. 20 • • • • Ultra fine grain . then the film with a factor of 10 will require two minutes to give the same density.

The gradient on the curve gives information about film contrast .0 / / / / 1/ V 2. The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range within which the film contrast will be at its highest (usually optimum). A curve is produced by applying increasing exposures to adjacent areas of a strip of film. d.0 / / 1/ / j I / / / V / I1 / ~ lii z w LOG.a high contrast film will display a steep gradient. the densities are measured with a densitometer and then plotted on a graph against the corresponding exposures.0 2. The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information on film speed. because faster films attain density at lower exposures.5 60 I I I 70 80 V 90 ~ --. A characteristic curve will also show that the density does not vary in the same proportion as the applied exposure.0. Both the vertical axis (density) and horizontal axis (exposure) are calibrated in a logarithmic scale (logloE). I I 3. Sensitometric curve of STRUCTURIX Automatic processing: 8 minutes cycle using developer G 121/G 135 at 29-300 30 40 50 RC1 pi D4 021 3. EXP. For example. Therefore. CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF FILMS A characteristic curve is a curve on a graph produced for a particular film which shows the relationship between different exposures applied and the resulting densities. c.5 EL. Information which can be gained from a characteristic curve is as follows: 10 20 a.0 Cl 0.5 20 1.-/ 1. it will be seen that the faster films lie closer to the left vertical axis. 3.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll UNIT R8 . it would be possible to determine the new exposure for film type x in order to achieve a density of3. When the points obtained are joined together a curve will be produced.0 RCF & Iluorometallic screens 100 When characteristic curves of various films are superimposed on one graph.0. it should be appreciated that it is possible to obtain the relative film factors from the characteristic curves of films. o Ruane & T P O'NciU tssue 9 31/03/09 R8-1 .5 1. After development. if the exposure for film type y was 5 mA-mins to achieve a density of2. b. A new exposure time can be determined for a change of film type. this method is the most practical method for the size and interpretation of a curve.


they should be replaced by new screens. Lead screens intensify the image by emitting beta radiation (electrons) when struck by x-rays or gamma rays of sufficient energy. or stuck onto a thin sheet of paper when used with pre-packed film. Intensifying screens have an extra photographic effect on the emulsion thereby reducing the exposure needed to attain the required density. so that it will pass the primary radiation while stopping as much of the secondary radiation as possible. the thickness of the front screen must be matched to the wavelength of radiation being used. thus avoiding the problem of accidentally loading a film cassette with the rear screen at the front. LEAD SCREENS Lead screens consist of a thin lead foil of uniform thickness. If it is technically feasible. in cassettes as opposed to roll film or pre-packed film. o Ruant luu. when subjected to x-rays or gamma rays. Lead screens will also improve the radiographic image by partially filtering out scatter radiation. The intensification action is only achieved with x-rays above approximately 120 kV and gamma rays above similar energy levels. There are three main types of intensifying screens: Other metallic screens exist for less common 20 applications. High speed or rapid screens. 40 Scatter radiation has a 50 longer wavelength than the primary beam/ram which it is derived and is therefore less penetrating. Screens must be kept free from dust and scratches. they become dusty and should be frequently dusted with a fine brush. These screens. 30 Close contact between screens and film is essential in order to obtain sharp images. Screen thicknesses are usually between 0.' I< T P O'Nt~1 3\/03109 R9-J . FluorometaJlic screens. Fluorescent (salt) screens. Lead screens are pliable and should be handled with care if buckling is to be avoided. 3. 2. Two lead screens are used to sandwich the film. e. it is better to use screens of the same thickness. usually calcium tungstate. The rear screen cuts down the effect of back scattered radiation. emit light radiation to which the film is sensitive. When the screens become too scratched or dirty causing the radiographic quality to be impaired. If the lead screens are to be used more than once.15 mm. 60 70 80 FLUORESCENT (SALT)SCREENS Fluorescent screens are made up from micro crystals of a suitable metallic salt. usually stuck onto a thin base card in the case of reusable screens. they may be cleaned with cotton wool damped with a weak detergent solution.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nel1l UI\'IT R9 • INTEI\'SIFYING SCREENS GENERAL 10 A radiographic film is normally sandwiched between two intensifying screens when exposed to x-rays or gamma rays.g. if this is not done they may be seen as light indications on the radiographic image .especially if using fluorometallic or fluorescent screens. 2. If screens become too dirty or splashed with liquid. Lead screens. This light radiation results in a large increase of effective radiation. lOO 90 High definition (fine grain) screens.02 mm and 0. 1. applied to a supporting thin base card. There are two types of fluorescent screen: I.

they are made up of from a base card. Type 3 . substantial reductions in exposure time or kV can be achieved. on thick specimens.for x-rays 300-1000 kV. a lead layer. ~ 30 • • 40 Providing the correct type of fluorometallic screen and film are used with the range of radiation being used. 50 COMP ARISON OF INTENSIFYING SCREENS Screen type 60 The intensification factor relates /0 the reduction in exposure time. UV and beta particles N/A 2 70 80 90 100 Cl Ruane &.for C060. Their application is similar to those applications where fluorescent screens may be used. Because the lead layer will partially filter out scatter radiation. but the image will still retain a grainy appearance due to the salt crystals.g.Ruane & 11 TP O'Nelfl UNIT R9 • INTENSIFYING SCREENS A radiograph obtained using fluorescent screens will have a grainy appearance due to the screens salt grains resulting in low definition compared to a radiograph taken using lead screens or no screens at all. These screens are not commonly used due to high cost. Order of image quality 1 4 3 Order of speed 3 1 2 4 Intensification factor 2-4 8-15 5-10 N/A How intensification achieved Beta particles is Lead Fluorescent Fluorometallic None Light radiation and UV Light radiation. an intensification factor of 3 will reduce exposure from say six minutes /0 two minutes. Ir 192.g. FLUOROMETALLIC 20 SCREENS Fluorometallic screens are a combination of a salt screen and a lead screen. the image produced on the radiograph will be better than one obtained using fluorescent screens. fluorescent screens are only used to avoid excessively long exposure times. on very thick specimens.e.for x-rays up to 300 kV. T P O'Nrill Issue' JI/OJ/09 R9-2 . e. e. 10 Because of the resulting loss of image quality. Type 2 . i. There is more than one type of fluorometaIlic screen: • Type I . a salt layer (calcium tungstate) and a thin protective layer.

The radiation finally emerging at the film side of the object will largely determine the final characteristics of the radiograph. in this context. 20 30 The affected crystals are then essentially amplified by the developer.this is the latent image. The portions of radiographic film which receive sufficient quantities of actinic radiation undergo minute changes. this hidden image is known as the latent image. These changes are so small they are invisible to the naked eye and also invisible when using conventional microscopes. The latent image can be defined as the hidden image on a radiographic film after exposure to actinic radiation but before development. 4.Ruane & 11 T P O'Hefll :\ O'IT S UNIT RIO· IMAGE FORMATION When radiation passes through an object it is differentially absorbed depending upon the thickness and any differing material densities. The sequence of processes to attain a radiographic image are as follows: 1. radiation alone does not convert a radiographic film into a visible readable image. is that which will affect the film emulsion. The radiograph attains its final appearance by fixation. Therefore. the fixer removes the unexposed and therefore undeveloped crystals. the developer completely converts the affected crystals into metallic silver. i.e. The silver halide crystals which have absorbed a sufficient quantity of radiation are partially converted into metallic silver .ilJ bsue!ll 31103109 RIO-J . 3. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cl Ru ••• " T P O·N. 10 Actinic radiation. form a latent image. 2. Washing removes the chemicals (fixer).


T PO'Neill

Ruane & 11



Processing of radiographs may be carried out manually or by using automatic processors. Manual processing takes place in a darkroom under the illumination of safelights which usually consist of ordinary light bulbs behind orange filters. Other colours for filters exist, but the colour chosen must emit light of a wavelength which does not detrimentally affect the emulsion. The darkroom should preferably be divided into two sides, a dry side for loading and unloading of cassettes and a wet side for processing; this is so the films are not splashed prior to development. The wet side of the darkroom will usually have five tanks arranged in the following sequence: I. Developer tank. 2. 3.



Stopbath or rinse tank. Fixer tank. Final wash tank.


5. Wetting agent tank.
When the exposed film has been unloaded from its cassette, it is placed into aframe spiral if its a long film) and placed into the developer.



General rules
Darkrooms must be light-tight, must be kept clean and everything must be kept in its place.


The loading bench (the dry side) must be on the opposite side to the processing tanks (the wet side). The distance between should be wide enough for two people to pass. The loading bench should have storage space (drawers and cupboards) underneath for films, chemicals etc .. There must be at least one central white light and two safelights, one over the loading bench, one over the processing tanks. There must be electric sockets conveniently placed for extra electrical equipment. There must be ventilation baffled against light and an exhaust fan, also baffled. The entrance door should be spring loaded for self-closing and baffled all round against light. The entrance door should be lockable from the outside but not from the inside. The darkroom walls should be painted washable white or cream, except for the walls by the entrance which should be matt black.




An electric supply is essential (mains or generator). A running water supply is desirable but in some cases on isolated sites, water may have to be carried.


Processing tanks - There should be a minimum of four processing tanks; one for developer, one for rinse, one for fixer and one twice as large for the wash. An extra tank is desirable for wetting agent. Drying cabinet - Desirable but not essential for a low output of radiographs.



Cl Ruant

& T P O'NtHI

Issue 9 31/03109


Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill




Immersion heater - plunger type. Timer.

Film hangers. Film clips. Cassettes. Screens.


Films. Chemicals - Developer, replenisher and fixer. Miscellaneous items - Plastic bucket, mop, swabs, brush, paper towels, large waste paper basket or box and a chair.


Layout of a typical industrial darkroom



40 S



Below are cupboards

DRY BENCH (For loading & unloading film cassettes)

storing cassettes, films & chemicals













e Ruane

11<T P O'Ntl1l JIIOJI09


Ruane & 11 TP OWell1
:'\OT ES




Radiation causes a latent image to form on the film. A latent image cannot be discerned with the naked eye. Developing changes the latent image into a visual image by blackening the irradiated silver halides. Stop bath or rinse stops the action of the developer by neutralisation surplus chemicals. and removes the


Fixer removes unaffected silver halides and hardens the gelatine. Final wash removes all chemicals from the film, preventing chemical fogging. Developer> film to be developed for 4 minutes at 68°F (20°C) regularly agitated. It should be topped up with replenisher and changed after twice its own volume of replenisher has been added. Concentrated developer is mixed to a dilution of I part plus 4 parts water but when used as a replenisher, the ratio is I part plus 3 parts of water, i.e. I gallon of concentrate makes 5 gallons of developer.


