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Location Dependent Query Processing


Vijay Kumar

Ays¸e Y. Seydim, Margaret H. Dunham
Department of Computer Science and
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX 75275-0122

Computer Science Telecommunications
University of Missouri-Kansas City
Kansas City, MO 64110


L ocation Dependent Data (LDD) is de

Location dependence in queries implies that the information ask ed is related to a location but the location is not explicitly known when the query is asked. hotel and restaurant information are some of the examples of these data. F or example. Local yellow pages.ned as \data whose value is determined by the location to which it is related" [15]. \What are the names and addresses of the restaurants within 5 miles?" asks to . local even ts.

In order to provide the answer to the query. .nd the restaurants within 5 miles of the current position of the query issuer.

rst we have to know the location of the issuer. When we . Query can then be bound to this location.

this special location attribute is explicitly stated to be the issuer's location. In this manner. the query becomes Location Aware since.nd out the issuer's location. a query including an y location related attribute in its predicates is de.

ned as a Location Aware Query (LAQ). ABSTRACT The adv ances in wireless and mobile computing allow a mobile user to perform a wide range of aplications once limited to non-mobile hard wired computing environments. users need to pull data which are related to their location. In these requests. perhaps seeking information about unfamiliar places or local lifestyle data. As the geographical position of a mobile user is becoming more trackable. a location attribute has to be identi.

accuracy and rate of change (velocity). and by giving granularit y. LOCATION AND QUERIES Queries asked in the mobile environment may have slightly di erent structure from traditional database queries. 1. An investigation of implementation issues of location dependent query processing can be found in [17]. Local yellow pages. there will be location related and non-location related attributes in these queries. to answer an y location based request. we giv e a formalization of location relatedness in queries. localev en ts. it may become necessary to identify location related attributes. In this paper. We distinguish betw een locationa w areness and location dependence and provide a formalization of the approach. we examine the di erences and propose approaches to process these. When the user is moving. Sometimes the statement of the query will not ha ve any location related attribute but the way it is stated will have an implication that the query issuer's current position is in volved in the selection criteria. In this paper. We di erentiate location dependence and location aw arenessand provide thorough examples to support our approach. In this section. INTRODUCTION Location of an object or a person is its geographical position on the earth with respect to a reference point. The implied location related attribute has to be addedthe to query and corresponding LDD is used to answer it. Location can be estimated by using di erent methodologies. whose value is determined by the location to which it is related. [18] and may be represented in v arious ways. 2. With the technological advances in cellular communications and sensing appliances. location of people has become more real-time and trackable [7]. we give a general view of location relatedness in the queries. [16]. and weather information are some of the examples of these data. Locationrepresen tation may include timestamp information as it may be related to a moving object/person [5]. This information can be characterized by using a number of differen t represen tations including latitude/longitude/altitude or street addresses. and will become an information as common as date information. We presen t a formalization for the location identi. We also illustrate the di erentiation by examples.ed in order to provide more eÆcient access to location dependent data. Obviously. etc.

R1 .1 Formalization with a Distinction of Location Suppose a database. IIS-9979453 Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work or personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. or to redistribute to lists. To copy otherwise. MobiDE 2001 USA Copyright 2001 ACM 1-58113-412-6/01/05…$5. R2 . IIS-9979458 yThis material is based upon w ork supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.00 2. This material is based upon w ork supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.Sconsists of a set of base relations. D. and let each attribute set of a relation be denoted as ARi . to republish. Rn . ..cation in queries and give examples in the follo wing subsections.. The union of attributes of each 47 . where D = ni=1 Ri .. to post on servers.

which is the domain of j th attribute of Ri .relation will give the attribute S set of the whole database D. relations may have the same attributes. which is denoted as. is a set domij . Note that. 1 0 0 1 Corresponding to each attribute aij in a relation Ri . but AD gives the distinct attribute set that are used in database D. AD = ni=1 ARi . . non-empty set. A domain is said to be an arbitrary.

nite or countably in.

nite [10]. The domain set of any attribute is identi.

. intersection. This relatedness for the domain is normally determined by human beings.g. For example. domain set of a CityName attribute for Texas state contains city names like fDallas. . We use the classi.ed by the semantics or relatedness to the meaning of the attribute in the database. or equal operators illustrate di erent operations depending on their application on non-spatial or spatial attributes. Houston.. San Antonio. For example. union. (a) rectangle window AD(LR) = ARi (LR) and AD(N LR) S S = n i=1 n i=1 D (LR) (c) circle window the operation.

and they are the operators de. The list is not an exhaustive list.cation in Table 1 for non-spatial and spatial operators.

