RUANE & T P O'NElll ISSUE9 31/03/09


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RADIOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW Principles of film radiography Radiographic quality Capabilities and limitations of radiography Duties of a radiographic interpreter X AND GAMMA RADIA TION Comparison of x and gamma rays for industrial radiography BASIC PHYSICS Elements Atoms Isotopes Ions Radionuclides (radio-isotopes) Gamma ray generation Types of radiation Activity Specific activity Decay Half life Ionisation ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING Scatter RADIOGRAPIDC EQUIPMENT Gamma sources X-ray generation Electrical circuits in x-ray tubes HALF VALUE THICKNESS RADIOGRAPHIC FILM The make-up of a radiographic film Film types Film speed CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF FILMS INTENSIFYING SCREENS General Lead screens Fluorescent (salt) screens Fluorometallic screens Comparison of intensifying screens IMAGE FORMATION Darkrooms Processing
C) RllAnc & T P O·N.m Issue 9 31/113109

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Developer Stopbath Fixer Final wash Wetting agent Drying the film RADIOGRAPmC Density Radiographic contrast Definition Processing and handling faults Artifacts Sensitivity Assessing sensitivity RADIOGRAPIC TECIINIQUES SWSI : source outside, film inside SWSI: (panoramic) source inside, film outside DWSI. DWDI Sandwich technique Location of defects Image shifts DETERMINATION Exposure charts Exposure calculations for gamma rays Exposure calculations using gamma slide rule Equivalence charts FILTERS GLOSSARY OF TERMS Considerations for exposures

R 11-4 RII-5 RI1-5 RII-5 R 11-6 Rl1-6 QUALITy ..•...•..•...•..............•.•...........••.•..•.•.....•......•...••.•...•.•.....•...•...•.........•....•.......R12 RI2-1 R12-2 R12-3 RI2-6 R 12-7 R 12-8 R 12-10 ••..•...•...........•...........•.....................•................••...............••...........•...... R13 R13-1 R13-2 RI3-2 RI3-3 RI3-3 RI3-3 RI3-5 OF EXPOSURE ••.••....••...............•.•...............•••••...•.•...................•..................•..••.•R14 R 14-1 R14-3 R14-4 RI4-4 R14-9 R15 R16

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a crack in a weld will increase the amount of radiation falling on the film in that area due to a reduction in thickness. unlike gamma sources.the more wires visible the better the sensitivity. 90 100 o Roane & T P O'Neill 4sue' 31103/09 Rt-t . copper inclusions and tungsten inclusions. 30 Cobalt 60 (C060) has a very high penetrating power . e. radiography will not usually detect plate laminations. At least one IQI is pre-placed transversely across the weld being examined. The thin areas of an object will be darker than the thicker areas. spatter.and can be used on materials up /0 200 mm thick. lack of inter-run fusion or cracks perpendicular to the x-ray beam. X-ray machines can be switched on and off.' T PO'Neill l\OTES Ruane & 11 UNIT Rl . As a rough guide.. is also measured to ensure it lies within a specified range for optimum quality. but x-radiography generally produces better quality radiographs and is safer. the radiograph. Le. i..e. After exposure. PRINCIPLES 10 OF FILM RADIOGRAPHY Film radiography is carried out using x-ray machines or artificial gamma sources (radio-isotopes). Activity is measured in curies or gigabecquerels. Iridium 192 (JrI92) is 40 commonly used on steel weldments up to 60 mm thick.g. the minimum through thickness depth of a defect capable of being detected is about 2% of the wall thickness in the same axis as the x-ray beam. X-rays or gamma rays pass through the object to be radiographed and record an image on a radiographic film placed on the opposite side. The intensity of the radiation is governed by the milli-amperage (mA) setting when using x-rays and by the activity of the isotope type with gamma rays. RADIOGRAPHIC OVERVIE\V . its degree of blackness. The quality and amount of radiation reaching the film will be largely determined by the objects thickness and density. 80 X-radiography vs gamma radiography X-radiography requires bulky and expensive machinery in comparison with gamma radiography. some of the wires will be visible on the resultant radiograph . 70 A major limitation of radiography is that it will only detect defects which have significant depth in relation to the axis of the x-ray beam. . . RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY 50 An overall assessment of radiographic quality is made by the use of image quality indicators (IQI's). When the film is processed a negative is produced. . The density of an image on a radiograph. This is governed by the kilovoltage (kV) setting when using x-rays and isotope type with gamma rays. 60 CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF RADIOGRAPHY A major advantage of radiographic testing is that a permanent record is produced. 20 Xsradiography typically uses /50·300 k V on steel weldments up to approximately 30 mm total thickness. the commonly used type consists of seven thin wires decreasing in thickness. It is the wavelength of the radiation which governs its penetrating power.very short wavelength .g. therefore most weld defects will show up dark in relation to the surrounding areas. exceptions are excess weld metal. e.

Identify the type of weld if possible . repair. e. Check the parent material on the radiograph for arc strikes. c. b. 60 7. stating type and region. 50 6. Check the weld on the radiograph for defects. has gamma been used when only xradiography is permitted? d. Assess the quality of the radiograph: a.also ensure the IQl's are of the correct type and correctly positioned. Measure radiographic density.g. Assess definition/graininess. Assess radiographic contrast. 70 10. as far as is reasonably practicable. grind and investigate. remove the entire weld. visual check.g. reshoot. Ensure.g. 80 90 100 Q RUJllle &T P O"Ntill Usu. lead numbers. 30 3. Calculate IQI sensitivity . e. e. 20 Specific duties when interpreting radiographs of welds are typically as follows: ] .g. e. State action to be taken.' J 1103/09 Rl-2 . when applicable. e. 4. 5. each radiograph is correctly identified to the weld it represents. minimum seam offset etc. Ensure that the weld locations are identified. Do artifacts interfere with interpretation? Check the radiograph to determine if any obstruction between the source of radiation and the film interferes with interpretation. have salt intensifying screens been used when only lead intensifying screens are permitted? Has a fast film been used instead of a slow film? e. gouges. MP] check.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll :\Ol[S liNIT RI • RADIOGRAPHIC OVERVIE\\' DUTIES OF A RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETER 10 It is the duty of a radiographic interpreter to ensure that all radiographic interpretation and any associated actions are carried out in accordance with the relevant specification(s) for the work being carried out. ultrasonic check.g. A radiographic interpreter must have access to the relevant specification(s) and must know where to find and interpret relevant information. hard stamping. 9. Mask off any unwanted light on the viewer. 8.normally already known. 2.. has the correct number tape been used. accept the radiograph and weld. 40 View radiographs under subdued background light.

whereas there is a constant emission of radiation with a gamma source. 150 mm steel. film type etc. The size also allows for gamma sources to be used in difficult and inaccessible areas for x-ray machines. on pipe racks.i11 Issue 9 31103109 R2-J . gamma radiation. the quality will be the same. e. The intensity and wavelengths of gamma radiation cannot be adjusted. 70 80 90 100 o Ruane '" T P O·N. Gamma sources must always be returned to their shielding containers when not in use. remains constant. produce better quality radiographic images than Ir192 or C060 isotopes. This makes gamma more expensive in the long run. Certain gamma sources have a very high penetrating power which enables them to be used on very thick material. If the wavelength from the gamma source is the same as the wavelength from the x-ray set. xrays produced by conventional x-ray equipment. e. and usually more than.RUBne & 11 TP OWell1 l\OT[S UNIT R2 • X AND GAMMA RAJ)IATION COMPARISON 10 OF X AND GAMMA RAYS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY Safety Using x-ray machines is normally safer than using gamma sources because x-ray machines may be switched off like a light bulb.g.see half-lives. 20 Quality of radiographic images 30 Assuming variables such as test material thickness. say up to 300 kV. 40 Handling Gamma sources are easier to handle in comparison with bulky and fragile x-ray equipment.g. e. 60 Versatility The intensity and wavelengths of x-rays can be adjusted from the x-ray control panel. the linear accelerator and the betatron which can produce radiation of a wavelength which can penetrate as much as. however. because these x-rays have longer wavelengths than the gamma sources.g. although the intensity (activity) reduces with time . gamma sources deplete in output and must be replaced regularly. Ytterbium 169 (Yb169) may produce radiographs comparable to those produced by using x-rays. 50 Cost Gamma sources and containers are much cheaper than x-ray equipment. Most conventional x-ray machines will not penetrate more than 50 mm of steel although there are huge x-ray machines.


. ' ~ ! 40 A [MASS NUMBER] Neutrons Element and protons E Z 50 [ATOMIC NUMBER] Number of protons in the nucleus Element Symbol Number of Electrons N K 60 I L M 0 P Hydrogen Helium Lithium IH 4 2He 3L 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 7 · 70 Beryllium Carbon Aluminium 4Be 12C 6 9 2 4 8 8 8 8 8 27 A 13 27 59 3 15 16 18 18 2 80 Cobalt Nickel Barium Co 1 59 · 28N 56 2 2 2 18 137Ba (Wolfram) 134W 74 192I 77 r 8 12 15 2 90 Tungsten Iridium 2 2 32 32 2 2 8 18 100 e R•••• Issue & T PO'Ntm 9 311O....-. .--~-~ N shell 10 . M shell Lshell • 20 :' ---_ _.-. ...J109 R3-1 . ----. / 30 -. • • • ~ '- • • • • 0 • • • Proton (+ charge) Neutron (no charge) Electron (.charge) • . • ..TP Ruane& 11 O'Neill UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS l'i01 [S . K shell .

e. statement is with reference to the chemical nature only. the heavy particles in an atom and are found in the nucleus.g. are said to be held in stable orbits around the nucleus by the attraction of the protons in the nucleus.27 kg. They have no charge. to uranium (U) with an atomic number 92. 70 Sub-atomic particles • • Protons are along with neutrons. Neutrons are similar in mass to a proton having a rest mass of 1. There are other sub-atomic particles. 10 This There are over one hundred elements known to man and these have been placed within a table referred to as the periodic table.675 x 10-27 kg. 0 = 8. I09 x 10-31 Kg.Ruane& 11 TPO'Neil1 U~IT R3 . Atomic number The atomic number or Z number is the total number of protons in the nucleus and this defmes the element.g. atoms of different elements have different constructions. Mshells. These orbits are referred to as shells.g. lOO o Rnne &. the positron. 50 60 The lighter particles. chlorine (Cl). The size of the sub-atomic particles are small. between these are all the elements that make up everything on earth. They are positively charged and have a rest mass of 1. i. All atoms of the same element are similar in construction. 80 • 90 Atoms will have the same number of protons and electrons when the atom is in equilibrium. which is of similar size and mass to the electron but with a positive charge. K. BASIC PHYSICS ELEMENTS An element is a substance that cannot be separated into any other constituents. these are very active elements which readily combine with most of the other elements in the table. bromine (Br) and iodine (I). this places elements into groups and periods with reference to their chemical characteristics. very light weight particles and have a rest mass of 9. argon (Ar). e. and neutrons which carry no charge. are neutral and are found in the nucleus. with an atomic number of I. however. Helium (He). He = 2. L. They have a negative charge and orbit the nucleus in restricted shells according to the rules of quantum mechanics. ATOMS 40 An atom is the smallest part of an element that can have the element's properties.673 x 10. An atom is a very small particle which is made up from a number of sub-atomic particles grouped together. The halogen group includes fluorine (F). neon (Ne). Hydrogen (H) is the lightest element and is taken as the reference element. Electrons are small. with most of each atom consisting of free space. 20 30 Elements range from hydrogen (H). T P O'NtU1 Issue 9 JI/OJIIl9 R3-2 . Protons and neutrons have an unusual attraction for each other and tend to pair together. e. C = 6. e. krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) are grouped together because these are inert gases or gases that cannot react chemically with other elements. H = I. The sub-atomic particles in the centre (core or nucleus) of each atom contain the heavier particles consisting of protons which carry a positive charge. when it is not an ion. electrons.

HII. gamma rays.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :\OTES UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS Mass number The mass number or A number essentially refers to the weight of an atom and is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. this is the time it takes for the activity to drop to one half of its initial strength. alpha particles. RADIONUCLIDES 60 (RADIO-ISOTOPES) Radionuclides are radioactive isotopes. The atomic number or Z number however will be the same for all the isotopes of the specific element. GAMMA RAY GENERATION Ganuna rays used in industrial radiography are emitted from artificial radioactive isotopes. Radium produces radon gas. e. also known as radionuclides. Activity is measured in becquerels (Bq) or Curies tco. 30 20 IONS An ion is an electrically charged particle which may be positive (+ve) or negative (-ve). H/ and HI3 are three isotopes of hydrogen HI2 = deuterium. beta particles or neutrons pass through matter. the ganuna radiation is a by-product produced from the disintegration of the radioactive isotope. The ejected electrons (having negative charges) are negative ions. 80 90 100 o RUin." ls. Le. C6\3 and C614 conunonly referred to as carbon 12. this varies from a fraction of a second for some isotopes and to thousands of years for others. 10 ISOTOPES Elements that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are varieties of the same element and are called isotopes. C = 12 and 0 = 16. Carbon also has three isotopes: C612.9 T P Q'N. and also give off excess energy known as gamma radiation. it spontaneously emits corpuscular and electromagnetic energy. therefore. 'Activity' is a term which 70 relates to the number of dlsintegrations per unit time. Every radionuclide has a half life. all the energy is absorbed in exciting the atoms or molecules so that electrons are ejected producing electrical imbalance. 40 50 The process of producing ions is known a ionisation. whilst the atoms losing electrons are positive ions due to their unpaired proton(s) in each nucleus. Ions are created when x-rays. Among the 100 or so known elements there are some 300 different isotopes.iU 31/03/09 R3-3 . the disintegrate by releasing sub-atomic particles. As with all isotopes. HI3 = tritium.g. the mass number or A number will be different to the mass number of the other isotopes possible for the specific element. All elements with atomic numbers higher than bismuth (atomic number 83) are radioactive and are elements which result from the decay of either uranium 235. A radioactive isotope is an unstable state of a chemical element which has a different number of neutrons to the normal state of the same element. carbon 13 and carbon 14 respectively. Mass (Aj number for He = 4.u. When particles or photons of energy (quanta) pass through matter. uranium 238 or thorium 232. because this number refers to the number of protons in the nucleus which have not changed. If a material is radioactive. Note that the mass number is not always twice the atomic number. the different number of neutrons will result in a change in mass.

825 days and Radium has a halflife of 1. Giga= 109• I gigabecquerel = more 109 becquerels. Fission produce separation. Cobalt 60 (C060) has a very high penetrating power and may be used on steel components up to 200 mm thick.7 x 1010 becquerels therefore. 40 50 Natural occurring radionucIides There are two main radionuclides which occur naturally: Radon and Radium.61 600 0. Ytterbium 169 (Yb169) and Selenium (Se75). 3. practical to talk in terms of 20 For industrial radiography.33 0.48 0.000. 60 Radon Radium 226 is no longer used for radiography because of the hazards presented by its alpha decay and its gaseous radioactive daughter Radon. For example.32 0. There are three methods of producing artificial radionuclides: 1.084 80 Range in steel -mm 50 . The higher the activity value. 90 of Gamma Ray Sources Gamma ray Approx.26 years 118.066 . divide by 37 then multiply by 10. Artificial radionucIides Artificially produced radionuclides have replaced natural radionuclides for use in industrial radiography. Charged particle bombardment (via high energy x-ray machine).33 1200 0. Neutron activation (neutron bombardment in a reactor).401 400 0. The most widely used radioisotopes are shown in the following table: 80 70 Characteristics Source Cobalt 60 Selenium 75 Caesium 137 Iridium 192 Ytterbium 169 Thulliuml70 Half life 5. gigabecquerels (GBq).0.203 0.66 700 0.590 years. penetrating power depends on the wavelength of the gamma rays produced and this depends on the specific radioactive element involved.17 .0.0. = 37 gigabecquerels 30 1 curie. because the gamma radiation emitted has a very short wavelength. There are four main radioactive isotopes used for industrial radiography. the greater the intensity of gamma rays produced. Bones are especially susceptible to damage from radiation emitted from radium 226.200 mm 4 -28 mm 45 -75 mm 12 -70 mm 2-17mm 1-\3mm * .0.5 days 30 years 74 days 31 days 127 days Output* 1.052 . the half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time it takes for the activity to drop to one-half of its initial strength. Radioactive isotopes are used taking into consideration their half-lives.308 300 0. disintegrations per second it is usually = I curie.1.125 0. 10 I becquerel = I disintegration per second. Iridium 192 (IrI92). Cobalt 60 (Co60) is produced by bombarding C059 with neutrons in a reactor.0025 To convert RIhICi 10 pSv/hlGBq. Cobalt 60 (Co60).063 . 3. has a half life of3.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill :\OTES UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS The activity or strength of a radioactive isotope is expressed in curies (Ci) or becquerels (Bq).7 x 10 10 1 curie. = 3. The activity of a radioactive isotope does not relate to the penetrating power of the gamma rays produced.Exposure rate factor: Emission in roentgens per curie per hour at I metre (RlCi/hr at I metre). 100 c RUlIne & T P O'Ntill 1ssee 9 31103109 R3-4 .29 . 2. x-ray enerales MeV equivalent kV 1.