Hot weather processing


. Through the summer months, darkrooms and chemical solutions frequently get warmer than normal. For best results, the developer, fixer and wash water should be kept at the same temperature. Ice should not be placed in the solution because excessive dilution will result as the ice melts. Although processing films in hot solution is not recommended, satisfactory radiographs can be produced in solution up to 35°C. Water temperatures can shoot up to dangerous heights, even in air conditioned darkrooms. Prolonged washing at high temperatures may damage film, therefore, if the water is too warm, washing must be kept to a minimum. Automatic water mixes will require watching too, they cannot keep water any cooler than the temperature of the cold water supply. Restrainer With temperatures up to 24°C, no extra precautions are needed. However, when temperatures range between 27°C and 35°C, restrainer can be added to the developer. A restrainer for developing solutions is made up of 18 g of sodium bicarbonate per litre of diluted developer, or 4.5 g of concentrated solution.



The total amount of proper restrainer needed for a full tank of developer should be weighed out and then dissolved in approximately 200 ml of warm water. The resulting solution should be added to the developer and the mixture stirred thoroughly. Rinse The gelatin in the emulsion swells more in warm solutions and absorbs more developer. Therefore longer rinsing times are required at higher temperatures. Poorly rinsed films carry more alkali into the fixer and thereby reduce the speed and hardening action of the fixer. Fixing at high temperatures A fixing bath that contains an acid hardener minimises the tendency of the emulsion to frill during the final washing. Even when rinsing is done carefully, the fixer acidity declines with use. The addition of fixer replenisher will maintain pH 4.5 and the fixer's hardening ability. Washing film in hot weather In the summer, excessive washing should be avoided. Prolonged immersion in warm water may cause the emulsion to frill. To determine the correct rate of water flow, measure the time required to refill the tank after removing a given quantity of water and adjust the flow so that water in the tank changes at least 10 times each hour.




OR ••••


Iss ee 931/03109


Ruane & 11 TPO'Nell1

lll'\IT RII
Drying film in hot weather


The high relative humidity generally prevailing in hot weather increases the time required to dry an Xsray film. Three of the factors that affect drying time are:

I. 2.

the degree to which the film has been hardened in the fixer; the length oftime it was washed;

3. the water absorbing property of the gelatin used to make the emulsion. Methods of controlling the first two factors have been described previously. Faster processible film is recommended, especially because it absorbs a minimum of water. Overnight cooling


In laboratories where 10 - 20 litre solution tanks are used, the following recommendations may prove useful.

Before closing the laboratory for the day, remove 4 litres of developer and 4 litres of fixer and place them in separate labelled glass containers. Store them in a refrigerator overnight and in the morning, add chilled solutions to the warm solution to bring the working temperature closer to normal. Make certain the bottles are dedicated and correctly labelled.



Developer is an alkali and is usually supplied as a liquid concentrate and is diluted with water at a ratio governed by the manufacturers instructions, e.g. 1 part developer to 4 parts water.


Developer temperature and development time should be in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations or specification, but for manual processing is typically 20° ± I °C for 4 to 5 minutes. The time should be taken from when the film hits the developer with a suitable darkroom timer. Once the film is in the developer it is agitated for approximately 20 seconds and then for approximately 10 seconds every minute. Agitation allows for fresh developer to flow over the film and prevents the possibility of bromide streaking; agitation also cuts down development time. The developer supplies a source of electrons (-ve ions) which cause the chemical changes in the emulsion. The frames or spirals should be tapped against the tanks to prevents any air bubbles settling on the film which can cause light spots on the fmished radiograph. Developer Constituents Developing agent(s) Accelerator Preservative Action Preferentially reduces the exposed silver halide crystals (+ve ions) to black metallic silver. A chemical which gives an alkaline reaction which speeds up development Prevents oxidation of the developer. Controls the level of development fogging. Prevents the formation of scale. Chemicals in common use Metol. Hydroquinone. Phenidone Borax. Sodium carbonate. Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulphate. Potassium bromide. Sodium. Hesarnetaphosphate.





Restrainer Sequestering a~ent


C>Ruanc &. T P O'Ntill
b ••• 9 J 1103/09


Replenishment ensures that the activity of the developer and the developing time required remains constant throughout the useful life of the developer. if the milky image disappears in 3 minutes. failing to do so may result in light spots on the film. If/he crystals are unexposed they will not have been developed. for at least 20 minutes. A fresh water tank. 50 FIXER Fixer is an acid which is supplied as a liquid concentrate and is to be diluted with water. i.g. after looking under the illumination of the safe lights. When approximately I m2 of film has been developed. This stops the reaction of the developer. The fixer contains chemicals. typically at a ratio of I part fixer to 3 parts water (follow manufacturers instructions). Yellow fog appears on films which have not been sufficiently washed. as a guideline . they are then readily dissolved or removed at the fmal wash stage. 70 80 When the fixer becomes exhausted. thereby producing radiographs of a diagnostic (readable) quality. O'Ntill Issue 9 31/03/09 Rll-5 .e. A common guide for the remixing time is when the replenisher added exceeds twice the volume of the original developer. the fixer should be replaced. The films must be agitated in the fixer.when the fixing time is over 10 minutes. 100 Cl Ra•• e & T . After continuous replenishment the quality of the image will be affected and the developer will have to be changed. the films are returned to the fixing tank for another 3 minutes.g. FILM PROCESSI~G Replenishment \0 The activity of the developer gradually decreases with use and age. 60 Fixation is the process which removes the undeveloped silver halide crystals and fixes the remaining developed crystals. A water spray rinse. e. Films should be placed and agitated in the stopbathlrinse tank for at least 10 seconds. the fixer will soon become neutralised. The exhausted fixer is retained because silver may be reclaimed via electrolysis methods. The fixing time is twice the time it takes for the image to clear. total fixing time 6 minutes. e. 40 The most efficient type of stopbath is an acid stopbatb which is typically made up of 2% glacial acetic acid in water. if this is not done properly.g. due to the developer being an alkali and the stopbath an acid. ammonium or sodium thiosulphate. 20 STOPBATH The stopbath may be: 30 • • • An acid stopbath. This removes any soluble silver compounds left behind in the emulsion after fixing and removes the fixer which is an acid. about 400 ml (2 cups) of replenish er needs to be added. FINAL WASH 90 Films should be washed preferably in a tank with constant running water. e. Fixers are not usually replenished.Ruane & 11 T P O'Nei/J :\ 0 TI: S UI\IT RII . which convert the unwanted unexposed halides into water soluble compounds. a hardening agent is also added.

Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OT[S UNIT RII .m Issue 9 31/03/09 Rll-6 . Typical drying times are 15 minutes in a drying cabinet. otherwise black marks will remain on the radiograph. 30 The drying time will depend on the temperature. 45 minutes in a drying room. other specially designed drying apparatus or a dust free drying room. Wetting agents are supplied as a liquid concentrate and is to be diluted with water at a ratio of approximately I part wetting agent to 4000 parts of water. 40 50 60 70 80 90 lOO o R••••• & TPO'N. FILM PROCESSING WETTING AGENT Wetting agent reduces the surface tension of the water and results in even drying of the film. air circulation and the relative humidity of the warm air. Films are only dipped in and out of the wetting agent. this prevents black spots or streaks. 10 20 DRYING THE FILM Initially excess water is removed from the films with a squeegee and then placed in either a drying cabinet. Care must be taken not to allow drops of water to fall onto the drying films.

Example: If the incident light was 100 times greater than the transmitted light: 100 I Density Density = LoglO 80 = 2. i. Sensitivity measurements give an overall guide as to the radiographic technique's ability to detect fine defects.0 3. The greater the amount of black metallic silver grains present in an area on a radiograph. transmitted light is light transmitted through a film when the film is on the viewer. e.Radiographic contrast is the degree of difference between density fields on a radiograph. this compares the incident light (I.0 5. 2. if either of these qualities are lacking then the sensitivity is lacking. 50 More radiation passes through the thinner sections of a specimen. areas where cracks or lack of fusion are present. 40 A high density or dark area absorbs more light than a low density or light area. 10 Density .g. LOglO ~ 60 Density = It The viewer must be capable 70 of white light intensities suitablefor viewing radiographs up to the maximum permissible densities.The density of a radiograph relates its degree of blackness. Definition .e.Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill :\OTES UNIT nI2 . Contrast .0 100 % light transmitted through the radiograph 10% 1% 0.001% c Ru•••• & T PO'N.0 Density 90 l.Sensitivity is a term used to give an indication of overall radiographic 3.Radiographic definition is the degree of sharpness at the boundaries of density fields. Sensitivity is affected directly by the contrast and definition. Density is measured using a densitometer and sensitivity is measured using an image quality indicator (IQI). 4.iII I ss ee 9 31/03/09 RI2-1 . nADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY Radiographic quality can be discussed using four main terms: I.1% 0. Measuring density Density on a processed radiograph is measured using an instrument called a densitometer. the more light is absorbed and the denser the area appears. 30 DENSITY The density of a radiograph relates its degree of blackness. Sensitivity quality. .0 4.01% 0. 20 There are two qualities of a radiograph usually measured: density and sensitivity. therefore these areas will eventually show up on the radiograph as dark (dense) areas.) with the transmitted fight (IJ and expresses the result as a logarithmic ratio. Incident light is light from the viewer.0 2.

