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RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

&
RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION

MAIN LECTURE NOTES

ANC-RAD- TD-OOl

RUANE & T P O'NElll ISSUE9 31/03/09

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The literature within is supplied by Argyll Ruane Ltd by way of contract agreement whereby terms and conditions apply. This document remains the copyright of Argyll Ruane Ltd and should not be copied without prior consent from Argyll Ruane Ltd directly. This document is reviewed on a regular basis and amended accordingly to meet industry standards that apply.

We would like to thanks Argyll Ruane Ltd for their continued support. 30th April 2009

ANC-RAD-TD-001

RUANE & T P O'NEILL ISSUE9 31/03/09

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

RADIOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW Principles of film radiography Radiographic quality Capabilities and limitations of radiography Duties of a radiographic interpreter X AND GAMMA RADIA TION Comparison of x and gamma rays for industrial radiography BASIC PHYSICS Elements Atoms Isotopes Ions Radionuclides (radio-isotopes) Gamma ray generation Types of radiation Activity Specific activity Decay Half life Ionisation ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING Scatter RADIOGRAPIDC EQUIPMENT Gamma sources X-ray generation Electrical circuits in x-ray tubes HALF VALUE THICKNESS RADIOGRAPHIC FILM The make-up of a radiographic film Film types Film speed CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF FILMS INTENSIFYING SCREENS General Lead screens Fluorescent (salt) screens Fluorometallic screens Comparison of intensifying screens IMAGE FORMATION Darkrooms Processing
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RI R 1-1 Rl-l R 1-1 R]-I

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R2-1 R3 R3-2 R3-2 R3-3 R3-3 R3-3 R3-3 R3-5 R3-8 R3-8

R3-8 R3-8 R3-8 R4 R4-1 R5 RS-l RS-3 RS-4 ~ ~ ..R6 R7 R7-] R7-2 R7-2

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R9 R9-1 R9-1 R9-1 R9-2 R9-2

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FILM PROCESSING .................................................................................................................... Rll

TABLE

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COl\TENTS

Developer Stopbath Fixer Final wash Wetting agent Drying the film RADIOGRAPmC Density Radiographic contrast Definition Processing and handling faults Artifacts Sensitivity Assessing sensitivity RADIOGRAPIC TECIINIQUES SWSI : source outside, film inside SWSI: (panoramic) source inside, film outside DWSI. DWDI Sandwich technique Location of defects Image shifts DETERMINATION Exposure charts Exposure calculations for gamma rays Exposure calculations using gamma slide rule Equivalence charts FILTERS GLOSSARY OF TERMS Considerations for exposures

R 11-4 RII-5 RI1-5 RII-5 R 11-6 Rl1-6 QUALITy ..........................................................................................R12 RI2-1 R12-2 R12-3 RI2-6 R 12-7 R 12-8 R 12-10 ................................................................................................ R13 R13-1 R13-2 RI3-2 RI3-3 RI3-3 RI3-3 RI3-5 OF EXPOSURE ................................................................................R14 R 14-1 R14-3 R14-4 RI4-4 R14-9 R15 R16

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UNIT Rl . RADIOGRAPHIC

OVERVIE\V

PRINCIPLES
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OF FILM RADIOGRAPHY

Film radiography is carried out using x-ray machines or artificial gamma sources (radio-isotopes). X-rays or gamma rays pass through the object to be radiographed and record an image on a radiographic film placed on the opposite side. The quality and amount of radiation reaching the film will be largely determined by the objects thickness and density, e.g. a crack in a weld will increase the amount of radiation falling on the film in that area due to a reduction in thickness. It is the wavelength of the radiation which governs its penetrating power. This is governed by the kilovoltage (kV) setting when using x-rays and isotope type with gamma rays. The intensity of the radiation is governed by the milli-amperage (mA) setting when using x-rays and by the activity of the isotope type with gamma rays. Activity is measured in curies or gigabecquerels. When the film is processed a negative is produced. The thin areas of an object will be darker than the thicker areas, therefore most weld defects will show up dark in relation to the surrounding areas, exceptions are excess weld metal, spatter, copper inclusions and tungsten inclusions.

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Xsradiography typically uses /50300 k V on steel weldments up to approximately 30 mm total thickness.

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Cobalt 60 (C060) has a very high penetrating power - very short wavelength - and can be used on materials up /0 200 mm thick. Iridium 192 (JrI92) is 40 commonly used on steel weldments up to 60 mm thick.

RADIOGRAPHIC

QUALITY

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An overall assessment of radiographic quality is made by the use of image quality indicators (IQI's), the commonly used type consists of seven thin wires decreasing in thickness. At least one IQI is pre-placed transversely across the weld being examined. After exposure, some of the wires will be visible on the resultant radiograph - the more wires visible the better the sensitivity. The density of an image on a radiograph, Le. its degree of blackness, is also measured to ensure it lies within a specified range for optimum quality.

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CAPABILITIES

AND LIMITATIONS

OF RADIOGRAPHY

A major advantage of radiographic testing is that a permanent record is produced, i.e. the radiograph.
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A major limitation of radiography is that it will only detect defects which have significant depth in relation to the axis of the x-ray beam. As a rough guide, the minimum through thickness depth of a defect capable of being detected is about 2% of the wall thickness in the same axis as the x-ray beam, e.g. radiography will not usually detect plate laminations, lack of inter-run fusion or cracks perpendicular to the x-ray beam.

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X-radiography vs gamma radiography


X-radiography requires bulky and expensive machinery in comparison with gamma radiography, but x-radiography generally produces better quality radiographs and is safer. X-ray machines can be switched on and off, unlike gamma sources.

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liNIT RI RADIOGRAPHIC

OVERVIE\\'

DUTIES OF A RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETER


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It is the duty of a radiographic interpreter to ensure that all radiographic interpretation and any associated actions are carried out in accordance with the relevant specification(s) for the work being carried out. A radiographic interpreter must have access to the relevant specification(s) and must know where to find and interpret relevant information.

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Specific duties when interpreting radiographs of welds are typically as follows: ] . Mask off any unwanted light on the viewer. 2. 30 3. 4. 5.
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View radiographs under subdued background light. Ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, each radiograph is correctly identified to the weld it represents. Ensure that the weld locations are identified, e.g. has the correct number tape been used. Assess the quality of the radiograph: a. Measure radiographic density. b. Calculate IQI sensitivity - also ensure the IQl's are of the correct type and correctly positioned. c. Assess radiographic contrast; e.g. has gamma been used when only xradiography is permitted? d. Assess definition/graininess; e.g. have salt intensifying screens been used when only lead intensifying screens are permitted? Has a fast film been used instead of a slow film? e. Do artifacts interfere with interpretation? Check the radiograph to determine if any obstruction between the source of radiation and the film interferes with interpretation, e.g. lead numbers. Identify the type of weld if possible - normally already known. Check the parent material on the radiograph for arc strikes, hard stamping, gouges, minimum seam offset etc., when applicable. Check the weld on the radiograph for defects, stating type and region.

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6.
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7. 8. 9.

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10. State action to be taken, e.g. accept the radiograph and weld, reshoot, repair, remove the entire weld, visual check, grind and investigate, MP] check, ultrasonic check.

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UNIT R2 X AND GAMMA RAJ)IATION

COMPARISON
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OF X AND GAMMA RAYS FOR INDUSTRIAL

RADIOGRAPHY

Safety
Using x-ray machines is normally safer than using gamma sources because x-ray machines may be switched off like a light bulb, whereas there is a constant emission of radiation with a gamma source. Gamma sources must always be returned to their shielding containers when not in use.

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Quality of radiographic

images

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Assuming variables such as test material thickness, film type etc. remains constant, xrays produced by conventional x-ray equipment, say up to 300 kV, produce better quality radiographic images than Ir192 or C060 isotopes, because these x-rays have longer wavelengths than the gamma sources. Ytterbium 169 (Yb169) may produce radiographs comparable to those produced by using x-rays. If the wavelength from the gamma source is the same as the wavelength from the x-ray set, the quality will be the same.

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Handling
Gamma sources are easier to handle in comparison with bulky and fragile x-ray equipment. The size also allows for gamma sources to be used in difficult and inaccessible areas for x-ray machines, e.g. on pipe racks.

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Cost
Gamma sources and containers are much cheaper than x-ray equipment, however, gamma sources deplete in output and must be replaced regularly. This makes gamma more expensive in the long run.

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Versatility
The intensity and wavelengths of x-rays can be adjusted from the x-ray control panel. The intensity and wavelengths of gamma radiation cannot be adjusted, although the intensity (activity) reduces with time - see half-lives. Certain gamma sources have a very high penetrating power which enables them to be used on very thick material, e.g. 150 mm steel. Most conventional x-ray machines will not penetrate more than 50 mm of steel although there are huge x-ray machines, e.g. the linear accelerator and the betatron which can produce radiation of a wavelength which can penetrate as much as, and usually more than, gamma radiation.

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UNIT R3 BASIC PHYSICS

l'i01 [S

.-.--~-~
N shell

10

....

----.-.
M shell Lshell

20 :'

---_ _,
..
K shell

...

~ '-

Proton (+ charge) Neutron (no charge) Electron (- charge)

,.
/

30
-,

.
'

40

[MASS NUMBER]

Neutrons Element

and protons

E
Z
50
[ATOMIC NUMBER]

Number of protons in the nucleus

Element

Symbol

Number

of Electrons N

K
60 I

Hydrogen Helium Lithium

IH 4 2He
3L 1

2 2 2 2 2
2 1

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Beryllium Carbon Aluminium

4Be 12C
6

2 4 8 8 8 8
8

27 A 13 27
59

3 15 16 18
18 2

80

Cobalt Nickel Barium

Co
1

59 28N 56

2
2

2
18

137Ba (Wolfram) 134W 74 192I 77 r

8 12
15

90

Tungsten Iridium

2 2

32 32

2 2

18

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U~IT R3 . BASIC PHYSICS

ELEMENTS
An element is a substance that cannot be separated into any other constituents. statement is with reference to the chemical nature only.
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This

There are over one hundred elements known to man and these have been placed within a table referred to as the periodic table; this places elements into groups and periods with reference to their chemical characteristics. Hydrogen (H) is the lightest element and is taken as the reference element. Helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) are grouped together because these are inert gases or gases that cannot react chemically with other elements. The halogen group includes fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I); these are very active elements which readily combine with most of the other elements in the table.

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Elements range from hydrogen (H), with an atomic number of I, to uranium (U) with an atomic number 92; between these are all the elements that make up everything on earth.

ATOMS
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An atom is the smallest part of an element that can have the element's properties. All atoms of the same element are similar in construction, however, atoms of different elements have different constructions. An atom is a very small particle which is made up from a number of sub-atomic particles grouped together. The size of the sub-atomic particles are small, with most of each atom consisting of free space. The sub-atomic particles in the centre (core or nucleus) of each atom contain the heavier particles consisting of protons which carry a positive charge, and neutrons which carry no charge. Protons and neutrons have an unusual attraction for each other and tend to pair together.

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The lighter particles, electrons, are said to be held in stable orbits around the nucleus by the attraction of the protons in the nucleus. These orbits are referred to as shells, e.g. K. L. Mshells. There are other sub-atomic particles, e.g. the positron, which is of similar size and mass to the electron but with a positive charge.

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Sub-atomic particles
Protons are along with neutrons, the heavy particles in an atom and are found in the nucleus. They are positively charged and have a rest mass of 1.673 x 10.27 kg. Neutrons are similar in mass to a proton having a rest mass of 1.675 x 10-27 kg. They have no charge, are neutral and are found in the nucleus. Electrons are small, very light weight particles and have a rest mass of 9. I09 x 10-31 Kg. They have a negative charge and orbit the nucleus in restricted shells according to the rules of quantum mechanics.

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Atoms will have the same number of protons and electrons when the atom is in equilibrium, i.e. when it is not an ion.

Atomic number
The atomic number or Z number is the total number of protons in the nucleus and this defmes the element, e.g. H = I; He = 2; C = 6; 0 = 8.
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UNIT R3 BASIC PHYSICS Mass number


The mass number or A number essentially refers to the weight of an atom and is the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Mass (Aj number for He = 4, C = 12 and 0 = 16. Note that the mass number is not always twice the atomic number.

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ISOTOPES
Elements that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are varieties of the same element and are called isotopes. Among the 100 or so known elements there are some 300 different isotopes, e.g. HII, H/ and HI3 are three isotopes of hydrogen HI2 = deuterium, HI3 = tritium. Carbon also has three isotopes: C612, C6\3 and C614 conunonly referred to as carbon 12, carbon 13 and carbon 14 respectively.
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IONS
An ion is an electrically charged particle which may be positive (+ve) or negative (-ve). When particles or photons of energy (quanta) pass through matter, all the energy is absorbed in exciting the atoms or molecules so that electrons are ejected producing electrical imbalance. The ejected electrons (having negative charges) are negative ions, whilst the atoms losing electrons are positive ions due to their unpaired proton(s) in each nucleus. Ions are created when x-rays, gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles or neutrons pass through matter.

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The process of producing ions is known a ionisation.

RADIONUCLIDES
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(RADIO-ISOTOPES)

Radionuclides are radioactive isotopes, Le. the disintegrate by releasing sub-atomic particles, and also give off excess energy known as gamma radiation. All elements with atomic numbers higher than bismuth (atomic number 83) are radioactive and are elements which result from the decay of either uranium 235, uranium 238 or thorium 232. Every radionuclide has a half life, this is the time it takes for the activity to drop to one half of its initial strength; this varies from a fraction of a second for some isotopes and to thousands of years for others.

'Activity' is a term which 70 relates to the number of dlsintegrations per unit time. Activity is measured in becquerels (Bq) or Curies

tco.

GAMMA RAY GENERATION


Ganuna rays used in industrial radiography are emitted from artificial radioactive isotopes, also known as radionuclides. A radioactive isotope is an unstable state of a chemical element which has a different number of neutrons to the normal state of the same element. As with all isotopes, the different number of neutrons will result in a change in mass, therefore, the mass number or A number will be different to the mass number of the other isotopes possible for the specific element. The atomic number or Z number however will be the same for all the isotopes of the specific element, because this number refers to the number of protons in the nucleus which have not changed. If a material is radioactive, it spontaneously emits corpuscular and electromagnetic energy, the ganuna radiation is a by-product produced from the disintegration of the radioactive isotope.

Radium produces radon gas.

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UNIT R3 BASIC PHYSICS


The activity or strength of a radioactive isotope is expressed in curies (Ci) or becquerels (Bq). The higher the activity value, the greater the intensity of gamma rays produced.
10

I becquerel

I disintegration per second;


=

3.7 x 1010 becquerels therefore, 3.7 x 10


10

1 curie;

disintegrations per second it is usually

= I curie.
practical to talk in terms of

20

For industrial radiography, gigabecquerels (GBq). Giga= 109 I gigabecquerel


=

more

109 becquerels.
=

37 gigabecquerels
30

1 curie.

The activity of a radioactive isotope does not relate to the penetrating power of the gamma rays produced; penetrating power depends on the wavelength of the gamma rays produced and this depends on the specific radioactive element involved. For example, Cobalt 60 (C060) has a very high penetrating power and may be used on steel components up to 200 mm thick, because the gamma radiation emitted has a very short wavelength. There are four main radioactive isotopes used for industrial radiography; Iridium 192 (IrI92), Cobalt 60 (Co60), Ytterbium 169 (Yb169) and Selenium (Se75). Radioactive isotopes are used taking into consideration their half-lives; the half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time it takes for the activity to drop to one-half of its initial strength.