The spatial operators listed in Table 1 are de.ned on the general geometry class by Open GIS Consortium [19].

lines.ned at a general level for all basic spatial data types (points. More complicated spatial operators can be de. regions).

ned based on these elementary types to perform more complex operations. It is also discussed in [1] that even more theoretical research is necessary to de.

So we can then write. Given a database D and its attribute set AD . On the other the complete set of operators. the attribute set of the database consists of attributes from Location Related (LR) domains and Non-Location Related (NLR) domains. LastName is a Non-Location Related attribute name and its domain has no relation to any location. if the location relatedness is distinguishable. AD = AD(N LR) 11 00 00 11 De. For example. CityName is a Location Related attribute name and its domain is also LR. [A (b) half circle window 11 00 00 11 Figure 1: Orientation and Windowing Interpretation We assume individual attributes of relations can be distinguished to be elements of Location Related (LR) or NonLocation Related (NLR) domains.

g.nition 2. However.intersect) are LR-Operators. . if the operands are all NLR-Attributes then the operator is an NLR-Operator. there are de. where All spatial operators (e. An LR-Operator is an operator which has LR-Attributes as its operands. Similarly.

LR-Operators include operators such as \straight ahead". ARi (N LR) De. This is because an LR-Operator may be stated based not only on a spatial concept but also on the direction of movement of the query issuer. Therefore. not only can the operator compare attributes for the spatial properties of the objects. One or both of these objects may be moving. A mobile client has an orientation. Spatial operators are used to compare two spatial objects which are static. Thus. but also the orientation.nitely more LR-Operators than spatial operators. An LR-Operator may compare attributes for objects which are moving.

. aik g. ARi (LR) = f g. attribute is \non-location related" and stated as NLR-Attribute.. If an attribute aij of relation Ri is distinguished as \location related". Let the relation Ri contain the attributes.. aij . If all attributes of Ri are NLR-Attributes then relation Ri is called NLR-Relation.nition 1. 1  j  k and is shown by Ri = fai1 . we call aij as an LR-Attribute and Ri as an LRRelation.. ai2 . In that case. An LR-Operator may have . Otherwise.

ltering and orientation arguments with it. With .

ltering. one can think of a circle area around the query issuer to access the related data. Orientation may not be important in this case. we mean using a restrictive area within which the desired data is selected. If we think about a \straight ahead" operator. we have to de. For a \closest" operator.

ne a window to select an area ahead of the direction of the user. Here. the operator itself de.

spatial data are \location related". and data of even higher dimension. Some attributes of spatial data like name. lines. rectangles. Inherently. Spatial data is used to describe \data that pertains to the space occupied by the objects in a database" [16]. do not contain any \embedding space" [11] notion or relationship. Spatial data are geometric and consist of points. surfaces.nes a direction for the movement. polygons. Non-spatial attributes of spatial relations can also be viewed as NLR-Attributes according to our de. volumes. These are considered as non-spatial properties.

nition above. any spatial relation de. However.

The example for di erent interpretations of a .ned is an LR-Relation.

In the . a rectangle. or a square have to be selected to access the related data reply to the query. the data related to an area of a half circle.ltering window is shown in Figure 1. Depending on the window interpretation.

gure. and we give the example for clari. Data do not have to be spatial. We do not concentrate on the creation of special LR-Operators. (b) and (c) show half circular and circular selection respectively. (a) shows a rectangular area of selection for the related data. even though the results may not be accurate.

Operations performed on attributes are de.cation.

some operators can be used in both non-spatial and spatial domains [1]. the meaning is interpreted depending on the domain of the attributes used in 48 . However. which requires one or two operands respectively.ned according to the properties of their operands. Whether it is a unary or binary operator.

not (_. >. or. Union. ) Boolean and. intersection. Disjoint. we have to incorporate this window concept for selecting the location related data from a traditional database. Contains. Bu er. Boundary Topological Equal. Envelope. Overlap. Touch. Intersection. .  Set union. SymDi erence On the other hand. We now de. Within. =. :) Spatial Basic SpatialReference. Cross. IsEmpty.Table 1: Non-Spatial and Spatial Operators Operator Operator Operators Type Group Non-Spatial Comparison <. IsSimple. Di erence. ^. Export. Intersect. di erence ([. \. Relate Spatial Analysis Distance. ConvexHull.

We can now de. a mixture of them in a Compound Predicate the predicates in a query.