If an application specification is not permitting any detected defects in the weld whatsoever.. C060 gives good latitude.a. Low k V x-ray gives poor latitude CONTRAST .. Developer temperature too high. then it would be necessary to have a range of tones on the radiographs so that the through thickness depth of the defects and the height of weld reinforcements can be assessed.0. e. required by specifications is typically between 1. i. 10 times mor.. i.m.e.0 than for a density of 2. i. The maximum density stated in a specification will typically be 3. Solution of developer too strong.. depending on the defects through thickness dimensions.e. high contrast is ideal for detecting defects..3. it depends on the aim of the radiographic technique.0 than for a density of3.g. the optimum contrast may lie between these two is the case with certain types of m. 100 times more light passes through the radiograph for a density of 1. If.0 or 2. Note: We are assuming that there are thickness changes or material density changes present in order to display density changes. Radiographic contrast is the degree of difference between density fields on a radiograph. the weld. an application specification permitted certain defects. Incorrect developer.e.0 and 2..e. when only tones of a similar density exist the contrast is low.. i.0 or 3. Excessive development time.. In this situation the specification may specify that the density is to be measured inunediately adjacent to the weld reinforcement. 100 The following chart shows the criteria which affect radiographic contrast: Cl Ruane & T P Q'Ntill tssue 9 31103109 R12-2 . 60 • RADIOGRAPHIC 70 Latitude: The range of thicknesses which can be viewed on a radiograph. However. 10 The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1.0 is a factor of 100. Developer temperature too low. Before use.0 and 3. to gain more information about the through thickness dimensions of any defects and the weld itself. Lack of density .Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OlES UNIT IU2 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1.causes • • • 40 Under exposure to radiation. greys in addition to black and whites. Insufficient development time.0 is a factor of 10. welds.a strip of film containing known densities on the same viewer which is to be used for interpreting the radiograph.e.5. this is not always practical to determine when the area of interest has many thickness changes and therefore density changes . light passes through the radiograph for a density of 1. Solution of developer too weak. 30 The minimum density in the area of interest.5. then the contrast should ideally be as high as possible. high. depending on the class. however.causes 50 • • • • Over exposure to radiation. 80 90 Therefore. i.5 and 2. densitometers should be calibrated using a calibrated density strip . as well as length and/or width. 20 BS EN /435 states that the minimum optical density shall be greater or equal to 2. Incorrect developer. Exhausted developer. • • • Excessive density .•• When a radiograph contains only blacks and whites and no intermediate tones the contrast. we need to have intermediate tones.

Activity of the developer 20 Subject contrast is the ratio of x-ray or gamma ray intensities transmitted by two selected portions of a specimen. 90 Measuring radiographic definition Radiographic defmition is not usually measured exclusively. Wrongly mixed developer. Film contrast is independent. but can be measured by the use of a duplex type IQI. Fog. Insufficient fixation. It depends on the type of film. compensated for by shortened development time. 100 Cl Ru ••• Issue' 8< T P lllOlI09 O'N. the wavelength of the radiation used and the intensity and distribution of the scattered radiation but is independent of time. Incorrect developer. kV/penetrating power too low.m R12-3 . Prolonged development in too cold a developer or exhausted developer. A wire type IQI used to assess sensitivity primarily gives information radiographic contrast.causes • • • 60 • Radiation wavelength too short. but could be measured by the use of a step wedge type J. Perfect defmition can never be obtained due to the existence of penumbra and the films inherent unsharpness. RAIlIOGRAPIIIC Radiographic contrast QUALITY I Subject contrast 10 I Film contrast I Affected by: a.Q. Type of film b. Film contrast refers to the slope (steepness) of the characteristic curve of the film. Radiation quality c.. Development time. including the geometry of the set-up during exposure and the film type used.causes 70 • • • • Radiation wavelength too long. it is normally subjectively. It also depends on whether the film's exposure is direct. • • Excessive contrast . distance and the characteristics or treatment of the film. compensated for by a prolonged developer.I. i. Unsuitable or wrongly mixed developer. Under exposure. the processing it receives and the density. kVIpenetrating power too high. but the degree of definition also affects the result. Over exposure to radiation. Scattered radiation Affected by: a. Subject contrast depends on the nature of the specimen. with lead screens or with fluorescent screens. Le. for most practical purposes. assessed about the 50 Insufficient contrast . temperature and agitation c. milliamperage of source strength. it is normally assessed subjectively. 80 DEFINITION Radiographic definition is the degree of sharpness at the boundaries of density fields.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :'\01 [S UNIT R12 . Thickness differences in specimen b.e. 30 40 Measuring radiographic contrast Radiographic contrast is not usually measured exclusively. of the wavelengths and distribution of the radiation reaching the film and hence is independent of subject contrast. There are many factors that govern the final definition on a radiograph.

f. The image on the film will be the size of the focal spot plus twice the diameter of the hole.) all affect penumbra. grain distribution and radiation energy used. Inherent unsharpness always exists. its magnitude depending on grain size.25 mm diameter. To minimise penumbra we must adhere to the following conditions: 70 • 60 The source or focal spot should be as small as possible. 100 e Ruant " T P O'Ntill Issue 9 31/03109 R12-4 . If a pair of parallel wires blend into one on the radiographic image it will be due to the poor definition.d. the thickness of the pairs usually being the same as the gap between them. for penumbra calculations. Penumbra always exists and borders all density fields. A duplex type IQJ (BS EN 462 : Part 5) . D. Specimen film distance d. Radiation quality d. object to film distance (o.d.d. Type of film b.Ruane & 11 T P O'Ne/11 :\OlLS lI!'11T R12 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY -r-. Focus film distance c. 20 = 10 2d. approximately 4 mm thick containing a small hole about 0. where d is the width of the wire and Note: Duplex IQIs are placed on the source side of the object being examined and aligned as closely as possible to the axis of the radiation beam. pairs of parallel platinum or tungsten wires of decreasing thickness. 1.Image quality indicators (Duplex) consists o. is taken as the criterion of discemability.g. Abrupt thickness changes in specimen e.d. Place a lead sheet. Screen film contact Affected by: a. Calculate the focal spot size by measuring the total diameter of the image and then deduct 2 x hole diameter. F.f.f. • • Determination of focal spot size 80 The focal spot size of x-ray tubes can change over a period of time. should be as long as practicable.f.f. Unsharpness is given in BS EN 462 : Part 5 as U the wire spacing distance. Type of screen c. 90 3. e. Radiographic definition I Geometrical factors I I Graininess factors 30 I Affected by: a. exactly halfway between the focal spot and a radiographic film. Development 40 Inherent (film) unsharpness Inherent unsharpness is the unsharpness on a radiograph caused by stray electrons transmitted from exposed crystals which have affected adjacent crystals. the following procedure may be adopted. should be as small as possible. 2.d.the exposure should not be excessive otherwise the image will be blurred. Focal spot size b. Expose . The dimensions of the focal spot or gamma source. 50 Geometric unsharpness (Ug) Geometric unsharpness or penumbra is the unsharpness on a radiograph caused by the geometry of the radiation beam in relation to the object being radiographed and the film. it increases with a reduction in wavelength.) and focal spot to film distance (f. To determine the size of the focal the image of which has just merged from that of two separate wires into the single form. The largest pair of wires.

ofd (SOD) Ug= Where: s = the maximum dimension of the gamma source or focal spot.----T \\ ord If If FILM \\ I 70 The maximum penumbra allowed on radiographs is specified in certain standards.g.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill .ill J 1103109 R12-5 .: 20 2 mmdiameter L.\OlI.82 mm ofd = object to film distance sfd = source to film distance sod = source to object distance 40 Note: sod + ofd = sfd s 50 1 srd ------------SOURCEI\7\------------1X \ f I \ \ I I \ \ / II I \\ sed .25 mm is often used.I 60 f/ / \\ \~ 1 \\ \.-J AI2mm 30 s= length =2.'1 OBIE. a typical maximum penumbra of 0. The Ug is not stated but using the nomogram gives minimum source to object (sod) distances which will give acceptable Ug. This is calculated using the Pythagorus theorem.S Ul\IT R12 • RAI)IOGRAPHIC QlJALITY Calculation 10 of geometric unsha rpness (Ug) sxofd sfd . they may be agreed with the client. e. In contractual situations where the standards do not quote maximum penumbra values. issue" " T P O'N. 90 100 o RUin. Using the nomogram 80 BS EN 1435 uses a nomogram which is based on calculations for minimum Ug.

500 01101 400 10 10 5000 "'101 )00 200 2000 .. white light entering 90 • • • Film exposed to heat. Nomogram for the determination of minimum source-to-object fmin in relation to the object-to-liIm distance and the source size.g. Bad film storage. because ofa faulty cassette. Scatter.. When fog is caused by light leaks.. e. & T P O·N.. Unsuitable darkroom. d b = distance source size thickness = OFD = sample 70 PROCESSING AND HANDLING FAULTS Fog 80 Fog is unwanted density on a radiograph and appears on radiographs as darkened areas or overall darkening which has not been caused by thickness variations in the subject. e.g..Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill UNIT R12 .m lssu.\1" 8 7 3000 2000 1000 100 20 6 10 s 1000 soo )00 60 SO ~o 30 20 500 1 30 " 2 c 200 )00 1 <I 200 100 "'c i 'lOO i "SO )0 10 40 W 20 6 S 4 )0 20 10 3 0...5 50 10 S 1) Class B 2) Class A 60 Figure 21. x-rays. gamma rays. wrong safelights.. 100 e Ru. it is often termed lighlfog.. darkroom lighting. RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY --. Grey fog • • Accidental exposure to actinic radiation light.9 31103109 RI 2-6 .

Prolonged development in badly oxidized developer. i.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill UNIT RJ2 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY x o rES Yellow fog • 10 Insufficient final wash. Diffraction mottle Diffraction mottle may occur in a weld area on a radiographic image because of the grain structure and grain orientation of certain materials matching the wavelength of the radiation in a certain way. It is a rare artifact nowadays to the flexible/plastic nature of modem day emulsions. Drops of fixer fell onto film prior to development. 80 70 Light patches . Developing tank contaminated with fixer. • • • 100 e K •• ne & T P O'NeiU 1•••• 9 JI/03/Ol1 R12-7 . Film out of date. Film stuck to another film in fixer. an artifact may also mask a fault in the weld.e. An artifact may be mistaken for a defect in the weld or parent material. it is essential that artifacts should be avoided. e.g.g. It may be reduced or eliminated by changing the wavelength of radiation. therefore. Austenitic stainless steels and aluminium welds are particularly susceptible. in damp surroundings. Exhausted fixer. e. a fault in or on the film usually caused by mishandling or incorrect developing. The appearance on the radiograph is usually lightning like. but it may also be mottled. Film insufficiently rinsed after development. pink via transmitted light. or by changing the radiation angle by approximately 5°. increasing kV. Mechanical damage causing pressure marks to emulsion before exposure. 40 Static discharge 50 Static discharge marks may occur when the film is pulled quickly from between the intensifying screens in a dry atmosphere. Reticulation 60 Reticulation is a net like structure appearing in the emulsion due to rupture caused by excessive temperature differences between the processing tanks. Prolonged development in exhausted developing bath. • • Dichroic rog • • 20 Greenish colour by reflected light. • ARTIFACTS An artifact is a spurious indication on the radiographic image. Impurities between screen and film. Diffraction mottle has the-appearance of fme porosity throughout the weld area. Marked or cracked fluorescent screens.possible causes • • • 90 Film was not agitated/tapped during development or fixation. • • Mottled fog • 30 Film badly stored.