0 2.000 km.5 7. The main hazard is that they may enter the body through a cut in the skin or they may be ingested.0 50 2. accelerators and certain radioactive isotopes.0 15 3. Neutrons are produced from nuclear reactors. Neutron radiation 60 Neutron radiation simply consists of flowing neutrons which have no electrical charge.0 4. lower energy.0 30 8. 70 Neutron radiation can penetrate many materials made from heavy elements with ease but it is absorbed by many lighter materials. Alpha radiation travels comparatively slowly leaving the source at about 16. particularly those containing hydrogen. they are normally prevented from entering the surrounding air space by absorption by the mass of the radioactive pellet or its surrounding capsule. 50 If beta particles are emitted from a radioactive source.0 32 3. Source Sizes and Maximum Activity Activity in Curies Source Dimensions Length (mm) Dia (mm) Ir 192 Co60 1. These particles mayor may This type of radiation is different to x and gamma radiation by having mass and not travelling at the speed of light. Beta radiation 40 A beta particle is a very light high speed electron and will possess a negative charge. There are three main types of corpuscular radiation: alpha.0 1.0 2. beta and neutron radiation. Hydrogen has an affinity for neutrons.0 1. 30 Alpha particles ionise atoms by removing electrons as they pass through matter but they do not penetrate deeply and can be stopped by a sheet of paper and human skin. all of which produce fast neutrons.0 45 3.0 180 90 4. these slower. neutrons are called thermal neutrons. They can travel through 3 meters of air or 1 mm of lead and are more penetrating than alpha particles but they can be stopped by a few millimetres of most solid or liquid materials.s" (10. Alpha radiation 20 An alpha particle is a large sub-atomic particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons (the nucleus ofa helium atom) and therefore has a positive charge. Beta particles travel faster than alpha particles. califomium 252.000 miles/sec) but the particles soon slow down and only travel a total distance ofa few centimetres through the air.g. These neutrons normally have to be slowed down by using a moderator before they are used in radiography.0 4. They are small and lightweight and therefore do not have a high ionising potential compared with alpha radiation. e. not have an electrical charge.Ruane & 11 TPO'NeiIJ UNIT R3 • BASIC PHYSICS x0 TI: S Corpuscular (particulate) radiation 10 Corpuscular radiation is the flow of sub-atomic particles.0 95 2.0 140 3.0 1.0 210 120 80 90 100 Cl R ••••nt " T P O·NriU Issut 9 31-'1l109 R3-7 .

g. Irl92 has a higher specific activity than C060. Rl·! 5 6 155 370 26.9 Hafflives X&:G __ 38.3 2 Vb 169 If" 192 62 148 10. it can be seen that a 2 mm x 2 mm Irl92 source can have an activity of up to 50 Ci but a 2 mm x 2 mm C060 source can only have an activity of 15 Ci. 100 o Ra. Spontaneous fission.tlt &: T P O'Ntitl IISU" 9 311Ol109 R3-8 . A loss of activity will be the result of decay and most radionucJide will decay through disintegration. 20 DECAY Decay is the process of spontaneous transformation of a radionuclide. 1 70 1 31 74 5. 3. From the table above. the source size must be increased.6 3 93 222 ~ 124 296 21. x-rays or corpuscular radiations which are capable of producing ions either directly or indirectly. In order to increase Ci output. 2. 50 Radioactive Decay Vb 169 half life 31 days 60 Ir 192 half life 74 days Co 60 half life 5. After I half life has occurred.2 •. Emission of gamma rays (photons).Ruane & I1 T P O'Nei11 :\OTES UNIT R3 .8 years IONISATION 90 Ionisation is simply the formation of ions which are positively or negatively charged particles. Radioactive materials decay by at least one of five primary modes: 30 I. Emission of beta particles.3 years Typical replacement e. Emission of alpha particles (helium nucleus). 4. 5. BASIC PHYSICS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY 10 Specific activity relates the curie output to the physical size of the source and is measured in curies per gram (Ci/gm). an exposure needs to be doubled to achieve the same density. Electron capture or positron emission. alter 3 half lives. 40 HALF LIFE Half life is the time taken for a radioactive isotope to reduce its output by half.5 186 days 444 days co 60 80 15. ionising radiation means gamma rays.

e.. c. d. . ABSORPTIO~ AND SCATTERI]\G SCATTER When radiographic exposures are being made..7'-. 60 This process accounts for less than 20% of the total attenuation of a radiation beam. "" " .... .. 50 Rayleigh scattering In the process.i11 Issue 9 31103109 R4-1 . 20 10 Scatter radiation is less penetrating than primary radiation from which it is derived./ 0/ -----0.-----""0. photons are deflected by outer electrons but do not change in energy or release any electrons. although heavier filters may also be needed if the scatter is heavy. they have a longer wavelength. Compton effect.. Scattered radiation may seriously effect the quality of a radiographic image and may also increase the radiation dose levels in the working viscinity.. o 0 -0--------" 90 ---Photoelectric effect The photoelectric effect is an interaction between a photon and an orbiting electron which causes an electron to be ejected. Because scatter rays are less penetrating. The photon scattering is in the forward direction.. 100 'e Ruan. Furthermore.: -c-.-.. The intensity of ionising radiation is reduced by at least one of the following types of interaction: a.•.. i. . this is one reason for using lead screens on either side of the film in a film cassette during exposure. some of the radiation scatters in all directions by the atoms which form the object.. ~~-.••• _. Rayleigh scattering.~ •. Vi I-#:. Rayleigh scattering is most relevant when dealing with low energies of radiation passing through materials consisting of elements with a high atomic number. Photons 70 · .. the greater the amount of scatter... The photon is consumed and the excess energy imparts kinetic energy to the electron.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 'OTES llNIT IU . & T P O'N..~< ! .. Photoelectric effect. Pair production 30 40 The extent of absorption and scattering is governed by the energy of the primary radiation and the atomic number of the elements making up the medium through which the radiation is traveIling.!" .. This scatter results in an overallfogging of the film and reduces the contrast and sharpness of the radiographic image..... . they can be intercepted by a sheet of lead.. a wall.. b. or another object close to the object being radiographed which is struck by the radiation....... The thicker the object being radiographed... " •.. / ---- o 80 e cl e <. the ground... will partially re-emit the rays in the form of back seal/er. this is also liable to fog the film.

- .. o I ~ 30 ----.. Compton scattering This is also called the Compton effect. Very soon after._c.··!.~#i. Pair production This effect occurs at very high radiation energies (above 1.--o-·-'..•.. "'-0 ._ J ri /"-0. -- --~-"..g.. the energy of the photon is absorbed and produces an electron and a positron.02 MeV o o CoIlison and annih~alion Ejected positron (+) ..~--~/ "0.. e... less than 100 keY in steel. " Photons r O'NeUl R4-2 e 9 31/03109 .~..(:.. '•...._ o Ruant' I••• & T .. Photon 50 40 ~. (> ••.--. The photon emerges from the collision as scattered radiation of reduced energy. In this process.o _0 -----~------...J. . a photon interacts with a free or weakly bonded outer electron..c.5 MeV 0. 10 Photons • : r ..'i .5 MeV 100 e e . 80 90 Photons > 1. When a high energy photon collides with the nucleus of the atom. the electron and the positron collide and both are destroyed but release two photons each with energies of 0... I' ••• Ejected electron (-) . part of the photon's energy is transferred to the electron which is ejected......:> 70 .02 MeV).:.- ~ 0... 8 ...... ..' .5 MeY... and also to higher energy radiation up to about 2 MeV when passing through materials containing elements of high atomic number... .. _- Ejected electron (-) -. / /... o ~ c·---~~ 20 --- "e .Ruane & 11 TPO'Nel/l :\OTt:S UI'iIT R4 • ABSORPTIO~ ANI> sex TTERING This process applies to ionising radiation of relatively low energy.' o Ejected electron (-) Scattered radiation ! 60 ..

Example configurations are: • 40 Thin discs: typically up to 3. Projection type (Category 11). Cylindrical: typically up to 4 mm in length.5 mm diameter disc to a 4 mm x 4 mm cylinder. is enclosed in a capsule sometimes referred to as a pill.0 mm diameter. they may operate electrically. These can be stacked together.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill i'\OT[S UNIT R5 • RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT GAMMA SOURCES \0 Sealed sources The source of gamma radiation. • • 70 An exposure container must be provided either with an integral lock or with hasps through which separate padlocks can be fitted. 100 o RUIn. • 60 Class P .A mobile but not portable exposure container designed to be moved easily by a suitable means provided for the purpose. Category IJ containers are those from which the sealed source is projected from the container via a projection sheath (guide tube) to an exposure head. i. the most common types are: • • • Shutter type (Category I).A portable exposure container designed to be carried by one man alone.ill Issue 9 31103109 R5-1 .e. To comply with BS 5650 (ISO 3999). 20 30 The sources available range in size and configuration from 0. which is typically in disc or cylindrical form. 80 90 BS 5650 Category J containers are containers from which the sealed source is not removed for exposure.0 mm diameter x 1. This type of container should no longer be used because of relatively high radiation doses received by the user and the high risk of overexposure. the radioisotope.A fixed installed exposure container or one with mobility restricted to the confines of a particular working area. The locks must be either lockable without the key or an integral lock from which the key cannot be removed when the container is in the working position. apparatus for gamma radiography is classified according to the mobility of the exposure container. • • The capsule is made from either 3 16 S 12 grade stainless steel or titanium. On all exposure containers the radiation can only be exposed after an unlocking operation. Spherical: 0. An exposure head will be a form of collimator.3. There are a number of different designs for containers.6 . Class M . mechanically or pneumatically. 50 Classification and types of exposure container BS 5650: /978: Specification for opparatus for gamma radiography. Titanium is used for Yb169 capsules and is an alternative to stainless steel for Ir192 andCo60.0 mm thick. Class F . Another type of container is the larch type. Rotating type (Category I). & T P O·N.

•. are mostly used for casting and forgings and give a directional coned beam only. . The handle is fitted to the torch assembly.Ruane & 11 T P OWeiJ/ Torch type BS 5650 does not cover apparatus operated by 10 removing the sealed source from the exposure container by using a manual handling device because its use is prohibited in certain national regulations.---P'" rotates 90 Rotating type 100 Shutter and rotating types can now only be used with remote control handle source holder 20 30 sealed source : ~-. : I . a spring load plunger pushes part of the assembly down producing a shielding effect so as to produce a narrow beam of radiation. Torch type 40 Shutter type (Category I type to BS 5650) shutter 50 . . As the torch assembly is withdrawn from the container.•....\ . \ shielding material / j I I 60 ~ ~. shielding material . They c Roant ISSUt' & T P O'N.. This type of container is now obsolete..•. - sealed source 70 Shutter type Rotating type {Category I type to BS 5650) shielding material 80 . Direct handling of torch assembly types is no longer permitted... RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT The container houses the source within a torch assembly and also a short handle.. . this is secured in the main container by a bayonet fixing... .. --'----'-. U~IT R5 .ill J 1103109 R5-2 .

source assembly connector S-lube 50 shielding material sealed source Projection type CoUimators 60 Collimators are usually used with gamma sources during exposures for safety reasons and sometimes to improve radiographic quality by reducing scatter from walls or objects close to the beam. X-radiation is also a form of electromagnetic radiation and differs from y rays only in its mechanism of production. and a cathode (the negative electrode). 30 I i ~ lock assembly 40 . . T P O'NtiU Iss. While y rays are a product of spontaneous radioactive decay. the pigtail and source are moved along a guide tube by means of a cable until the source reaches the exposure head (which is fixed in the working position). electrons are emitted and are attracted towards the anode in a concentrated beam formed by the focusing cup. encompassing an anode (the positive electrode).. The cable is driven along by means of a hand-cranked wind out mechanism. X-rays are produced when high speed electrons. '. An x-ray tube consists of an evacuated glass bulb.. this energy consists of approximately 97-99% heat and 1-3 % x-rays for conventional x-ray tubes up to 300 kV.. When the filament is heated to a white hot state by a current flow of a few amperes. The cable is retracted to return the source to its container at the end of the exposure. The cathode contains a filament within a curved reflector or focusing cup. The projection type can be further classified as an S-type or straight-through type. strike a solid target. There are two interactions responsible for the production of x-rays. The beam strikes a target set into the anode which results in the release of energy. The source is attached to a special connector called a pigtail. or it can be pneumatically or electrically controlled. Rusne & // TP O'Ne/1f UNIT R5 • RADIOGRAPHIC Projection type (Category 11type BS 5650) EQUII)I\1ENT 10 This type is also known as a remote control or wind out type.. X-RAY GENERATION 70 X-rays used in industrial radiography are produced from electrical machines usually referred to as x-ray sets. produced for example in an x-ray tube.. x-rays are generally created artificially by an x-ray set.e 9 Jl/Ol/ll9 R5-3 . 20 handle i I reI . These are: 80 90 100 o Ruane &. the x-rays themselves being produced from within an x-ray tube.

The x-radiation produced by this process is referred to as 'characteristic' x-radiation. b. EQUIPMENT . U~IT R5 • RADIOGRAPHIC a. the energy of which is equal to the energy difference between the two orbits. Bremsstrahlung radiation is emitted in a wide spectrum of energies. a slip of metal with a high melting point is recessed into the anode at the point which is struck by the electron beam. But. 20 Production of x-rays 30 characteristic x-rays 40 path of incoming e bremsstrahtung x-rays 50 60 Thus a typical x-ray energy spectrum will be of a continuous nature and will show characteristic spikes at discrete energies that are dependent on the target material and the difference in the energies of its electron orbits (see figure 9). Except for special applications.. so to prevent the copper melting. the anode is made from copper to conduct away the heat. I 70 Gloss envelope ~----------~------~------~~ 80 90 100 Because of the high amount of heat energy produced. and this process again results in the emission of x-radiation. The radiation produced by this interaction is referred to as 'bremsstrahlung' radiation (bremsstrahlung is German for braking radiation'). Incoming electrons will also be slowed down by the field of force around the nucleus. An electron from a higher orbit falls into the vacant space that remains in the inner orbit and in doing so emits a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. 10 The incoming electrons have sufficient energy to eject an inner orbital electron from the target atoms. c RUin. copper has a low melting point. it is the bremsstrahlung radiation that constitutes most of the x---rny output. '" T P O'Nrill Is••• 9 31103109 RS-4 . . Ruane & 11 T P O'Ne/1f :\OTlS .

this produces full wave rectified d.c. the complete unit commonly being referred to as the x-ray tubehead. I \ I \ \ . The target is usually made of tungsten because of its high melting point of 3370°C.. oil or water normally being employed for this purpose.... circuit .•. The cooling system and the insert are contained together in an earthed. gas. TP O'Neill '\OTt:S Ruane & // .. The area on the target which is struck by the electrons is called the focal spot. 90 100 e Ruan... \ \ I 50 The effect of a. because. 20 Additional cooling is required to cool the anode. I I .(self rectified) 40 I /.. + -. although from the radiographic image quality point of view. 60 Graetz circuit + 70 80 By reversing the half cycle by rectification. RADIOGRAPHIC . The tubehead is controlled from the control panel. . In an x-ray tube. this area should be large enough to avoid local overheating.c . the greater will be the intensity and energy of the x-rays produced. x-rays can only be produced when the current is travelling from the cathode (-ve) to the anode (+ve). '." EQUIPMENT .i11 tssue 9 J IJOJI09 RS-S . UNIT U5 ... the focal spot should be as small as possible to provide good definition (sharpness) on the radiograph.. & T P O·N. and its high atomic number of74. 10 The target serves another purpose. When used in x-ray sets. / •. '\.-. lead lined container. the higher the atomic number of the element struck by electrons. FWRC is known as a Graetz circuit... 30 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN X-RAY TUBES A. . on the direction of current flow.C.