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Natural occurring radionucIides


There are two main radionuclides which occur naturally: Radon and Radium. has a half life of3.825 days and Radium has a halflife of 1,590 years.
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Radon

Radium 226 is no longer used for radiography because of the hazards presented by its alpha decay and its gaseous radioactive daughter Radon. Bones are especially susceptible to damage from radiation emitted from radium 226.

Artificial radionucIides
Artificially produced radionuclides have replaced natural radionuclides for use in industrial radiography. There are three methods of producing artificial radionuclides: 1. Neutron activation (neutron bombardment in a reactor). 2. Fission produce separation. 3. Charged particle bombardment (via high energy x-ray machine). The most widely used radioisotopes are shown in the following table:
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Characteristics Source Cobalt 60 Selenium 75 Caesium 137 Iridium 192 Ytterbium 169 Thulliuml70 Half life 5.26 years 118.5 days 30 years 74 days 31 days 127 days Output* 1.32 0.203 0.33 0.48 0.125 0.0025

To convert RIhICi 10 pSv/hlGBq, divide by 37 then multiply by 10,000.

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of Gamma Ray Sources Gamma ray Approx. x-ray enerales MeV equivalent kV 1.17 - 1.33 1200 0.066 - 0.401 400 0.66 700 0.29 - 0.61 600 0.063 - 0.308 300 0.052 - 0.084 80

Range in steel -mm 50 - 200 mm 4 -28 mm 45 -75 mm 12 -70 mm 2-17mm 1-\3mm

- Exposure rate factor: Emission in roentgens per curie per hour at I metre (RlCi/hr at I metre).

Cobalt 60 (Co60) is produced by bombarding C059 with neutrons in a reactor.


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x0

TI: S

Corpuscular (particulate) radiation


10

Corpuscular radiation is the flow of sub-atomic particles. not have an electrical charge.

These particles mayor may

This type of radiation is different to x and gamma radiation by having mass and not travelling at the speed of light. There are three main types of corpuscular radiation: alpha, beta and neutron radiation. Alpha radiation
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An alpha particle is a large sub-atomic particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons (the nucleus ofa helium atom) and therefore has a positive charge. Alpha radiation travels comparatively slowly leaving the source at about 16,000 km.s" (10,000 miles/sec) but the particles soon slow down and only travel a total distance ofa few centimetres through the air.

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Alpha particles ionise atoms by removing electrons as they pass through matter but they do not penetrate deeply and can be stopped by a sheet of paper and human skin. The main hazard is that they may enter the body through a cut in the skin or they may be ingested. Beta radiation

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A beta particle is a very light high speed electron and will possess a negative charge. Beta particles travel faster than alpha particles. They are small and lightweight and therefore do not have a high ionising potential compared with alpha radiation. They can travel through 3 meters of air or 1 mm of lead and are more penetrating than alpha particles but they can be stopped by a few millimetres of most solid or liquid materials.

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If beta particles are emitted from a radioactive source, they are normally prevented from entering the surrounding air space by absorption by the mass of the radioactive pellet or its surrounding capsule. Neutron radiation

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Neutron radiation simply consists of flowing neutrons which have no electrical charge. Neutrons are produced from nuclear reactors, accelerators and certain radioactive isotopes, e.g. califomium 252, all of which produce fast neutrons. These neutrons normally have to be slowed down by using a moderator before they are used in radiography; these slower, lower energy, neutrons are called thermal neutrons.

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Neutron radiation can penetrate many materials made from heavy elements with ease but it is absorbed by many lighter materials, particularly those containing hydrogen. Hydrogen has an affinity for neutrons. Source Sizes and Maximum Activity Activity in Curies Source Dimensions Length (mm) Dia (mm) Ir 192 Co60 1.0 1.0 1.5 7.0 1.0 2.0 30 8.0 2.0 50 2.0 15 3.0 95 2.0 32 3.0 140 3.0 45 3.0 4.0 180 90 4.0 4.0 210 120

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UNIT R3 . BASIC PHYSICS

SPECIFIC ACTIVITY
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Specific activity relates the curie output to the physical size of the source and is measured in curies per gram (Ci/gm). From the table above, it can be seen that a 2 mm x 2 mm Irl92 source can have an activity of up to 50 Ci but a 2 mm x 2 mm C060 source can only have an activity of 15 Ci. In order to increase Ci output, the source size must be increased. Irl92 has a higher specific activity than C060.

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DECAY
Decay is the process of spontaneous transformation of a radionuclide. A loss of activity will be the result of decay and most radionucJide will decay through disintegration. Radioactive materials decay by at least one of five primary modes:

30

I. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Emission of alpha particles (helium nucleus). Emission of beta particles. Electron capture or positron emission. Emission of gamma rays (photons). Spontaneous fission.

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HALF LIFE
Half life is the time taken for a radioactive isotope to reduce its output by half. After I half life has occurred, an exposure needs to be doubled to achieve the same density.
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Radioactive Decay
Vb 169 half life 31 days 60 Ir 192 half life 74 days Co 60 half life 5.3 years Typical replacement e.g. alter 3 half lives.

1
70 1 31 74 5.3
2

Vb 169 If" 192

62
148 10.6

3 93 222

~
124 296 21.2
. Rl!

155 370 26.5

186 days

444

days

co 60
80

15.9
Hafflives
X&:G __

38.8 years

IONISATION
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Ionisation is simply the formation of ions which are positively or negatively charged particles. ionising radiation means gamma rays, x-rays or corpuscular radiations which are capable of producing ions either directly or indirectly.

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llNIT IU . ABSORPTIO~

AND SCATTERI]\G

SCATTER
When radiographic exposures are being made, some of the radiation scatters in all directions by the atoms which form the object. This scatter results in an overallfogging of the film and reduces the contrast and sharpness of the radiographic image. The thicker the object being radiographed, the greater the amount of scatter. Furthermore, the ground, a wall, or another object close to the object being radiographed which is struck by the radiation, will partially re-emit the rays in the form of back seal/er; this is also liable to fog the film.
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Scatter radiation is less penetrating than primary radiation from which it is derived, i.e. they have a longer wavelength. Because scatter rays are less penetrating, they can be intercepted by a sheet of lead; this is one reason for using lead screens on either side of the film in a film cassette during exposure, although heavier filters may also be needed if the scatter is heavy. The intensity of ionising radiation is reduced by at least one of the following types of interaction: a. b. c. d. Rayleigh scattering. Photoelectric effect. Compton effect. Pair production

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The extent of absorption and scattering is governed by the energy of the primary radiation and the atomic number of the elements making up the medium through which the radiation is traveIling. Scattered radiation may seriously effect the quality of a radiographic image and may also increase the radiation dose levels in the working viscinity.

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Rayleigh scattering In the process, photons are deflected by outer electrons but do not change in energy or release any electrons. The photon scattering is in the forward direction.
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This process accounts for less than 20% of the total attenuation of a radiation beam. Rayleigh scattering is most relevant when dealing with low energies of radiation passing through materials consisting of elements with a high atomic number.

Photons
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.... . Vi

I-#:,...~< ! .
" ..................... ..7'-. ~~-.:

-c-,~ ..

_.!" ..... "" "

,/
0/

-----0.-. .....

.-----""0.

----

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<;

-0--------"

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---Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is an interaction between a photon and an orbiting electron which causes an electron to be ejected. The photon is consumed and the excess energy imparts kinetic energy to the electron.
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UI'iIT R4 ABSORPTIO~

ANI> sex TTERING

This process applies to ionising radiation of relatively low energy, e.g. less than 100 keY in steel, and also to higher energy radiation up to about 2 MeV when passing through materials containing elements of high atomic number.
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Photons

: r

,,
I'

Ejected electron (-)

,~#i.. o ~
c---~~ 20

---

"e

.....--.,.
o
I

~
30

----,.

Compton scattering This is also called the Compton effect. In this process, a photon interacts with a free or weakly bonded outer electron, part of the photon's energy is transferred to the electron which is ejected. The photon emerges from the collision as scattered radiation of reduced energy. Photon
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40

~.........

/ /.--o--'....J...;.!.,:.'i .~. ._ J
ri
/"-0, --

--~-",o

_0 -----~------._c..,' o

Ejected electron (-)

Scattered radiation

!
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.c.:>

70

.~--~/
"0.

Pair production This effect occurs at very high radiation energies (above 1.02 MeV). When a high energy photon collides with the nucleus of the atom, the energy of the photon is absorbed and produces an electron and a positron. Very soon after, the electron and the positron collide and both are destroyed but release two photons each with energies of 0.5 MeY.

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90 Photons
> 1.02 MeV o o

CoIlison and annih~alion

Ejected positron (+)

.-

....,. (> ...

'.... 8
.,.
"'-0

.'

.-

~ 0.5 MeV
0.5 MeV

100 e e

....

_-

Ejected electron (-)

-._
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UNIT R5 RADIOGRAPHIC

EQUIPMENT

GAMMA SOURCES
\0

Sealed sources
The source of gamma radiation, i.e. the radioisotope, which is typically in disc or cylindrical form, is enclosed in a capsule sometimes referred to as a pill.

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The sources available range in size and configuration from 0.5 mm diameter disc to a 4 mm x 4 mm cylinder. Example configurations are:
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Thin discs: typically up to 3.0 mm diameter x 1.0 mm thick. These can be stacked together. Cylindrical: typically up to 4 mm in length. Spherical: 0.6 - 3.0 mm diameter.

The capsule is made from either 3 16 S 12 grade stainless steel or titanium. Titanium is used for Yb169 capsules and is an alternative to stainless steel for Ir192 andCo60.

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Classification and types of exposure container


BS 5650: /978: Specification for opparatus for gamma radiography.

To comply with BS 5650 (ISO 3999), apparatus for gamma radiography is classified according to the mobility of the exposure container.
60

Class P - A portable exposure container designed to be carried by one man alone. Class M - A mobile but not portable exposure container designed to be moved easily by a suitable means provided for the purpose. Class F - A fixed installed exposure container or one with mobility restricted to the confines of a particular working area.

70

An exposure container must be provided either with an integral lock or with hasps through which separate padlocks can be fitted. The locks must be either lockable without the key or an integral lock from which the key cannot be removed when the container is in the working position. On all exposure containers the radiation can only be exposed after an unlocking operation. There are a number of different designs for containers, the most common types are: Shutter type (Category I). Rotating type (Category I). Projection type (Category 11).

80

90

BS 5650 Category J containers are containers from which the sealed source is not removed for exposure. Category IJ containers are those from which the sealed source is projected from the container via a projection sheath (guide tube) to an exposure head, they may operate electrically, mechanically or pneumatically. Another type of container is the larch type. This type of container should no longer be used because of relatively high radiation doses received by the user and the high risk of overexposure.

An exposure head will be a form of collimator.

100

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Issue 9 31103109

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Ruane & 11 T P OWeiJ/ Torch type


BS 5650 does not cover apparatus operated by 10 removing the sealed source from the exposure container by using a manual handling device because its use is prohibited in certain national regulations.

U~IT R5 . RADIOGRAPHIC

EQUIPMENT

The container houses the source within a torch assembly and also a short handle. The handle is fitted to the torch assembly, this is secured in the main container by a bayonet fixing. As the torch assembly is withdrawn from the container, a spring load plunger pushes part of the assembly down producing a shielding effect so as to produce a narrow beam of radiation. Direct handling of torch assembly types is no longer permitted. This type of container is now obsolete.
.mn handle source holder

20

30
sealed source

~-...... ....
shielding material

Torch type 40 Shutter type (Category I type to BS 5650)


shutter

50
, ; --'----'-....

:
I

.
\

shielding material

j
I
I

60

~ ~,
.\
....

sealed source

70

Shutter type

Rotating type {Category I type to BS 5650)


shielding material 80

- .---P'"

rotates

90

Rotating type
100

Shutter and rotating types can now only be used with remote control operation. are mostly used for casting and forgings and give a directional coned beam only.

They

c Roant
ISSUt'

& T P O'N,ill
J 1103109

R5-2

Rusne & // TP O'Ne/1f

UNIT R5 RADIOGRAPHIC
Projection type (Category 11type BS 5650)

EQUII)I\1ENT

10

This type is also known as a remote control or wind out type. The source is attached to a special connector called a pigtail; the pigtail and source are moved along a guide tube by means of a cable until the source reaches the exposure head (which is fixed in the working position). The cable is driven along by means of a hand-cranked wind out mechanism, or it can be pneumatically or electrically controlled. The cable is retracted to return the source to its container at the end of the exposure. The projection type can be further classified as an S-type or straight-through type.

20 handle

i
I

reI .
30

I i ~

lock assembly

40

.....

'.

source assembly connector

S-lube 50

shielding material

sealed source Projection type

CoUimators
60

Collimators are usually used with gamma sources during exposures for safety reasons and sometimes to improve radiographic quality by reducing scatter from walls or objects close to the beam.

X-RAY GENERATION
70

X-rays used in industrial radiography are produced from electrical machines usually referred to as x-ray sets; the x-rays themselves being produced from within an x-ray tube. An x-ray tube consists of an evacuated glass bulb, encompassing an anode (the positive electrode), and a cathode (the negative electrode). The cathode contains a filament within a curved reflector or focusing cup. When the filament is heated to a white hot state by a current flow of a few amperes, electrons are emitted and are attracted towards the anode in a concentrated beam formed by the focusing cup. The beam strikes a target set into the anode which results in the release of energy; this energy consists of approximately 97-99% heat and 1-3 % x-rays for conventional x-ray tubes up to 300 kV. X-radiation is also a form of electromagnetic radiation and differs from y rays only in its mechanism of production. While y rays are a product of spontaneous radioactive decay, x-rays are generally created artificially by an x-ray set. X-rays are produced when high speed electrons, produced for example in an x-ray tube, strike a solid target. There are two interactions responsible for the production of x-rays. These are:

80

90

100

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T P O'NtiU

Iss.e 9 Jl/Ol/ll9

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Ruane & 11 T P O'Ne/1f
:\OTlS

U~IT R5 RADIOGRAPHIC
a.

. EQUIPMENT
.

10

The incoming electrons have sufficient energy to eject an inner orbital electron from the target atoms. An electron from a higher orbit falls into the vacant space that remains in the inner orbit and in doing so emits a pulse of electromagnetic radiation, the energy of which is equal to the energy difference between the two orbits. The x-radiation produced by this process is referred to as 'characteristic' x-radiation, Incoming electrons will also be slowed down by the field of force around the nucleus, and this process again results in the emission of x-radiation. The radiation produced by this interaction is referred to as 'bremsstrahlung' radiation (bremsstrahlung is German for braking radiation'). Bremsstrahlung radiation is emitted in a wide spectrum of energies.

b.

20

Production of x-rays
30

characteristic x-rays

40

path of incoming e bremsstrahtung x-rays


50

60

Thus a typical x-ray energy spectrum will be of a continuous nature and will show characteristic spikes at discrete energies that are dependent on the target material and the difference in the energies of its electron orbits (see figure 9). Except for special applications, it is the bremsstrahlung radiation that constitutes most of the x---rny output.

I
70

Gloss envelope

~----------~------~------~~

80

90

100

Because of the high amount of heat energy produced, the anode is made from copper to conduct away the heat. But, copper has a low melting point, so to prevent the copper melting, a slip of metal with a high melting point is recessed into the anode at the point which is struck by the electron beam.

c RUin. '"

T P O'Nrill

Is 9 31103109

RS-4

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TP O'Neill
'\OTt:S

Ruane & //

. . . UNIT U5 . RADIOGRAPHIC

." EQUIPMENT

10

The target serves another purpose, because, the higher the atomic number of the element struck by electrons, the greater will be the intensity and energy of the x-rays produced. The target is usually made of tungsten because of its high melting point of 3370C, and its high atomic number of74. The area on the target which is struck by the electrons is called the focal spot; this area should be large enough to avoid local overheating, although from the radiographic image quality point of view, the focal spot should be as small as possible to provide good definition (sharpness) on the radiograph.