It is in 5 parts and covers the following: BS BS BS BS BS EN 462-1 EN 462-2 EN 462-3 EN 462-4 EN 462-5 Wire type Step/wedge type Classes for ferrous metals Image quality values and image quality tables Duplex wire type 80 90 100 The wire gauges and range of wires used in IQl's for BS EN 462-1 are the same as DIN 62. also known as a penetrameters.e. that the obtained IQI sensitivity value does not directly relate to the minimum defect size detectable by the radiographic technique used because of defect orientation.possible causes • • Water used to make up processing solutions too hard. due to exposure to white light whilst the film is in the developer. 50 40 Calculating sensitivity using IQl's Sensitivity is measured by the use of image quality indicators (IQIs). Bending of film after exposure (usually between two fingers causes dark crescent shaped marks). the higher the sensitivity.e. Solarisation is lightening of the image. Alternatively. therefore all those factors which affect contrast and definition will also affect the sensitivity. The sensitivity associated with a radiograph is directly affected by the radiographic contrast and defmition. The sensitivity on the resultant radiograph is then given a numerical value by dividing the thickness of the smallest wire visible on the radiograph by the thickness of the specimen in the area being examined.possible causes • • • • • • • 20 10 Drops of developer fallen onto film prior to development. This covers the wire gauges 13 to 19. BS EN 462 Image Quality Indicators is the standard which supersedes BS 3971 and DIN 62. i. T P O'Ntill bsur 9 31103/09 Rt2-8 . when there are still droplets of water on the film. c Ruane- &. It must be noted however. this is then multiplied by 100 in order to express the result as a percentage of the specimen thickness. Slow and uneven drying of film. Drops of water fallen onto film prior to development. is the ability to detect small changeT" The term sensitivity when applied to radiography is an overall assessment of quality which relates to the radiographic technique's ability to detect fine defects on a radiograph. The WI3 was added to increase the range to cope with thinner materials. or reversal. when used in a general sense. Whitish deposit . i. the type commonly used consists of seven thin wires within a plastic packaging. Sensitivity % = thickness of thinnest wire visible x 100 thickness of specimen . some specifications simply specify the minimum number of wires which have to be visible on the radiograph.e. i.TPO'Neil1 :\OlES Ruane& 11 UNIT R12 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY Dark patches. There are various types of IQI. the better. 60 70 The lower the figure obtained. a DIN 62 10-16 has become an EN 462 WIO. The wires are placed transversely across the weld area being examined during exposure. . Solarisation 30 SENSITIVITY The term sensitivity. lines or streaks . Mechanical damage causing pressure marks to emulsion after exposure. Buckled or scratched lead screens. Uneven drying.

50 X W9 0. 7.(. Types of IQI and wire materials Image quality indicator Wire number W 1 CU W 6CU W IOCU WI3CU W 1 FE W 6FE W IOFE W J3FE W ITI W6T1 W 10Tl W 13 TI W I AL W 6AL W 10AL W 13AL W I to W W 6 to W W 10to W W 13 to W W 1 to W W 6 to W W 10 to W WJ3toW19 W I to W W 6to W W 10to W W13toWI9 W I to W W 6 to W WIOtoWI6 Wl3toWI9 used for selected { rOUDSof materials Wire material Suitable for test . a Tolerances 9.r ±0.063 X W 18 0.100 X X W 17 0.63 X W8 0.005 50 Table 2 gives types ofIQI and wire materials used for selected groups of materials Table 2.••ue ~ 31103109 R12-9 .03 ±0. tin and 7 Copper their alloys 12 16 19 7 Steel (low Ferrous materials 12 alloyed) 16 60 70 7 12 16 Titanium Titanium and their alloys 80 7 12 Aluminium Aluminium and their alloys 90 B S EN 462-1 5.25 W5 X X W6 1.2 states the IQ [ should be placed on the side of the section under test facing the source of radiation and remote from the film. diameters and limit deviations Image quality indicator Wire including Wl W6 WIO W13 Wire number Nominal wire diameter 3.32 X W 12 0.080 X 0.the followlna materials Copper. the IQI may be placed adjacent to the side under test nearest the film and a letter F near to the IQ!. The IQ! shall be placed on the object in an area where the thickness is as uniform as possible.iD •.01 '5 ±0. Wire numbers.125 X X W 15 W 16 0.80 X X 0.00 X W7 0.050 X W 19 Dimensions in millimetres Wire centreline spacing. 100 Cl Ru •••• & T P O'N.20 X WI X 2.00 X W3 1. zinc.25 X 0.02 . If this is not possible.20 X W 13 X X 0.50 W2 2.$ 6 -: ±0.40 X X W 10 X X WlI 0.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill :"01 [S UNIT R12 • RADIOGRAPHIC Table 1 gives the wire number and nominal wire QCALITY 10 20 30 40 Table l.16 X W 14 0.60 W4 X 1.

40 Specific sensitivity terms There are many specific terms relating to sensrtivrty which may be encountered. usually expressed as a percentage of the specimen thickness. IQl's are made of the same material as the specimen being examined and are available in a variety of thickness ranges. 20 Step wedge/hole type IQl's are placed adjacent to the weld in the centre of the film. expressed as a percentage of the thickness of the material unde •. the wire can be placed across the pipe axis and should not project into the weld. IQI wires shall be directed perpendicular to the weld and ensure that at least IQ mm of the wire length will show in a section of uniform optical density. With the exception of duplex wires. 80 Thickness sensitivity The smallest change in thickness which can be detected by radiography. Note: The duplex-wire image quality indicator is based on a different principle and gives a measure ofunsharpness only. Image quality indicator sensitivity 70 The dimension in the direction of the radiation of the thinnest step-with-hole or wire that can be clearly identified.Terms used in non-destructive testing : Part 3 <Industrial Radiographic Testing: 50 Contrast sensitivity The smallest thickness change in a specimen which produces a discernible change in optical density on a radiographic image.~ The tables are compiled from calculations of minimum acceptable sensitivity. usually expressed as a percentage of the total specimen thickness. For double wall double image and perpendicular shots. BS EN 1435 requires minimum image quality values to be assessed from tables BI to Bl. it is not always possible or practicable to accomplish due to lack of availability. which is normally in the parent metal adjacent to the weld. 90 100 Cl RU2nt & T P O'Ntill Issue 9 J I/03/09 R12-IO . 60 Flaw sensitivity The minimum flaw size detectable under specified test conditions usually expressed as a percentage of the specimen thickness. 30 Although it is desirable for the IQI and the specimen to be of the same material. the following terms are in accordance with BS EN 1330 . examination. For test specimens made from alloyed elements. the IQI material chosen should have similar radiation absorption/transmission properties to the test specimen. The sensitivity is assessed in the same way as for wire types except you use the hole diameter instead of a wire thickness. RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY ASSESSING SENSITIVITY 10 In accordance with BS EN 1435 Radiographic examination of welded joints.TP O'Neill :\OT[S Ruane & 11 llNIT R12 .

Note: AI is for 10% fade off and outside.f. Single wall.d. 20 3. when dealing with fabrications in situ. requirements are inside. where access to the internal weld area outside.---- 100 o Ruane & T P O'N. FILM INSIDE For standard exposures. access permits and the minimum f. single image (SWSI) . Double wall.-. usually full panoramic). 20% fade off.f.d.f..f. source outside (elliptical exposure). 2.-. The required minimum number of exposures to cover the full circumference of the weld depends on the wall thickness.-.TPO'Neill :\OTES Ruane& 11 tJNIT R13 • RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES Radiographic techniques for welds on steel are listed in BS EN 1435 : Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints. Single wall.. pipe diameter and f. 50 60 This technique is primarily intended for 100 mm diameter pipe welds and above. single image technique being outside.f. 40 SWSI: SOURCE OUTSIDE. single image (DWSI) ...d. source inside (internal exposure. the radiation beam is positioned at normal incidence to the weld face and film passing through the centre of the weld.d. and the practical aspects of positioning the radiation source at sufficient f. there are essentially four ways to radiograph a girth/pipe weld: I. double image (DWDJ) .d. see Figure Al and A3 in BS EN 1435. single image (SWSI) . 10 The radiographic examination of a plate weld would result in a single wall. 4. source Double wall. 30 The panoramic technique is usually the preferred technique if the equipment is available. source outside (external exposure).ls.Source ---.m Issue 9 31103109 R13-1 . vessels and tanks where the curvature is closer to a flat plate and therefore has a reduced effect on the amount offade off. however. It is a technique more suited to large diameter pipes. This is due to the fact that the entire weld can be examined in one exposure and good sensitivity can be achieved because of a lower level of scatter and kV in comparison with a double walled exposure. 70 80 ---- ----- --90 ---- --. The main disadvantages of this technique are the number of exposures required due to a large amount of fade off.

with equal f.e.. 20 30 40 DWSI This technique is commonly applied to all welds where the use of a panoramic technique is not possible or practicable. This problem mainly applies when using x-ray tubes.d. This technique cannot be used if the minimum f. around the circumference.f. FILM OUTSIDE For standard exposures. ~--Offset R13-2 o Ru••• & TPO'N'.dJs. the radiation beam is positioned at normal incidence to the weld face and film passing through the centre of the weld. For standard exposures on any diameter of pipe weld.d. shoot through from the opposite side of the weld to that which the number tape is positioned. pipe diameter and f. Care must a)so be taken to ensure that the number tape on the source side does not interfere with the image. the radiation beam is positioned at approximately 850 to the weld face and film.U ••••• 9 31103109 . 50 60 70 Note: A2 is for 10% fade off and A4. so the central line of the x-ray beam shoots past the tube side weld resulting in a diagnostic image of the film side weld.d. Film 80 Film X __ I 90 Section on X .f.Ruane & 11 T P OWei11 :\01 [S UNIT RI3 • RAI)IOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES SWSI: ID (PANORAMIC) SOURCE INSIDE.f.f.f. The required minimum number of exposures to cover the full circumference of the weld depends on the wall thickness. i.g. With this technique the radiation beam cannot be positioned at normal incidence to the weld portion being examined because the weld on the radiation source side will superimpose over the film side weld resulting in an unreadable radiograph. the x-ray tube must be moved approximately 60 mm to the side of the weld. requirements cannot be met. 20% fade off. on small diameter pipe welds.d.X Source lOO . See BS EN 1435. see Figure A2 and A4 in BS EN 1435.