A Simple Predicate is a query including the location relatedness notion.

where op1 is a unary operator and compatible with pi . Here. operands are either attributes or constants. and pk . De.ned as an expression with one operator and one or two operands. pj and pk are also compatible with each other. and op2 is a binary operator and compatible with both pj . Either one of pj or pk can be a constant from the same domain as the other operand. which is of the form SP = op1 pi or SP = pj op2 pk .

We de. and operations used to produce a result. A query consists of relations. predicates. attributes.nition 5.

not all the attributes of its relation. we can then decompose a query to LR attributes. Note that. Operations are data manipulation operations like select. QA . QO g. attributes and predicates in Q and operations to produce the result respectively. For example. where QS is the result set after the execution of the query Q against a given database state. QA . project. QA designates the attributes used in the query. join. and QS = fissue(Q)g Operands in a Simple Predicate have to be compatible as being from the same domains. QP . Once we distinguish the location relatedness.. QP and QO which correspond to relations. predicates and relations and write the query as : A Compare Predicate de. QR .ne a query Q. with a set of these. etc. one can use comparison operators as an operator and compare the attribute CityName with a constant \Dallas" but not with a constant 2001 since they have di erent domains. We can then write : Q = fQR .

With a similar approach. Since we are concentrating on the query processing issues of location dependent data. as it brings complexity in predicate evaluation. we ignore the 6= comparison. QP (LR) . Q = fQR(LR) . we will not include 6= in our studies. QP (N LR) . QO g De. QA(N LR) . QR(N LR) . without loss of generality.ned in [14] is a type of Simple Predicate. QA(LR) .

A Simple LR-Predicate is a Simple Predicate where the operator is an LR-Operator and the operands are from LR-domains.nition 3. De. A Simple NLR-Predicate is a Simple Predicate which has an NLR-Operator and operands are both from NLR-domains.

QA(LR) =  and QP (LR) = . The relation may be an LR-Relation. i. De.nition 6. then the query is called a Non-Location Related Query (NLR-Query). but if only NLR-Attributes are selected.e. If all the predicates used in a query are Simple NLR-Predicates. query is still an NLRQuery.

nition 4. A Compound Predicate is disjunction (_ predicate) of conjunctions (^ predicates) of Simple Predicates which can be de.

if all attributes are selected (e.g. and the relation itself is a LR-Relation. the speci.ned as follows: In selection. Whether the relation is a LR-Relation or not. then the result set will have LR-Attributes. with \*" in SQL).

CP = (SP11 ^ SP12 ^ . each SPij is a Simple Predicate.. there may be both kinds of relations. ^ SPmr ) Here. projection and join. Note that in an LDD data store.. predicates used for the production of results may be either Simple LR-Predicates or Simple NLR-Predicates or From its de..ed and selected attributes in the query are suÆcient to call a query an NLR-Query.. _ (SPm1 ^ SPm2 ^ . ^ SP1n ) _ .. In standard relational operations. Example 1 illustrates an NLR-Query. selection..

nition. the project operation eliminates the undesired attribute columns from the result set or selects the 49 .

QA . If the attributes are not in the selection criteria but in the desired attributes for the projection operation. De. then these attributes must also be included in the attribute set of the query.desired ones only.

or the result set includes only the location attribute. Suppose we have the query \Find the lead actor's name in the movie \Casablanca". and call a Location Query (LQ). Example 1." where the relational algebra expression is : Example 3. then we refer to these kind of queries as a special kind of LAQ. If the projected attribute is the location of the selected tuple. A query \Where is Person A?" is an LAQ and uses an LQ to .nition 8.

nd the person A's location. the question \Where" carries a meaning that we should include the location attribute from the Relation \USERS" and . However. This query is independent of the query issuer's location.

We thus have: ActiveLocation (P ersonI d=\A00 ) (USERS ) QR = fMOVIESg ) QR(N LR) = fMOVIESg QR = fUSERSg ) QR(LR) = fUSERSg QA = fMovieName. We assume ActiveLocation is a location attribute of Relation \USERS". ActorNameg ) QA(N LR) = fMovieName. ActorN ame (M ovieN ame=\Casablanca00 ) (MOV IES ) In this query. so this query is an NLR Query . then ActiveLocation is to be a city name for this relation. ActorNameg QA = fActiveLocation. Some other examples of LAQs are : 2. If the location attribute of Relation \USERS" were City. no location attribute is involved. projectg As is seen from the above sets. QA(N LR) = fPersonIdg QP = fMovieName = \Casablanca"g ) QP (N LR) = fMovieName = \Casablanca"g QP = fPersonId = \A"g ) QP (N LR) = fPersonId = \A"g QO = fselect.nd the corresponding value from the data store. projectg QO = fselect. PersonIdg ) QA(LR) = fActiveLocationg. there is no LR-Attribute or LR-Predicate.2 Location Aware Queries We de.

ne Location Aware Queries as follows:    De.