-"' . . This circuit doubles the peak voltage from the transformer and produces a waveform as shown above. \ . . Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 l\OTES . 70 80 90 100 o Ruan.. EQl1IPME!. it is all in the -ve half of the cycle and is therefore direct current.... this smooth constant potential (CP) waveform is known as a Greinacher circuit. When used in x-ray sets which use this kind of double waveform. 11< T P O'NtiU 1•••• 9 31/03109 RS-6 . ...T UNIT RS . \ + I \ -. \ -I \ I - . . . . it is known as a Villard circuit.•.. Greinacher 40 circuit . 10 j I j I I " " ' \ I I I I \ I I I I I ~ .. is to use a circuit incorporating diodes and capacitors in series with the high voltage transformer.. Although the waveform is oscillating.. RADIOGRAPHIC Villard circuit .••..•. .c. When used in x-ray sets. . from a. 20 30 Another means of obtaining d.(constant potential) + 50 60 Further improvements can be made to the FWRC waveform by introducing capacitors which flatten or smooth the rippling to produce the waveform shown above.c.

. The value required for a specific exposure is usually pre-set on the panel. typical maximum values are 200 kV.e. 250 kV and 300 kV. i. has an adverse affect on the contrast and definition of a radiographic image. the value being measured across the tube..raJIuk (20 PI ".lnimum cable length) The timer is usually calibrated in minutes. An increase in kV. The mA control on conventional x-ray equipment may only allow for a maximum of 6 to 12 mA to be used. between the cathode and the anode. The greater the intensity of electrons striking the target. 20 ~ o 2 ~o TDp(1Wer ra warning l]Slcm 30 4 40 Timer 50 • -- Timer • • rox. i. states the maximum kV values for this reason. 100 Cl R. Therefore. this value is usually at. Certain standard specifications. the greater the intensity of the x-rays produced. the kinetic energy is increased. 60 70 80 90 The kV meters on the control panels for conventional x-ray equipment are peak kV values measured across the tube. when the electrons strike the target. When the kV is increased.e. the current flow through the filament is increased. RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT The x-ray equipment control panel 10 The three controls that govern a radiographic exposure using x-rays are the timer. e. Ruane & 11 TP O'Nelll :'IoOT[S U~IT R5 . Milliamps (mA) The mA controls the intensity or quantity of x-rays.e. which causes the filament to get hotter resulting in an increase in the intensity of electrons released. The value required for a specific exposure is usually pre-set on the panel. The exposure time for an exposure is preset. When the mA is increased. or close to. when the equipment is activated. a shortening of wavelength.a ne & T P O'Ncill I•••• 9 J llOllO9 R5-7 . between the cathode and the anode.g. The exposure time will partially govern how much radiation is going to reach the film. The maximum kV which can be used is primarily governed by the tubehead. the mA control and the kV control. i. the speed of the electron flow from the cathode to the anode is increased. Kilovoltage (kV) The kV governs the wavelength or quality of'x-rays produced which practically governs penetrating power. the maximum mA possible with the equipment for the purpose of minimising exposure time. which results in a reduction of wavelength. BS EN 1435 Radiography of welds. the timer counts down from the pre-set value.

EQUIPMEl'"T UNIT R5 . RADIOGR<\PHIC X-Ray Tube Voltage required to penetrate steel of various thicknesses S Fine-qrain film T Medium-speed film 10 400r-------. . Cl CI:S G> . These machines may have a power source attached to the radiation source. Any control isotope used should not exceed 100 J. Because pipeline crawlers are used inside the pipeline. A separate warning signal is sometimes integrated when the crawler is in motion. therefore. i.lSv. it is essential that suitable warning signals are given and are capable of alerting persons in the vicinity of the crawler. 40 • >< ::I 200 >CI:S ~ 100 50 o 60 25 50 mm 75 100 Penetrated thickness.. this is normally achieved by using sensors linked to warning lights which operate as soon as they detect ionising radiation. they are not visible from the outside of the pipeline.D. Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill .e 9 & T P O'Neill 31103109 R5-8 . Pipeline crawler equipment 70 Machines have been developed specifically for the radiographic examination of pipeline welds using either x-ray units or gamma the accessible surface of the pipe when exposed. Crawlers available usually have an integrated audible pre-exposure alarm and an exposure alarm. battery pack or generator. or they may be operated remotely via a cable with the power source outside the pipeline.e. . Note: The curves for voltage are not extended beyond 400 kV as there is no commercial x-ray equipment in use in this country operating between 400 kV and 1000 kV.h.----. 1 80 90 100 o R ••••• lsJ. Signals that operate automatically should be linked by some method to the crawler.r-----~ T 20 300 ~ 30 a) '0 > ..•.--------r--. The useful beam from crawlers should be restricted so that the beam width does not exceed 120 mm at the circumference of the pipe.

The target size is about 2. Each exposure covered 3 m of weld.\PHIC High energy units EQUIPMENT Radiography using x-ray energies of one million electron volts (1 MeV) or greater is considered to be in the high energy range. UNIT R5 • RADIOGR. The voltages are applied so that the electrons reach an acceleration point in the field at a precise time. the electrons are accelerated along the guide to a target. Betatrons can be manufactured up to 300 MeV and an 11 MeV can penetrate steel up to 300 mm thick. This means that the path of the electrons can be increased over a smaller overall area. 70 50 60 80 90 100 o Ruant' & T P O'N~iII Iss ee 9 31/03/09 RS-9 . Electron linear accelerators 30 These are commonly referred to as linacs or simply linear accelerators.1 mm. The energy in electron volts increases with the length of the tube. The 4 MeV linac was mounted centralIy on a rotating stand in the centre of the shell. Portable x-ray betatrons are available with energy outputs up to 6 MeV. 20 Electrically charged particles are made available for acceleration from a heated cathode and injected into a very high vacuum tube and collimated to bombard special targets and produce x-rays. the rays energy at the other side. the 100 mm thick steel shell of a nuclear reactor at a power station in Wales was radiographed at a distance of9 m using ultrafine grain film with a 20 minute exposure. . With phased power. 10 Electrostatic generators The Van de GrafJe electrostatic generator consists of a rapidly moving insulated belt onto which is sprayed an electric charge which is carried to a hemispherical high voltage terminal. This 4 MeV was transportable and could readily be moved with lifting equipment. The guide consists of a series of cavities which produce gaps when the rf power is applied. As an example. but is not transportable. This produces a high voltage difference with respect to the lower end. Linacs accelerate electrons down a guide by means of radio frequency (rf) voltages.5 mm. 40 The focal spots can be as small as 0.RUBne & 11 TP O'Nel11 . The Betatron This machine is based on the same principle as the linac but the electron guide is a spiral.


200 kV . Figure 1 . Energy l50kV 20 Lead HVT(mm) 0. if the wavelength (penetrating power) of the radiation is changed. The lower the kV (longer the wavelength). HALF YALUE THICK!\'ESS The half value thickness (HVT) of a material may be used as a guide for determining the thickness of a material to be used for shielding from radiation. Figure 2 shows that side A of the specimen has two times the intensity of radiation emerging from it in comparison with side B. Note: The radiographic density produced in Figure J will be lower than Figure 2 if the exposures are identical. The following table shows examples of the HVT for lead.. e. e.g. 100 o Ruane Issue & T P O'N~i11 9 31103109 R6-J .5 6 12 Steel HVT(mm) 4 6 12 15 13 20 Concrete HVT(mm) 22 26 28 31 40 65 30 200kV 250kV 300 kV lrl92 Co60 40 The HVT of a material can also be used to explain subject contrast in relation to wavelength (kV): Figure J shows that side A of the specimen has four times the intensity of radiation emerging from it in comparison with side B. If the initial intensity of radiation increases. for the construction of a radiation work bay in a factory. the HVT will remain the same. The tenth value thicknesses 90 (TVT) 0/ a material will reduce the radiation intensity by one tenth.. by increasing the mA when using x-ray equipment. the HVT of a specific material will alter. e.g. the higher the subject contrast and therefore the higher the radiographic contrast.5 1.Ruane & 11 T P O'Nelll :\OTES UNIT R6 . the resultant radiograph from the specimen in Figure I will display higher radiographic contrast (because of an increase in subject contrast) compared to the radiograph produced in Figure 2. However. The HVT of a specific material is the thickness which cuts down the radiation intensity by one half. concrete and steel.0 1.250 kV . so it is assumed that the exposure time for Figure I is higher to compensate in order to give the same density on either side A or side B.3 0.g.----L u 70 !! 4R IR !! 8R 4R 80 Therefore. \0 Half value layer (HVL) is alternative terminology used. by changing kV or isotope type.steel 60 SO Figure 2 .steel !! 1 16R !! ! ! ! ! 16R !! ! 12mmn-~~~~~~~~~~~TVTI':i.


Polyester and cellulose triacetate.. The base must be transparent. and higher radiographic contrast. Emulsion The layers of primary importance are the two emulsion layers. although not quite as stable as glass. When large grain structures are required. Various shapes of crystals exist. emulsion and supercoat. Glass is an ideal substrate to meet these requirements. but these shapes have virtually no effect on the final image. T P O'NeiU 1•••• 9 ll/OllO9 R7-1 .1 and 1. are widely employed for such applications. it must allow for chemical reactions to take place in the processing tanks.e. Film emulsion is produced by mixing solutions of silver nitrate and salts. so to prevent. chemically inert and must not be susceptible to expansion and contraction. the sizes of the crystals are usually between 0. effect the final radiographic quality/appearance. the base of a film is not totally transparent. These layers consist of millions of silver halide crystals (usually silver bromide). i.g. i. e. such as potassium bromide. The sizes of these crystals and the distribution. Although the supercoat otTers some protection against chemical attack.g. with a solution of gelatine. the emulsion is coated with a layer of hardened gelatine.e. The rate and temperature of mixing governs the grain size. or at least reduce this. 60 70 80 Supercoat (anti-abrasion layer) 90 Radiographic emulsion is susceptible to mechanical and chemical damage. on pipes. it is necessary for a flexible base to be used. the radiographs can be produced quicker. Subbing layer (substratum) 50 The subbing layers adhere the emulsion to the base. 20 30 The base is normally tinted blue and will therefore possess some density.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill :\0 rES Vl\IT R7 • RAI>IOGRAPHIC FILM THE MAKE-UP 10 OF A RADIOGRAPHIC FILM Radiographic film is usually made up of seven layers: a central base layer and three coatings on either side consisting of a subbing layer. to produce a fast emulsion. 100 c R"an~ &. e.0 micrometers (urn) and are suspended in a gelatine binding medium. therefore it is applied to a substrate known as the base. 40 Base The physical characteristics of emulsion do not allow it to be used by itself without support. whereas slow mixing at high temperature produces emulsions with larger grains. oil from the skin during handling. The reason for two layers of emulsion is to give a faster film speed. the larger the crystal size the greater the sensitivity to radiation. rapid mixing at low temperature produces the finest grain structure. but for applications where the objects to be radiographed are curved. some silver iodide is usually included in the formula. the material employed for this is gelatine plus a base solvent.

e.medium speed. & T P O'NriD IQU' 9 31103109 R7-2 .exceptional radiographic quality but very slow speed. Coarse grain . This means to say of the film with a factor of20 took four minutes to expose. Fine grain . 30 FILM SPEED 40 A film factor is a number which relates to the speed of a particular film and is obtained from a films characteristic curve. Film manufacturers may have their own scale which may work in the same or opposite way to the SCRATA scale. 20 • • • • Ultra fine grain . The SCRATA scale is a scale often used for film factors.TPO'Nei// Ruane & 11 U~IT R7 • RADIOGRAlll-llC FILM FILMTVPES Radiographic film may be graded in terms of grain size or speed: The terminology used for 10 grain size and speed can be misleading. a fine grain film may be considered la be fast or slow depending on what it is being compared against. They are able to produce radiographs with minimum exposure and are widely used in medical radiography. 50 Example to the SCRA TA scale: A film with a factor of 10 will be twice as fast compared to a film with a factor of20. Types of film with their corresponding SCRATA film factors: 60 Manufacturer Agfa Gevaert Dupont 70 Name RCF NDT91 NDT75 CX AX 07 NOT 55 D4 MX 02 Speed Fast Fast Medium Medium Medium Medium Slow Slow Slow Very slow Grain Coarse Coarse Fine Fine Fine Fine Very fine Very fme Very fme Ultra fine Film Factor Dupont Kodak Kodak Agfa Gevaert Oupont Agfa Gevaert Kodak 20 25 30 35 80 95 120 200 80 Agfa Gevaert 90 100 e Ruan. The terms used are usually relative. the smaller the film factor the faster the film. Direct-type films are intended for direct exposure to gamma or x-rays or for exposure using lead intensifying screens.slow speed. then the film with a factor of 10 will require two minutes to give the same density. Some of these films may be suitable for use with fluorometallic or salt (fluorescent) intensifying screens.poor radiographic quality but fast speed. Salt screen type films are designed to be used exclusively with salt (fluorescent) intensifying screens. Medium grain .g. Radiographic films are also divided into two types: direct-type or salt screen type.

if the exposure for film type y was 5 mA-mins to achieve a density of2.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll UNIT R8 . 3. A characteristic curve will also show that the density does not vary in the same proportion as the applied exposure. the densities are measured with a densitometer and then plotted on a graph against the corresponding exposures.a high contrast film will display a steep gradient. After development. EXP.5 EL. o Ruane & T P O'NciU tssue 9 31/03/09 R8-1 . Information which can be gained from a characteristic curve is as follows: 10 20 a. For example. A new exposure time can be determined for a change of film type. it should be appreciated that it is possible to obtain the relative film factors from the characteristic curves of films. it will be seen that the faster films lie closer to the left vertical axis. this method is the most practical method for the size and interpretation of a curve. because faster films attain density at lower exposures. I I 3. The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range within which the film contrast will be at its highest (usually optimum). The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information on film speed. Therefore.0 RCF & Iluorometallic screens 100 When characteristic curves of various films are superimposed on one graph. CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF FILMS A characteristic curve is a curve on a graph produced for a particular film which shows the relationship between different exposures applied and the resulting densities.-/ 1.0 / / / / 1/ V 2.5 20 1.5 60 I I I 70 80 V 90 ~ --. The gradient on the curve gives information about film contrast . Sensitometric curve of STRUCTURIX Automatic processing: 8 minutes cycle using developer G 121/G 135 at 29-300 30 40 50 RC1 pi D4 021 3. b. it would be possible to determine the new exposure for film type x in order to achieve a density of3. c. When the points obtained are joined together a curve will be produced.0 / / 1/ / j I / / / V / I1 / ~ lii z w LOG.0. Both the vertical axis (density) and horizontal axis (exposure) are calibrated in a logarithmic scale (logloE).0 2.5 1.0 Cl 0.0. A curve is produced by applying increasing exposures to adjacent areas of a strip of film. d.