------------------------------------~t~. becomes more difficult as the wall thickness increases and the pipe diameter reduces. 10 A minimum of two exposures are usually required at 90° to each other. :.g. however. this results in a total of four interpretable areas on the radiograph which should cover the full circumference ofthe weld. e.g. however. over 50 mm._-----. In most cases an offset of about one fifth sfd will separate the top image from the bottom.. this may be useful to know for repair purposes. but is rarely used ClRuan. between two films of the same speed.: :. thicker than usual. 90 LOCATION OF DEFECTS Parallax technique The parallax technique is sometimes reJerred 10 as the tube shift method when an 100 x-ray tube is used. The parallax radiographic technique may be used to determine the depth of defects below the surface of a component.m In ue 9 31/ID109 R13-3 . & T P O'N. This. the same effect will be produced by placing a lead screen. the thinner side or for the thick side and the other for the thinner side but they will have been produced in a single exposure. Two radiographs will therefore be produced .X _. The films are usually of different speeds.-.: 40 50 I ---. It may be used on components where there are substantial thickness differences causing the density on a single radiograph to be out of specification on either the thicker side.60 Film ---- Film SANDWICH TECHNIQUE 70 80 The sandwich technique is a radiographic technique sometimes used in order to save time. RAHIOGRAPHIC TECHI\"IQUES DWDI This technique is only applied to welds on pipe or fittings 100 mm diameter or below. a fine grained film loaded with a very fine grained film. it is often permitted by specification or client for the radiation to pass through the centre of the weld at normal incidence to the pipe. On small bore heavy wall pipework. The cassette is placed flat on one side of the pipe. e.I X Section on X . It is a technique more applicable to thick specimens. ·-offset·' Source 20 30 ------~fr. Rather than carry out two separate shots at different exposures for each weld or position.Ruane & 11 TP O'Ne/lf 'OT[S UNIT RJ3 . The source is positioned at the minimum sfd (calculated using the Ug formula or nomogram) and is offset from the weld centre line to give an elliptical image. cassettes may be loaded with two films. this will produce a radiograph with the tube side weld superimposed over the film side weld.

i. Two exposures are made. Move the tube some distance in the opposite direction. Place a second lead wire underneath the specimen on the other side of the defect. 80 Draw graph as shown T a 90 b c d total specimen thickness image shift of top lead wire image shift of defect image shift of bottom lead wire distance of defect from bottom of specimen Or. Position the tube over the defect. use: D 100 = T(b-c) (a-c) e It •••• & T P O·N. each at half the normal exposure.d. Distance between defect images. 31103/09 R13-4 .move the tube a distance of exactly one fifth of the FFD sideways and give half the original Specimen thickness. and give another half exposure on the same sheet of film: 50 lh d = I +s d I Where 60 h s distance of defect from film distance of image movement FFD two fifths of the FFD Lead marker (tube or source shift) method 70 Find the defect by normal radiography. Distance between lead marker images. 40 Mathematical (tube or source shift) method Find the defect by normal radiography. then move the tube approximately one fifth of the FFD to the other side and give halfthe original exposure. This method cannot be used for welds or plates. F. Position the tube over the defect . RADIOGRAPHIC TECIINIQllES because ultrasonic testing can usually give the same information quicker and at a lower cost.f. one fifth of the FFD from centre. The position of defect may be found by measurement. and offset to each other in order to produce a double image ofthe lead marker and defect.e. The procedure involves the placement of a lead marker on the source side of a specimen's surface close to the plan view location of the defect. e. 20 30 Right-angled method Two shots of specimen taken at right angles. 10 The technique is used after a defect has already been detected by conventional methods. The following criteria are used to calculate the distance of the defect from the film either by means of a formula or graph: a. c.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll 'OT[S lJNIT IH3 . instead of drawing graph. again on the same sheet offilm. b.d. Move the tube approximately one fifth of the FFD to one side and give half the original exposure. This is the most straight forward method for cube shaped or similar specimens.f. Dimension of shift between source of radiation. d.iII tssee . Place one lead wire on top of the specimen to one side of the defect.

.Cler..... RADIOGRAI)HIC TECHNIQUES IMAGESHIFfS SPECIMEN 10 2 RADIOGRAPH 2 --:--- Pb marker (source side) _________ T..-----' . __ LLDeClf...Ruane& 11 TPO'Neil/ :-..•..---~.BotlOm Pb wire --Film -b - 70 'T' 'T' .I J 50 'f/ Top Pb wire { T --j' ' . 20 Source shift direction -<'>. 60 -.' ..thickness of specimen 80 d Heighlof Defect'd' 90 Above bottom surface ---lOO () Ruant '" T P O'Ntill Issu< 9 31103/09 o Bottom marker ~-shift ..! ' .••••• :I_~ -- ~ .---. Top marker shift R13-S . 1 [S 0 tTNIT R13 ."'= Defect Pb marker (film side) c 4 3 4 30 3 SOURCE POSITIONS ill 40 t¥ ---------..~ L-a -.• . t. . Defect· ~ __ ~=-=. ® -.d ~--'-"=- ----.


d. 20 30 When using x-ray equipment. Gamma exposure times are usually calculated from special slide rules. the higher will be the contrast. f. or I minute at 12 mA.If you had an exposure of say 5 minutes using an isotope with an activity of 4 curies. all these give you the same amount of exposure. these take into consideration the following: a. By using exposure charts. then 4 x 3 = 12. usually referred to as gamma exposure calculators. contrast and defmition of a radiographic image. Source type. Material type. By trial and error test shots.The lower the kV used to penetrate the specimen. therefore you would be using 20 Ci-rnins. c. C060 produces shorter wavelength radiation than Ir 192 and is therefore more penetrating. 10 The time to use for an exposure is only one factor to consider for an exposure. the greater the intensity of radiation produced. b. this relationship is known as the reciprocity law: 80 Exposure = time x intensity 90 X-ray equipment . e. but enough kV must be used to ensure penetration and keep the exposure time reasonable.l x 12 = 12. 40 CONSIDERATIONS 50 FOR EXPOSURES Wavelength of radiation The wavelength of radiation used will affect the density. 70 Intensity of radiation and exposure time The intensity of the radiation reaching the film and exposure time will affect the density of the image. d. Material thickness. unless the time is reduced to compensate. This is because the wavelength and intensity of radiation may be adjusted.Different radioactive isotopes produce different wavelengths of gamma radiation. Radiation intensity and exposure time are related. 100 o Ruane & T P O'Ntill Issuc 9 J1103109 RI4-J . e. A combination of the above. Exposure time is proportional to the intensity of radiation. c. then 5 x 4 = 20. but a radiograph produced on the same specimen using Co60 will have much lower contrast and definition. 2 x 6 = 12 etc. Gamma isotopes . Gamma isotopes . b.. Film density to be achieved. 60 X-ray equipment . g. Source to film distance. but it is this factor which changes most often. The following methods are used to determine correct exposures when using x-ray equipment: a. By reference to previous exposure records. and therefore the darker the image will be. Film speed. You could also use 3 minutes and 4 mA to give you the same amount of exposure because 3 x 4 = 12. the determination of exposure is less straightforward. The higher the mA setting on the control panel.TP OWei11 :\OTI:S Ruane & 11 l1NIT R14 • DETERl\lIl'"ATION OF EXPOSl1RE Many factors govern the fmal quality of a radiographic image. Remember that density affects contrast and contrast affects sensitivity.g.If you had an exposure of say 4 minutes and 3 mA. and different machines produce different quantities and qualities of x-radiation even though they may be operated on the same panel settings. or 2 minutes 6 mA. Activity of source. all these factors must be considered and controlled in order to meet with a specifications requirements. therefore you would be using 12 mA-mins.

the greater the exposure should be to attain a given density. Therefore. the radiograph's definition for a slow film at the correct exposure will be better than that for a fast film at the correct exposure. but the radiation intensity and wavelengths can vary from one set to another. less predictable and more likely to be attained by trial and error. with regard to exposure. The kV and mA may be on the same panel setting.TP O'Neill Ruane & 11 uxrr RI4 • DETERI\1I:\ATION OF EXPOSURE The higher the activity of the isotope used. an x-ray tube with a thick filter will require more exposure than an x-ray tube with a thinner filter. Fluorescent screens emit light of various wavelengths. the law of reciprocity cannot be strictly applied. the greater the intensity of radiation produced. Where intensification is due to light exposure. Filters affect the exposure time. O2 = 750 mm 90 100 E2 = 2.8 mAmins Cl Ruane " T P O'N. including UV. Exposures made with direct x-ray and lead screens obey the law of reciprocity (E = mAT). 01 = 1000 mm E2 = ? mAmins. 50 Ffd/sfd 60 The greater the ffd/sfd the smaller the penumbra. can be used to determine new exposures when the ffdlsfd changes: 70 El D/ E) = D/ -- Where: Example: El = E. Filters are used to reduce long wavelength primary radiation to provide a more homogeneous x-ray beam with lower resultant scatter levels. 20 Filter types and thicknesses also differ between x-ray tubes. therefore the better the radiographic defmition. based on the inverse square law. Type of film 30 The higher the speed of the film. but fluorescent and fluorometallic screens have an adverse affect on the definition of the radiographic image.g. Intensifying screens 40 Using intensifying screens reduces the exposure required to attain the required density. x-rays and gamma rays obey the inverse square law. 10 X-ray equipment The intensity of radiation (governed by mA) and quality of radiation (governed by kV) can be affected by the electric circuit of the equipment being used.m Issue 9 311O:lIO'J R14-2 . But. 01 = original distance O2 = new distance 5 mAmins. therefore. and therefore the darker the image will be. the greater the ffd/sfd. However. = = E2 80 original exposure. Exposures with fluorescent screens are. unless the time is reduced to compensate. e. the denser the image compared to that of a slow film at the same exposure. new exposure. The following formula.