20

Additional cooling is required to cool the anode; gas, oil or water normally being employed for this purpose. The cooling system and the insert are contained together in an earthed, lead lined container, the complete unit commonly being referred to as the x-ray tubehead. The tubehead is controlled from the control panel.

30

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS IN X-RAY TUBES A.C. circuit - (self rectified)


40 I

/,,,-,
'.
/

...
'\.

\ \

,
I
I

...., + -....
\

\
I

50

The effect of a.c, on the direction of current flow. In an x-ray tube, x-rays can only be produced when the current is travelling from the cathode (-ve) to the anode (+ve).
60

Graetz circuit

+
70

80

By reversing the half cycle by rectification, this produces full wave rectified d.c .. When used in x-ray sets, FWRC is known as a Graetz circuit.

90

100

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T P ON.i11

tssue 9 J IJOJI09

RS-S

.
Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1
l\OTES

.
EQl1IPME!,;T

UNIT RS . RADIOGRAPHIC

Villard circuit
,-"' , ... ,,
,
\

-I
\ I

10
j I j

"

"

'

I I

\ I

I I I I

..........

, ,
\

,
\

-,

20

30

Another means of obtaining d.c, from a.c, is to use a circuit incorporating diodes and capacitors in series with the high voltage transformer. This circuit doubles the peak voltage from the transformer and produces a waveform as shown above. Although the waveform is oscillating, it is all in the -ve half of the cycle and is therefore direct current. When used in x-ray sets which use this kind of double waveform, it is known as a Villard circuit.

Greinacher
40

circuit - (constant potential)

+
50

60

Further improvements can be made to the FWRC waveform by introducing capacitors which flatten or smooth the rippling to produce the waveform shown above. When used in x-ray sets, this smooth constant potential (CP) waveform is known as a Greinacher circuit.

70

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:'IoOT[S

U~IT R5 . RADIOGRAPHIC

EQUIPMENT

The x-ray equipment control panel


10

The three controls that govern a radiographic exposure using x-rays are the timer, the mA control and the kV control.

20

~
o
2

~o
TDp(1Wer

ra warning l]Slcm

30

40

Timer
50

--

Timer

rox.raJIuk (20 PI ",lnimum cable length)

The timer is usually calibrated in minutes. The exposure time for an exposure is preset; when the equipment is activated, the timer counts down from the pre-set value. The exposure time will partially govern how much radiation is going to reach the film. Milliamps (mA) The mA controls the intensity or quantity of x-rays. When the mA is increased, the current flow through the filament is increased, which causes the filament to get hotter resulting in an increase in the intensity of electrons released. The greater the intensity of electrons striking the target, the greater the intensity of the x-rays produced. The mA control on conventional x-ray equipment may only allow for a maximum of 6 to 12 mA to be used, the value being measured across the tube, i.e. between the cathode and the anode. The value required for a specific exposure is usually pre-set on the panel, this value is usually at, or close to, the maximum mA possible with the equipment for the purpose of minimising exposure time. Kilovoltage (kV) The kV governs the wavelength or quality of'x-rays produced which practically governs penetrating power. When the kV is increased, the speed of the electron flow from the cathode to the anode is increased. Therefore, when the electrons strike the target, the kinetic energy is increased, which results in a reduction of wavelength. An increase in kV, i.e. a shortening of wavelength, has an adverse affect on the contrast and definition of a radiographic image. Certain standard specifications, e.g. BS EN 1435 Radiography of welds, states the maximum kV values for this reason.

60

70

80

90

The kV meters on the control panels for conventional x-ray equipment are peak kV values measured across the tube, i.e. between the cathode and the anode. The maximum kV which can be used is primarily governed by the tubehead; typical maximum values are 200 kV, 250 kV and 300 kV. The value required for a specific exposure is usually pre-set on the panel.

100

Cl R.a ne & T P O'Ncill I 9 J llOllO9

R5-7

. Ruane & 11 T P O'Neill

. EQUIPMEl'"T

UNIT R5 . RADIOGR<\PHIC

X-Ray Tube Voltage required to penetrate steel of various thicknesses S Fine-qrain film T Medium-speed film
10

400r-------.--------r--,----.r-----~

20

300
~
30 a)

'0 >

...

Cl CI:S

G> .D.

40

><

::I

200

>CI:S ~

100

50

o
60

25

50
mm

75

100

Penetrated thickness,

Note: The curves for voltage are not extended beyond 400 kV as there is no commercial x-ray equipment in use in this country operating between 400 kV and 1000 kV.

Pipeline crawler equipment


70

Machines have been developed specifically for the radiographic examination of pipeline welds using either x-ray units or gamma sources. These machines may have a power source attached to the radiation source, i.e. battery pack or generator, or they may be operated remotely via a cable with the power source outside the pipeline. Because pipeline crawlers are used inside the pipeline, they are not visible from the outside of the pipeline, therefore, it is essential that suitable warning signals are given and are capable of alerting persons in the vicinity of the crawler. Signals that operate automatically should be linked by some method to the crawler, this is normally achieved by using sensors linked to warning lights which operate as soon as they detect ionising radiation. Crawlers available usually have an integrated audible pre-exposure alarm and an exposure alarm. A separate warning signal is sometimes integrated when the crawler is in motion. The useful beam from crawlers should be restricted so that the beam width does not exceed 120 mm at the circumference of the pipe. Any control isotope used should not exceed 100 J.lSv.h- at the accessible surface of the pipe when exposed.
1

80

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100

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& T P O'Neill
31103109

R5-8

RUBne & 11 TP O'Nel11

. . UNIT R5 RADIOGR.\PHIC High energy units

EQUIPMENT

Radiography using x-ray energies of one million electron volts (1 MeV) or greater is considered to be in the high energy range.
10

Electrostatic

generators

The Van de GrafJe electrostatic generator consists of a rapidly moving insulated belt onto which is sprayed an electric charge which is carried to a hemispherical high voltage terminal. This produces a high voltage difference with respect to the lower end.
20

Electrically charged particles are made available for acceleration from a heated cathode and injected into a very high vacuum tube and collimated to bombard special targets and produce x-rays, The target size is about 2.5 mm. Electron linear accelerators

30

These are commonly referred to as linacs or simply linear accelerators. Linacs accelerate electrons down a guide by means of radio frequency (rf) voltages. The voltages are applied so that the electrons reach an acceleration point in the field at a precise time. The guide consists of a series of cavities which produce gaps when the rf power is applied. With phased power, the electrons are accelerated along the guide to a target, the rays energy at the other side. The energy in electron volts increases with the length of the tube.

40

The focal spots can be as small as 0.1 mm. As an example, the 100 mm thick steel shell of a nuclear reactor at a power station in Wales was radiographed at a distance of9 m using ultrafine grain film with a 20 minute exposure. Each exposure covered 3 m of weld. The 4 MeV linac was mounted centralIy on a rotating stand in the centre of the shell. This 4 MeV was transportable and could readily be moved with lifting equipment. The Betatron This machine is based on the same principle as the linac but the electron guide is a spiral. This means that the path of the electrons can be increased over a smaller overall area. Betatrons can be manufactured up to 300 MeV and an 11 MeV can penetrate steel up to 300 mm thick, but is not transportable. Portable x-ray betatrons are available with energy outputs up to 6 MeV.
70

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:\OTES

UNIT R6 . HALF YALUE THICK!\'ESS


The half value thickness (HVT) of a material may be used as a guide for determining the thickness of a material to be used for shielding from radiation, e.g. for the construction of a radiation work bay in a factory.
\0

Half value layer (HVL) is alternative terminology used.

The HVT of a specific material is the thickness which cuts down the radiation intensity by one half. If the initial intensity of radiation increases, e.g. by increasing the mA when using x-ray equipment, the HVT will remain the same. However, if the wavelength (penetrating power) of the radiation is changed, e.g. by changing kV or isotope type, the HVT of a specific material will alter. The following table shows examples of the HVT for lead, concrete and steel. Energy l50kV

20

Lead
HVT(mm) 0.3 0.5 1.0 1.5 6 12

Steel HVT(mm) 4 6 12 15 13 20

Concrete HVT(mm) 22 26 28 31 40 65

30

200kV 250kV 300 kV lrl92 Co60

40

The HVT of a material can also be used to explain subject contrast in relation to wavelength (kV): Figure J shows that side A of the specimen has four times the intensity of radiation emerging from it in comparison with side B. Figure 2 shows that side A of the specimen has two times the intensity of radiation emerging from it in comparison with side B. Figure 1 - 200 kV - steel
60

SO

Figure 2 - 250 kV - steel

!! 1

16R

!! !

! ! ! 16R !! !

12mmn-~~~~~~~~~~~TVTI':i,..----L u
70

!!
4R IR

!!
8R 4R

80

Therefore, the resultant radiograph from the specimen in Figure I will display higher radiographic contrast (because of an increase in subject contrast) compared to the radiograph produced in Figure 2. The lower the kV (longer the wavelength), the higher the subject contrast and therefore the higher the radiographic contrast.

The tenth value thicknesses 90 (TVT) 0/ a material will reduce the radiation intensity by one tenth.

Note: The radiographic density produced in Figure J will be lower than Figure 2 if the exposures are identical, so it is assumed that the exposure time for Figure I is higher to compensate in order to give the same density on either side A or side B.

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Vl\IT R7 RAI>IOGRAPHIC

FILM

THE MAKE-UP
10

OF A RADIOGRAPHIC

FILM

Radiographic film is usually made up of seven layers: a central base layer and three coatings on either side consisting of a subbing layer, emulsion and supercoat.

20

30 The base is normally tinted blue and will therefore possess some density, i.e. the base of a film is not totally transparent. 40

Base
The physical characteristics of emulsion do not allow it to be used by itself without support, therefore it is applied to a substrate known as the base. The base must be transparent, chemically inert and must not be susceptible to expansion and contraction. Glass is an ideal substrate to meet these requirements, but for applications where the objects to be radiographed are curved, e.g. on pipes, it is necessary for a flexible base to be used. Polyester and cellulose triacetate, although not quite as stable as glass, are widely employed for such applications.

Subbing layer (substratum)


50

The subbing layers adhere the emulsion to the base; the material employed for this is gelatine plus a base solvent.

Emulsion
The layers of primary importance are the two emulsion layers. These layers consist of millions of silver halide crystals (usually silver bromide); the sizes of the crystals are usually between 0.1 and 1.0 micrometers (urn) and are suspended in a gelatine binding medium. Film emulsion is produced by mixing solutions of silver nitrate and salts, such as potassium bromide, with a solution of gelatine. The rate and temperature of mixing governs the grain size; rapid mixing at low temperature produces the finest grain structure, whereas slow mixing at high temperature produces emulsions with larger grains. When large grain structures are required, to produce a fast emulsion, some silver iodide is usually included in the formula. The sizes of these crystals and the distribution, effect the final radiographic quality/appearance; the larger the crystal size the greater the sensitivity to radiation. Various shapes of crystals exist, but these shapes have virtually no effect on the final image. The reason for two layers of emulsion is to give a faster film speed, i.e. the radiographs can be produced quicker, and higher radiographic contrast.

60

70

80

Supercoat (anti-abrasion layer)


90

Radiographic emulsion is susceptible to mechanical and chemical damage, so to prevent, or at least reduce this, the emulsion is coated with a layer of hardened gelatine. Although the supercoat otTers some protection against chemical attack., e.g. oil from the skin during handling, it must allow for chemical reactions to take place in the processing tanks.

100

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U~IT R7 RADIOGRAlll-llC

FILM

FILMTVPES
Radiographic film may be graded in terms of grain size or speed:
The terminology used for 10 grain size and speed can be misleading. The terms used are usually relative. e.g. a fine grain film may be considered la be fast or slow depending on what it is being compared against. 20

Ultra fine grain - exceptional radiographic quality but very slow speed. Fine grain - slow speed. Medium grain - medium speed. Coarse grain - poor radiographic quality but fast speed.

Radiographic films are also divided into two types: direct-type or salt screen type. Direct-type films are intended for direct exposure to gamma or x-rays or for exposure using lead intensifying screens. Some of these films may be suitable for use with fluorometallic or salt (fluorescent) intensifying screens. Salt screen type films are designed to be used exclusively with salt (fluorescent) intensifying screens. They are able to produce radiographs with minimum exposure and are widely used in medical radiography.

30

FILM SPEED
40

A film factor is a number which relates to the speed of a particular film and is obtained from a films characteristic curve. The SCRATA scale is a scale often used for film factors; the smaller the film factor the faster the film. Film manufacturers may have their own scale which may work in the same or opposite way to the SCRATA scale.

50

Example to the SCRA TA scale: A film with a factor of 10 will be twice as fast compared to a film with a factor of20. This means to say of the film with a factor of20 took four minutes to expose, then the film with a factor of 10 will require two minutes to give the same density. Types of film with their corresponding SCRATA film factors:

60

Manufacturer Agfa Gevaert Dupont


70

Name RCF NDT91 NDT75 CX AX 07 NOT 55 D4 MX 02

Speed Fast Fast Medium Medium Medium Medium Slow Slow Slow Very slow

Grain Coarse Coarse Fine Fine Fine Fine Very fine Very fme Very fme Ultra fine

Film Factor

Dupont Kodak Kodak Agfa Gevaert Oupont Agfa Gevaert Kodak

20 25 30 35

80
95 120 200

80

Agfa Gevaert

90

100

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& T P O'NriD

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Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll

UNIT R8 . CHARACTERISTIC

CURVES OF FILMS

A characteristic curve is a curve on a graph produced for a particular film which shows the relationship between different exposures applied and the resulting densities. Information which can be gained from a characteristic curve is as follows:
10

20

a. The position of the curve on the exposure axis gives information on film speed. b. The gradient on the curve gives information about film contrast - a high contrast film will display a steep gradient. c. The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the density axis will show the density range within which the film contrast will be at its highest (usually optimum). d. A new exposure time can be determined for a change of film type. For example, it would be possible to determine the new exposure for film type x in order to achieve a density of3.0, if the exposure for film type y was 5 mA-mins to achieve a density of2.0. A characteristic curve will also show that the density does not vary in the same proportion as the applied exposure. A curve is produced by applying increasing exposures to adjacent areas of a strip of film. After development, the densities are measured with a densitometer and then plotted on a graph against the corresponding exposures. Both the vertical axis (density) and horizontal axis (exposure) are calibrated in a logarithmic scale (logloE); this method is the most practical method for the size and interpretation of a curve. When the points obtained are joined together a curve will be produced. Sensitometric curve of STRUCTURIX Automatic processing: 8 minutes cycle using developer G 121/G 135 at 29-300

30

40

50

RC1

pi

D4

021

3.5

60

I
I

70

80

V
90

--- -/
1,0

/ / / / 1/
V
2,0

/ / 1/

/ j I / / /
V /
I1 /
~
lii z w
LOG.

3.0

2.5

20

1,5

1,0

Cl 0,5

EL. EXP. 3,0

RCF & Iluorometallic

screens

100

When characteristic curves of various films are superimposed on one graph, it will be seen that the faster films lie closer to the left vertical axis, because faster films attain density at lower exposures. Therefore, it should be appreciated that it is possible to obtain the relative film factors from the characteristic curves of films.

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UI\'IT R9 INTEI\'SIFYING

SCREENS

GENERAL
10

A radiographic film is normally sandwiched between two intensifying screens when exposed to x-rays or gamma rays. Intensifying screens have an extra photographic effect on the emulsion thereby reducing the exposure needed to attain the required density. There are three main types of intensifying screens:

Other metallic screens exist for less common 20 applications.