15 mm. Two lead screens are used to sandwich the film. emit light radiation to which the film is sensitive. 30 Close contact between screens and film is essential in order to obtain sharp images. Intensifying screens have an extra photographic effect on the emulsion thereby reducing the exposure needed to attain the required density. applied to a supporting thin base card. The intensification action is only achieved with x-rays above approximately 120 kV and gamma rays above similar energy levels. Screen thicknesses are usually between 0. 2. so that it will pass the primary radiation while stopping as much of the secondary radiation as possible. LEAD SCREENS Lead screens consist of a thin lead foil of uniform thickness.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nel1l UI\'IT R9 • INTEI\'SIFYING SCREENS GENERAL 10 A radiographic film is normally sandwiched between two intensifying screens when exposed to x-rays or gamma rays. Fluorescent (salt) screens. it is better to use screens of the same thickness. Lead screens are pliable and should be handled with care if buckling is to be avoided.especially if using fluorometallic or fluorescent screens. lOO 90 High definition (fine grain) screens. if this is not done they may be seen as light indications on the radiographic image . When the screens become too scratched or dirty causing the radiographic quality to be impaired. FluorometaJlic screens. Lead screens. There are three main types of intensifying screens: Other metallic screens exist for less common 20 applications. If it is technically feasible. e.02 mm and 0. Lead screens intensify the image by emitting beta radiation (electrons) when struck by x-rays or gamma rays of sufficient energy. in cassettes as opposed to roll film or pre-packed film. 2. they become dusty and should be frequently dusted with a fine brush. when subjected to x-rays or gamma rays. Lead screens will also improve the radiographic image by partially filtering out scatter radiation. 60 70 80 FLUORESCENT (SALT)SCREENS Fluorescent screens are made up from micro crystals of a suitable metallic salt. Screens must be kept free from dust and scratches.g. they may be cleaned with cotton wool damped with a weak detergent solution. 1. This light radiation results in a large increase of effective radiation. These screens. There are two types of fluorescent screen: I. usually calcium tungstate. If screens become too dirty or splashed with liquid. 40 Scatter radiation has a 50 longer wavelength than the primary beam/ram which it is derived and is therefore less penetrating. they should be replaced by new screens. 3. usually stuck onto a thin base card in the case of reusable screens. The rear screen cuts down the effect of back scattered radiation. High speed or rapid screens. thus avoiding the problem of accidentally loading a film cassette with the rear screen at the front. or stuck onto a thin sheet of paper when used with pre-packed film. o Ruant luu.' I< T P O'Nt~1 3\/03109 R9-J . the thickness of the front screen must be matched to the wavelength of radiation being used. If the lead screens are to be used more than once.

but the image will still retain a grainy appearance due to the salt crystals. Order of image quality 1 4 3 Order of speed 3 1 2 4 Intensification factor 2-4 8-15 5-10 N/A How intensification achieved Beta particles is Lead Fluorescent Fluorometallic None Light radiation and UV Light radiation.for x-rays up to 300 kV. UV and beta particles N/A 2 70 80 90 100 Cl Ruane &. they are made up of from a base card. a lead layer.Ruane & 11 TP O'Nelfl UNIT R9 • INTENSIFYING SCREENS A radiograph obtained using fluorescent screens will have a grainy appearance due to the screens salt grains resulting in low definition compared to a radiograph taken using lead screens or no screens at all. the image produced on the radiograph will be better than one obtained using fluorescent screens. a salt layer (calcium tungstate) and a thin protective layer. fluorescent screens are only used to avoid excessively long exposure times.g. There is more than one type of fluorometaIlic screen: • Type I . ~ 30 • • 40 Providing the correct type of fluorometallic screen and film are used with the range of radiation being used. i.e. e. T P O'Nrill Issue' JI/OJ/09 R9-2 . Their application is similar to those applications where fluorescent screens may be used.g. substantial reductions in exposure time or kV can be achieved. FLUOROMETALLIC 20 SCREENS Fluorometallic screens are a combination of a salt screen and a lead screen. 50 COMP ARISON OF INTENSIFYING SCREENS Screen type 60 The intensification factor relates /0 the reduction in exposure time. Type 3 . on very thick specimens. e. an intensification factor of 3 will reduce exposure from say six minutes /0 two minutes. Because the lead layer will partially filter out scatter radiation. 10 Because of the resulting loss of image quality. on thick specimens.for C060. These screens are not commonly used due to high cost.for x-rays 300-1000 kV. Ir 192. Type 2 .

the fixer removes the unexposed and therefore undeveloped crystals. in this context. Therefore. The portions of radiographic film which receive sufficient quantities of actinic radiation undergo minute changes. form a latent image. 20 30 The affected crystals are then essentially amplified by the developer. The silver halide crystals which have absorbed a sufficient quantity of radiation are partially converted into metallic silver . i. The radiation finally emerging at the film side of the object will largely determine the final characteristics of the radiograph. 3.ilJ bsue!ll 31103109 RIO-J . The latent image can be defined as the hidden image on a radiographic film after exposure to actinic radiation but before development.this is the latent image. The radiograph attains its final appearance by fixation. Washing removes the chemicals (fixer). 2. These changes are so small they are invisible to the naked eye and also invisible when using conventional microscopes. 4. is that which will affect the film emulsion.e. 10 Actinic radiation.Ruane & 11 T P O'Hefll :\ O'IT S UNIT RIO· IMAGE FORMATION When radiation passes through an object it is differentially absorbed depending upon the thickness and any differing material densities. radiation alone does not convert a radiographic film into a visible readable image. 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cl Ru ••• " T P O·N. the developer completely converts the affected crystals into metallic silver. this hidden image is known as the latent image. The sequence of processes to attain a radiographic image are as follows: 1.


T PO'Neill

Ruane & 11



Processing of radiographs may be carried out manually or by using automatic processors. Manual processing takes place in a darkroom under the illumination of safelights which usually consist of ordinary light bulbs behind orange filters. Other colours for filters exist, but the colour chosen must emit light of a wavelength which does not detrimentally affect the emulsion. The darkroom should preferably be divided into two sides, a dry side for loading and unloading of cassettes and a wet side for processing; this is so the films are not splashed prior to development. The wet side of the darkroom will usually have five tanks arranged in the following sequence: I. Developer tank. 2. 3.



Stopbath or rinse tank. Fixer tank. Final wash tank.


5. Wetting agent tank.
When the exposed film has been unloaded from its cassette, it is placed into aframe spiral if its a long film) and placed into the developer.



General rules
Darkrooms must be light-tight, must be kept clean and everything must be kept in its place.


The loading bench (the dry side) must be on the opposite side to the processing tanks (the wet side). The distance between should be wide enough for two people to pass. The loading bench should have storage space (drawers and cupboards) underneath for films, chemicals etc .. There must be at least one central white light and two safelights, one over the loading bench, one over the processing tanks. There must be electric sockets conveniently placed for extra electrical equipment. There must be ventilation baffled against light and an exhaust fan, also baffled. The entrance door should be spring loaded for self-closing and baffled all round against light. The entrance door should be lockable from the outside but not from the inside. The darkroom walls should be painted washable white or cream, except for the walls by the entrance which should be matt black.




An electric supply is essential (mains or generator). A running water supply is desirable but in some cases on isolated sites, water may have to be carried.


Processing tanks - There should be a minimum of four processing tanks; one for developer, one for rinse, one for fixer and one twice as large for the wash. An extra tank is desirable for wetting agent. Drying cabinet - Desirable but not essential for a low output of radiographs.



Cl Ruant

& T P O'NtHI

Issue 9 31/03109


Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill




Immersion heater - plunger type. Timer.

Film hangers. Film clips. Cassettes. Screens.


Films. Chemicals - Developer, replenisher and fixer. Miscellaneous items - Plastic bucket, mop, swabs, brush, paper towels, large waste paper basket or box and a chair.


Layout of a typical industrial darkroom



40 S



Below are cupboards

DRY BENCH (For loading & unloading film cassettes)

storing cassettes, films & chemicals













e Ruane

11<T P O'Ntl1l JIIOJI09


Ruane & 11 TP OWell1
:'\OT ES




Radiation causes a latent image to form on the film. A latent image cannot be discerned with the naked eye. Developing changes the latent image into a visual image by blackening the irradiated silver halides. Stop bath or rinse stops the action of the developer by neutralisation surplus chemicals. and removes the


Fixer removes unaffected silver halides and hardens the gelatine. Final wash removes all chemicals from the film, preventing chemical fogging. Developer> film to be developed for 4 minutes at 68°F (20°C) regularly agitated. It should be topped up with replenisher and changed after twice its own volume of replenisher has been added. Concentrated developer is mixed to a dilution of I part plus 4 parts water but when used as a replenisher, the ratio is I part plus 3 parts of water, i.e. I gallon of concentrate makes 5 gallons of developer.


Hot weather processing


. Through the summer months, darkrooms and chemical solutions frequently get warmer than normal. For best results, the developer, fixer and wash water should be kept at the same temperature. Ice should not be placed in the solution because excessive dilution will result as the ice melts. Although processing films in hot solution is not recommended, satisfactory radiographs can be produced in solution up to 35°C. Water temperatures can shoot up to dangerous heights, even in air conditioned darkrooms. Prolonged washing at high temperatures may damage film, therefore, if the water is too warm, washing must be kept to a minimum. Automatic water mixes will require watching too, they cannot keep water any cooler than the temperature of the cold water supply. Restrainer With temperatures up to 24°C, no extra precautions are needed. However, when temperatures range between 27°C and 35°C, restrainer can be added to the developer. A restrainer for developing solutions is made up of 18 g of sodium bicarbonate per litre of diluted developer, or 4.5 g of concentrated solution.



The total amount of proper restrainer needed for a full tank of developer should be weighed out and then dissolved in approximately 200 ml of warm water. The resulting solution should be added to the developer and the mixture stirred thoroughly. Rinse The gelatin in the emulsion swells more in warm solutions and absorbs more developer. Therefore longer rinsing times are required at higher temperatures. Poorly rinsed films carry more alkali into the fixer and thereby reduce the speed and hardening action of the fixer. Fixing at high temperatures A fixing bath that contains an acid hardener minimises the tendency of the emulsion to frill during the final washing. Even when rinsing is done carefully, the fixer acidity declines with use. The addition of fixer replenisher will maintain pH 4.5 and the fixer's hardening ability. Washing film in hot weather In the summer, excessive washing should be avoided. Prolonged immersion in warm water may cause the emulsion to frill. To determine the correct rate of water flow, measure the time required to refill the tank after removing a given quantity of water and adjust the flow so that water in the tank changes at least 10 times each hour.




OR ••••


Iss ee 931/03109


Ruane & 11 TPO'Nell1

lll'\IT RII
Drying film in hot weather


The high relative humidity generally prevailing in hot weather increases the time required to dry an Xsray film. Three of the factors that affect drying time are:

I. 2.

the degree to which the film has been hardened in the fixer; the length oftime it was washed;

3. the water absorbing property of the gelatin used to make the emulsion. Methods of controlling the first two factors have been described previously. Faster processible film is recommended, especially because it absorbs a minimum of water. Overnight cooling


In laboratories where 10 - 20 litre solution tanks are used, the following recommendations may prove useful.

Before closing the laboratory for the day, remove 4 litres of developer and 4 litres of fixer and place them in separate labelled glass containers. Store them in a refrigerator overnight and in the morning, add chilled solutions to the warm solution to bring the working temperature closer to normal. Make certain the bottles are dedicated and correctly labelled.



Developer is an alkali and is usually supplied as a liquid concentrate and is diluted with water at a ratio governed by the manufacturers instructions, e.g. 1 part developer to 4 parts water.


Developer temperature and development time should be in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations or specification, but for manual processing is typically 20° ± I °C for 4 to 5 minutes. The time should be taken from when the film hits the developer with a suitable darkroom timer. Once the film is in the developer it is agitated for approximately 20 seconds and then for approximately 10 seconds every minute. Agitation allows for fresh developer to flow over the film and prevents the possibility of bromide streaking; agitation also cuts down development time. The developer supplies a source of electrons (-ve ions) which cause the chemical changes in the emulsion. The frames or spirals should be tapped against the tanks to prevents any air bubbles settling on the film which can cause light spots on the fmished radiograph. Developer Constituents Developing agent(s) Accelerator Preservative Action Preferentially reduces the exposed silver halide crystals (+ve ions) to black metallic silver. A chemical which gives an alkaline reaction which speeds up development Prevents oxidation of the developer. Controls the level of development fogging. Prevents the formation of scale. Chemicals in common use Metol. Hydroquinone. Phenidone Borax. Sodium carbonate. Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulphate. Potassium bromide. Sodium. Hesarnetaphosphate.





Restrainer Sequestering a~ent


C>Ruanc &. T P O'Ntill
b ••• 9 J 1103/09


a hardening agent is also added. A common guide for the remixing time is when the replenisher added exceeds twice the volume of the original developer.g. This stops the reaction of the developer. Fixers are not usually replenished. the fixer will soon become neutralised. If/he crystals are unexposed they will not have been developed. for at least 20 minutes. typically at a ratio of I part fixer to 3 parts water (follow manufacturers instructions). after looking under the illumination of the safe lights. 100 Cl Ra•• e & T .g. thereby producing radiographs of a diagnostic (readable) quality. e. Yellow fog appears on films which have not been sufficiently washed. due to the developer being an alkali and the stopbath an acid. The films must be agitated in the fixer. FINAL WASH 90 Films should be washed preferably in a tank with constant running water. if this is not done properly. ammonium or sodium thiosulphate.when the fixing time is over 10 minutes. they are then readily dissolved or removed at the fmal wash stage.e. The exhausted fixer is retained because silver may be reclaimed via electrolysis methods. When approximately I m2 of film has been developed.Ruane & 11 T P O'Nei/J :\ 0 TI: S UI\IT RII . the films are returned to the fixing tank for another 3 minutes. as a guideline . 60 Fixation is the process which removes the undeveloped silver halide crystals and fixes the remaining developed crystals. O'Ntill Issue 9 31/03/09 Rll-5 . total fixing time 6 minutes. The fixer contains chemicals. Films should be placed and agitated in the stopbathlrinse tank for at least 10 seconds. e. 50 FIXER Fixer is an acid which is supplied as a liquid concentrate and is to be diluted with water. A water spray rinse. e.g. This removes any soluble silver compounds left behind in the emulsion after fixing and removes the fixer which is an acid. failing to do so may result in light spots on the film. Replenishment ensures that the activity of the developer and the developing time required remains constant throughout the useful life of the developer. After continuous replenishment the quality of the image will be affected and the developer will have to be changed. if the milky image disappears in 3 minutes. FILM PROCESSI~G Replenishment \0 The activity of the developer gradually decreases with use and age. which convert the unwanted unexposed halides into water soluble compounds. 40 The most efficient type of stopbath is an acid stopbatb which is typically made up of 2% glacial acetic acid in water. the fixer should be replaced. 20 STOPBATH The stopbath may be: 30 • • • An acid stopbath. A fresh water tank. The fixing time is twice the time it takes for the image to clear. i. about 400 ml (2 cups) of replenish er needs to be added. 70 80 When the fixer becomes exhausted.

other specially designed drying apparatus or a dust free drying room. 30 The drying time will depend on the temperature. otherwise black marks will remain on the radiograph. this prevents black spots or streaks. 10 20 DRYING THE FILM Initially excess water is removed from the films with a squeegee and then placed in either a drying cabinet.m Issue 9 31/03/09 Rll-6 . 40 50 60 70 80 90 lOO o R••••• & TPO'N. Care must be taken not to allow drops of water to fall onto the drying films. Wetting agents are supplied as a liquid concentrate and is to be diluted with water at a ratio of approximately I part wetting agent to 4000 parts of water. Typical drying times are 15 minutes in a drying cabinet. FILM PROCESSING WETTING AGENT Wetting agent reduces the surface tension of the water and results in even drying of the film. 45 minutes in a drying room.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OT[S UNIT RII . air circulation and the relative humidity of the warm air. Films are only dipped in and out of the wetting agent.