[16] 2. If a query. Q. we see a speci. An LAQ produces the same result set independent of the place it is issued. then it is called a Location Aware Query (LAQ). [16] Find the services at location X. includes at least one Simple LR-Predicate in its predicate set.3 Location Dependent Queries In Location Dependent Query Processing. How is the weather in San Antonio? Find ATMs within 5 miles of Hotel X.nition 7. QP . or at least one LRAttribute in its attribute set. QA .

c type of predicate in which the location attribute is .

Example 2. Suppose we are given the query \Find movie theaters in Richardson.". we assume that Address only includes the county names." has the implied meaning of \Find hotels within 5 miles of my current location. the predicate is actually hidden in the query statement. This process of binding the current location to the query is referred to as location binding. We assume that some location service is used to provide this location. QA(N LR) = fTheaterNameg For now. As mentioned before. This can be stated as: T heaterN ame. the query \Find hotels within 5 miles. For example.Address (Address=\Richardson00 ) (T HEAT ERS ) QR = fTHEATERSg ) QR(LR) = fTHEATERSg QA = fTheaterName. Addressg ) QA(LR) = fAddressg.xed but the constant to which it is compared changes depending on the query issue location." This current location must be found and bound to the query. De.

Location Binding can be de.nition 9.

ned as assigning a location value to an LR-Predicate variable. QP = fAddress = \Richardson"g ) QP (LR) = fAddress = \Richardson"g We also de.

projectg an Active Location Predicate to represent the Simple Predicate involved in an LDQ. QO = fselect.

nition 10. An Active Location Predicate is a Simple Predicate with a speci.

where ActiveLocation is the .c attribute name which is of the form. ActiveLocation = Here.

If a query is issued to .xed attribute name and Here is a variable which is assigned a location value after Location Binding.

nd out a location value. 50 . it is obvious that this query has a LR-Attribute in its attribute set. We di erentiate these as special types of LAQs and call them as Location Queries (LQs).

In [3] LDD is de.An Active Location Predicate is a Simple LR-Predicate since it involves a location related attribute and a location value. data which changes depending on a location.

ned as spatial replicas depending on a data region it is included. The query processing approaches based on physical organization of data and location binding to queries are discussed also in [8]. De.

Most research to date not only has concentrated on query processing issues for location databases but also on the Moving Object Databases (MOD) [18]. but also on the time at which the query is asked. [20]. which is treated as a special kind of spatio-temporal database.nition 11. Moving Object Database (MOD) Queries are queries in which the answer depends not only on the database contents (location). In [18]. Direction of movement and the speed is included in the modeling of the MOD. then the query is called a Location Dependent Query (LDQ). MOD queries have been classi. the Active Location Predicate is hidden when the query is stated and current location of the issuer is implied for \Here". when the Active Location Predicate is bound to a location. an LAQ. Qs . In an LDQ. If the result set of the query. An LDQ becomes location aware. changes depending on the location of the query issuer. These works views location dependent applications as MOD applications.

These kinds of queries actually carry the application or business logic within their type classi. continuous and persistent query types.ed as instantaneous.

Suppose the the query \Find the closest theaters.cation." is issued when the client is in Richardson. there is no speci. Some MOD query examples are as follows: Example 4. When this query is stated.

  Where is the nearest doctor? [6] Retrieve the objects whose speed in the direction of the X-axis doubles within 10 minutes. When the \closest" operator is processed. After location binding occurs. Here).cation of Active Location Predicate.Address (closest(Address. so we will add this to the predicate set to get:  T heaterN ame. We thus have:  QR = fTHEATERSg ) QR(LR) = fTHEATERSg QA(N LR) = fTheaterNameg QP = fclosest(Address.H ere) (T HEAT ERS )  The query has the additional implicit predicate of \ActiveLocation = Here". however. Other examples for LDQs are : 3. \Here" will be replaced with \Richardson". Address = ActiveLocation. and we will also need a Location Binding for. a second operand will be produced by using the Active Location Predicate. Here = \Richardson"g ) QP (LR) = QP Notice that a type of preprocessing is needed in these kind of queries to add the Active Location Predicate. ActiveLocation = Here. (persistent) [21] identi.