1. 2. 3.

Lead screens. Fluorescent (salt) screens. FluorometaJlic screens.

30

Close contact between screens and film is essential in order to obtain sharp images. Screens must be kept free from dust and scratches, if this is not done they may be seen as light indications on the radiographic image - especially if using fluorometallic or fluorescent screens.

LEAD SCREENS
Lead screens consist of a thin lead foil of uniform thickness, usually stuck onto a thin base card in the case of reusable screens, or stuck onto a thin sheet of paper when used with pre-packed film. Lead screens intensify the image by emitting beta radiation (electrons) when struck by x-rays or gamma rays of sufficient energy. The intensification action is only achieved with x-rays above approximately 120 kV and gamma rays above similar energy levels. Lead screens will also improve the radiographic image by partially filtering out scatter radiation. Two lead screens are used to sandwich the film; the thickness of the front screen must be matched to the wavelength of radiation being used, so that it will pass the primary radiation while stopping as much of the secondary radiation as possible. The rear screen cuts down the effect of back scattered radiation. If it is technically feasible, it is better to use screens of the same thickness, thus avoiding the problem of accidentally loading a film cassette with the rear screen at the front. Screen thicknesses are usually between 0.02 mm and 0.15 mm. Lead screens are pliable and should be handled with care if buckling is to be avoided. If the lead screens are to be used more than once, e.g. in cassettes as opposed to roll film or pre-packed film, they become dusty and should be frequently dusted with a fine brush. If screens become too dirty or splashed with liquid, they may be cleaned with cotton wool damped with a weak detergent solution. When the screens become too scratched or dirty causing the radiographic quality to be impaired, they should be replaced by new screens.

40

Scatter radiation has a 50 longer wavelength than the primary beam/ram which it is derived and is therefore less penetrating.

60

70

80

FLUORESCENT

(SALT)SCREENS

Fluorescent screens are made up from micro crystals of a suitable metallic salt, usually calcium tungstate, applied to a supporting thin base card. These screens, when subjected to x-rays or gamma rays, emit light radiation to which the film is sensitive. This light radiation results in a large increase of effective radiation. There are two types of fluorescent screen: I.
lOO

90

High definition (fine grain) screens. High speed or rapid screens.

2.

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3\/03109

R9-J

Ruane & 11 TP O'Nelfl

UNIT R9 INTENSIFYING

SCREENS

A radiograph obtained using fluorescent screens will have a grainy appearance due to the screens salt grains resulting in low definition compared to a radiograph taken using lead screens or no screens at all.
10

Because of the resulting loss of image quality, fluorescent screens are only used to avoid excessively long exposure times, e.g. on very thick specimens.

FLUOROMETALLIC
20

SCREENS

Fluorometallic screens are a combination of a salt screen and a lead screen; they are made up of from a base card, a lead layer, a salt layer (calcium tungstate) and a thin protective layer. There is more than one type of fluorometaIlic screen: Type I - for x-rays up to 300 kV. Type 2 - for x-rays 300-1000 kV, Ir 192. Type 3 - for C060. ~

30

40

Providing the correct type of fluorometallic screen and film are used with the range of radiation being used, substantial reductions in exposure time or kV can be achieved. Because the lead layer will partially filter out scatter radiation, the image produced on the radiograph will be better than one obtained using fluorescent screens, but the image will still retain a grainy appearance due to the salt crystals. These screens are not commonly used due to high cost. Their application is similar to those applications where fluorescent screens may be used, i.e. on thick specimens.

50

COMP ARISON OF INTENSIFYING SCREENS


Screen type
60 The intensification factor relates /0 the reduction in exposure time, e.g. an intensification factor of 3 will reduce exposure from say six minutes /0 two minutes.

Order of image quality 1 4 3

Order of speed 3 1 2 4

Intensification factor 2-4 8-15 5-10


N/A

How intensification achieved Beta particles

is

Lead Fluorescent Fluorometallic None

Light radiation and UV Light radiation, UV and beta particles


N/A

70

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Ruane & 11 T P O'Hefll


:\ O'IT S

UNIT RIO

IMAGE FORMATION

When radiation passes through an object it is differentially absorbed depending upon the thickness and any differing material densities. The radiation finally emerging at the film side of the object will largely determine the final characteristics of the radiograph.
10

Actinic radiation. in this context. is that which will affect the film emulsion. i.e. form a latent image.

The portions of radiographic film which receive sufficient quantities of actinic radiation undergo minute changes. These changes are so small they are invisible to the naked eye and also invisible when using conventional microscopes; this hidden image is known as the latent image. The latent image can be defined as the hidden image on a radiographic film after exposure to actinic radiation but before development. Therefore, radiation alone does not convert a radiographic film into a visible readable image. The sequence of processes to attain a radiographic image are as follows: 1. The silver halide crystals which have absorbed a sufficient quantity of radiation are partially converted into metallic silver - this is the latent image. 2.

20

30

The affected crystals are then essentially amplified by the developer; the developer completely converts the affected crystals into metallic silver. The radiograph attains its final appearance by fixation; the fixer removes the unexposed and therefore undeveloped crystals. Washing removes the chemicals (fixer).

3. 4. 40

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. FILM PROCESSING

Processing of radiographs may be carried out manually or by using automatic processors. Manual processing takes place in a darkroom under the illumination of safelights which usually consist of ordinary light bulbs behind orange filters. Other colours for filters exist, but the colour chosen must emit light of a wavelength which does not detrimentally affect the emulsion. The darkroom should preferably be divided into two sides, a dry side for loading and unloading of cassettes and a wet side for processing; this is so the films are not splashed prior to development. The wet side of the darkroom will usually have five tanks arranged in the following sequence: I. Developer tank. 2. 3.
]0

10

20

Stopbath or rinse tank. Fixer tank. Final wash tank.

4.

5. Wetting agent tank.


When the exposed film has been unloaded from its cassette, it is placed into aframe spiral if its a long film) and placed into the developer.
40

(or

DARKROOMS

General rules
Darkrooms must be light-tight, must be kept clean and everything must be kept in its place.

50

Layout
The loading bench (the dry side) must be on the opposite side to the processing tanks (the wet side). The distance between should be wide enough for two people to pass. The loading bench should have storage space (drawers and cupboards) underneath for films, chemicals etc .. There must be at least one central white light and two safelights, one over the loading bench, one over the processing tanks. There must be electric sockets conveniently placed for extra electrical equipment. There must be ventilation baffled against light and an exhaust fan, also baffled. The entrance door should be spring loaded for self-closing and baffled all round against light. The entrance door should be lockable from the outside but not from the inside. The darkroom walls should be painted washable white or cream, except for the walls by the entrance which should be matt black.

60

70

80

Services
An electric supply is essential (mains or generator). A running water supply is desirable but in some cases on isolated sites, water may have to be carried.

90

Equipment
Processing tanks - There should be a minimum of four processing tanks; one for developer, one for rinse, one for fixer and one twice as large for the wash. An extra tank is desirable for wetting agent. Drying cabinet - Desirable but not essential for a low output of radiographs.

100

Viewer.

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. FILM PROCESSING

Immersion heater - plunger type. Timer.


10

Film hangers. Film clips. Cassettes. Screens.

20

Films. Chemicals - Developer, replenisher and fixer. Miscellaneous items - Plastic bucket, mop, swabs, brush, paper towels, large waste paper basket or box and a chair.

30

Layout of a typical industrial darkroom

DRY SIDE

WET SIDE

40 S

DEV

50

Below are cupboards

DRY BENCH (For loading & unloading film cassettes)

for
storing cassettes, films & chemicals

STRIP LIGHTS

60

DRYER

70

80

LIGHT TRAP

I'~
RED WARNING LIGHT

90

[!]
~

WALL MOUNTED SAFELlGHTS SAFElIGHTS SUSPENDED FROM CEILING FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

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PROCESSING
10

Radiation causes a latent image to form on the film. A latent image cannot be discerned with the naked eye. Developing changes the latent image into a visual image by blackening the irradiated silver halides. Stop bath or rinse stops the action of the developer by neutralisation surplus chemicals. and removes the

20

Fixer removes unaffected silver halides and hardens the gelatine. Final wash removes all chemicals from the film, preventing chemical fogging. Developer> film to be developed for 4 minutes at 68F (20C) regularly agitated. It should be topped up with replenisher and changed after twice its own volume of replenisher has been added. Concentrated developer is mixed to a dilution of I part plus 4 parts water but when used as a replenisher, the ratio is I part plus 3 parts of water, i.e. I gallon of concentrate makes 5 gallons of developer.

30

Hot weather processing


40

50

. Through the summer months, darkrooms and chemical solutions frequently get warmer than normal. For best results, the developer, fixer and wash water should be kept at the same temperature. Ice should not be placed in the solution because excessive dilution will result as the ice melts. Although processing films in hot solution is not recommended, satisfactory radiographs can be produced in solution up to 35C. Water temperatures can shoot up to dangerous heights, even in air conditioned darkrooms. Prolonged washing at high temperatures may damage film, therefore, if the water is too warm, washing must be kept to a minimum. Automatic water mixes will require watching too, they cannot keep water any cooler than the temperature of the cold water supply. Restrainer With temperatures up to 24C, no extra precautions are needed. However, when temperatures range between 27C and 35C, restrainer can be added to the developer. A restrainer for developing solutions is made up of 18 g of sodium bicarbonate per litre of diluted developer, or 4.5 g of concentrated solution.

60

70

The total amount of proper restrainer needed for a full tank of developer should be weighed out and then dissolved in approximately 200 ml of warm water. The resulting solution should be added to the developer and the mixture stirred thoroughly. Rinse The gelatin in the emulsion swells more in warm solutions and absorbs more developer. Therefore longer rinsing times are required at higher temperatures. Poorly rinsed films carry more alkali into the fixer and thereby reduce the speed and hardening action of the fixer. Fixing at high temperatures A fixing bath that contains an acid hardener minimises the tendency of the emulsion to frill during the final washing. Even when rinsing is done carefully, the fixer acidity declines with use. The addition of fixer replenisher will maintain pH 4.5 and the fixer's hardening ability. Washing film in hot weather In the summer, excessive washing should be avoided. Prolonged immersion in warm water may cause the emulsion to frill. To determine the correct rate of water flow, measure the time required to refill the tank after removing a given quantity of water and adjust the flow so that water in the tank changes at least 10 times each hour.

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Drying film in hot weather

. FILM PROCESSIl'\G

The high relative humidity generally prevailing in hot weather increases the time required to dry an Xsray film. Three of the factors that affect drying time are:
10

I. 2.

the degree to which the film has been hardened in the fixer; the length oftime it was washed;

3. the water absorbing property of the gelatin used to make the emulsion. Methods of controlling the first two factors have been described previously. Faster processible film is recommended, especially because it absorbs a minimum of water. Overnight cooling

20

In laboratories where 10 - 20 litre solution tanks are used, the following recommendations may prove useful.
30

Before closing the laboratory for the day, remove 4 litres of developer and 4 litres of fixer and place them in separate labelled glass containers. Store them in a refrigerator overnight and in the morning, add chilled solutions to the warm solution to bring the working temperature closer to normal. Make certain the bottles are dedicated and correctly labelled.

~--

40

DEVELOPER
Developer is an alkali and is usually supplied as a liquid concentrate and is diluted with water at a ratio governed by the manufacturers instructions, e.g. 1 part developer to 4 parts water.

50

Developer temperature and development time should be in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations or specification, but for manual processing is typically 20 I C for 4 to 5 minutes. The time should be taken from when the film hits the developer with a suitable darkroom timer. Once the film is in the developer it is agitated for approximately 20 seconds and then for approximately 10 seconds every minute. Agitation allows for fresh developer to flow over the film and prevents the possibility of bromide streaking; agitation also cuts down development time. The developer supplies a source of electrons (-ve ions) which cause the chemical changes in the emulsion. The frames or spirals should be tapped against the tanks to prevents any air bubbles settling on the film which can cause light spots on the fmished radiograph. Developer Constituents Developing agent(s) Accelerator Preservative Action Preferentially reduces the exposed silver halide crystals (+ve ions) to black metallic silver. A chemical which gives an alkaline reaction which speeds up development Prevents oxidation of the developer. Controls the level of development fogging. Prevents the formation of scale. Chemicals in common use Metol. Hydroquinone. Phenidone Borax. Sodium carbonate. Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulphate. Potassium bromide. Sodium. Hesarnetaphosphate.

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Restrainer Sequestering a~ent

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UI\IT RII . FILM PROCESSI~G

Replenishment
\0

The activity of the developer gradually decreases with use and age. Replenishment ensures that the activity of the developer and the developing time required remains constant throughout the useful life of the developer. When approximately I m2 of film has been developed, about 400 ml (2 cups) of replenish er needs to be added. After continuous replenishment the quality of the image will be affected and the developer will have to be changed. A common guide for the remixing time is when the replenisher added exceeds twice the volume of the original developer.

20

STOPBATH
The stopbath may be:
30

An acid stopbath. A water spray rinse. A fresh water tank.

40

The most efficient type of stopbath is an acid stopbatb which is typically made up of 2% glacial acetic acid in water. This stops the reaction of the developer, due to the developer being an alkali and the stopbath an acid. Films should be placed and agitated in the stopbathlrinse tank for at least 10 seconds; if this is not done properly, the fixer will soon become neutralised.

50

FIXER
Fixer is an acid which is supplied as a liquid concentrate and is to be diluted with water, typically at a ratio of I part fixer to 3 parts water (follow manufacturers instructions); a hardening agent is also added.

60

Fixation is the process which removes the undeveloped silver halide crystals and fixes the remaining developed crystals, thereby producing radiographs of a diagnostic (readable) quality. The fixer contains chemicals, e.g. ammonium or sodium thiosulphate, which convert the unwanted unexposed halides into water soluble compounds; they are then readily dissolved or removed at the fmal wash stage. The films must be agitated in the fixer, failing to do so may result in light spots on the film. The fixing time is twice the time it takes for the image to clear, e.g. if the milky image disappears in 3 minutes, after looking under the illumination of the safe lights, the films are returned to the fixing tank for another 3 minutes, i.e. total fixing time 6 minutes.

If/he crystals are unexposed they will not have been developed. 70

80

When the fixer becomes exhausted, e.g. as a guideline - when the fixing time is over 10 minutes, the fixer should be replaced. Fixers are not usually replenished. The exhausted fixer is retained because silver may be reclaimed via electrolysis methods.

FINAL WASH
90

Films should be washed preferably in a tank with constant running water, for at least 20 minutes. This removes any soluble silver compounds left behind in the emulsion after fixing and removes the fixer which is an acid. Yellow fog appears on films which have not been sufficiently washed.

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UNIT RII

. FILM PROCESSING

WETTING AGENT
Wetting agent reduces the surface tension of the water and results in even drying of the film; this prevents black spots or streaks. Wetting agents are supplied as a liquid concentrate and is to be diluted with water at a ratio of approximately I part wetting agent to 4000 parts of water. Films are only dipped in and out of the wetting agent.

10

20

DRYING THE FILM


Initially excess water is removed from the films with a squeegee and then placed in either a drying cabinet, other specially designed drying apparatus or a dust free drying room. Care must be taken not to allow drops of water to fall onto the drying films, otherwise black marks will remain on the radiograph.

30

The drying time will depend on the temperature, air circulation and the relative humidity of the warm air. Typical drying times are 15 minutes in a drying cabinet, 45 minutes in a drying room.

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UNIT nI2

. nADIOGRAPHIC

QUALITY

Radiographic quality can be discussed using four main terms: I. 2.