Dev·~spec. P123 i- 90 0.SOO inN r. 10 Processing the film The density.126 front & Ibac i- ~ e. 'f """TAl< 300 KVUNIT a. Donsfty. agitation and time in the developer. c. An exposure chart will show the exposure to use in mA-min for a chosen specimen thickness and kV in order to attain the density that the chart is based on.33 10 e.33 I I1 I1 1/ / / / 1/ / I I1 / I1 J / / I 16.33 f U& I I I I /f 1 1 / 3. e. This will primarily govern penetrating power required. density and atomic mass. Development conditions. f.ABC123 51 M. Film type. d. contrast and definition of a radiograph are affected by the type.SUS 133033 100 ••• 33 16. 2. b. not the developing time.3 b.. Film type. Each chart must show the variables to which the chart is applicable to: 40 a. Material'aI •. temperature. 50 Type of x-ray set. i. Intensifying screens Focus to film distance.scr.n Pb 0. PahtAk 300 kV untt No.66 70 1 1/ 1/ VI // V/ / / V // / 13.V ~ '/1/ / 1/ / V / r! V / /.0 c. 100 120 Kilovoltage (kv) 1<tO 160 180 200 22D 240 260 2SO 300 .66 I / 60 1 I I I I 1/ eo 33.. Kodak ex d . eo ss 60 65 70 100 th~k"". The vertical scale on an exposure chart is logarithmic and the horizontal scale is arithmetic. '/ / / !. Film density. stHI type A - ~ 10 " 20 25 30 steel ~ 00 ~. g.33 80 us '/ / // V. Exposure charts are drawn up from preliminary charts made up from exposures using different kilovoltages on step wedges.6 0.(mm) o Rea •• Issue' '" T P O'N. .Ruane & 11 TPO'Nell1 lJ~IT RI4 • f)ETEI{I\'IINATION Object being radiographcd OF EXPOSl:RE The radiation absorption and transmission characteristics of a material depends upon its thickness.e. 20 EXPOSURE CHARTS 30 Exposure charts provide the exposure conditions for a given thickness of material using xray equipment. the exposure should be changed. to adjust the density of a radiograph.ill 31103109 R14-3 . The development process should not be adjusted outside a specifications requirements in order to compensate for incorrect exposures. Ffd .

80 The results give the exposure time.= = 20Ammutes Ci 15 The exposure time at 900 mm with 15 Ci = 20. say 02. e. Weld thickness. follow this line until it strikes the density required line. Material thickness. b.Ruane & 11 TPO'NeUl '\ 0 1 I: S uxrr EXPOSURE RI4 • DETERMI!'ATIO~ OF EXPOStTRE CALCULATIONS FOR GAMMA RA VS The following information is required to obtain the exposure from an exposure chart. Density required.1 Ci hours 5. :. 50 If the sfd was changed to 600 mm. Film speed.1 Ci hours x 60 = 306 Ci mins 40 E=CiT E 306 . 10 a. Source strength in Ci. c.4 minutes. 60 EXPOSURE CALCULATIONS USING GAMMA SLIDE RULE The gamma slide rule enables very accurate calculations to be made providing the following information is available: 70 a. then: D 2 E2 = _2_ 012 x El = -- 6002 9002 x 20. 20 Example Weld thickness = 20 mm density required = 2. Type of film From the gamma ray exposure chart for Ir192.0 and then follow the line down onto the Ci hour line and read off this value. SFD. b. T= . c. d. Source strength from decay chart. the exposure is 5. 90 100 o R •• ne " T P O'N. The Ir 192 source is at 15 CL 30 From the chart.0.4 = 9 minutes The new exposure time at 600 mm with 15 Ci = 9 minutes. select the weld thickness.m Issue 9 31/113109 R14-4 .

'" e .. S 60 = •. •.S Ul\'IT R14 ....)U:Ij:l!II. DETERMINATIOl'l OF EXPOSlIRE 10 20 30 40 ~ ~ ""' "-l 0 e- C> . :':1 e e .....L 1~31S 90 100 C> R •• ne & T P O'Ntill hsue 9 3 J 103/09 R14-5 .....Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill 'OTF.<:: = 50 E E U s .! •.. <:> <t- "I ill 1 <:> N . 'Cl VI '" DC .. 70 N 80 (mm) SS. ..11 .• .

1T = 10% fade off (the edge of the diagnostic length) dfl = Diagnostic Film Length 80 2.25 ofd can be taken as the sample thickness. 40 r sod 0 sfd or ffd r 50 1< 60 ffd sfd sod ofd 70 = = = = dfl >1 1 Focus to Film Distance Source to Film Distance Source to Object Distance Object to Film Distance T = Sample Thickness 1. Minimum Source to Film distance (sfd) or Focus to Film Distance (ffd) To calculate the minimum FFD/SFD so that the unsharpness of the image is better than the resolution ofthe eye .0.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OTI:S lJ~IT Rl4 .1 90 sod sod I T r: 100 :? <~ dfl dfl > Cl Ruant '" T P O'NeiU Issue 9 31103/09 R14-6 .25 mm Minimum tTd = 30 (source size x ofd) + ofd 0. 1. The DFL is derived from the following (for flat plates only) Source X x= 1. DETERl\lI~ATIOl\' OF EXPOSURE The information required to produce a radiograph is as follows: From the test piece 10 • • • • Plate thickness Weld thickness Pipe diameter (for pipes) Length of weld 20 From this information the data required to produce the radiograph can be produced.

Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints. From the x-ray exposure chart on R9-3. consult Table 2 ofBS EN 462-1. material and processing conditions. 1. it is possible to obtain kV values and exposure values for any given thickness working on the exposure chart within the 15 to 60 mA minutes range.sod 2 = ~(l. Mark up the test piece according to the technique requirements o Ruane& TPO'N. 60 To calculate the IQI wire diameter the following is used: . 70 4. Sample thickness 2 IQl dia = 100 x To find the wire number. the use of a gamma slide rule is often used and is generally more accurate and quicker.sod2 The SOD is taken from the calculation of the minimum ffd/sfd . 1. Correcting the exposure 80 The exposure obtained will be for a fixed distance and fixed density. 3.IQI (see Unit 7) The IQI sensitivity should be better than 2% with respect to the sample thickness. •••• 9 31/U3/U9 RI4-7 .I sod)2 .1 sod)2 .iII 1. Working out the exposure An exposure chart is required for x-ray sets and may also be used for gamma ray. however.1 sod)2 Require to find the value of the dfl: Therefore 30 (~dfl r dfl Therefore ~(~ r = (1.1T == hypotenuse.l 2 sod2 - sod2 Therefore dfl = 2 x ~(].. To change the exposure the following is used: 90 New exposure = Old exposure x New distance/ Old distance 2 [ E2 = El X D2\2 0 2) Where the new distance is your selected ffd and the old distance is the chart distance. Y:zdfl = base The pythagoras theory states that the sum of the squares of the base and the perpendicular equals the square on the hypotenuse.for plate only 50 The DFL for pipes is calculated from EN 1435 . therefore: 20 sod2 + (Y:z dfl)2 = (1. film. 5.1 sod = hypotenuse. 100 6. ? = base 10 The larger triangle consists of: sod = perpendicular.sod ' Therefore 40 ! dfl = ~1.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :\01 [S UNIT RI .1 sod)2 . or BS 3971 which has been superseded.•• nETERl\1INATION OF EXPOSURE The diagram shows two similar triangles. the small triangle comprising of: T == perpendicular. which is the current standard. To work out the Image Quality Indicator .

. Th e mmunum ffd (source size = sfd x 20 Sample thiCkness) I h' k + samp e t IC ess 0. To calculate the Image Quality Indicator (lQI): .25 This is the minimum. the weld thickness is then used to find the kV and corresponding exposure in mA minutes within the 15-60 mA mins box. density and development. This will give one or two kV and corresponding mA minute exposure for fixed conditions of distance. weld thickness and weld length.A TlO::\ OF EXPOSURE Steps for radiographing a butt weld in a plate 1.5 times the length of the weld to be covered in one shot. 30 3. Marking up the plate A 1 ID Date 2 Weld 100 lal o Ru ••• " T P O'Noill wuo' J 1/03/09 R14-8 . The ofd can be taken as the weld thickness. thi Subject thickness 2 IQI wire rcness = x lOO Look up the wire thickness on Table 1 in BS EN 462-1 for the wire number and wire group. then the ffd/sfd must be increased if the weld is to be covered in one shot. If the ffd/sfd will not cover the required length. Work out the diagnostic film length (dfl): Using the ffd/sfd selected: 40 sod = Source to Object Distance is equal to the ffd . Correcting tire exposure 80 70 New exposure = Old exposure x The new distance is the selected ffd The old distance is the chart ffd New distance/ 2 Old distance 90 6. 60 5. . therefore select an FFD/SFD greater than this for plate butt welds. film type. Calculate: The minimum Film to Focus Distance (ffd)and the Source to Focus Distance (sfd). so 4. The figure should be in the order of 1. To calculate the exposure: Using the exposure chart supplied for the x-ray set to be used.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill llNIT R14 • DETER!\II]\. Measure: 10 x o rr s Plate thickness. The kV will be fixed but the exposure in mA minutes will require to be adjusted for the ffd/sfd to be used. 2.ofd (Object to Film Distance).

The following chart shows a radiographic equivalence chart which relates other materials to aluminium and steel.0 1.1 4.1 1.0 1. This can cause problems when it is required to radiograph other materials.0 8.0 1. aluminium is taken as the standard and uses a factor of 1.0 1.9 1.•.22 0.34 CE-137 Co60 0.12 0.6 1.1 \.63 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.71 1.05 0.0 1.34 0.1 1.0 1.9 1.I 3.9 1.9 1. The figures given in the chart are multiplication factors and are used to convert a particular thickness of the selected material to the equivalent thickness of the standard material.0 0.0 150 0.22 0.2 0.3 12..Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill UNIT RI .0 lA Gamma Rays 400 1000 2000 Ir192 0.4 14.08 0.0 Aluminium Titanium 0.3 1.0 2.3 J. EQUIVALENCE CHARTS 20 Generally exposure charts are made for either aluminium or steel.0 18.6 1.0 lA J.0.18 0.9 1.5 0.2 2.0 1.1 1.0 1. 60 70 80 90 100 c) Ruane & T P O'/'/till .34 0.6 1.Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints. 30 X-Rays kV 50 100 0.3 Magnesium 40 0.0 220 0.1 1.0 12.2 5. depending on the radiographic method used.0 1.3 Steel Copper Zinc Brass 50 0.71 1.0 1. DETERMINATION Butt Welds in Pipes OF EXPOSURE x0 T I: S 10 Butt welds in pipes are worked out in a similar manner with the exception of the diagnostic film length which is calculated from a series of charts in EN 1435 .22 0. •••• 9 31/03109 R14-9 .0 Lead For the x-ray range 50-100 kV.


e. The effectively shorter wavelength reduces the contrast obtained.:specimen ~ I X-rays Masking J2d~ '\. a tube filter will merely decrease contrast. A tube head filter.g. the action of the tube filter depends on the fact that an x-ray beam is heterogeneous (a mixture of wavelengths) and the longer wavelengths are more easily scattered.t Film A 8 This In (A).g. The filter removes much of the soft radiation giving a marked reduction in scatter. 100 o R•• ne line & TPO'NriU 9 lJ/03f09 RlS-1 .6 08 0. Thus the beam becomes more nearly monochromatic in wavelength and also effectively of shorter wavelength.g. 20 Tube head filter Positioned inside the tube head window. NB. the filter thickness should be less than 10% of the specimen thickness.8 90 Wavelength (10 cm) In practice higher kV's are used with filters of lead. A filter of a higher atomic number will be equivalent to a thicker filter with a lower atomic number.1 0. 50 kV with tungsten target Unfiltered beam 70 Use of1 mm Use of5 mm 80 0.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :-. copper or tin which have high atomic numbers. 2. There are two types of filters: 1. interposed in the path of the radiation before it reaches the film. e. 60 For (B). soft radiation is scattered by the edge of the object giving undercutting. In general. lead or copper).OTI:S UNIT R15 . A cassette filter. or thin layer of heavy metal.2 0. effect is reduced if a tube filter is used. the beryllium window.4 0. 30 40 X-\SC__ 50 ___ \LI T----. FILTERS Definition 10 A relative thin layer ofa heavy metal (e.