50 More radiation passes through the thinner sections of a specimen. Incident light is light from the viewer.0 4. 40 A high density or dark area absorbs more light than a low density or light area.Radiographic definition is the degree of sharpness at the boundaries of density fields. The greater the amount of black metallic silver grains present in an area on a radiograph. Contrast .) with the transmitted fight (IJ and expresses the result as a logarithmic ratio. nADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY Radiographic quality can be discussed using four main terms: I. i. Sensitivity is affected directly by the contrast and definition. 2. transmitted light is light transmitted through a film when the film is on the viewer.0 Density 90 l. the more light is absorbed and the denser the area appears.1% 0. e. Definition . Sensitivity quality.Sensitivity is a term used to give an indication of overall radiographic 3. this compares the incident light (I.0 3. .01% 0. 20 There are two qualities of a radiograph usually measured: density and sensitivity.0 100 % light transmitted through the radiograph 10% 1% 0.Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill :\OTES UNIT nI2 .001% c Ru•••• & T PO'N. Sensitivity measurements give an overall guide as to the radiographic technique's ability to detect fine defects. Density is measured using a densitometer and sensitivity is measured using an image quality indicator (IQI).e. 10 Density . 30 DENSITY The density of a radiograph relates its degree of blackness. LOglO ~ 60 Density = It The viewer must be capable 70 of white light intensities suitablefor viewing radiographs up to the maximum permissible densities.g.Radiographic contrast is the degree of difference between density fields on a radiograph.The density of a radiograph relates its degree of blackness. 4. if either of these qualities are lacking then the sensitivity is lacking.0 2.iII I ss ee 9 31/03/09 RI2-1 . Example: If the incident light was 100 times greater than the transmitted light: 100 I Density Density = LoglO 80 = 2.0 5. areas where cracks or lack of fusion are present. therefore these areas will eventually show up on the radiograph as dark (dense) areas. Measuring density Density on a processed radiograph is measured using an instrument called a densitometer.

it depends on the aim of the radiographic technique. Low k V x-ray gives poor latitude CONTRAST .. i. i.g. 100 times more light passes through the radiograph for a density of 1. Incorrect developer.. Developer temperature too low. Insufficient development time.0 is a factor of 100. 20 BS EN /435 states that the minimum optical density shall be greater or equal to 2.0 than for a density of3. high contrast is ideal for detecting defects. 30 The minimum density in the area of interest. Radiographic contrast is the degree of difference between density fields on a radiograph. If. then the contrast should ideally be as high as possible.e. when only tones of a similar density exist the contrast is low. required by specifications is typically between 1.causes • • • 40 Under exposure to radiation. 80 90 is the case with certain types of m. the optimum contrast may lie between these two extremes. However.e. 10 times mor.0 or 3. Excessive development time.. to gain more information about the through thickness dimensions of any defects and the weld itself.0. light passes through the radiograph for a density of 1. Solution of developer too strong. i. i. In this situation the specification may specify that the density is to be measured inunediately adjacent to the weld reinforcement. Lack of density .. Solution of developer too weak. high.0 and 2.0 or 2. i.. • • • Excessive density . however.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OlES UNIT IU2 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1.causes 50 • • • • Over exposure to radiation. Before use. Incorrect developer. we need to have intermediate tones. Developer temperature too high.0 than for a density of 2. Exhausted developer. If an application specification is not permitting any detected defects in the weld whatsoever. densitometers should be calibrated using a calibrated density strip . greys in addition to black and whites.. e. 60 • RADIOGRAPHIC 70 Latitude: The range of thicknesses which can be viewed on a radiograph.e. then it would be necessary to have a range of tones on the radiographs so that the through thickness depth of the defects and the height of weld reinforcements can be assessed.e.5.m..3.a strip of film containing known densities on the same viewer which is to be used for interpreting the radiograph.5 and 2.. 100 The following chart shows the criteria which affect radiographic contrast: Cl Ruane & T P Q'Ntill tssue 9 31103109 R12-2 . this is not always practical to determine when the area of interest has many thickness changes and therefore density changes .5.a. Note: We are assuming that there are thickness changes or material density changes present in order to display density changes.0 and 3. depending on the class.e. The maximum density stated in a specification will typically be 3. welds. 10 The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1. C060 gives good latitude.•• When a radiograph contains only blacks and whites and no intermediate tones the contrast. depending on the defects through thickness dimensions. as well as length and/or width. the weld.0 is a factor of 10. an application specification permitted certain defects.

Le. but the degree of definition also affects the result. i. with lead screens or with fluorescent screens. Film contrast is independent. compensated for by a prolonged developer. Activity of the developer 20 Subject contrast is the ratio of x-ray or gamma ray intensities transmitted by two selected portions of a specimen. but can be measured by the use of a duplex type IQI. Over exposure to radiation. RAIlIOGRAPIIIC Radiographic contrast QUALITY I Subject contrast 10 I Film contrast I Affected by: a. Prolonged development in too cold a developer or exhausted developer. assessed about the 50 Insufficient contrast .causes • • • 60 • Radiation wavelength too short.causes 70 • • • • Radiation wavelength too long. Unsuitable or wrongly mixed developer. it is normally subjectively. for most practical purposes. Scattered radiation Affected by: a. it is normally assessed subjectively. 80 DEFINITION Radiographic definition is the degree of sharpness at the boundaries of density fields. Type of film b. kVIpenetrating power too high. of the wavelengths and distribution of the radiation reaching the film and hence is independent of subject contrast. milliamperage of source strength.e.Q. Perfect defmition can never be obtained due to the existence of penumbra and the films inherent unsharpness. Film contrast refers to the slope (steepness) of the characteristic curve of the film. 30 40 Measuring radiographic contrast Radiographic contrast is not usually measured exclusively. It also depends on whether the film's exposure is direct. It depends on the type of film.I. 100 Cl Ru ••• Issue' 8< T P lllOlI09 O'N.. Subject contrast depends on the nature of the specimen. the processing it receives and the density. Development time. compensated for by shortened development time. Incorrect developer. Under exposure. Insufficient fixation. 90 Measuring radiographic definition Radiographic defmition is not usually measured exclusively.m R12-3 . Fog. but could be measured by the use of a step wedge type J. distance and the characteristics or treatment of the film. A wire type IQI used to assess sensitivity primarily gives information radiographic contrast. Thickness differences in specimen b. Wrongly mixed developer. Radiation quality c. There are many factors that govern the final definition on a radiograph. kV/penetrating power too low. the wavelength of the radiation used and the intensity and distribution of the scattered radiation but is independent of time. • • Excessive contrast .Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :'\01 [S UNIT R12 . including the geometry of the set-up during exposure and the film type used. temperature and agitation c.

the following procedure may be adopted. object to film distance (o.d. 50 Geometric unsharpness (Ug) Geometric unsharpness or penumbra is the unsharpness on a radiograph caused by the geometry of the radiation beam in relation to the object being radiographed and the film. Calculate the focal spot size by measuring the total diameter of the image and then deduct 2 x hole diameter.d. e. grain distribution and radiation energy used. The largest pair of wires. If a pair of parallel wires blend into one on the radiographic image it will be due to the poor definition. Development 40 Inherent (film) unsharpness Inherent unsharpness is the unsharpness on a radiograph caused by stray electrons transmitted from exposed crystals which have affected adjacent crystals.f. the image of which has just merged from that of two separate wires into the single form.d. where d is the width of the wire and Note: Duplex IQIs are placed on the source side of the object being examined and aligned as closely as possible to the axis of the radiation beam. Abrupt thickness changes in specimen e. Penumbra always exists and borders all density fields. Radiation quality d. pairs of parallel platinum or tungsten wires of decreasing thickness. should be as long as practicable.f. F. Unsharpness is given in BS EN 462 : Part 5 as U the wire spacing distance. 90 3. exactly halfway between the focal spot and a radiographic film. Screen film contact Affected by: a. it increases with a reduction in wavelength. 20 = 10 2d. A duplex type IQJ (BS EN 462 : Part 5) . is taken as the criterion of discemability. Type of film b. approximately 4 mm thick containing a small hole about 0.) and focal spot to film distance (f.f. Expose . should be as small as possible. Radiographic definition I Geometrical factors I I Graininess factors 30 I Affected by: a. its magnitude depending on grain size. To determine the size of the focal spot. D.d. • • Determination of focal spot size 80 The focal spot size of x-ray tubes can change over a period of time. 1. Inherent unsharpness always exists.f.Image quality indicators (Duplex) consists o. To minimise penumbra we must adhere to the following conditions: 70 • 60 The source or focal spot should be as small as possible. 2. Focus film distance c. Specimen film distance d. for penumbra calculations.) all affect penumbra. The dimensions of the focal spot or gamma source. the thickness of the pairs usually being the same as the gap between mm diameter.f.Ruane & 11 T P O'Ne/11 :\OlLS lI!'11T R12 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY -r-.g. The image on the film will be the size of the focal spot plus twice the diameter of the hole. Focal spot size b. 100 e Ruant " T P O'Ntill Issue 9 31/03109 R12-4 .d. Place a lead sheet. Type of screen c.the exposure should not be excessive otherwise the image will be blurred.

: 20 2 mmdiameter L.g.ofd (SOD) Ug= Where: s = the maximum dimension of the gamma source or focal spot.I 60 f/ / \\ \~ 1 \\ \.S Ul\IT R12 • RAI)IOGRAPHIC QlJALITY Calculation 10 of geometric unsha rpness (Ug) sxofd sfd . a typical maximum penumbra of 0. This is calculated using the Pythagorus theorem.----T \\ ord If If FILM \\ I 70 The maximum penumbra allowed on radiographs is specified in certain standards. 90 100 o RUin.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill .\OlI. Using the nomogram 80 BS EN 1435 uses a nomogram which is based on calculations for minimum Ug. In contractual situations where the standards do not quote maximum penumbra values.-J AI2mm 30 s= length =2.ill J 1103109 R12-5 .'1 OBIE.82 mm ofd = object to film distance sfd = source to film distance sod = source to object distance 40 Note: sod + ofd = sfd s 50 1 srd ------------SOURCEI\7\------------1X \ f I \ \ I I \ \ / II I \\ sed . issue" " T P O'N. e. they may be agreed with the client. The Ug is not stated but using the nomogram gives minimum source to object (sod) distances which will give acceptable Ug.25 mm is often used.

Grey fog • • Accidental exposure to actinic radiation light.5 50 10 S 1) Class B 2) Class A 60 Figure 21. RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY --. 500 01101 400 10 10 5000 "'101 )00 200 2000 ... wrong safelights. x-rays. 100 e Ru. Unsuitable darkroom. white light entering 90 • • • Film exposed to heat. When fog is caused by light leaks. darkroom lighting. e.m lssu. & T P O·N.9 31103109 RI 2-6 .g.\1" 8 7 3000 2000 1000 100 20 6 10 s 1000 soo )00 60 SO ~o 30 20 500 1 30 " 2 c 200 )00 1 <I 200 100 "'c i 'lOO i "SO )0 10 40 W 20 6 S 4 )0 20 10 3 0.....g. e. d b = distance source size thickness = OFD = sample 70 PROCESSING AND HANDLING FAULTS Fog 80 Fog is unwanted density on a radiograph and appears on radiographs as darkened areas or overall darkening which has not been caused by thickness variations in the subject. Nomogram for the determination of minimum source-to-object fmin in relation to the object-to-liIm distance and the source size.. because ofa faulty cassette... it is often termed lighlfog.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill UNIT R12 . gamma rays. Bad film storage. Scatter.

an artifact may also mask a fault in the weld. • • • 100 e K •• ne & T P O'NeiU 1•••• 9 JI/03/Ol1 R12-7 . i. An artifact may be mistaken for a defect in the weld or parent material.e. in damp surroundings. Austenitic stainless steels and aluminium welds are particularly susceptible. Film out of date. Diffraction mottle has the-appearance of fme porosity throughout the weld area. Developing tank contaminated with fixer. It is a rare artifact nowadays to the flexible/plastic nature of modem day emulsions. • • Mottled fog • 30 Film badly stored. or by changing the radiation angle by approximately 5°. It may be reduced or eliminated by changing the wavelength of radiation. 40 Static discharge 50 Static discharge marks may occur when the film is pulled quickly from between the intensifying screens in a dry atmosphere.possible causes • • • 90 Film was not agitated/tapped during development or fixation. • • Dichroic rog • • 20 Greenish colour by reflected light.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill UNIT RJ2 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY x o rES Yellow fog • 10 Insufficient final wash. but it may also be mottled.g. therefore. Impurities between screen and film. Drops of fixer fell onto film prior to development. Film insufficiently rinsed after development. pink via transmitted light. Diffraction mottle Diffraction mottle may occur in a weld area on a radiographic image because of the grain structure and grain orientation of certain materials matching the wavelength of the radiation in a certain way. e. e. it is essential that artifacts should be avoided. 80 70 Light patches . Film stuck to another film in fixer. increasing kV. a fault in or on the film usually caused by mishandling or incorrect developing. Reticulation 60 Reticulation is a net like structure appearing in the emulsion due to rupture caused by excessive temperature differences between the processing tanks.g. Prolonged development in badly oxidized developer. Marked or cracked fluorescent screens. The appearance on the radiograph is usually lightning like. Mechanical damage causing pressure marks to emulsion before exposure. Exhausted fixer. • ARTIFACTS An artifact is a spurious indication on the radiographic image. Prolonged development in exhausted developing bath.

also known as a penetrameters. There are various types of IQI. . Uneven drying. The sensitivity on the resultant radiograph is then given a numerical value by dividing the thickness of the smallest wire visible on the radiograph by the thickness of the specimen in the area being examined. therefore all those factors which affect contrast and definition will also affect the sensitivity. that the obtained IQI sensitivity value does not directly relate to the minimum defect size detectable by the radiographic technique used because of defect orientation. is the ability to detect small changeT" The term sensitivity when applied to radiography is an overall assessment of quality which relates to the radiographic technique's ability to detect fine defects on a radiograph. The WI3 was added to increase the range to cope with thinner materials. Alternatively. Whitish deposit . the higher the sensitivity. or reversal. It must be noted however. this is then multiplied by 100 in order to express the result as a percentage of the specimen thickness. Solarisation 30 SENSITIVITY The term sensitivity.e. Buckled or scratched lead screens. This covers the wire gauges 13 to 19. c Ruane- &.possible causes • • Water used to make up processing solutions too hard. i. a DIN 62 10-16 has become an EN 462 WIO. It is in 5 parts and covers the following: BS BS BS BS BS EN 462-1 EN 462-2 EN 462-3 EN 462-4 EN 462-5 Wire type Step/wedge type Classes for ferrous metals Image quality values and image quality tables Duplex wire type 80 90 100 The wire gauges and range of wires used in IQl's for BS EN 462-1 are the same as DIN 62. when there are still droplets of water on the film.e. BS EN 462 Image Quality Indicators is the standard which supersedes BS 3971 and DIN 62.TPO'Neil1 :\OlES Ruane& 11 UNIT R12 • RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY Dark patches. The wires are placed transversely across the weld area being examined during exposure. Bending of film after exposure (usually between two fingers causes dark crescent shaped marks). Mechanical damage causing pressure marks to emulsion after exposure. the better. some specifications simply specify the minimum number of wires which have to be visible on the radiograph. Slow and uneven drying of film. when used in a general sense. the type commonly used consists of seven thin wires within a plastic packaging. T P O'Ntill bsur 9 31103/09 Rt2-8 . i. 50 40 Calculating sensitivity using IQl's Sensitivity is measured by the use of image quality indicators (IQIs). i. Solarisation is lightening of the image. lines or streaks . Sensitivity % = thickness of thinnest wire visible x 100 thickness of specimen .e. Drops of water fallen onto film prior to development. The sensitivity associated with a radiograph is directly affected by the radiographic contrast and defmition. 60 70 The lower the figure obtained.possible causes • • • • • • • 20 10 Drops of developer fallen onto film prior to development. due to exposure to white light whilst the film is in the developer.