10

Density - The density of a radiograph relates its degree of blackness. Contrast - Radiographic contrast is the degree of difference between density fields on a radiograph. Definition - Radiographic definition is the degree of sharpness at the boundaries of density fields. Sensitivity quality. - Sensitivity is a term used to give an indication of overall radiographic

3. 4.
20

There are two qualities of a radiograph usually measured: density and sensitivity. Density is measured using a densitometer and sensitivity is measured using an image quality indicator (IQI). Sensitivity measurements give an overall guide as to the radiographic technique's ability to detect fine defects. Sensitivity is affected directly by the contrast and definition, i.e. if either of these qualities are lacking then the sensitivity is lacking.

30

DENSITY
The density of a radiograph relates its degree of blackness.
40 A high density or dark area absorbs more light than a low density or light area. The greater the amount of black metallic silver grains present in an area on a radiograph, the more light is absorbed and the denser the area appears.

50

More radiation passes through the thinner sections of a specimen, e.g. areas where cracks or lack of fusion are present, therefore these areas will eventually show up on the radiograph as dark (dense) areas.

Measuring density
Density on a processed radiograph is measured using an instrument called a densitometer, this compares the incident light (I.) with the transmitted fight (IJ and expresses the result as a logarithmic ratio. Incident light is light from the viewer; transmitted light is light transmitted through a film when the film is on the viewer. LOglO ~

60

Density

It

The viewer must be capable 70 of white light intensities suitablefor viewing radiographs up to the maximum permissible densities.

Example: If the incident light was 100 times greater than the transmitted light: 100 I

Density Density

LoglO

80
= 2.0

Density 90 l.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0


100

% light transmitted

through

the radiograph 10% 1% 0.1% 0.01% 0.001%

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QUALITY

The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1.0 and 2.0 is a factor of 10, i.e. 10 times mor, light passes through the radiograph for a density of 1.0 than for a density of 2.0.
10

The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1.0 and 3.0 is a factor of 100, i.e. 100 times more light passes through the radiograph for a density of 1.0 than for a density of3. Before use, densitometers should be calibrated using a calibrated density strip - a strip of film containing known densities on the same viewer which is to be used for interpreting the radiograph.

20

BS EN /435 states that the minimum optical density shall be greater or equal to 2.0 or 2.3. depending on the class. 30

The minimum density in the area of interest, i.e. the weld, required by specifications is typically between 1.5 and 2.5. However, this is not always practical to determine when the area of interest has many thickness changes and therefore density changes - as is the case with certain types of m.m.a. welds. In this situation the specification may specify that the density is to be measured inunediately adjacent to the weld reinforcement. The maximum density stated in a specification will typically be 3.0 or 3.5.

Lack of density - causes



40

Under exposure to radiation. Insufficient development time. Developer temperature too low. Exhausted developer. Incorrect developer. Solution of developer too weak.

Excessive density - causes


50

Over exposure to radiation. Excessive development time. Developer temperature too high. Incorrect developer. Solution of developer too strong.

60

RADIOGRAPHIC
70
Latitude: The range of thicknesses which can be viewed on a radiograph. e.g. C060 gives good latitude. Low k V x-ray gives poor latitude

CONTRAST

......... When a radiograph contains only blacks and whites and no intermediate tones the contrast. high; when only tones of a similar density exist the contrast is low; the optimum contrast may lie between these two extremes, it depends on the aim of the radiographic technique. If an application specification is not permitting any detected defects in the weld whatsoever, then the contrast should ideally be as high as possible, i.e. high contrast is ideal for detecting defects. If, however, an application specification permitted certain defects, depending on the defects through thickness dimensions, as well as length and/or width, then it would be necessary to have a range of tones on the radiographs so that the through thickness depth of the defects and the height of weld reinforcements can be assessed.

Radiographic contrast is the degree of difference between density fields on a radiograph.

80

90

Therefore, to gain more information about the through thickness dimensions of any defects and the weld itself, we need to have intermediate tones, i.e. greys in addition to black and whites. Note: We are assuming that there are thickness changes or material density changes present in order to display density changes.

100

The following chart shows the criteria which affect radiographic contrast:

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Radiographic contrast

QUALITY

I
Subject contrast 10

I
Film contrast

I
Affected by: a. Thickness differences in specimen b. Radiation quality c. Scattered radiation Affected by: a. Type of film b. Development time, temperature and agitation c. Activity of the developer

20

Subject contrast is the ratio of x-ray or gamma ray intensities transmitted by two selected portions of a specimen. Subject contrast depends on the nature of the specimen, the wavelength of the radiation used and the intensity and distribution of the scattered radiation but is independent of time, milliamperage of source strength, distance and the characteristics or treatment of the film. Film contrast refers to the slope (steepness) of the characteristic curve of the film. It depends on the type of film, the processing it receives and the density. It also depends on whether the film's exposure is direct, with lead screens or with fluorescent screens. Film contrast is independent, for most practical purposes, of the wavelengths and distribution of the radiation reaching the film and hence is independent of subject contrast.

30

40

Measuring radiographic contrast


Radiographic contrast is not usually measured exclusively; it is normally subjectively, but could be measured by the use of a step wedge type J.Q.I.. A wire type IQI used to assess sensitivity primarily gives information radiographic contrast, but the degree of definition also affects the result. assessed about the

50

Insufficient contrast - causes



60

Radiation wavelength too short, Le. kVIpenetrating power too high. Over exposure to radiation, compensated for by shortened development time. Prolonged development in too cold a developer or exhausted developer. Unsuitable or wrongly mixed developer. Insufficient fixation. Fog.

Excessive contrast - causes


70

Radiation wavelength too long, i.e. kV/penetrating power too low. Incorrect developer. Wrongly mixed developer. Under exposure, compensated for by a prolonged developer.

80

DEFINITION
Radiographic definition is the degree of sharpness at the boundaries of density fields. There are many factors that govern the final definition on a radiograph, including the geometry of the set-up during exposure and the film type used. Perfect defmition can never be obtained due to the existence of penumbra and the films inherent unsharpness.

90

Measuring radiographic definition


Radiographic defmition is not usually measured exclusively; it is normally assessed subjectively, but can be measured by the use of a duplex type IQI.

100

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QUALITY

-r-,
A duplex type IQJ (BS EN 462 : Part 5) - Image quality indicators (Duplex) consists o. pairs of parallel platinum or tungsten wires of decreasing thickness, the thickness of the pairs usually being the same as the gap between them. If a pair of parallel wires blend into one on the radiographic image it will be due to the poor definition. The largest pair of wires, the image of which has just merged from that of two separate wires into the single form, is taken as the criterion of discemability. Unsharpness is given in BS EN 462 : Part 5 as U the wire spacing distance.
20 =

10

2d, where d is the width of the wire and

Note: Duplex IQIs are placed on the source side of the object being examined and aligned as closely as possible to the axis of the radiation beam.
Radiographic definition

I
Geometrical factors

I
Graininess factors

30

I
Affected by: a. Focal spot size b. Focus film distance c. Specimen film distance d. Abrupt thickness changes in specimen e. Screen film contact Affected by: a. Type of film b. Type of screen c. Radiation quality d. Development

40

Inherent (film) unsharpness


Inherent unsharpness is the unsharpness on a radiograph caused by stray electrons transmitted from exposed crystals which have affected adjacent crystals. Inherent unsharpness always exists, its magnitude depending on grain size, grain distribution and radiation energy used; it increases with a reduction in wavelength.

50

Geometric unsharpness (Ug)


Geometric unsharpness or penumbra is the unsharpness on a radiograph caused by the geometry of the radiation beam in relation to the object being radiographed and the film. Penumbra always exists and borders all density fields. The dimensions of the focal spot or gamma source, object to film distance (o.f.d.) and focal spot to film distance (f.f.d.) all affect penumbra. To minimise penumbra we must adhere to the following conditions:
70

60

The source or focal spot should be as small as possible. D.f.d. should be as small as possible. F.f.d.ls.f.d. should be as long as practicable.

Determination of focal spot size


80

The focal spot size of x-ray tubes can change over a period of time. To determine the size of the focal spot, e.g. for penumbra calculations, the following procedure may be adopted. 1. 2. Place a lead sheet, approximately 4 mm thick containing a small hole about 0.25 mm diameter, exactly halfway between the focal spot and a radiographic film. Expose - the exposure should not be excessive otherwise the image will be blurred. The image on the film will be the size of the focal spot plus twice the diameter of the hole. Calculate the focal spot size by measuring the total diameter of the image and then deduct 2 x hole diameter.

90

3.

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Ul\IT R12 RAI)IOGRAPHIC

QlJALITY

Calculation
10

of geometric unsha rpness (Ug) sxofd sfd - ofd


(SOD)

Ug=

Where: s = the maximum dimension of the gamma source or focal spot. This is calculated using the Pythagorus theorem, e.g.:
20 2 mmdiameter

L.-J
AI2mm
30

s= length

=2.82 mm

ofd = object to film distance sfd = source to film distance sod = source to object distance
40

Note: sod + ofd

sfd
s

50

1
srd

------------SOURCEI\7\------------1X \ f I \ \ I I \ \

II
I

\\

sed

;'1
OBIE;I
60

f/

\\

\~

\\

\;----T
\\
ord

If

If
FILM

\\

70

The maximum penumbra allowed on radiographs is specified in certain standards. In contractual situations where the standards do not quote maximum penumbra values, they may be agreed with the client; a typical maximum penumbra of 0.25 mm is often used.

Using the nomogram


80

BS EN 1435 uses a nomogram which is based on calculations for minimum Ug. The Ug is not stated but using the nomogram gives minimum source to object (sod) distances which will give acceptable Ug.

90

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UNIT R12 . RADIOGRAPHIC

QUALITY --......
500
01101

400

10
10 5000
"'101

)00

200 2000

.\1"
8 7

3000 2000 1000


100

20

10

1000

soo
)00

60 SO

~o
30 20

500 1 30 " 2
c

200 )00

1
<I

200

100

"'c
i

'lOO

"SO
)0

10

40

W
20

S
4

)0
20 10

0.5
50
10

1) Class B

2) Class A

60

Figure 21. Nomogram for the determination of minimum source-to-object fmin in relation to the object-to-liIm distance and the source size. d b
=

distance

source size thickness

= OFD = sample

70

PROCESSING

AND HANDLING FAULTS

Fog
80

Fog is unwanted density on a radiograph and appears on radiographs as darkened areas or overall darkening which has not been caused by thickness variations in the subject. Grey fog Accidental exposure to actinic radiation light, x-rays, gamma rays. When fog is caused by light leaks, e.g. because ofa faulty cassette, it is often termed lighlfog. Scatter. Unsuitable darkroom. darkroom lighting, e.g. wrong safelights, white light entering

90

Film exposed to heat. Bad film storage.

100

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QUALITY

x o rES

Yellow fog
10

Insufficient final wash. Exhausted fixer. Prolonged development in badly oxidized developer.

Dichroic rog
20

Greenish colour by reflected light, pink via transmitted light. Prolonged development in exhausted developing bath. Film stuck to another film in fixer. Developing tank contaminated with fixer.

Mottled fog
30

Film badly stored, e.g. in damp surroundings. Film out of date.

ARTIFACTS
An artifact is a spurious indication on the radiographic image, e.g. a fault in or on the film usually caused by mishandling or incorrect developing. An artifact may be mistaken for a defect in the weld or parent material; an artifact may also mask a fault in the weld, therefore, it is essential that artifacts should be avoided.

40

Static discharge
50

Static discharge marks may occur when the film is pulled quickly from between the intensifying screens in a dry atmosphere. The appearance on the radiograph is usually lightning like, but it may also be mottled.

Reticulation
60

Reticulation is a net like structure appearing in the emulsion due to rupture caused by excessive temperature differences between the processing tanks. It is a rare artifact nowadays to the flexible/plastic nature of modem day emulsions.

Diffraction mottle
Diffraction mottle may occur in a weld area on a radiographic image because of the grain structure and grain orientation of certain materials matching the wavelength of the radiation in a certain way. Austenitic stainless steels and aluminium welds are particularly susceptible. Diffraction mottle has the-appearance of fme porosity throughout the weld area. It may be reduced or eliminated by changing the wavelength of radiation, i.e. increasing kV, or by changing the radiation angle by approximately 5.
80

70

Light patches - possible causes



90

Film was not agitated/tapped during development or fixation. Film insufficiently rinsed after development. Drops of fixer fell onto film prior to development. Mechanical damage causing pressure marks to emulsion before exposure. Impurities between screen and film. Marked or cracked fluorescent screens.

100

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UNIT R12 RADIOGRAPHIC

QUALITY

Dark patches, lines or streaks - possible causes



20

10

Drops of developer fallen onto film prior to development. Drops of water fallen onto film prior to development. Mechanical damage causing pressure marks to emulsion after exposure. Buckled or scratched lead screens. Slow and uneven drying of film, i.e. when there are still droplets of water on the film. Uneven drying. Bending of film after exposure (usually between two fingers causes dark crescent shaped marks).

Whitish deposit - possible causes


Water used to make up processing solutions too hard. Solarisation is lightening of the image, or reversal, due to exposure to white light whilst the film is in the developer.

Solarisation
30

SENSITIVITY
The term sensitivity, when used in a general sense, is the ability to detect small changeT" The term sensitivity when applied to radiography is an overall assessment of quality which relates to the radiographic technique's ability to detect fine defects on a radiograph. The sensitivity associated with a radiograph is directly affected by the radiographic contrast and defmition, therefore all those factors which affect contrast and definition will also affect the sensitivity.
50

40

Calculating sensitivity using IQl's


Sensitivity is measured by the use of image quality indicators (IQIs), also known as a penetrameters. There are various types of IQI; the type commonly used consists of seven thin wires within a plastic packaging. The wires are placed transversely across the weld area being examined during exposure. The sensitivity on the resultant radiograph is then given a numerical value by dividing the thickness of the smallest wire visible on the radiograph by the thickness of the specimen in the area being examined; this is then multiplied by 100 in order to express the result as a percentage of the specimen thickness. Alternatively, some specifications simply specify the minimum number of wires which have to be visible on the radiograph. Sensitivity % = thickness of thinnest wire visible x 100 thickness of specimen
. .

60

70

The lower the figure obtained, the better, i.e. the higher the sensitivity. It must be noted however, that the obtained IQI sensitivity value does not directly relate to the minimum defect size detectable by the radiographic technique used because of defect orientation. BS EN 462 Image Quality Indicators is the standard which supersedes BS 3971 and DIN 62. It is in 5 parts and covers the following: BS BS BS BS BS EN 462-1 EN 462-2 EN 462-3 EN 462-4 EN 462-5 Wire type Step/wedge type Classes for ferrous metals Image quality values and image quality tables Duplex wire type

80

90

100

The wire gauges and range of wires used in IQl's for BS EN 462-1 are the same as DIN 62, i.e. a DIN 62 10-16 has become an EN 462 WIO. The WI3 was added to increase the range to cope with thinner materials. This covers the wire gauges 13 to 19.