The specimen itself acts as a filter for the main beam and for any scatter which passes through it. also metal cassettes will act similarly. 50 Gamma rays have a much shorter wavelength than x-rays and cause much less scatter so filters are seldom used. 30 The cassette filter will produce its own characteristic radiation and may be a source of scatter. cassette filters are not normally used with metal intensifying screens. however. use of a tube head filter will give reduced contrast compared to no filter used and a cassette filter will give even more reduction in contrast compared to the use of a tube filter. it adds to the total thickness thus decreasing the contrast. 60 70 80 90 100 Cl Ruane & T P Q'Noill Issue 9 31103109 RlS-2 . NB. on thin sections will give no advantage. FILTERS Cassette filter Scatter 10 Image forming beam 20 The filter removes a greater proportion of the scatter than of the primary beam. therefore. Thus. 40 General For similar exposure conditions.Ruane T P DWellt x 01 ES &" lJ~IT R15 . If metal intensifying screens are used inside the cassette they will have the same effect as a cassette filter.

log K. by faults in the manufacturing. The negative electrode of an x-ray tube. density step wedge A piece of film having a series of different optical densities which have been calibrated to be used as reference densities. coefficient J1 The relationship between the intensity (/0) of a radiation incident on one side of an absorber and the transmitted intensity (I) for an absorber thickness (r) as expressed by 1 = 10 .Terms used in industrial radiographic testing Absorption 10 The process whereby the incident photons reduced in number as they pass through matter. D. The time required for the first stage of fixing of a film. GLOSSARY OF TERMS BS EN 1330-3 : 1997 . Anode Artefact (false indication) 30 Attenuation Attenuation 40 Average gradient 50 Back scatterlback radiation Beam angle 60 Betatron Blocking medium 70 Build-up factor Cassette 80 Cathode Calibrated 90 Characteristic curve (of a film) Clearing time lOO OR •••• " TPO·N. during which the cloudiness 1" ee 9 JII031lW R16-1 . measured after processing.TPO'Neill :-'OTI:S Ruane& 11 UJ\IT R16 . A material used to reduce the effect of scattered radiation on the film or on the image detector.g. A machine in which electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit before being deflected onto a target to produce high energy x-rays. are Activity Ageing fog 20 per unit time The increase in optical density on an unexposed film. and the optical density. A curve showing the relationship between the common logarithm of exposure. The radio of the intensity of the total radiation reaching a point.ut). The angle between the central axis of the radiation beam and the lane of the film. A rigid or flexible light-tight container for holding radiographic film or paper with or without intensifying screens. scattered That part of the scattered x or gamma radiation which is emitted at an angle of more than 90° in relation to the direction of the incident beam. handling.exp (. The slope of a line drawn between two specified points on the sensitometric curve. The reduction in intensity of a beam of x or gamma radiation during its passage through matter caused by absorption and scattering. to the intensity of the primary radiation reachingthe same point. The number of nuclear disintegrations taking place in a radioactive source. A spurious indication on a radiograph caused e. due to long-term storage. during exposure. exposing or processing of a film. The electrons passing from the cathode to the anode in an x-ray tube.

applied to a material being radiographed. Note: For radiation in the energy range 100 keY to 10 MeV. The smallest thickness change in a specimen which produces a discernible change in optical density on a radiographic (or radioscopic) image:"> usually expressed as a percentage of the tota. to enhance its radiation contrast in total or in part. A superimposed pattern on a radiographic image due to diffraction of the incident radiation by the material structure. designed to limit and define the direction and area of the radiation beam. A device made from radiation absorbent material such as lead or tungsten. An instrument for the measurement of x or gamma radiation dose rate.. perpendicular to the axis. GLOSSARY OF TER!\IS The limiting of a beam of radiation to a form o. The chemical or physical process which converts a latent image into a visible image.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :IoOT[S uxrr Collimation RI6 . The activity of a radioisotope plotted against time. specimen thickness. A device for the measurement of the optical density of a radiographic film or reflective density of a photographic print. 10 Collimator Compton scatter 20 30 Computerized tomography (CT) A procedure by which an image of the detail in a chosen plane. solid or liquid. A form of scattering caused by a photon of x or gamma radiation interacting with an electron and suffering a reduction of energy. radiation contrast and visual contrast. 40 Constant potential circuit 50 An electronic configuration which is designed to apply and maintain a substantially constant potential within an x-ray tube. Contrast sensitivity (thickness sensitivity) 70 Decay curve 80 Densitometer Development (ora film or paper) 90 Diffraction mottle Dosemeter (dosimeter) 100 Dose rate meter o Ru ••• &< T P O'N. The range of wavelengths generated by an x-ray set.. perpendicular to the axis of the specimen. or quantum contrast. it is the main factor contributing to radiation attenuation.. required dimensions. usually as a log/linear relationship. An instrument for measuring the accumulated dose of x or gamma radiation. by the use of diaphragms made of absorbing material. Note: This is computerized axial tomography and does not apply to other means of performing tomography. medium Contrast Any suitable substance. the scattered radiation being emitted at an angle to the incident direction.i11 tssue 9 JIIUJI09 R16-2 . is computed from a large number of x-ray absorption measurements made from many directior .--. energies object Continuous Contrast 60 spectrum See image contrast.

jIJ Issue 9 31103109 RI 6-3 . fixing. washing and drying a film.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OTES Dual focus tube UNIT RI6 . placed between the radiation source and the film for the purpose of preferentially absorbing the softer radiations. fine lead shot (see also blocking medium). consisting normally of developing. e. The minimum flaw size detectable under specified test conditions. A quantitative measure of the response of a film system to radiation energy. The range of exposures corresponding optical density range of the emulsion. Duration of the process of exposing medium to radiation. Edge-blocking material Material applied around a specimen or in cavities to obtain a more uniform absorption. The chemical removal of silver halides from a film emulsion after development.g. Uniform layer of material. The voltage of an x-ray tube which produces a radiograph most nearly equivalent to a gamma radiograph taken with a particular gamma ray source. to the useful a recording 50 Exposure latitude Exposure times Film base 60 The support material on which the photosensitive emulsion is coated. for specific exposure conditions. The slope of the characteristic curve of a film at a specified optical density D. usually of higher atomic number than the specimen. to reduce extraneous scattered radiation. is recorded on an 20 Equalizing filter (beam flattener) 30 Equivalent x-ray voltage Exposure Exposure calculator Exposure chart 40 A device (for example a slide rule) which may be used to determine the exposure time required. & T P O'N. 10 Duplex wire image quality indicator An image quality indicator specifically designed to assess the overall unsharpness of a radiographic image and composed of a series of pairs of wire elements made of high density metal. and to prevent local over-exposure. The process whereby radiation imaging system. a Film gradient (G) Film illuminator 70 (viewing screen) ----- Film processing The operations necessary to transform the latent image on the film into a permanent visible image. A chart indicating the time for radiographic exposures for different thicknesses of a specified material and for a given quality of a beam radiation. 80 Film system speed Filter 90 Fixing Flaw sensitivity 100 (') RUIn. Equipment containing a source of light and translucent screen used for viewing radiographs. A device used to equalize the intensity across the primary x-ray beam in megavoltage radiography and so extend the useful field size. GLOSSARY OF TERMS An x-ray tube with two different size of focus.

specific radioactive materials. dichroic fog. The relative change of optical density between two adjacent areas in a radiographic image. A general term used to denote the optical density of a processed film caused by anything other than the direct action of image . or reducing noise. so as to make it safe to handle. Fluorescent intensifying screen Fluorometallic 10 A screen consisting of a coating of phosphors whic. Illuminator Image contrast 90 Image definition Image enhancement 100 Cl Ruane & T P O'N~iU 1•••• 9 31/03/09 R16-4 . Also called geometric blurring or penumbra. fluoresce when exposed to x or gamma radiation. A screen consisting of a metallic foil (usually lead) coated with a material that fluoresces when exposed to x or gamma radiation. when introduced into the beam of x or gamma radiation.Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill :"OTJ:S liNIT R16 • GLOSSARY OF TERMS . Often done by computer programmes. The dimension across the focal spot of an x-ray tube. Its magnitude also depends on the distances of source-to-object and object-to-film. Equipment for viewing radiographs. It can i:' ~ ageing fog. The visual appearance of granularity. The time in which the activity of a radioactive source decays to half its value. A container made of dense material and having a wall thickness sufficient to produce a very great reduction in the intensity of the radiation emitted by the source..forming radiation.. when it is known as digital image processing. The production of a visible image on a fluorescent screen by x-rays and for direct viewing of the screen. exposure f05 or inherent fog.. chemical fog.. The x-ray emitting area on the anode of the x-ray tube. Any process which increases the quality of an image by improving contrast and/or definition. The shortest distance from the focus of an x-ray tube to a film set up for a radiographic exposure. reduces its intensity by a half. Electromagnetic ionizing radiation. The stochastic density fluctuations in the radiograpi superimposed on the object image.-.... emitted by intensifying screen Fluoroscopy Focal spot 20 Focal spot size Focus-to-film distance (ffd) 30 Fog density 40 Gamma radiation Gamma rays Gamma-ray Gamma-ray source source container 50 Radioactive material sealed into a metal capsule. 60 Geometric unsharpness Graininess 70 ~ Granularity Half life 80 Halfvalue thickness (HVT) The thickness of specified material which. Unsharpness of a radiographic image arising from the finite size of the source of radiation.. measured parallel to the plane of the film or the fluorescent screen. Radiography using a gamma ray source. as seen from the measuring device. The sharpness of delineation of image detail in a radiograph.