63 X W8 0.••ue ~ 31103109 R12-9 .r ±0.20 X W 13 X X 0.01 '5 ±0. The IQ! shall be placed on the object in an area where the thickness is as uniform as possible.(.25 X 0.32 X W 12 0.005 50 Table 2 gives types ofIQI and wire materials used for selected groups of materials Table 2.25 W5 X X W6 1.iD •. Wire numbers.00 X W3 1.080 X 0. If this is not possible. diameters and limit deviations Image quality indicator Wire including Wl W6 WIO W13 Wire number Nominal wire diameter 3.Ruane & 11 TP O'Neill :"01 [S UNIT R12 • RADIOGRAPHIC Table 1 gives the wire number and nominal wire QCALITY 10 20 30 40 Table l.063 X W 18 0.050 X W 19 Dimensions in millimetres Wire centreline spacing. 7.03 ±0.50 X W9 0. tin and 7 Copper their alloys 12 16 19 7 Steel (low Ferrous materials 12 alloyed) 16 60 70 7 12 16 Titanium Titanium and their alloys 80 7 12 Aluminium Aluminium and their alloys 90 B S EN 462-1 5.$ 6 -: ±0.100 X X W 17 0.60 W4 X 1. the IQI may be placed adjacent to the side under test nearest the film and a letter F near to the IQ!. zinc. Types of IQI and wire materials Image quality indicator Wire number W 1 CU W 6CU W IOCU WI3CU W 1 FE W 6FE W IOFE W J3FE W ITI W6T1 W 10Tl W 13 TI W I AL W 6AL W 10AL W 13AL W I to W W 6 to W W 10to W W 13 to W W 1 to W W 6 to W W 10 to W WJ3toW19 W I to W W 6to W W 10to W W13toWI9 W I to W W 6 to W WIOtoWI6 Wl3toWI9 used for selected { rOUDSof materials Wire material Suitable for test .40 X X W 10 X X WlI 0.50 W2 2.125 X X W 15 W 16 0.16 X W 14 0.80 X X 0.2 states the IQ [ should be placed on the side of the section under test facing the source of radiation and remote from the film.20 X WI X 2.the followlna materials Copper. 100 Cl Ru •••• & T P O'N.02 .00 X W7 0. a Tolerances 9.

IQI wires shall be directed perpendicular to the weld and ensure that at least IQ mm of the wire length will show in a section of uniform optical density. IQl's are made of the same material as the specimen being examined and are available in a variety of thickness ranges.TP O'Neill :\OT[S Ruane & 11 llNIT R12 . RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY ASSESSING SENSITIVITY 10 In accordance with BS EN 1435 Radiographic examination of welded joints. the IQI material chosen should have similar radiation absorption/transmission properties to the test specimen. which is normally in the parent metal adjacent to the weld. For double wall double image and perpendicular shots. usually expressed as a percentage of the specimen thickness. 80 Thickness sensitivity The smallest change in thickness which can be detected by radiography. the wire can be placed across the pipe axis and should not project into the weld. usually expressed as a percentage of the total specimen thickness. For test specimens made from alloyed elements. The sensitivity is assessed in the same way as for wire types except you use the hole diameter instead of a wire thickness. it is not always possible or practicable to accomplish due to lack of availability.~ The tables are compiled from calculations of minimum acceptable sensitivity. 20 Step wedge/hole type IQl's are placed adjacent to the weld in the centre of the film. 40 Specific sensitivity terms There are many specific terms relating to sensrtivrty which may be encountered. 60 Flaw sensitivity The minimum flaw size detectable under specified test conditions usually expressed as a percentage of the specimen thickness.Terms used in non-destructive testing : Part 3 <Industrial Radiographic Testing: 50 Contrast sensitivity The smallest thickness change in a specimen which produces a discernible change in optical density on a radiographic image. Note: The duplex-wire image quality indicator is based on a different principle and gives a measure ofunsharpness only. 30 Although it is desirable for the IQI and the specimen to be of the same material. BS EN 1435 requires minimum image quality values to be assessed from tables BI to Bl. examination. 90 100 Cl RU2nt & T P O'Ntill Issue 9 J I/03/09 R12-IO . the following terms are in accordance with BS EN 1330 . expressed as a percentage of the thickness of the material unde •. With the exception of duplex wires. Image quality indicator sensitivity 70 The dimension in the direction of the radiation of the thinnest step-with-hole or wire that can be clearly identified.

70 80 ---- ----- --90 ---- --.m Issue 9 31103109 R13-1 . single image technique being outside. It is a technique more suited to large diameter pipes.f.-. there are essentially four ways to radiograph a girth/pipe weld: I. Single wall. 20 3. This is due to the fact that the entire weld can be examined in one exposure and good sensitivity can be achieved because of a lower level of scatter and kV in comparison with a double walled exposure. 30 The panoramic technique is usually the preferred technique if the equipment is available.d. 2. where access to the internal weld area permits.d. however. Double wall.f. Double wall.d. Note: AI is for 10% fade off and A3. 40 SWSI: SOURCE OUTSIDE. the radiation beam is positioned at normal incidence to the weld face and film passing through the centre of the weld. Single wall. The main disadvantages of this technique are the number of exposures required due to a large amount of fade outside. vessels and tanks where the curvature is closer to a flat plate and therefore has a reduced effect on the amount offade off.f. when dealing with fabrications in situ. source inside (internal exposure.f. access permits and the minimum f.TPO'Neill :\OTES Ruane& 11 tJNIT R13 • RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES Radiographic techniques for welds on steel are listed in BS EN 1435 : Radiographic Examination of Welded double image (DWDJ) . pipe diameter and f. 20% fade source outside (external exposure).Source ---. single image (SWSI) . and the practical aspects of positioning the radiation source at sufficient f. single image (DWSI) . single image (SWSI) . requirements are met.. 4.---- 100 o Ruane & T P O'N. see Figure Al and A3 in BS EN 1435. usually full panoramic)..-. 10 The radiographic examination of a plate weld would result in a single wall.-.f.d. 50 60 This technique is primarily intended for 100 mm diameter pipe welds and above. The required minimum number of exposures to cover the full circumference of the weld depends on the wall inside. source outside (elliptical exposure). source outside. FILM INSIDE For standard outside.

e. This technique cannot be used if the minimum f. ~--Offset R13-2 o Ru••• & TPO'N'. The required minimum number of exposures to cover the full circumference of the weld depends on the wall thickness. 50 60 70 Note: A2 is for 10% fade off and A4. This problem mainly applies when using x-ray tubes. 20 30 40 DWSI This technique is commonly applied to all welds where the use of a panoramic technique is not possible or practicable. Care must a)so be taken to ensure that the number tape on the source side does not interfere with the & 11 T P OWei11 :\01 [S UNIT RI3 • RAI)IOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES SWSI: ID (PANORAMIC) SOURCE INSIDE. the radiation beam is positioned at approximately 850 to the weld face and film.d. with equal f.f. requirements cannot be met. see Figure A2 and A4 in BS EN 1435.f. the radiation beam is positioned at normal incidence to the weld face and film passing through the centre of the weld. shoot through from the opposite side of the weld to that which the number tape is positioned. so the central line of the x-ray beam shoots past the tube side weld resulting in a diagnostic image of the film side weld. i. around the circumference.f. on small diameter pipe welds. For standard exposures on any diameter of pipe weld. See BS EN 1435.g.1.U ••••• 9 31103109 . 20% fade off.X Source lOO . FILM OUTSIDE For standard exposures. Film 80 Film X __ I 90 Section on X .d. With this technique the radiation beam cannot be positioned at normal incidence to the weld portion being examined because the weld on the radiation source side will superimpose over the film side weld resulting in an unreadable radiograph. pipe diameter and f.f.e..d. the x-ray tube must be moved approximately 60 mm to the side of the weld.

I X Section on X . but is rarely used ClRuan. Two radiographs will therefore be produced .g. 90 LOCATION OF DEFECTS Parallax technique The parallax technique is sometimes reJerred 10 as the tube shift method when an 100 x-ray tube is used. becomes more difficult as the wall thickness increases and the pipe diameter reduces. cassettes may be loaded with two films. it is often permitted by specification or client for the radiation to pass through the centre of the weld at normal incidence to the pipe.------------------------------------~t~.Ruane & 11 TP O'Ne/lf 'OT[S UNIT RJ3 . between two films of the same speed. It may be used on components where there are substantial thickness differences causing the density on a single radiograph to be out of specification on either the thicker side. for the thick side and the other for the thinner side but they will have been produced in a single exposure.g. The films are usually of different speeds._-----.: :. RAHIOGRAPHIC TECHI\"IQUES DWDI This technique is only applied to welds on pipe or fittings 100 mm diameter or below. Rather than carry out two separate shots at different exposures for each weld or position. a fine grained film loaded with a very fine grained film. & T P O'N. The source is positioned at the minimum sfd (calculated using the Ug formula or nomogram) and is offset from the weld centre line to give an elliptical image. however. ·-offset·' Source 20 30 ------~fr. however. :. The parallax radiographic technique may be used to determine the depth of defects below the surface of a component. e.. thicker than usual.: 40 50 I ---.m In ue 9 31/ID109 R13-3 .60 Film ---- Film SANDWICH TECHNIQUE 70 80 The sandwich technique is a radiographic technique sometimes used in order to save time. this will produce a radiograph with the tube side weld superimposed over the film side weld. this may be useful to know for repair purposes. It is a technique more applicable to thick specimens. In most cases an offset of about one fifth sfd will separate the top image from the bottom.-.X _. this results in a total of four interpretable areas on the radiograph which should cover the full circumference ofthe weld. the thinner side or both. On small bore heavy wall pipework. The cassette is placed flat on one side of the pipe. over 50 mm. the same effect will be produced by placing a lead screen. 10 A minimum of two exposures are usually required at 90° to each other. e.

20 30 Right-angled method Two shots of specimen taken at right angles.d. Dimension of shift between source of radiation. The position of defect may be found by measurement. 40 Mathematical (tube or source shift) method Find the defect by normal radiography. Position the tube over the defect . again on the same sheet offilm. b. Move the tube approximately one fifth of the FFD to one side and give half the original exposure. Place a second lead wire underneath the specimen on the other side of the defect. use: D 100 = T(b-c) (a-c) e It •••• & T P O·N. Move the tube some distance in the opposite This method cannot be used for welds or plates. 80 Draw graph as shown T a 90 b c d total specimen thickness image shift of top lead wire image shift of defect image shift of bottom lead wire distance of defect from bottom of specimen Or. This is the most straight forward method for cube shaped or similar specimens. F. then move the tube approximately one fifth of the FFD to the other side and give halfthe original exposure. each at half the normal exposure.f. The procedure involves the placement of a lead marker on the source side of a specimen's surface close to the plan view location of the defect.f. Distance between lead marker images. and give another half exposure on the same sheet of film: 50 lh d = I +s d I Where 60 h s distance of defect from film distance of image movement FFD two fifths of the FFD Lead marker (tube or source shift) method 70 Find the defect by normal radiography. Distance between defect images.d.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll 'OT[S lJNIT IH3 . instead of drawing graph.iII tssee . Specimen thickness. 10 The technique is used after a defect has already been detected by conventional methods. e. i. RADIOGRAPHIC TECIINIQllES because ultrasonic testing can usually give the same information quicker and at a lower cost. Position the tube over the defect. Two exposures are made. 31103/09 R13-4 . c. The following criteria are used to calculate the distance of the defect from the film either by means of a formula or graph: a. d. Place one lead wire on top of the specimen to one side of the defect.move the tube a distance of exactly one fifth of the FFD sideways and give half the original exposure. and offset to each other in order to produce a double image ofthe lead marker and defect.e. one fifth of the FFD from centre.

.! ' ."'= Defect Pb marker (film side) c 4 3 4 30 3 SOURCE POSITIONS ill 40 t¥ ---------.. ® -...~ L-a -.Ruane& 11 TPO'Neil/ :-.I J 50 'f/ Top Pb wire { T --j' ' ... 60 -. __ LLDeClf.••••• :I_~ -- ~ . .•.. Top marker shift R13-S .d ~--'-"=- ----. 20 Source shift direction -<'>.Cler. 1 [S 0 tTNIT R13 .' ...• . t. Defect· ~ __ ~=-=.---~. RADIOGRAI)HIC TECHNIQUES IMAGESHIFfS SPECIMEN 10 2 RADIOGRAPH 2 --:--- Pb marker (source side) _________ T...---.thickness of specimen 80 d Heighlof Defect'd' 90 Above bottom surface ---lOO () Ruant '" T P O'Ntill Issu< 9 31103/09 o Bottom marker ~-shift .-----' ..BotlOm Pb wire --Film -b - 70 'T' 'T' ..


therefore you would be using 20 Ci-rnins. g. unless the time is reduced to compensate. e. This is because the wavelength and intensity of radiation may be adjusted. d. these take into consideration the following: a. The higher the mA setting on the control panel. b. 100 o Ruane & T P O'Ntill Issuc 9 J1103109 RI4-J .Different radioactive isotopes produce different wavelengths of gamma radiation. the greater the intensity of radiation produced. You could also use 3 minutes and 4 mA to give you the same amount of exposure because 3 x 4 = 12. Material type. but a radiograph produced on the same specimen using Co60 will have much lower contrast and definition. Source type. c.If you had an exposure of say 5 minutes using an isotope with an activity of 4 curies. By using exposure charts. 70 Intensity of radiation and exposure time The intensity of the radiation reaching the film and exposure time will affect the density of the image. The following methods are used to determine correct exposures when using x-ray equipment: a.TP OWei11 :\OTI:S Ruane & 11 l1NIT R14 • DETERl\lIl'"ATION OF EXPOSl1RE Many factors govern the fmal quality of a radiographic image. e. d.g. Material thickness. f. By trial and error test shots. 10 The time to use for an exposure is only one factor to consider for an exposure. but enough kV must be used to ensure penetration and keep the exposure time reasonable.l x 12 = 12. this relationship is known as the reciprocity law: 80 Exposure = time x intensity 90 X-ray equipment . then 4 x 3 = 12. usually referred to as gamma exposure calculators. Gamma exposure times are usually calculated from special slide rules. and therefore the darker the image will be. Radiation intensity and exposure time are related. all these give you the same amount of exposure. or I minute at 12 mA. Exposure time is proportional to the intensity of radiation. Film density to be achieved. A combination of the above. therefore you would be using 12 mA-mins. then 5 x 4 = 20. but it is this factor which changes most often.The lower the kV used to penetrate the specimen. Gamma isotopes . C060 produces shorter wavelength radiation than Ir 192 and is therefore more penetrating. the determination of exposure is less straightforward. c. Film speed. contrast and defmition of a radiographic image. the higher will be the contrast. and different machines produce different quantities and qualities of x-radiation even though they may be operated on the same panel settings. 20 30 When using x-ray equipment.. Source to film distance. Activity of source. 40 CONSIDERATIONS 50 FOR EXPOSURES Wavelength of radiation The wavelength of radiation used will affect the density. b. 60 X-ray equipment . 2 x 6 = 12 etc. Gamma isotopes .If you had an exposure of say 4 minutes and 3 mA. By reference to previous exposure records. all these factors must be considered and controlled in order to meet with a specifications requirements. Remember that density affects contrast and contrast affects sensitivity. or 2 minutes 6 mA.

= = E2 80 original exposure. The kV and mA may be on the same panel setting. Therefore. O2 = 750 mm 90 100 E2 = 2. the denser the image compared to that of a slow film at the same exposure. and therefore the darker the image will be. but the radiation intensity and wavelengths can vary from one set to another. based on the inverse square law. e. Exposures made with direct x-ray and lead screens obey the law of reciprocity (E = mAT).TP O'Neill Ruane & 11 uxrr RI4 • DETERI\1I:\ATION OF EXPOSURE The higher the activity of the isotope used. the law of reciprocity cannot be strictly applied. with regard to exposure. However. the radiograph's definition for a slow film at the correct exposure will be better than that for a fast film at the correct exposure. less predictable and more likely to be attained by trial and error. but fluorescent and fluorometallic screens have an adverse affect on the definition of the radiographic image. But. including UV. Intensifying screens 40 Using intensifying screens reduces the exposure required to attain the required density. Exposures with fluorescent screens are. x-rays and gamma rays obey the inverse square law. 01 = 1000 mm E2 = ? mAmins. unless the time is reduced to compensate.8 mAmins Cl Ruane " T P O'N. therefore the better the radiographic defmition.g. the greater the exposure should be to attain a given density. Fluorescent screens emit light of various wavelengths. an x-ray tube with a thick filter will require more exposure than an x-ray tube with a thinner filter. Where intensification is due to light exposure. 50 Ffd/sfd 60 The greater the ffd/sfd the smaller the penumbra. 01 = original distance O2 = new distance 5 mAmins. The following formula. therefore. 20 Filter types and thicknesses also differ between x-ray tubes. can be used to determine new exposures when the ffdlsfd changes: 70 El D/ E) = D/ -- Where: Example: El = E. Filters affect the exposure time. the greater the ffd/sfd. new exposure. 10 X-ray equipment The intensity of radiation (governed by mA) and quality of radiation (governed by kV) can be affected by the electric circuit of the equipment being used.m Issue 9 311O:lIO'J R14-2 . the greater the intensity of radiation produced. Type of film 30 The higher the speed of the film. Filters are used to reduce long wavelength primary radiation to provide a more homogeneous x-ray beam with lower resultant scatter levels.