Location Binding is assumed to be a \cell id" binding to the query. Geographically-Clustered and Geographically-Dispersed queries have to be processed in cell basis. the database search starts from the current Base Station (cell) to the root until the results are found. If the queries are Local. If they are queries according to their access to location information.g. \List the local hotels". the query is redirected to the corresponding cell where the local replies are forwarded to the current cell. In all types mentioned by [21]. e. Another type. Nearest query has to be processed in the current cell and the nearest cell to the farthest until satis.

QO = fselect. closestg Where is Person A with respect to here? or How far is Person A? Find Chinese restaurants within 5 minutes on my path. QA = fTheaterName. This query needs location binding and calculation for the distance. A location query requires . ActiveLocation. and the fact that this process converts the former type of query into the latter. we don't see any clear di erentiation between location dependence and location awareness in queries and applications. In [9] states this query as an LAQ. a \How far is person A?" query will get di erent results depending on the query issuer's location and also if Person A is moving.ed. We think the main di erence between a location dependent query and a location aware query is the Location Binding. project. This di erentiation also implies an implementation approach. (continuous) However. whereas we see it as an LDQ. (instantaneous) In these research studies. Addressg ) QA(LR) = fAddress. Hereg.  Find the hotels that I will reach within 5 minutes.

and we assume this is processed using a Location Service provided by a Position Determining Technology vendor.nding the current location. With this assumption in mind. our work di ers in the classi.

Similar to ours. the frequent update and inaccuracy problems which may occur mostly in wireless operator databases. S/M shows whether the object asked is Sta- Find closest restaurants and hotels. [6]. [2] REMARKS ON RELATED RESEARCH Querying location dependent information in mobile environment has been seen as an important research area and most of the work to date has studied data management issues of mobile objects and their location information. [4] and [2] view LDQs as asking values of 51 .[13] are some of the work which concentrate on querying location information. 1 In the Table. We also see these MOD queries as special cases of our LDQs.cation of query types from the MOD queries.[12]. We summarize the relationships of the query types in Table 21 .

H. Imielinski and B. C. Computer. 6. SIGMOD Record. [2] M. Dunham and V. decompose the query into pieces for di erent servers and send each to the target server for processes receive the query results and perform any needed . The challenges of mobile computing. Data management for mobile computing. Location dependent data and its management in mobile databases. M. Schneider. A foundation for representing and querying moving objects. Zahorjan. We have proposed a middleware architecture to perform this translation and to preprocess/postprocess the LDQs [17]. Badrinath. [3] M. [4] G.LR-Operator Yes S/M N/A Yes spatial or temporal non-spatial data Query Type NLR-Q 4. Location Dependent Services Manager (LDSM). Kumar. which can be used to realize this translation [17]. Vazirgiannis. Bohlen. H. Maybe S/M N/A Yes spatial or non-spatial data Spatio. ! These stages di er depending on the granularity of the location bound and the location granularity of the database. M. 29(3):31{38. Functions of the middleware can be summarized as:  determine the validity (and type) of the query and request the Position Determining service to provide a location to which the LDQ is bound  determine the location granularity which will be used by the target data server and convert the query into the correct format for it    5. Forman and J. H. Wagner. Austria. Lorentzos. QUERY TRANSLATION IN LDQ PROCESSING Notice that an LDQ goes through several stages prior to being processed : Find the closest hotels ! Find the hotels within 5 miles ! Find the hotels within 5 miles radius of Cell Id = 3. Attribute Result Non-Spatial No S/M N/A No non-spatial data LAQ LR-Operator Maybe S/M N/A Yes location or LDD LDQ LR-Operator Maybe S/M Yes No location (here) (hidden) or LDD LQ equal Maybe S/M N/A Yes location MODQ LR-Operator Yes M N/A Yes location Spatial Spatial Op. S. 22(1):34{39. We have proposed a software architecture. [6] T. Di Felice. N. ACM Transactions on Database Systems (TODS). REFERENCES [1] E. IEEE Computer Society. pages 414{419. Mobile computing and databases: Anything new? SIGMOD Record. Dunham and A.Table 2: Summary of Relationships of Query Types Operators Time Object Issue Location Query Used Involved Asked Loc. Helal. [5] R. Vienna. August 1998. Guting. SIGMOD Record. M. H. Erwig. December 1995. Spatial operators. Clementini and P. Implementation of an LDSM prototype is currently underway. DEXA'98. A. editor. Jensen. H. Ninth International Workshop on Database and Expert System Applications. and thus an implementation approach. and M. 24(4):5{9. Find the hotels with 75205 < zipcode < 75206. pages 38{47. March 1993. April 1994. R. In R. September 2000. 25(1):1{42. March 2000.

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