(LINAC) A machine for producing high energy electrons by accelerating them along a waveguide. through which the primary beam will pass. fluorometallic intensifying screen or fluorescent intensifying screen. The application of material which limits the area of irradiation of an object to the region undergoing radiographic examination. Measure of the image quality required or achieved. Commonly used for direct geometric enlargement of the image by projection. A material that converts a part of the radiographic energy into light or electrons and that. A screen consisting of dense metal (usually lead) that filters radiation and emits electrons when exposed to x or gamma rays. other conditions being the same. to obtain the same optical density. 100 o Ruane " T P O'Neill Issue 9 3111)3109 R16-5 . The blurring of a radiographic image caused by photons of radiation dislodging electrons in the photographic emulsion and these electrons rendering silver halide grains developable. See metal screen. The ratio of the exposure time without intensifying screens. An invisible image produced in a film by radiation and capable of being converted into a visible image by film processing. set up or source incapsulation. gamma rays.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill Image intensifier uxrr R16 • GLOSSAI~Y OF TERMS An electronic device designed to provide a brighter image than produced by the unaided action of the xray beam on a fluorescent screen. IQI sensitivity Incident beam axis Industrial 30 radiology Inherent filtration 40 Inherent unsharpness Intensifying 50 factor Intensifying 60 screen Latent image 70 Linear electron accelerator 80 Masking Metal screen 90 Microfocus radiography Radiography using an x-ray tube having a very small effective focus size of less than 100 urn in size. The elements of an IQI are commonly wires or steps with holes. neutrons and other penetrating radiation in nondestructive testing. The filtration of a radiation beam by the parts of the tube. That characteristic of a radiographic image which determines the degree of detail which it shows. to that when screens are used. A device comprising a series of elements of graded thickness which enables a measure of the image quality to be obtained. The axis of the beam cone defmed by the focal spot and the tube window. or reduces the exposure time required to produce a radiograph or both. The electrons strike a target to produce x-rays. improves the quality of the radiograph. 10 Image quality Image quality indicator (IQI) 20 Image quality value. when in contact with a recording medium during exposure. The science and application of x-rays.

g. Relative difference of radiation transmission between two considered zones of the irradiated object. The penetrating power of the measured as a half-value thickness. x-ray tube or gamma ray source) capable of emitting ionising radiation. e. often 40 Primary radiation Projective magnification Projective magnification 50 Quality (ofa beam of radiation) Radiation contrast 60 differences in radiation intensity arising from variation in radiation opacity within an irradiated object. The production of a visual image by ionising radiation on a radiation detector such as fluorescent screen and displayed on a television monitor screen. Rod anode tube lOO c Reane & T P O'NtiD Issue 9 J lJOlI09 R16-6 . distance The distance between the radiation side of the test object and the film surface measured along the central axis of the radiation beam. A visible image after processing produced by a bearr-r-. The term is also used for images produced by neutrons. or radioscopic image due to relative movement of the radiation source. An equipment (e. or the full circumference of a cylindrical specimen. The production imaging support. A blurring of the radiographic Movement unsharpness 10 Object contrast Object-to-film 20 Panoramic exposure A radiographic set-up utilizing the multi-directional properties of a gamma ray source or a panoramic xray set. A variation in density of a radiograph. Radiation source Radiograph 70 Radiographic 80 film A film consisting of a transparent base. caused by local pressure to the film. A type of x-ray tube in which the target is situated at the extremity of a tubular anode. according •~ circumstances. technique A method of radiography or radioscopy involving primary enlargement of the image by the use of a distance between the specimen and imaging system (see microfocus radiography).. radiation. of penetrating ionising radiation on a radiographi. Radiation which travels directly along a straight line from the source to the detector without deviation. film or paper. etc . electrons. by radiographic several specimens simultaneously. protons. The amount of image size enlargement. object or radiation detector. 30 Penetrameter Pressure mark See image quality indicator. which may be light or dark in appearance. of radiographs on a permanent Radiography Radioisotopes 90 Radioscopy An isotope of an element with the property of spontaneously emitting particles or gamma radiation or of emitting x-radiation.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nell1 :\OlI:S UNIT RIG· GLOSSARY OF TERMS Modulation transfer function (MTF) The spatial frequency response of an imaging system.g. such tubes can produce a panoramic beam of radiation. usually coated on both sides with a radiation sensitive emulsion.

The area on the surface of the anode of an x-ray tube on which the electron beam impinges and from which the primary beam of x-rays is emitted. The size of the source of radiation. or attachment device. The production of a pair of radiographs suitable for stereoscopic viewing. The housing of an x-ray tube which reduces the leakage radiation to defined values.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nel1l :\OTI:S UNIT RI6 • GLOSSARY OF TERMS Scattered radiation Radiation which has suffered a change in direction. The upper limit is determined by the film illuminator and the lower limit by the loss in flaw sensitivity. A device. A holding. carrying. Due to image blurring a loss of image definition. generally of lead and usually remotely operated. inherent unsharpness and movement unsharpness. It is combination of geometric unsharpness. Any radioactive source which is not sealed into a capsule. Object in the form of a series of steps of a same material. The area of an x-ray tube through which the radiation is emitted. to limit the extent of the emergent x-ray beam. distance (sfd) The distance between the source of radiation and the film measured in the direction of the beam. Radiographic film designed for use with fluorescent intensifying screens.9 Jl/OlM R16-7 . A light-tight container that where operated under a vacuum. A device attached to a tube shield. holds film and screen in intimate contact during radiographic exposure. normaIly fixed to a tube shield or head. or at the head of a remote control device. details which can just be 10 Screen type film Source holder 20 Source size Source-to-film Spatial resolution 30 Specific activity Step wedge 40 The activity per unit mass of a radioisotope. used to control the emergence of the x-ray beam. The range of optical density on a radiograph that is used for image interpretation. The high voltage applied between the anode and the cathode of an x-ray tube. The distance between separated in an image. with or without a change in energy. by means of which the gamma ray source (sealed source) can be fixed in the exposure container. during its passage through matter. That part of an x-ray installation that contains the tube in its shield. Stereo radiography Target 50 Tube diaphragm Tube head Tube shield 60 Tube shutter Tube window 70 Tube voltage Unsealed source 80 Unsharpness Useful density range 90 Vacuum cassette lOO o Ruane & T f O'Ntill bsu.

0001 nanometres. produced when high velocity electrons impinge on a metal target. usually containing a filament to produce electrons which are accelerated to strike a anode. on the surface of which x-rays are produced.iIl Is sue 9 31/OJIOlI R16-8 . & T P O' The visual density difference between two adjacent areas on an illuminated radiograph. See radiographic film. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Viewing mask Visual contrast 10 An attachment to an illuminator to exclude glare. Penetrating electromagnetic radiation.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll :\Ol[S lJ~IT RI6 . A vacuum tube. within the approximate wavelength range of 1 nm to 0. X-rays X-ray film 20 X-ray tube 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 o R.


'.\ .Welds In addition to producing high quality radiographs. ~ 11 'J ) l" 'if) ~. Sometimes. 1.' ~ ~~.'. Visual acuity is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern in an image.\ I ) 'J). The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into the base material without bonding. . " "'. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly. (2) interpretation.- . . The following material was developed to help students develop an understanding of the types of defects found in weldments and how they appear in a radiograph. porosity is elongated and may appear to have a tail. Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal. l'" ') . . All porosity is a void in the material and it will have a higher radiographic density than the surrounding area. . General Welding Discontinuities The following discontinuities are typical of all types of welding.. ::::' ." '. J .~. This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity. the radiographer must also be skilled in radiographic interpretation.Radiograph Interpretation .'. . weld material or "heat affected" zones. ". Cold lap is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (interpass cold lap).". Discontinuities Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material. :.. are referred to as defects. .. These interruptions may occur in the base metal. . which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specifications used to invoke and control an inspection. The ability of an individual to detect discontinuities in radiography is also affected by the lighting condition in the place of viewing. ." • .. . Discontinuities.. All of these steps make use of the radiographer's visual acuity.\. and (3) evaluation. in clusters. l 'JJ ')" fJ ~ .. and the experience level for recognizing various features in the image. or in rows. '. -. .. Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps: (1) detection. .

. Lack of penetration allows a natural stress risr from which a crack may propagate. It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities. jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions. The moisture turns into a gas when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process. Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. r Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint. Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the indications will be grouped close together.. ~ Inadequate or Lack of Penetration ! . straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined. dark..Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture. In a radiograph. .

Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld..~!~~.\c I' I I Internal Undercut . Internal concavity or suck back is a condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld..>' .~~~~~~ . . On a radiograph it looks similar to a lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the centre of the weld image.' '.' -' " ..'. . ".". . " '. ~.>..Incomplete fusion is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal..: . Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge. """. ' ~ ~. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centreline of the weldment. \ .' .. :" . Appearance on radiograph: usually appears as a dark line or lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along the weld preparation or joining area. ~ ~ .

It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement.External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld. e. straight line is caused by the failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area. The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness. The dark. . The radiographic image shows a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces. In the radlograpr appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area. Offset or mismatch are terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not properly aligned. Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material. because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be higher (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material.

Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions or porosity. therefore it shows up as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph. lighter area in the weld. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert gas welding. Discontinuities in TIG welds The following discontinuities are unique to the TIG welding process. The appearance on a radiograph is a localized. A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the engineering requirements. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted. tungsten is more dense than aluminium or steel. Cracks can be detected in a radiograph only when they are propagating in a direction that produces a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. Cracks will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines. Radiographically. If improper welding procedures are used. tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. Tungsten inclusions. These discontinuities occur in most metals welded by the process. including aluminium and stainless steels.Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes. ~ .

burn-through appears as dark spots. appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the radiograph. which are often surrounded by light globular areas (icicles). Often lumps of metal sag through the weld. "wire like" indications. .Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminium). On a radiograph. Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding material and. Discontinuities in Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW) The following discontinuities are most commonly found in GMAW welds. Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode wire. These globs of metal are referred to as icicles. visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or contained within the weld. creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld. Burn-Through results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone. On a radiograph they appear as light. therefore.