Intensifying screens Focus to film distance. Film type. contrast and definition of a radiograph are affected by the type.scr.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nell1 lJ~IT RI4 • f)ETEI{I\'IINATION Object being radiographcd OF EXPOSl:RE The radiation absorption and transmission characteristics of a material depends upon its thickness. stHI type A - ~ 10 " 20 25 30 steel ~ 00 ~..66 I / 60 1 I I I I 1/ eo 33. The development process should not be adjusted outside a specifications requirements in order to compensate for incorrect exposures. This will primarily govern penetrating power required. g. Ffd .33 f U& I I I I /f 1 1 / 3. Each chart must show the variables to which the chart is applicable to: 40 a. temperature. PahtAk 300 kV untt No. Film type.6 0. . e.e. 'f """TAl< 300 KVUNIT a. to adjust the density of a radiograph. Film density.33 I I1 I1 1/ / / / 1/ / I I1 / I1 J / / I 16.3 b.66 70 1 1/ 1/ VI // V/ / / V // / 13. 100 120 Kilovoltage (kv) 1<tO 160 180 200 22D 240 260 2SO 300 . 20 EXPOSURE CHARTS 30 Exposure charts provide the exposure conditions for a given thickness of material using xray equipment.SUS 133033 100 ••• 33 16. 50 Type of x-ray set. 2.SOO inN r. Kodak ex d .V ~ '/1/ / 1/ / V / r! V / /. i. Exposure charts are drawn up from preliminary charts made up from exposures using different kilovoltages on step'aI •. Material tested.(mm) o Rea •• Issue' '" T P O'N. 10 Processing the film The density. the exposure should be changed. d. Development conditions. not the developing time.33 10 e.n Pb 0. agitation and time in the developer. Donsfty.33 80 us '/ / // V.0 c.. An exposure chart will show the exposure to use in mA-min for a chosen specimen thickness and kV in order to attain the density that the chart is based on. f. The vertical scale on an exposure chart is logarithmic and the horizontal scale is arithmetic. c.ill 31103109 R14-3 . P123 i- 90 0.126 front & Ibac i- ~ e. '/ / / !. b.ABC123 51 M. density and atomic mass. Dev·~spec. eo ss 60 65 70 100 th~k"".

10 a.1 Ci hours x 60 = 306 Ci mins 40 E=CiT E 306 .= = 20Ammutes Ci 15 The exposure time at 900 mm with 15 Ci = 20. b. c. 60 EXPOSURE CALCULATIONS USING GAMMA SLIDE RULE The gamma slide rule enables very accurate calculations to be made providing the following information is available: 70 a. b. Material thickness. Source strength in Ci. c.0.1 Ci hours 5. 80 The results give the exposure time. Weld thickness. SFD. 20 Example Weld thickness = 20 mm density required = 2. say 02. 90 100 o R •• ne " T P O'N. Source strength from decay chart. 50 If the sfd was changed to 600 mm. the exposure is 5. d. T= . e.Ruane & 11 TPO'NeUl '\ 0 1 I: S uxrr EXPOSURE RI4 • DETERMI!'ATIO~ OF EXPOStTRE CALCULATIONS FOR GAMMA RA VS The following information is required to obtain the exposure from an exposure chart. :. The Ir 192 source is at 15 CL 30 From the chart.0 and then follow the line down onto the Ci hour line and read off this value. then: D 2 E2 = _2_ 012 x El = -- 6002 9002 x 20. follow this line until it strikes the density required line. select the weld thickness. Density required. Film speed. Type of film From the gamma ray exposure chart for Ir192.4 = 9 minutes The new exposure time at 600 mm with 15 Ci = 9 minutes.4 minutes.m Issue 9 31/113109 R14-4 .

..<:: = 50 E E U s .11 ..! •...• .L 1~31S 90 100 C> R •• ne & T P O'Ntill hsue 9 3 J 103/09 R14-5 . DETERMINATIOl'l OF EXPOSlIRE 10 20 30 40 ~ ~ ""' "-l 0 e- C> . :':1 e e ... <:> <t- "I ill 1 <:> N . 70 N 80 (mm) SS. 'Cl VI '" DC .....Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill 'OTF. S 60 = •.)U:Ij:l!II.. •.S Ul\'IT R14 . '" e ... ..

DETERl\lI~ATIOl\' OF EXPOSURE The information required to produce a radiograph is as follows: From the test piece 10 • • • • Plate thickness Weld thickness Pipe diameter (for pipes) Length of weld 20 From this information the data required to produce the radiograph can be produced.0. 40 r sod 0 sfd or ffd r 50 1< 60 ffd sfd sod ofd 70 = = = = dfl >1 1 Focus to Film Distance Source to Film Distance Source to Object Distance Object to Film Distance T = Sample Thickness 1.25 mm Minimum tTd = 30 (source size x ofd) + ofd 0. The DFL is derived from the following (for flat plates only) Source X x= 1.1T = 10% fade off (the edge of the diagnostic length) dfl = Diagnostic Film Length 80 2.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OTI:S lJ~IT Rl4 . 1.25 ofd can be taken as the sample thickness.1 90 sod sod I T r: 100 :? <~ dfl dfl > Cl Ruant '" T P O'NeiU Issue 9 31103/09 R14-6 . Minimum Source to Film distance (sfd) or Focus to Film Distance (ffd) To calculate the minimum FFD/SFD so that the unsharpness of the image is better than the resolution ofthe eye .

To change the exposure the following is used: 90 New exposure = Old exposure x New distance/ Old distance 2 [ E2 = El X D2\2 0 2) Where the new distance is your selected ffd and the old distance is the chart distance. Working out the exposure An exposure chart is required for x-ray sets and may also be used for gamma ray. 60 To calculate the IQI wire diameter the following is used: . 1.. •••• 9 31/U3/U9 RI4-7 .sod ' Therefore 40 ! dfl = ~1. which is the current standard. Sample thickness 2 IQl dia = 100 x To find the wire number.iII 1.1 sod)2 Require to find the value of the dfl: Therefore 30 (~dfl r dfl Therefore ~(~ r = (1. the small triangle comprising of: T == perpendicular. Mark up the test piece according to the technique requirements o Ruane& TPO'N.1T == hypotenuse. however.•• nETERl\1INATION OF EXPOSURE The diagram shows two similar triangles. or BS 3971 which has been superseded. 100 6.l 2 sod2 - sod2 Therefore dfl = 2 x ~(]. Y:zdfl = base The pythagoras theory states that the sum of the squares of the base and the perpendicular equals the square on the hypotenuse. it is possible to obtain kV values and exposure values for any given thickness working on the exposure chart within the 15 to 60 mA minutes range.sod2 The SOD is taken from the calculation of the minimum ffd/sfd .IQI (see Unit 7) The IQI sensitivity should be better than 2% with respect to the sample thickness.Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints. ? = base 10 The larger triangle consists of: sod = perpendicular.1 sod = hypotenuse. the use of a gamma slide rule is often used and is generally more accurate and quicker.for plate only 50 The DFL for pipes is calculated from EN 1435 . 70 4. From the x-ray exposure chart on R9-3. To work out the Image Quality Indicator . consult Table 2 ofBS EN 462-1. 1.1 sod)2 . 5.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :\01 [S UNIT RI .1 sod)2 . 3. Correcting the exposure 80 The exposure obtained will be for a fixed distance and fixed density.I sod)2 . film. therefore: 20 sod2 + (Y:z dfl)2 = (1. material and processing conditions.sod 2 = ~(l.

The ofd can be taken as the weld thickness. thi Subject thickness 2 IQI wire rcness = x lOO Look up the wire thickness on Table 1 in BS EN 462-1 for the wire number and wire group. weld thickness and weld length. therefore select an FFD/SFD greater than this for plate butt welds. If the ffd/sfd will not cover the required length. 60 5. The kV will be fixed but the exposure in mA minutes will require to be adjusted for the ffd/sfd to be used. To calculate the exposure: Using the exposure chart supplied for the x-ray set to be used.ofd (Object to Film Distance). Th e mmunum ffd (source size = sfd x 20 Sample thiCkness) I h' k + samp e t IC ess 0..25 This is the minimum.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill llNIT R14 • DETER!\II]\. . Correcting tire exposure 80 70 New exposure = Old exposure x The new distance is the selected ffd The old distance is the chart ffd New distance/ 2 Old distance 90 6. then the ffd/sfd must be increased if the weld is to be covered in one shot. This will give one or two kV and corresponding mA minute exposure for fixed conditions of distance. Calculate: The minimum Film to Focus Distance (ffd)and the Source to Focus Distance (sfd). Measure: 10 x o rr s Plate thickness. density and development.A TlO::\ OF EXPOSURE Steps for radiographing a butt weld in a plate 1. Work out the diagnostic film length (dfl): Using the ffd/sfd selected: 40 sod = Source to Object Distance is equal to the ffd .5 times the length of the weld to be covered in one shot. film type. 30 3. The figure should be in the order of 1. the weld thickness is then used to find the kV and corresponding exposure in mA minutes within the 15-60 mA mins box. To calculate the Image Quality Indicator (lQI): . so 4. Marking up the plate A 1 ID Date 2 Weld 100 lal o Ru ••• " T P O'Noill wuo' J 1/03/09 R14-8 . 2.

This can cause problems when it is required to radiograph other materials.0 2.0 1. 30 X-Rays kV 50 100 0. aluminium is taken as the standard and uses a factor of 1. EQUIVALENCE CHARTS 20 Generally exposure charts are made for either aluminium or steel.3 J. depending on the radiographic method used.22 0.2 5.1 1.0 8.0 1. 60 70 80 90 100 c) Ruane & T P O'/'/till .34 0.1 1.18 0.0 lA Gamma Rays 400 1000 2000 Ir192 0.9 1.1 4.9 1. The following chart shows a radiographic equivalence chart which relates other materials to aluminium and steel.0 Lead For the x-ray range 50-100 kV.0 150 0.0 18.9 1.0 1.71 1.0.3 12.3 1.1 1.05 0.0 Aluminium Titanium 0.0 1. The figures given in the chart are multiplication factors and are used to convert a particular thickness of the selected material to the equivalent thickness of the standard material.0 220 0.08 0..0 1.0 12.6 1.9 1.6 1. •••• 9 31/03109 R14-9 .3 Magnesium 40 0.0 1.Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints.•.1 1.71 1.1 1. DETERMINATION Butt Welds in Pipes OF EXPOSURE x0 T I: S 10 Butt welds in pipes are worked out in a similar manner with the exception of the diagnostic film length which is calculated from a series of charts in EN 1435 .0 1.12 0.0 lA J.Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill UNIT RI .I 3.34 CE-137 Co60 0.4 1.1 \.0 0.22 0.34 0.4 14.22 0.9 1.5 0.3 Steel Copper Zinc Brass 50 0.2 0.2 2.63 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.0 1.


60 For (B). The effectively shorter wavelength reduces the contrast obtained. A tube head filter. lead or copper). The filter removes much of the soft radiation giving a marked reduction in scatter. 20 Tube head filter Positioned inside the tube head window.g.g. FILTERS Definition 10 A relative thin layer ofa heavy metal (e.1 0. 2.6 08 0. 30 40 X-\SC__ 50 ___ \LI T----. interposed in the path of the radiation before it reaches the film.:specimen ~ I X-rays Masking J2d~ '\. 50 kV with tungsten target Unfiltered beam 70 Use of1 mm Use of5 mm 80 0. 100 o R•• ne line & TPO'NriU 9 lJ/03f09 RlS-1 . NB. Thus the beam becomes more nearly monochromatic in wavelength and also effectively of shorter wavelength. effect is reduced if a tube filter is used.t Film A 8 This In (A). e. a tube filter will merely decrease contrast. e.g. the filter thickness should be less than 10% of the specimen thickness.2 0. In general. There are two types of filters: 1. the action of the tube filter depends on the fact that an x-ray beam is heterogeneous (a mixture of wavelengths) and the longer wavelengths are more easily scattered.4 0.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill :-. or thin layer of heavy metal. soft radiation is scattered by the edge of the object giving undercutting. A cassette filter.OTI:S UNIT R15 . A filter of a higher atomic number will be equivalent to a thicker filter with a lower atomic number. the beryllium window.8 90 Wavelength (10 cm) In practice higher kV's are used with filters of lead. copper or tin which have high atomic numbers.

60 70 80 90 100 Cl Ruane & T P Q'Noill Issue 9 31103109 RlS-2 . The specimen itself acts as a filter for the main beam and for any scatter which passes through it. Thus. 30 The cassette filter will produce its own characteristic radiation and may be a source of scatter. FILTERS Cassette filter Scatter 10 Image forming beam 20 The filter removes a greater proportion of the scatter than of the primary beam. cassette filters are not normally used with metal intensifying screens.Ruane T P DWellt x 01 ES &" lJ~IT R15 . on thin sections will give no advantage. 50 Gamma rays have a much shorter wavelength than x-rays and cause much less scatter so filters are seldom used. therefore. 40 General For similar exposure conditions. however. use of a tube head filter will give reduced contrast compared to no filter used and a cassette filter will give even more reduction in contrast compared to the use of a tube filter. also metal cassettes will act similarly. it adds to the total thickness thus decreasing the contrast. If metal intensifying screens are used inside the cassette they will have the same effect as a cassette filter. NB.

coefficient J1 The relationship between the intensity (/0) of a radiation incident on one side of an absorber and the transmitted intensity (I) for an absorber thickness (r) as expressed by 1 = 10 . A spurious indication on a radiograph caused e. density step wedge A piece of film having a series of different optical densities which have been calibrated to be used as reference 1" ee 9 JII031lW R16-1 . Anode Artefact (false indication) 30 Attenuation Attenuation 40 Average gradient 50 Back scatterlback radiation Beam angle 60 Betatron Blocking medium 70 Build-up factor Cassette 80 Cathode Calibrated 90 Characteristic curve (of a film) Clearing time lOO OR •••• " TPO·N.exp (. The slope of a line drawn between two specified points on the sensitometric curve.Terms used in industrial radiographic testing Absorption 10 The process whereby the incident photons reduced in number as they pass through matter. to the intensity of the primary radiation reachingthe same point. are Activity Ageing fog 20 per unit time The increase in optical density on an unexposed film. A material used to reduce the effect of scattered radiation on the film or on the image detector.g. The negative electrode of an x-ray tube. The radio of the intensity of the total radiation reaching a point.ut). GLOSSARY OF TERMS BS EN 1330-3 : 1997 . log K. The time required for the first stage of fixing of a film. scattered That part of the scattered x or gamma radiation which is emitted at an angle of more than 90° in relation to the direction of the incident beam. The number of nuclear disintegrations taking place in a radioactive source. exposing or processing of a film. due to long-term storage. A rigid or flexible light-tight container for holding radiographic film or paper with or without intensifying screens. The reduction in intensity of a beam of x or gamma radiation during its passage through matter caused by absorption and scattering. and the optical density. A machine in which electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit before being deflected onto a target to produce high energy x-rays.TPO'Neill :-'OTI:S Ruane& 11 UJ\IT R16 . A curve showing the relationship between the common logarithm of exposure. D. during which the cloudiness disappears. by faults in the manufacturing. during exposure. handling. The electrons passing from the cathode to the anode in an x-ray tube. The angle between the central axis of the radiation beam and the lane of the film. measured after processing.

usually as a log/linear relationship. designed to limit and define the direction and area of the radiation beam. the scattered radiation being emitted at an angle to the incident direction. 10 Collimator Compton scatter 20 30 Computerized tomography (CT) A procedure by which an image of the detail in a chosen plane. A device for the measurement of the optical density of a radiographic film or reflective density of a photographic print. GLOSSARY OF TER!\IS The limiting of a beam of radiation to a form o. An instrument for the measurement of x or gamma radiation dose rate. 40 Constant potential circuit 50 An electronic configuration which is designed to apply and maintain a substantially constant potential within an x-ray tube..--..i11 tssue 9 JIIUJI09 R16-2 .Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :IoOT[S uxrr Collimation RI6 . specimen thickness. energies object Continuous Contrast 60 spectrum See image contrast. The chemical or physical process which converts a latent image into a visible image. perpendicular to the axis of the specimen. it is the main factor contributing to radiation attenuation. A superimposed pattern on a radiographic image due to diffraction of the incident radiation by the material structure. A device made from radiation absorbent material such as lead or tungsten. required dimensions. The activity of a radioisotope plotted against time. radiation contrast and visual contrast. applied to a material being radiographed. solid or liquid. Note: For radiation in the energy range 100 keY to 10 MeV.. The smallest thickness change in a specimen which produces a discernible change in optical density on a radiographic (or radioscopic) image:"> usually expressed as a percentage of the tota. perpendicular to the axis. is computed from a large number of x-ray absorption measurements made from many directior . Contrast sensitivity (thickness sensitivity) 70 Decay curve 80 Densitometer Development (ora film or paper) 90 Diffraction mottle Dosemeter (dosimeter) 100 Dose rate meter o Ru ••• &< T P O'N. medium Contrast Any suitable substance. A form of scattering caused by a photon of x or gamma radiation interacting with an electron and suffering a reduction of energy. by the use of diaphragms made of absorbing material. Note: This is computerized axial tomography and does not apply to other means of performing tomography. The range of wavelengths generated by an x-ray set. An instrument for measuring the accumulated dose of x or gamma radiation. to enhance its radiation contrast in total or in part. or quantum contrast.