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:"01 [S

UNIT R12 RADIOGRAPHIC


Table 1 gives the wire number and nominal wire

QCALITY

10

20

30

40

Table l. Wire numbers. diameters and limit deviations Image quality indicator Wire including Wl W6 WIO W13 Wire number Nominal wire diameter 3,20 X WI X 2,50 W2 2,00 X W3 1,60 W4 X 1,25 W5 X X W6 1,00 X W7 0,80 X X 0,63 X W8 0,50 X W9 0,40 X X W 10 X X WlI 0,32 X W 12 0,25 X 0,20 X W 13 X X 0,16 X W 14 0,125 X X W 15 W 16 0,100 X X W 17 0,080 X 0,063 X W 18 0,050 X W 19

Dimensions in millimetres

Wire centreline spacing, a Tolerances 9,(; 7,$ 6 -:

0,03

0,02

.r

0,01

'5

0,005

50

Table 2 gives types ofIQI and wire materials used for selected groups of materials Table 2. Types of IQI and wire materials Image quality indicator Wire number W 1 CU W 6CU W IOCU WI3CU W 1 FE W 6FE W IOFE W J3FE W ITI W6T1 W 10Tl W 13 TI W I AL W 6AL W 10AL W 13AL W I to W W 6 to W W 10to W W 13 to W W 1 to W W 6 to W W 10 to W WJ3toW19 W I to W W 6to W W 10to W W13toWI9 W I to W W 6 to W WIOtoWI6 Wl3toWI9 used for selected { rOUDSof materials Wire material Suitable for test - the followlna materials Copper, zinc, tin and 7 Copper their alloys 12 16 19 7 Steel (low Ferrous materials 12 alloyed) 16

60

70

7
12 16

Titanium

Titanium and their alloys

80

7
12

Aluminium

Aluminium and their alloys

90

B S EN 462-1 5.2 states the IQ [ should be placed on the side of the section under test facing the source of radiation and remote from the film. If this is not possible, the IQI may be placed adjacent to the side under test nearest the film and a letter F near to the IQ!. The IQ! shall be placed on the object in an area where the thickness is as uniform as possible.

100

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llNIT R12 . RADIOGRAPHIC

QUALITY

ASSESSING

SENSITIVITY

10

In accordance with BS EN 1435 Radiographic examination of welded joints, IQI wires shall be directed perpendicular to the weld and ensure that at least IQ mm of the wire length will show in a section of uniform optical density, which is normally in the parent metal adjacent to the weld. For double wall double image and perpendicular shots, the wire can be placed across the pipe axis and should not project into the weld.

20

Step wedge/hole type IQl's are placed adjacent to the weld in the centre of the film. The sensitivity is assessed in the same way as for wire types except you use the hole diameter instead of a wire thickness. With the exception of duplex wires, IQl's are made of the same material as the specimen being examined and are available in a variety of thickness ranges.

30

Although it is desirable for the IQI and the specimen to be of the same material, it is not always possible or practicable to accomplish due to lack of availability. For test specimens made from alloyed elements, the IQI material chosen should have similar radiation absorption/transmission properties to the test specimen. BS EN 1435 requires minimum image quality values to be assessed from tables BI to Bl;~ The tables are compiled from calculations of minimum acceptable sensitivity.

40

Specific sensitivity terms


There are many specific terms relating to sensrtivrty which may be encountered; the following terms are in accordance with BS EN 1330 - Terms used in non-destructive testing : Part 3 <Industrial Radiographic Testing:
50

Contrast sensitivity The smallest thickness change in a specimen which produces a discernible change in optical density on a radiographic image, usually expressed as a percentage of the total specimen thickness.

60

Flaw sensitivity The minimum flaw size detectable under specified test conditions usually expressed as a percentage of the specimen thickness. Image quality indicator sensitivity

70

The dimension in the direction of the radiation of the thinnest step-with-hole or wire that can be clearly identified, expressed as a percentage of the thickness of the material unde . examination. Note: The duplex-wire image quality indicator is based on a different principle and gives a measure ofunsharpness only.

80

Thickness sensitivity The smallest change in thickness which can be detected by radiography, usually expressed as a percentage of the specimen thickness.

90

100

Cl RU2nt & T P O'Ntill Issue 9 J I/03/09

R12-IO

TPO'Neill :\OTES

Ruane&

11

tJNIT R13 RADIOGRAPHIC

TECHNIQUES

Radiographic techniques for welds on steel are listed in BS EN 1435 : Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints.
10

The radiographic examination of a plate weld would result in a single wall, single image technique being used; however, there are essentially four ways to radiograph a girth/pipe weld: I. Single wall, single image (SWSI) - film inside, source outside. 2. Single wall, single image (SWSI) - film outside, source inside (internal exposure, usually full panoramic). Double wall, single image (DWSI) - film outside, source outside (external exposure). Double wall, double image (DWDJ) - film outside, source outside (elliptical exposure).

20

3. 4.
30

The panoramic technique is usually the preferred technique if the equipment is available, access permits and the minimum f.f.d.ls.f.d. requirements are met. This is due to the fact that the entire weld can be examined in one exposure and good sensitivity can be achieved because of a lower level of scatter and kV in comparison with a double walled exposure.

40

SWSI: SOURCE

OUTSIDE, FILM INSIDE

For standard exposures, the radiation beam is positioned at normal incidence to the weld face and film passing through the centre of the weld.
50

60

This technique is primarily intended for 100 mm diameter pipe welds and above, where access to the internal weld area permits. The main disadvantages of this technique are the number of exposures required due to a large amount of fade off, and the practical aspects of positioning the radiation source at sufficient f.f.d. when dealing with fabrications in situ. It is a technique more suited to large diameter pipes, vessels and tanks where the curvature is closer to a flat plate and therefore has a reduced effect on the amount offade off. The required minimum number of exposures to cover the full circumference of the weld depends on the wall thickness, pipe diameter and f.f.d.ls.f.d.; see Figure Al and A3 in BS EN 1435. Note: AI is for 10% fade off and A3, 20% fade off.

70

80

----

-----

--90

----

--- - -- - -- - -- Source

---- ----

100

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:\01 [S

UNIT RI3 RAI)IOGRAPHIC

TECHNIQUES

SWSI:
ID

(PANORAMIC)

SOURCE INSIDE, FILM OUTSIDE

For standard exposures, the radiation beam is positioned at normal incidence to the weld face and film passing through the centre of the weld, with equal f.f.dJs.f.d. around the circumference. This technique cannot be used if the minimum f.f.d.ls.f.d. requirements cannot be met. See BS EN 1435.

20

30

40

DWSI
This technique is commonly applied to all welds where the use of a panoramic technique is not possible or practicable, e.g. on small diameter pipe welds. For standard exposures on any diameter of pipe weld, the radiation beam is positioned at approximately 850 to the weld face and film. With this technique the radiation beam cannot be positioned at normal incidence to the weld portion being examined because the weld on the radiation source side will superimpose over the film side weld resulting in an unreadable radiograph. This problem mainly applies when using x-ray tubes; the x-ray tube must be moved approximately 60 mm to the side of the weld, so the central line of the x-ray beam shoots past the tube side weld resulting in a diagnostic image of the film side weld. Care must a)so be taken to ensure that the number tape on the source side does not interfere with the image, i.e. shoot through from the opposite side of the weld to that which the number tape is positioned. The required minimum number of exposures to cover the full circumference of the weld depends on the wall thickness, pipe diameter and f.f.d.; see Figure A2 and A4 in BS EN 1435.

50

60

70

Note: A2 is for 10% fade off and A4, 20% fade off.

Film
80

Film

X __

90

Section on X - X

Source
lOO

.1.

~--Offset
R13-2

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&

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9 31103109

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'OT[S

UNIT RJ3 . RAHIOGRAPHIC TECHI\"IQUES

DWDI
This technique is only applied to welds on pipe or fittings 100 mm diameter or below.
10

A minimum of two exposures are usually required at 90 to each other; this results in a total of four interpretable areas on the radiograph which should cover the full circumference ofthe weld. The cassette is placed flat on one side of the pipe. The source is positioned at the minimum sfd (calculated using the Ug formula or nomogram) and is offset from the weld centre line to give an elliptical image. In most cases an offset of about one fifth sfd will separate the top image from the bottom. This, however, becomes more difficult as the wall thickness increases and the pipe diameter reduces. On small bore heavy wall pipework, it is often permitted by specification or client for the radiation to pass through the centre of the weld at normal incidence to the pipe; this will produce a radiograph with the tube side weld superimposed over the film side weld. -offset' Source

20

30

------~fr.------------------------------------~t~.
:.:

:.;:

40

50

I ---,-.I

Section on X - X

_._-----,60 Film

----

Film

SANDWICH TECHNIQUE
70

80

The sandwich technique is a radiographic technique sometimes used in order to save time. It may be used on components where there are substantial thickness differences causing the density on a single radiograph to be out of specification on either the thicker side, the thinner side or both. Rather than carry out two separate shots at different exposures for each weld or position, cassettes may be loaded with two films. Two radiographs will therefore be produced - one for the thick side and the other for the thinner side but they will have been produced in a single exposure. The films are usually of different speeds, e.g. a fine grained film loaded with a very fine grained film, however, the same effect will be produced by placing a lead screen, thicker than usual, between two films of the same speed.

90

LOCATION OF DEFECTS

Parallax technique
The parallax technique is sometimes reJerred 10 as the tube shift method when an 100 x-ray tube is used.

The parallax radiographic technique may be used to determine the depth of defects below the surface of a component; this may be useful to know for repair purposes. It is a technique more applicable to thick specimens, e.g. over 50 mm, but is rarely used

ClRuan. & T P O'N.m


In ue 9 31/ID109

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Ruane & 11 TPO'Nelll 'OT[S

lJNIT IH3 . RADIOGRAPHIC TECIINIQllES


because ultrasonic testing can usually give the same information quicker and at a lower cost.
10

The technique is used after a defect has already been detected by conventional methods. The procedure involves the placement of a lead marker on the source side of a specimen's surface close to the plan view location of the defect. Two exposures are made, each at half the normal exposure, and offset to each other in order to produce a double image ofthe lead marker and defect. The following criteria are used to calculate the distance of the defect from the film either by means of a formula or graph: a. b. c. d. e. Distance between defect images. Distance between lead marker images. F.f.d.ls.f.d. Specimen thickness. Dimension of shift between source of radiation.

20

30

Right-angled method
Two shots of specimen taken at right angles. The position of defect may be found by measurement. This is the most straight forward method for cube shaped or similar specimens. This method cannot be used for welds or plates.
40

Mathematical (tube or source shift) method


Find the defect by normal radiography. Position the tube over the defect - move the tube a distance of exactly one fifth of the FFD sideways and give half the original exposure. Move the tube some distance in the opposite direction, i.e. one fifth of the FFD from centre, and give another half exposure on the same sheet of film:

50

lh
d

= I +s
d
I

Where
60

h s

distance of defect from film distance of image movement FFD two fifths of the FFD

Lead marker (tube or source shift) method


70

Find the defect by normal radiography. Position the tube over the defect. Place one lead wire on top of the specimen to one side of the defect. Place a second lead wire underneath the specimen on the other side of the defect. Move the tube approximately one fifth of the FFD to one side and give half the original exposure, then move the tube approximately one fifth of the FFD to the other side and give halfthe original exposure, again on the same sheet offilm.

80

Draw graph as shown

T
a

90

b c d

total specimen thickness image shift of top lead wire image shift of defect image shift of bottom lead wire distance of defect from bottom of specimen

Or, instead of drawing graph, use: D


100

= T(b-c)

(a-c)

e It

&

T P ON.iII

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:-. 1 [S 0

tTNIT R13 . RADIOGRAI)HIC

TECHNIQUES

IMAGESHIFfS
SPECIMEN

10

RADIOGRAPH

--:---

Pb marker
(source side)

_________

T.

20

Source

shift

direction

-<'>."'=

Defect

Pb marker
(film side)

c 4 3
4

30

SOURCE

POSITIONS

ill
40

t ---------,

-.! '
,,'

.I

50
'f/

Top Pb wire

{
T

--j'
'

t..;

60

-,---,~ L-a -;

.d ~--'-"=-

----; Defect ~ __ ~=-=..- ..---~,-----'

... ,BotlOm

Pb wire
--Film

-b -

70
'T' 'T' - thickness of specimen

80
d

Heighlof

Defect'd'

90

Above bottom surface

---lOO
() Ruant '" T P O'Ntill Issu< 9 31103/09

Bottom marker ~-shift .


__ LLDeClf,Cler. :I_~

--

...... Top marker shift

R13-S

TP OWei11 :\OTI:S

Ruane & 11

l1NIT R14 DETERl\lIl'"ATION

OF EXPOSl1RE

Many factors govern the fmal quality of a radiographic image; all these factors must be considered and controlled in order to meet with a specifications requirements.
10

The time to use for an exposure is only one factor to consider for an exposure, but it is this factor which changes most often. Gamma exposure times are usually calculated from special slide rules, usually referred to as gamma exposure calculators, these take into consideration the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Film density to be achieved. Source type. Activity of source. Film speed. Source to film distance. Material type. Material thickness.

20

30

When using x-ray equipment, the determination of exposure is less straightforward. This is because the wavelength and intensity of radiation may be adjusted, and different machines produce different quantities and qualities of x-radiation even though they may be operated on the same panel settings. The following methods are used to determine correct exposures when using x-ray equipment: a. b. c. d. By reference to previous exposure records. By trial and error test shots. A combination of the above. By using exposure charts.

40

CONSIDERATIONS
50

FOR EXPOSURES

Wavelength of radiation
The wavelength of radiation used will affect the density, contrast and defmition of a
radiographic image.

60

X-ray equipment - The lower the kV used to penetrate the specimen, the higher will be the contrast, but enough kV must be used to ensure penetration and keep the exposure time reasonable. Gamma isotopes - Different radioactive isotopes produce different wavelengths of gamma radiation, e.g. C060 produces shorter wavelength radiation than Ir 192 and is therefore more penetrating, but a radiograph produced on the same specimen using Co60 will have much lower contrast and definition.

70

Intensity of radiation and exposure time


The intensity of the radiation reaching the film and exposure time will affect the density of the image.

Remember that density affects contrast and contrast affects sensitivity.

Radiation intensity and exposure time are related. Exposure time is proportional to the intensity of radiation; this relationship is known as the reciprocity law:
80

Exposure

time

intensity

90

X-ray equipment - If you had an exposure of say 4 minutes and 3 mA, then 4 x 3 = 12, therefore you would be using 12 mA-mins. You could also use 3 minutes and 4 mA to give you the same amount of exposure because 3 x 4 = 12, or I minute at 12 mA,l x 12 = 12, or 2 minutes 6 mA, 2 x 6 = 12 etc.; all these give you the same amount of exposure. The higher the mA setting on the control panel, the greater the intensity of radiation produced, and therefore the darker the image will be, unless the time is reduced to compensate. Gamma isotopes - If you had an exposure of say 5 minutes using an isotope with an activity of 4 curies, then 5 x 4 = 20, therefore you would be using 20 Ci-rnins.

100

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& T P O'Ntill

Issuc 9 J1103109

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TP O'Neill

Ruane & 11

uxrr

RI4 DETERI\1I:\ATION

OF EXPOSURE

The higher the activity of the isotope used, the greater the intensity of radiation produced, and therefore the darker the image will be, unless the time is reduced to compensate.
10

X-ray equipment
The intensity of radiation (governed by mA) and quality of radiation (governed by kV) can be affected by the electric circuit of the equipment being used. The kV and mA may be on the same panel setting, but the radiation intensity and wavelengths can vary from one set to another.

20

Filter types and thicknesses also differ between x-ray tubes. Filters are used to reduce long wavelength primary radiation to provide a more homogeneous x-ray beam with lower resultant scatter levels. Filters affect the exposure time, e.g. an x-ray tube with a thick filter will require more exposure than an x-ray tube with a thinner filter.

Type of film
30

The higher the speed of the film, the denser the image compared to that of a slow film at the same exposure. However, the radiograph's definition for a slow film at the correct exposure will be better than that for a fast film at the correct exposure.

Intensifying screens
40

Using intensifying screens reduces the exposure required to attain the required density, but fluorescent and fluorometallic screens have an adverse affect on the definition of the radiographic image. Exposures made with direct x-ray and lead screens obey the law of reciprocity (E = mAT). Fluorescent screens emit light of various wavelengths, including UV. Where intensification is due to light exposure, the law of reciprocity cannot be strictly applied. Exposures with fluorescent screens are, therefore, less predictable and more likely to be attained by trial and error.

50

Ffd/sfd
60

The greater the ffd/sfd the smaller the penumbra, therefore the better the radiographic defmition. But, x-rays and gamma rays obey the inverse square law. Therefore, with regard to exposure, the greater the ffd/sfd, the greater the exposure should be to attain a given density. The following formula, based on the inverse square law, can be used to determine new exposures when the ffdlsfd changes:

70

El D/ E) = D/

--

Where: Example:
El
=

E,

= =

E2
80

original exposure; new exposure;

01 = original distance O2 = new distance

5 mAmins; 01

= 1000 mm

E2 = ? mAmins; O2 = 750 mm

90

100

E2

2.8 mAmins

Cl Ruane " T P O'N.m


Issue 9 311O:lIO'J

R14-2

Ruane & 11 TPO'Nell1

lJ~IT RI4 f)ETEI{I\'IINATION Object being radiographcd

OF EXPOSl:RE

The radiation absorption and transmission characteristics of a material depends upon its thickness, density and atomic mass. This will primarily govern penetrating power required.
10

Processing the film


The density, contrast and definition of a radiograph are affected by the type, temperature, agitation and time in the developer. The development process should not be adjusted outside a specifications requirements in order to compensate for incorrect exposures, i.e. to adjust the density of a radiograph, the exposure should be changed; not the developing time.

20

EXPOSURE

CHARTS

30

Exposure charts provide the exposure conditions for a given thickness of material using xray equipment. An exposure chart will show the exposure to use in mA-min for a chosen specimen thickness and kV in order to attain the density that the chart is based on. Exposure charts are drawn up from preliminary charts made up from exposures using different kilovoltages on step wedges. The vertical scale on an exposure chart is logarithmic and the horizontal scale is arithmetic. Each chart must show the variables to which the chart is applicable to:

40

a. b. c. d. e.
50

Type of x-ray set. Film density. Film type. Intensifying screens Focus to film distance. f. Development conditions. g. Material tested.
100 120

Kilovoltage (kv)
1<tO 160 180 200 22D 240 260 2SO 300

.SUS 133033 100 33


16.66

I /

60

1/

eo
33.33

I I1 I1 1/ / / / 1/ /
I
I1

I1

J
/

16.66

70

1 1/ 1/ VI // V/ / / V //
/

13.33

10 e.33

U&

/f

1 1 /

3.33

80
us

'/ / // V. '/ / / !;V ~

'/1/

/ 1/ / V

r! V
/

/.
'f

"""TAl< 300 KVUNIT


a. PahtAk 300 kV untt No. P123

i-

90

0.6 0.3

b. Donsfty. 2.0
c. Film type. Kodak ex d . .scr..n Pb 0.126 front & Ibac

i-

e.

Ffd - SOO inN r. Dev~spec..ABC123 51 M.at:ef'aI . stHI type A

10

"

20

25

30
steel

00

~,

eo

ss

60

65

70

100

th~k"".(mm)

o Rea
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'" T P O'N.ill

31103109

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'\ 0 1 I: S

uxrr
EXPOSURE

RI4 DETERMI!'ATIO~

OF EXPOStTRE

CALCULATIONS

FOR GAMMA RA VS

The following information is required to obtain the exposure from an exposure chart.
10

a. Weld thickness. b. Source strength from decay chart. c. Type of film From the gamma ray exposure chart for Ir192, select the weld thickness, follow this line until it strikes the density required line, say 02.0 and then follow the line down onto the Ci hour line and read off this value.

20

Example Weld thickness = 20 mm density required = 2.0. The Ir 192 source is at 15 CL


30

From the chart, the exposure is 5.1 Ci hours 5.1 Ci hours x 60 = 306 Ci mins
40

E=CiT

E 306 . :. T= - = = 20Ammutes Ci 15

The exposure time at 900 mm with 15 Ci = 20.4 minutes.


50

If the sfd was changed to 600 mm, then: D 2 E2 = _2_ 012


x El

= --

6002

9002

x 20.4 = 9 minutes

The new exposure time at 600 mm with 15 Ci = 9 minutes.


60

EXPOSURE

CALCULATIONS

USING GAMMA SLIDE RULE

The gamma slide rule enables very accurate calculations to be made providing the following information is available: 70 a. b. c. d. e. Film speed. Density required. Source strength in Ci. SFD. Material thickness.

80

The results give the exposure time.

90

100

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'OTF.S

Ul\'IT R14 . DETERMINATIOl'l OF EXPOSlIRE

10

20

30

40

~ ~ ""' "-l
0

e-

C>
.;11

...,

:':1

e e , <:>
<t-

"I ill 1 <:>


N

,
,!

.. '"
e .<::

50

E
E

s .. ...
S 60

....
'Cl VI

'"

DC

..
...,
70
N

80
(mm) SS;)U:Ij:l!II.L 1~31S

90

100

C> R ne &

T P O'Ntill

hsue 9 3 J 103/09

R14-5

Ruane & 11 TPO'Neil1


:\OTI:S

lJ~IT Rl4 . DETERl\lI~ATIOl\'

OF EXPOSURE

The information required to produce a radiograph is as follows: From the test piece
10

Plate thickness Weld thickness Pipe diameter (for pipes) Length of weld

20

From this information the data required to produce the radiograph can be produced. 1. Minimum Source to Film distance (sfd) or Focus to Film Distance (ffd) To calculate the minimum FFD/SFD so that the unsharpness of the image is better than the resolution ofthe eye - 0.25 mm Minimum tTd =

30

(source size x ofd) + ofd 0.25

ofd can be taken as the sample thickness.

40

r
sod 0

sfd or ffd

50

1<
60 ffd sfd sod ofd
70 = = = =

dfl

>1

Focus to Film Distance Source to Film Distance Source to Object Distance Object to Film Distance

T = Sample Thickness 1.1T = 10% fade off (the edge of the diagnostic length) dfl
=

Diagnostic Film Length

80

2. The DFL is derived from the following (for flat plates only) Source
X

x=
1.1 90

sod

sod

I
T

r:
100

:?

<~

dfl

dfl

>

Cl Ruant '" T P O'NeiU Issue 9 31103/09

R14-6

Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill


:\01 [S

UNIT RI .. nETERl\1INATION

OF EXPOSURE

The diagram shows two similar triangles, the small triangle comprising of: T == perpendicular; 1.1T == hypotenuse; ? = base
10

The larger triangle consists of: sod


=

perpendicular; 1.1 sod

hypotenuse; Y:zdfl

base

The pythagoras theory states that the sum of the squares of the base and the perpendicular equals the square on the hypotenuse, therefore:
20

sod2 + (Y:z dfl)2

(1.1 sod)2

Require to find the value of the dfl:

Therefore
30

(~dfl

r
dfl

Therefore

~(~

= (1.1 sod)2 - sod

= ~(l.1 sod)2 - sod '

Therefore
40

! dfl = ~1.l
2

sod2

sod2

Therefore

dfl = 2 x ~(].I sod)2 - sod2

The SOD is taken from the calculation of the minimum ffd/sfd - for plate only
50

The DFL for pipes is calculated from EN 1435 - Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints.
3. To work out the Image Quality Indicator

- IQI (see Unit 7)

The IQI sensitivity should be better than 2% with respect to the sample thickness.
60

To calculate the IQI wire diameter the following is used: . Sample thickness 2 IQl dia = 100 x To find the wire number, consult Table 2 ofBS EN 462-1, which is the current standard, or BS 3971 which has been superseded.

70

4. Working out the exposure An exposure chart is required for x-ray sets and may also be used for gamma ray, however, the use of a gamma slide rule is often used and is generally more accurate and quicker. From the x-ray exposure chart on R9-3, it is possible to obtain kV values and exposure values for any given thickness working on the exposure chart within the 15 to 60 mA minutes range. 5. Correcting the exposure

80

The exposure obtained will be for a fixed distance and fixed density, film, material and processing conditions. To change the exposure the following is used:
90

New exposure

= Old

exposure

New distance/

Old distance

E2

= El

X D2\2

0 2)

Where the new distance is your selected ffd and the old distance is the chart distance.
100

6. Mark up the test piece according

to the technique requirements

o Ruane&

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1. 9 31/U3/U9

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Ruane & 11 TPO'Neill

llNIT R14 DETER!\II]\;A TlO::\ OF EXPOSURE Steps for radiographing a butt weld in a plate
1. Measure:
10

x o rr s

Plate thickness, weld thickness and weld length. 2. Calculate: The minimum Film to Focus Distance (ffd)and the Source to Focus Distance (sfd). .. Th e mmunum ffd (source size = sfd
x

20

Sample thiCkness) I h' k + samp e t IC ess 0.25

This is the minimum, therefore select an FFD/SFD greater than this for plate butt welds. The figure should be in the order of 1.5 times the length of the weld to be covered in one shot.
30

3. Work out the diagnostic film length (dfl): Using the ffd/sfd selected:

40

sod = Source to Object Distance is equal to the ffd - ofd (Object to Film Distance). The ofd can be taken as the weld thickness.

If the ffd/sfd will not cover the required length, then the ffd/sfd must be increased if the weld is to be covered in one shot.

so

4. To calculate the Image Quality Indicator

(lQI):

. thi Subject thickness 2 IQI wire rcness = x lOO Look up the wire thickness on Table 1 in BS EN 462-1 for the wire number and wire group.
60 5. To calculate the exposure:

Using the exposure chart supplied for the x-ray set to be used, the weld thickness is then used to find the kV and corresponding exposure in mA minutes within the 15-60 mA mins box. This will give one or two kV and corresponding mA minute exposure for fixed conditions of distance, film type, density and development. The kV will be fixed but the exposure in mA minutes will require to be adjusted for the ffd/sfd to be used. Correcting tire exposure
80

70

New exposure = Old exposure x The new distance is the selected ffd The old distance is the chart ffd

New distance/
2

Old distance

90

6. Marking up the plate


A 1 ID Date 2

Weld

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UNIT RI ... DETERMINATION


Butt Welds in Pipes

OF EXPOSURE

x0

T I: S

10

Butt welds in pipes are worked out in a similar manner with the exception of the diagnostic film length which is calculated from a series of charts in EN 1435 - Radiographic Examination of Welded Joints, depending on the radiographic method used.

EQUIVALENCE CHARTS
20

Generally exposure charts are made for either aluminium or steel. This can cause problems when it is required to radiograph other materials. The following chart shows a radiographic equivalence chart which relates other materials to aluminium and steel. The figures given in the chart are multiplication factors and are used to convert a particular thickness of the selected material to the equivalent thickness of the standard material.

30

X-Rays kV
50 100 0.6 1.0 8.0 12.0 18.0 150 0.05 0.12 0.63 1.0 1.6 1.4 1.4 14.0 220 0.08 0.18 0.71 1.0
lA

Gamma Rays
400 1000 2000 Ir192 0.22 0.34 CE-137 Co60 0.22 0.34 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.I 3.2 0.22 0.34 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 2.3

Magnesium
40

0.6 1.0

Aluminium Titanium

0.71 1.0 lA J.3 J.3

Steel
Copper Zinc Brass
50

0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 5.0

0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 2.5

0.9 1.0 1.1 \.1 1.1 4.0

1.3 1.3 12.0

Lead

For the x-ray range 50-100 kV, aluminium is taken as the standard and uses a factor of 1.0.

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UNIT R15 . FILTERS

Definition
10

A relative thin layer ofa heavy metal (e.g. lead or copper), interposed in the path of the radiation before it reaches the film. There are two types of filters: 1. A tube head filter, e.g. the beryllium window, or thin layer of heavy metal. 2. A cassette filter.

20

Tube head filter


Positioned inside the tube head window, the action of the tube filter depends on the fact that an x-ray beam is heterogeneous (a mixture of wavelengths) and the longer wavelengths are more easily scattered. The filter removes much of the soft radiation giving a marked reduction in scatter. Thus the beam becomes more nearly monochromatic in wavelength and also effectively of shorter wavelength. NB. A filter of a higher atomic number will be equivalent to a thicker filter with a lower atomic number. In general, the filter thickness should be less than 10% of the specimen thickness. The effectively shorter wavelength reduces the contrast obtained.

30

40

X-\SC__
50

___ \LI

T----.:specimen

X-rays

Masking

J2d~
'\;t
Film

8 This

In (A), soft radiation is scattered by the edge of the object giving undercutting. effect is reduced if a tube filter is used.
60

For (B), a tube filter will merely decrease contrast.

e.g. 50 kV with tungsten target Unfiltered beam


70

Use of1 mm Use of5 mm

80

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6
08

0.8

90

Wavelength

(10

cm)

In practice higher kV's are used with filters of lead, copper or tin which have high atomic numbers.
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lJ~IT R15 . FILTERS

Cassette filter
Scatter
10

Image forming beam

20

The filter removes a greater proportion of the scatter than of the primary beam, however, it adds to the total thickness thus decreasing the contrast. NB. The specimen itself acts as a filter for the main beam and for any scatter which passes through it.
30

The cassette filter will produce its own characteristic radiation and may be a source of scatter, therefore, on thin sections will give no advantage. If metal intensifying screens are used inside the cassette they will have the same effect as a cassette filter, also metal cassettes will act similarly. Thus, cassette filters are not normally used with metal intensifying screens.

40

General
For similar exposure conditions, use of a tube head filter will give reduced contrast compared to no filter used and a cassette filter will give even more reduction in contrast compared to the use of a tube filter.
50

Gamma rays have a much shorter wavelength than x-rays and cause much less scatter so filters are seldom used.

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UJ\IT R16 . GLOSSARY OF TERMS

BS EN 1330-3 : 1997 - Terms used in industrial radiographic testing


Absorption
10

The process whereby the incident photons reduced in number as they pass through matter. The number of nuclear disintegrations taking place in a radioactive source.

are

Activity Ageing fog


20

per unit time

The increase in optical density on an unexposed film, measured after processing, due to long-term storage. The electrons passing from the cathode to the anode in an x-ray tube. A spurious indication on a radiograph caused e.g. by faults in the manufacturing, handling, exposing or processing of a film. The reduction in intensity of a beam of x or gamma radiation during its passage through matter caused by absorption and scattering. coefficient J1 The relationship between the intensity (/0) of a radiation incident on one side of an absorber and the transmitted intensity (I) for an absorber thickness (r) as expressed by 1 = 10 - exp (- ut). The slope of a line drawn between two specified points on the sensitometric curve. scattered That part of the scattered x or gamma radiation which is emitted at an angle of more than 90 in relation to the direction of the incident beam. The angle between the central axis of the radiation beam and the lane of the film. A machine in which electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit before being deflected onto a target to produce high energy x-rays. A material used to reduce the effect of scattered radiation on the film or on the image detector. The radio of the intensity of the total radiation reaching a point, to the intensity of the primary radiation reachingthe same point. A rigid or flexible light-tight container for holding radiographic film or paper with or without intensifying screens, during exposure. The negative electrode of an x-ray tube. density step wedge A piece of film having a series of different optical densities which have been calibrated to be used as reference densities. A curve showing the relationship between the common logarithm of exposure, log K. and the optical density, D. The time required for the first stage of fixing of a film, during which the cloudiness disappears.