80 Film system speed Filter 90 Fixing Flaw sensitivity 100 (') RUIn. The minimum flaw size detectable under specified test conditions. The chemical removal of silver halides from a film emulsion after development. GLOSSARY OF TERMS An x-ray tube with two different size of focus. Uniform layer of material. A chart indicating the time for radiographic exposures for different thicknesses of a specified material and for a given quality of a beam radiation.g. and to prevent local over-exposure. e. to the useful a recording 50 Exposure latitude Exposure times Film base 60 The support material on which the photosensitive emulsion is coated. consisting normally of developing. washing and drying a film. 10 Duplex wire image quality indicator An image quality indicator specifically designed to assess the overall unsharpness of a radiographic image and composed of a series of pairs of wire elements made of high density metal. placed between the radiation source and the film for the purpose of preferentially absorbing the softer radiations. Duration of the process of exposing medium to radiation. usually of higher atomic number than the specimen. A quantitative measure of the response of a film system to radiation energy. The voltage of an x-ray tube which produces a radiograph most nearly equivalent to a gamma radiograph taken with a particular gamma ray source. a Film gradient (G) Film illuminator 70 (viewing screen) ----- Film processing The operations necessary to transform the latent image on the film into a permanent visible image.jIJ Issue 9 31103109 RI 6-3 . is recorded on an 20 Equalizing filter (beam flattener) 30 Equivalent x-ray voltage Exposure Exposure calculator Exposure chart 40 A device (for example a slide rule) which may be used to determine the exposure time required. & T P O'N. fine lead shot (see also blocking medium). The slope of the characteristic curve of a film at a specified optical density D. for specific exposure conditions. A device used to equalize the intensity across the primary x-ray beam in megavoltage radiography and so extend the useful field size. Edge-blocking material Material applied around a specimen or in cavities to obtain a more uniform absorption. to reduce extraneous scattered radiation.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1 :\OTES Dual focus tube UNIT RI6 . The range of exposures corresponding optical density range of the emulsion. fixing. Equipment containing a source of light and translucent screen used for viewing radiographs. The process whereby radiation imaging system.

The relative change of optical density between two adjacent areas in a radiographic image. Fluorescent intensifying screen Fluorometallic 10 A screen consisting of a coating of phosphors whic. exposure f05 or inherent fog. when introduced into the beam of x or gamma radiation... The dimension across the focal spot of an x-ray tube. Also called geometric blurring or penumbra. Its magnitude also depends on the distances of source-to-object and object-to-film. A general term used to denote the optical density of a processed film caused by anything other than the direct action of image . The stochastic density fluctuations in the radiograpi superimposed on the object image.. Radiography using a gamma ray source.Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill :"OTJ:S liNIT R16 • GLOSSARY OF TERMS . reduces its intensity by a half. Electromagnetic ionizing radiation... Any process which increases the quality of an image by improving contrast and/or definition. as seen from the measuring device. measured parallel to the plane of the film or the fluorescent screen. Equipment for viewing radiographs. chemical fog. The shortest distance from the focus of an x-ray tube to a film set up for a radiographic exposure. dichroic fog. The sharpness of delineation of image detail in a radiograph.. A screen consisting of a metallic foil (usually lead) coated with a material that fluoresces when exposed to x or gamma radiation.forming radiation. It can i:' ~ ageing fog. or reducing noise. Illuminator Image contrast 90 Image definition Image enhancement 100 Cl Ruane & T P O'N~iU 1•••• 9 31/03/09 R16-4 . specific radioactive materials. Unsharpness of a radiographic image arising from the finite size of the source of radiation. fluoresce when exposed to x or gamma radiation. when it is known as digital image processing. The visual appearance of granularity. A container made of dense material and having a wall thickness sufficient to produce a very great reduction in the intensity of the radiation emitted by the source.-. Often done by computer programmes. 60 Geometric unsharpness Graininess 70 ~ Granularity Half life 80 Halfvalue thickness (HVT) The thickness of specified material which.. The production of a visible image on a fluorescent screen by x-rays and for direct viewing of the screen. emitted by intensifying screen Fluoroscopy Focal spot 20 Focal spot size Focus-to-film distance (ffd) 30 Fog density 40 Gamma radiation Gamma rays Gamma-ray Gamma-ray source source container 50 Radioactive material sealed into a metal capsule.. The x-ray emitting area on the anode of the x-ray tube. The time in which the activity of a radioactive source decays to half its value. so as to make it safe to handle.

improves the quality of the radiograph. 10 Image quality Image quality indicator (IQI) 20 Image quality value. set up or source incapsulation. IQI sensitivity Incident beam axis Industrial 30 radiology Inherent filtration 40 Inherent unsharpness Intensifying 50 factor Intensifying 60 screen Latent image 70 Linear electron accelerator 80 Masking Metal screen 90 Microfocus radiography Radiography using an x-ray tube having a very small effective focus size of less than 100 urn in size. to that when screens are used. A material that converts a part of the radiographic energy into light or electrons and that. The elements of an IQI are commonly wires or steps with holes. The axis of the beam cone defmed by the focal spot and the tube window. or reduces the exposure time required to produce a radiograph or both. The blurring of a radiographic image caused by photons of radiation dislodging electrons in the photographic emulsion and these electrons rendering silver halide grains developable. The ratio of the exposure time without intensifying screens. The science and application of x-rays. The application of material which limits the area of irradiation of an object to the region undergoing radiographic examination. That characteristic of a radiographic image which determines the degree of detail which it shows. The electrons strike a target to produce x-rays. neutrons and other penetrating radiation in nondestructive testing. through which the primary beam will pass. (LINAC) A machine for producing high energy electrons by accelerating them along a waveguide. fluorometallic intensifying screen or fluorescent intensifying screen. An invisible image produced in a film by radiation and capable of being converted into a visible image by film processing. See metal screen. A device comprising a series of elements of graded thickness which enables a measure of the image quality to be obtained.Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill Image intensifier uxrr R16 • GLOSSAI~Y OF TERMS An electronic device designed to provide a brighter image than produced by the unaided action of the xray beam on a fluorescent screen. other conditions being the same. to obtain the same optical density. gamma rays. The filtration of a radiation beam by the parts of the tube. A screen consisting of dense metal (usually lead) that filters radiation and emits electrons when exposed to x or gamma rays. Measure of the image quality required or achieved. when in contact with a recording medium during exposure. Commonly used for direct geometric enlargement of the image by projection. 100 o Ruane " T P O'Neill Issue 9 3111)3109 R16-5 .

The penetrating power of the measured as a half-value thickness.g. Radiation which travels directly along a straight line from the source to the detector without deviation. A blurring of the radiographic Movement unsharpness 10 Object contrast Object-to-film 20 Panoramic exposure A radiographic set-up utilizing the multi-directional properties of a gamma ray source or a panoramic xray set. The term is also used for images produced by neutrons. 30 Penetrameter Pressure mark See image quality indicator. radiation. technique A method of radiography or radioscopy involving primary enlargement of the image by the use of a distance between the specimen and imaging system (see microfocus radiography). The production of a visual image by ionising radiation on a radiation detector such as fluorescent screen and displayed on a television monitor screen. Radiation source Radiograph 70 Radiographic 80 film A film consisting of a transparent base. The amount of image size enlargement. of penetrating ionising radiation on a radiographi. x-ray tube or gamma ray source) capable of emitting ionising radiation. protons. often 40 Primary radiation Projective magnification Projective magnification 50 Quality (ofa beam of radiation) Radiation contrast 60 differences in radiation intensity arising from variation in radiation opacity within an irradiated object.. according •~ circumstances. An equipment (e. of radiographs on a permanent Radiography Radioisotopes 90 Radioscopy An isotope of an element with the property of spontaneously emitting particles or gamma radiation or of emitting x-radiation. or the full circumference of a cylindrical specimen. or radioscopic image due to relative movement of the radiation source. A variation in density of a radiograph. such tubes can produce a panoramic beam of radiation. Rod anode tube lOO c Reane & T P O'NtiD Issue 9 J lJOlI09 R16-6 . distance The distance between the radiation side of the test object and the film surface measured along the central axis of the radiation beam.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nell1 :\OlI:S UNIT RIG· GLOSSARY OF TERMS Modulation transfer function (MTF) The spatial frequency response of an imaging system. caused by local pressure to the film. electrons. by radiographic several specimens simultaneously.g. A visible image after processing produced by a bearr-r-. film or paper. etc . object or radiation detector. e. A type of x-ray tube in which the target is situated at the extremity of a tubular anode. usually coated on both sides with a radiation sensitive emulsion. which may be light or dark in appearance. Relative difference of radiation transmission between two considered zones of the irradiated object. The production imaging support.

A device attached to a tube shield. carrying. or at the head of a remote control device. used to control the emergence of the x-ray beam. by means of which the gamma ray source (sealed source) can be fixed in the exposure container. Object in the form of a series of steps of a same material.9 Jl/OlM R16-7 . The size of the source of radiation. The distance between separated in an image. The high voltage applied between the anode and the cathode of an x-ray tube. distance (sfd) The distance between the source of radiation and the film measured in the direction of the beam. Any radioactive source which is not sealed into a capsule. Due to image blurring a loss of image definition. A device. A holding. or attachment device. The production of a pair of radiographs suitable for stereoscopic viewing. Stereo radiography Target 50 Tube diaphragm Tube head Tube shield 60 Tube shutter Tube window 70 Tube voltage Unsealed source 80 Unsharpness Useful density range 90 Vacuum cassette lOO o Ruane & T f O'Ntill bsu. The housing of an x-ray tube which reduces the leakage radiation to defined values. The area of an x-ray tube through which the radiation is emitted. It is combination of geometric unsharpness. The upper limit is determined by the film illuminator and the lower limit by the loss in flaw sensitivity. A light-tight container that where operated under a vacuum. The area on the surface of the anode of an x-ray tube on which the electron beam impinges and from which the primary beam of x-rays is emitted. Radiographic film designed for use with fluorescent intensifying screens. to limit the extent of the emergent x-ray beam. The range of optical density on a radiograph that is used for image interpretation. during its passage through matter. generally of lead and usually remotely operated. holds film and screen in intimate contact during radiographic exposure. with or without a change in energy. inherent unsharpness and movement unsharpness. normaIly fixed to a tube shield or head.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nel1l :\OTI:S UNIT RI6 • GLOSSARY OF TERMS Scattered radiation Radiation which has suffered a change in direction. That part of an x-ray installation that contains the tube in its shield. details which can just be 10 Screen type film Source holder 20 Source size Source-to-film Spatial resolution 30 Specific activity Step wedge 40 The activity per unit mass of a radioisotope.

A vacuum tube. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Viewing mask Visual contrast 10 An attachment to an illuminator to exclude glare. See radiographic film. X-rays X-ray film 20 X-ray tube 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 o R. within the approximate wavelength range of 1 nm to 0.0001 nanometres. on the surface of which x-rays are produced.iIl Is sue 9 31/OJIOlI R16-8 . usually containing a filament to produce electrons which are accelerated to strike a anode. The visual density difference between two adjacent areas on an illuminated radiograph.Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll :\Ol[S lJ~IT RI6 . Penetrating electromagnetic radiation. & T P O'N. produced when high velocity electrons impinge on a metal


. -. . " "'. . l 'JJ ')" fJ ~ . ".." • . Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps: (1) detection. The following material was developed to help students develop an understanding of the types of defects found in weldments and how they appear in a radiograph.~. . Visual acuity is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern in an image. are referred to as defects. weld material or "heat affected" zones.\ . J .. 1. .'. .Welds In addition to producing high quality radiographs. Sometimes. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly. These interruptions may occur in the base metal. The ability of an individual to detect discontinuities in radiography is also affected by the lighting condition in the place of viewing. Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal." '. The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into the base material without bonding. (2) interpretation. Discontinuities. .Radiograph Interpretation .\ I ) 'J). . All porosity is a void in the material and it will have a higher radiographic density than the surrounding area... which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specifications used to invoke and control an inspection. the radiographer must also be skilled in radiographic interpretation.. '. Cold lap is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (interpass cold lap). ~ 11 'J ) l" 'if) ~.' ~ ~~. . porosity is elongated and may appear to have a tail. '. ::::' . or in rows. General Welding Discontinuities The following discontinuities are typical of all types of welding. l'" ') ..'.. and (3) evaluation. All of these steps make use of the radiographer's visual acuity. . and the experience level for recognizing various features in the image. . This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity. Discontinuities Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material.- .". in clusters.\. :.

. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined. The moisture turns into a gas when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process.. Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. Lack of penetration allows a natural stress risr from which a crack may propagate.. . dark. ~ Inadequate or Lack of Penetration ! . jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions. In a radiograph. r Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint. straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment. Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the indications will be grouped close together.Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture. It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities.

~.~~~~~~ . .".Incomplete fusion is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal. . \ ...' -' " ..~!~~. Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge.: ..>' ..>. " '.' '.. :" . """. Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld. ' ~ ~. On a radiograph it looks similar to a lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the centre of the weld image.\c I' I I Internal Undercut . .'. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centreline of the weldment.' . Appearance on radiograph: usually appears as a dark line or lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along the weld preparation or joining area. ". ~ ~ . Internal concavity or suck back is a condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld.

. straight line is caused by the failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area. The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness. Offset or mismatch are terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not properly aligned. Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material. The radiographic image shows a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces. The dark. e. because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be higher (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material. It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement. In the radlograpr appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area.External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld.

tungsten is more dense than aluminium or steel.Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes. Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions or porosity. These discontinuities occur in most metals welded by the process. The appearance on a radiograph is a localized. Tungsten inclusions. Cracks can be detected in a radiograph only when they are propagating in a direction that produces a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. ~ . Radiographically. therefore it shows up as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph. including aluminium and stainless steels. tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. Cracks will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines. If improper welding procedures are used. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert gas welding. A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the engineering requirements. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted. Discontinuities in TIG welds The following discontinuities are unique to the TIG welding process. lighter area in the weld.

appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the radiograph. Burn-Through results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone.Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminium). . Often lumps of metal sag through the weld. Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding material and. which are often surrounded by light globular areas (icicles). On a radiograph. burn-through appears as dark spots. Discontinuities in Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW) The following discontinuities are most commonly found in GMAW welds. "wire like" indications. therefore. creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld. visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or contained within the weld. On a radiograph they appear as light. These globs of metal are referred to as icicles. Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode wire.

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