Anode Artefact (false indication)


30

Attenuation

Attenuation
40

Average gradient
50

Back scatterlback radiation Beam angle

60

Betatron

Blocking medium 70 Build-up factor

Cassette 80 Cathode Calibrated

90

Characteristic

curve (of a film)

Clearing time
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uxrr
Collimation

RI6 . GLOSSARY OF TER!\IS


The limiting of a beam of radiation to a form o. required dimensions, by the use of diaphragms made of absorbing material. A device made from radiation absorbent material such as lead or tungsten, designed to limit and define the direction and area of the radiation beam. A form of scattering caused by a photon of x or gamma radiation interacting with an electron and suffering a reduction of energy, the scattered radiation being emitted at an angle to the incident direction. Note: For radiation in the energy range 100 keY to 10 MeV, it is the main factor contributing to radiation attenuation.

10

Collimator

Compton scatter
20

30

Computerized

tomography

(CT)

A procedure by which an image of the detail in a chosen plane, perpendicular to the axis of the specimen, is computed from a large number of x-ray absorption measurements made from many directior ..--... perpendicular to the axis. Note: This is computerized axial tomography and does not apply to other means of performing tomography,

40

Constant potential circuit


50

An electronic configuration which is designed to apply and maintain a substantially constant potential within an x-ray tube. The range of wavelengths generated by an x-ray set. or quantum contrast, energies object

Continuous Contrast
60

spectrum

See image contrast, radiation contrast and visual contrast. medium

Contrast

Any suitable substance, solid or liquid, applied to a material being radiographed, to enhance its radiation contrast in total or in part. The smallest thickness change in a specimen which produces a discernible change in optical density on a radiographic (or radioscopic) image:"> usually expressed as a percentage of the tota, specimen thickness. The activity of a radioisotope plotted against time, usually as a log/linear relationship. A device for the measurement of the optical density of a radiographic film or reflective density of a photographic print. The chemical or physical process which converts a latent image into a visible image. A superimposed pattern on a radiographic image due to diffraction of the incident radiation by the material structure. An instrument for measuring the accumulated dose of x or gamma radiation. An instrument for the measurement of x or gamma radiation dose rate.

Contrast sensitivity (thickness sensitivity)


70

Decay curve 80 Densitometer

Development (ora film or paper)


90

Diffraction

mottle

Dosemeter (dosimeter)
100

Dose rate meter

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UNIT RI6 . GLOSSARY OF TERMS


An x-ray tube with two different size of focus.

10

Duplex wire image quality indicator An image quality indicator specifically designed to assess the overall unsharpness of a radiographic image and composed of a series of pairs of wire elements made of high density metal. Edge-blocking material Material applied around a specimen or in cavities to obtain a more uniform absorption, to reduce extraneous scattered radiation. and to prevent local over-exposure. e.g. fine lead shot (see also blocking medium). A device used to equalize the intensity across the primary x-ray beam in megavoltage radiography and so extend the useful field size. The voltage of an x-ray tube which produces a radiograph most nearly equivalent to a gamma radiograph taken with a particular gamma ray source. The process whereby radiation imaging system. is recorded on an

20

Equalizing

filter (beam flattener)

30

Equivalent

x-ray voltage

Exposure Exposure calculator Exposure chart

40

A device (for example a slide rule) which may be used to determine the exposure time required. A chart indicating the time for radiographic exposures for different thicknesses of a specified material and for a given quality of a beam radiation. The range of exposures corresponding optical density range of the emulsion. Duration of the process of exposing medium to radiation. to the useful a recording

50

Exposure latitude Exposure times Film base

60

The support material on which the photosensitive emulsion is coated. The slope of the characteristic curve of a film at a specified optical density D. Equipment containing a source of light and translucent screen used for viewing radiographs. a

Film gradient (G) Film illuminator


70

(viewing screen)

-----

Film processing

The operations necessary to transform the latent image on the film into a permanent visible image, consisting normally of developing. fixing, washing and drying a film. A quantitative measure of the response of a film system to radiation energy, for specific exposure conditions. Uniform layer of material, usually of higher atomic number than the specimen, placed between the radiation source and the film for the purpose of preferentially absorbing the softer radiations. The chemical removal of silver halides from a film emulsion after development. The minimum flaw size detectable under specified test conditions.

80

Film system speed

Filter

90

Fixing Flaw sensitivity


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liNIT R16 GLOSSARY OF TERMS


...-......

Fluorescent intensifying screen Fluorometallic


10

A screen consisting of a coating of phosphors whic., fluoresce when exposed to x or gamma radiation. A screen consisting of a metallic foil (usually lead) coated with a material that fluoresces when exposed to x or gamma radiation. The production of a visible image on a fluorescent screen by x-rays and for direct viewing of the screen. The x-ray emitting area on the anode of the x-ray tube, as seen from the measuring device. The dimension across the focal spot of an x-ray tube, measured parallel to the plane of the film or the fluorescent screen. The shortest distance from the focus of an x-ray tube to a film set up for a radiographic exposure. A general term used to denote the optical density of a processed film caused by anything other than the direct action of image - forming radiation. It can i:' ~ ageing fog, chemical fog, dichroic fog, exposure f05 or inherent fog. Radiography using a gamma ray source. Electromagnetic ionizing radiation, specific radioactive materials. emitted by

intensifying screen

Fluoroscopy Focal spot


20

Focal spot size

Focus-to-film distance (ffd)


30

Fog density

40

Gamma radiation Gamma rays Gamma-ray Gamma-ray source source container

50

Radioactive material sealed into a metal capsule. A container made of dense material and having a wall thickness sufficient to produce a very great reduction in the intensity of the radiation emitted by the source, so as to make it safe to handle. Unsharpness of a radiographic image arising from the finite size of the source of radiation. Its magnitude also depends on the distances of source-to-object and object-to-film. Also called geometric blurring or penumbra. The visual appearance of granularity. The stochastic density fluctuations in the radiograpi superimposed on the object image. The time in which the activity of a radioactive source decays to half its value.

60

Geometric unsharpness

Graininess
70

Granularity Half life


80

Halfvalue

thickness (HVT)

The thickness of specified material which, when introduced into the beam of x or gamma radiation, reduces its intensity by a half. Equipment for viewing radiographs. The relative change of optical density between two adjacent areas in a radiographic image. The sharpness of delineation of image detail in a radiograph. Any process which increases the quality of an image by improving contrast and/or definition, or reducing noise. Often done by computer programmes, when it is known as digital image processing.

Illuminator Image contrast 90 Image definition Image enhancement


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uxrr

R16 GLOSSAI~Y OF TERMS


An electronic device designed to provide a brighter image than produced by the unaided action of the xray beam on a fluorescent screen. That characteristic of a radiographic image which determines the degree of detail which it shows. A device comprising a series of elements of graded thickness which enables a measure of the image quality to be obtained. The elements of an IQI are commonly wires or steps with holes. Measure of the image quality required or achieved. The axis of the beam cone defmed by the focal spot and the tube window. The science and application of x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons and other penetrating radiation in nondestructive testing. The filtration of a radiation beam by the parts of the tube, set up or source incapsulation, through which the primary beam will pass. The blurring of a radiographic image caused by photons of radiation dislodging electrons in the photographic emulsion and these electrons rendering silver halide grains developable. The ratio of the exposure time without intensifying screens, to that when screens are used, other conditions being the same, to obtain the same optical density. A material that converts a part of the radiographic energy into light or electrons and that, when in contact with a recording medium during exposure, improves the quality of the radiograph, or reduces the exposure time required to produce a radiograph or both. See metal screen, fluorometallic intensifying screen or fluorescent intensifying screen. An invisible image produced in a film by radiation and capable of being converted into a visible image by film processing. (LINAC) A machine for producing high energy electrons by accelerating them along a waveguide. The electrons strike a target to produce x-rays. The application of material which limits the area of irradiation of an object to the region undergoing radiographic examination. A screen consisting of dense metal (usually lead) that filters radiation and emits electrons when exposed to x or gamma rays.

10

Image quality Image quality indicator (IQI)

20 Image quality value, IQI sensitivity Incident beam axis Industrial


30

radiology

Inherent

filtration

40

Inherent

unsharpness

Intensifying
50

factor

Intensifying
60

screen

Latent image
70

Linear electron accelerator

80

Masking

Metal screen
90

Microfocus

radiography

Radiography using an x-ray tube having a very small effective focus size of less than 100 urn in size. Commonly used for direct geometric enlargement of the image by projection.

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UNIT RIG

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Modulation

transfer function (MTF) The spatial frequency response of an imaging system. or radioscopic image due to relative movement of the radiation source, object or radiation detector. Relative difference of radiation transmission between two considered zones of the irradiated object. distance The distance between the radiation side of the test object and the film surface measured along the central axis of the radiation beam.
A blurring of the radiographic

Movement unsharpness
10

Object contrast Object-to-film


20

Panoramic

exposure

A radiographic set-up utilizing the multi-directional


properties of a gamma ray source or a panoramic xray set, e.g. by radiographic several specimens simultaneously, or the full circumference of a cylindrical specimen.

30

Penetrameter Pressure mark

See image quality indicator. A variation in density of a radiograph, which may be light or dark in appearance, according ~ circumstances, caused by local pressure to the film. Radiation which travels directly along a straight line from the source to the detector without deviation. The amount of image size enlargement. technique A method of radiography or radioscopy involving primary enlargement of the image by the use of a distance between the specimen and imaging system (see microfocus radiography). The penetrating power of the measured as a half-value thickness. radiation, often

40

Primary radiation Projective magnification Projective magnification

50

Quality (ofa beam of radiation) Radiation contrast

60

differences in radiation intensity arising from variation in radiation opacity within an irradiated object. An equipment (e.g. x-ray tube or gamma ray source) capable of emitting ionising radiation. A visible image after processing produced by a bearr-r-, of penetrating ionising radiation on a radiographi, film or paper. The term is also used for images produced by neutrons, electrons, protons, etc ..

Radiation source Radiograph

70

Radiographic
80

film

A film consisting of a transparent base, usually coated on both sides with a radiation sensitive emulsion. The production imaging support. of radiographs on a permanent

Radiography Radioisotopes 90 Radioscopy

An isotope of an element with the property of spontaneously emitting particles or gamma radiation or of emitting x-radiation. The production of a visual image by ionising radiation on a radiation detector such as fluorescent screen and displayed on a television monitor screen. A type of x-ray tube in which the target is situated at the extremity of a tubular anode; such tubes can produce a panoramic beam of radiation.

Rod anode tube


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UNIT RI6 GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Scattered radiation Radiation which has suffered a change in direction, with or without a change in energy, during its passage through matter. Radiographic film designed for use with fluorescent intensifying screens. A holding, carrying, or attachment device, by means of which the gamma ray source (sealed source) can be fixed in the exposure container, or at the head of a remote control device. The size of the source of radiation. distance (sfd) The distance between the source of radiation and the film measured in the direction of the beam. The distance between separated in an image. details which can just be

10

Screen type film Source holder

20

Source size Source-to-film

Spatial resolution
30

Specific activity Step wedge


40

The activity per unit mass of a radioisotope. Object in the form of a series of steps of a same material. The production of a pair of radiographs suitable for stereoscopic viewing. The area on the surface of the anode of an x-ray tube on which the electron beam impinges and from which the primary beam of x-rays is emitted. A device, normaIly fixed to a tube shield or head, to limit the extent of the emergent x-ray beam. That part of an x-ray installation that contains the tube in its shield. The housing of an x-ray tube which reduces the leakage radiation to defined values. A device attached to a tube shield, generally of lead and usually remotely operated, used to control the emergence of the x-ray beam. The area of an x-ray tube through which the radiation is emitted. The high voltage applied between the anode and the cathode of an x-ray tube. Any radioactive source which is not sealed into a capsule. Due to image blurring a loss of image definition. It is combination of geometric unsharpness, inherent unsharpness and movement unsharpness. The range of optical density on a radiograph that is used for image interpretation. The upper limit is determined by the film illuminator and the lower limit by the loss in flaw sensitivity. A light-tight container that where operated under a vacuum, holds film and screen in intimate contact during radiographic exposure.

Stereo radiography Target

50

Tube diaphragm Tube head Tube shield

60

Tube shutter

Tube window
70

Tube voltage Unsealed source


80

Unsharpness

Useful density range


90

Vacuum cassette

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lJ~IT RI6 . GLOSSARY OF TERMS


Viewing mask Visual contrast
10

An attachment to an illuminator to exclude glare. The visual density difference between two adjacent areas on an illuminated radiograph. Penetrating electromagnetic radiation, within the approximate wavelength range of 1 nm to 0,0001 nanometres, produced when high velocity electrons impinge on a metal target. See radiographic film. A vacuum tube, usually containing a filament to produce electrons which are accelerated to strike a anode, on the surface of which x-rays are produced.

X-rays

X-ray film
20

X-ray tube

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

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RADIOG RAPH IC INTERPRETATION

ADDITIONAL

COURSE NOTES

Radiograph Interpretation

- Welds

In addition to producing high quality radiographs, the radiographer must also be skilled in radiographic interpretation. Interpretation of radiographs takes place in three basic steps: (1) detection, (2) interpretation, and (3) evaluation. All of these steps make use of the radiographer's visual acuity. Visual acuity is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern in an image. The ability of an individual to detect discontinuities in radiography is also affected by the lighting condition in the place of viewing, and the experience level for recognizing various features in the image. The following material was developed to help students develop an understanding of the types of defects found in weldments and how they appear in a radiograph. Discontinuities Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material. These interruptions may occur in the base metal, weld material or "heat affected" zones. Discontinuities, which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specifications used to invoke and control an inspection, are referred to as defects. General Welding Discontinuities The following discontinuities are typical of all types of welding. Cold lap is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (interpass cold lap). The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into the base material without bonding.

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Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly, in clusters, or in rows. Sometimes, porosity is elongated and may appear to have a tail. This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity. All porosity is a void in the material and it will have a higher radiographic density than the surrounding area.

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Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture. The moisture turns into a gas when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process. Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the indications will be grouped close together. ....

Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. In a radiograph, dark, jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions. r

Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint. It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities. Lack of penetration allows a natural stress risr from which a crack may propagate. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined, straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment.

Inadequate or Lack of Penetration

Incomplete fusion is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal. Appearance on radiograph: usually appears as a dark line or lines oriented in the direction of the weld seam along the weld preparation or joining area.

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Internal concavity or suck back is a condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld. On a radiograph it looks similar to a lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the centre of the weld image.

Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centreline of the weldment. Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge.

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Internal Undercut

External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld. In the radlograpr appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area.

e,

Offset or mismatch are terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not

properly aligned. The radiographic image shows a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces. The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness. The dark, straight line is caused by the failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area.

Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material. It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement, because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be higher (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material.

Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes. The appearance on a radiograph is a localized, lighter area in the weld. A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the engineering requirements.

Cracks can be detected in a radiograph only when they are propagating in a direction that produces a change in

thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. Cracks will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines. Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions or porosity.

Discontinuities

in TIG welds

The following discontinuities are unique to the TIG welding process. These discontinuities occur in most metals welded by the process, including aluminium and stainless steels. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted.
Tungsten inclusions. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert

gas welding. If improper welding procedures are used, tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. Radiographically, tungsten is more dense than aluminium or steel, therefore it shows up as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph.

Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminium). Oxide

inclusions are less dense than the surrounding material and, therefore, appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the radiograph.

Discontinuities

in Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW)

The following discontinuities are most commonly found in GMAW welds.


Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode wire, visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or

contained within the weld. On a radiograph they appear as light, "wire like" indications.
Burn-Through

results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone. Often lumps of metal sag through the weld, creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld. These globs of metal are referred to as icicles. On a radiograph, burn-through appears as dark spots, which are often surrounded by light globular areas (icicles).