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Avenue of penetration by Plant Pathogen

Direct though surface Cutinized Non-cutinized Surface surface Epidermis a)Root hairs b) Needles c) Nectories d) Buds e) Stigma ends f) Anthers. (Indirect though Openings) Natural opening Artificial a) stomata a) Wound b) Lenticels b)Stalk ends c) hydathode c) insect injury.

Directly through epidermis ( Cutinized structure ) : In this case most of fungi like rust, downy mildew, powdery mildew, leaf spotting fungi entres directly by production of enzymes that macerate the host tissue. Entry though non cutinized surfaces:
a)

Root hairs: The several soil borne plant ophogen, which attack.

The

roots enters through the root hairs (like fusarium where as the root rotting fungi directly macerate the succul ant non cutinized host tissue by production of enymes (like rhizoctonia Sp ). The pathogen of finger & toe disease or cruciform (Plasmodiophora harassicase enters through the root hairs. Apart form this various in smut diseases where the infection in systematic the pathogen entres through root thairs & along with plant grows & produces symptoms only at the time of flowering eg. Sunt of wheat, smut of Jowar.
b)

Needle: Infection through needlepoint is of special significant in which blister rust of pines caused by cronortium ribicola which uses these points for entry inside host.

c)

Nectaries ; This is a favarable avenue for the infection in a few cases because of non-cuti9nized surface & surface secretion. The pathogen

Entrsthrough stomata. the pathogen enters through nectaries. d) Buds: The certain rust fungi uromyces pisi (Rust of pea) & Taphrina deformans (peach leaf curl) the pathogen entrs through the buds & causes diseases. Indirect penetration through natural openings: a) Stomata: Stomata is one of the most common natural opening through which most of plant pathogens entres through. Apart form rust many fungi like downy mildew of grape. The bacterial plant pathogens entres mostly through stomata absorbtion & suction. stomata at early hours of day where lot of dew present & stomata opens.like Venturia inagequalis causes the apple scab & the bacterium Erwinia amylovora causing fire blight of apple & pears. The sugary secretions attract the flies and insects & along with them they brought the fungal spore that infects through stigma. The mechanism of penetration through thedifferent host differs from pathogens to pahtogens. . The most of the pathogens that infects through the stigma are Loose sumt of Wheat (ustilagotritici) Long smut of Jawar Ergot of bajara ( claviceps microcephala ) Bunt of rice ( Neovosia horrida ) f) Anthers: The pathogen Botrytis anthopola which causes blossom blight of red clover infecte the host through anthers. e) Stigma: The stigma of the flower are highly receptive organs for the entry of the pathogen because of their eruct positi8on & the sugary secretion produced by them. cercopora sp. Etc.while rust. The uredospore of puccinia graminis tritici enters through.

. Xanthomonas campestri PV campestri s (Black rot of cbbage) d) Trichome: The bacterium corynebacterum michiganes which causes bacterial canker of tomato plant often enters through trichome. Santhomans capestrius P.V. Hydathodes are the only means of entry for certainbacteria for ex. common scab of potato (Streptomyces scabies) c) Hydathodes: Hydathodes are structured through which water is discharged form the interior of leaves. The most of the funal plant pathogens like Rhizopus. Guava canker (Pestalotia psidi) koleroga of arecanut (Phytophtora areca). Many of bacterial diseases are transmitted through wound caused by insect. Erwinia amylovora ( soft rot). Botrytis. duodeumpunctata when adults feed on plants they introduce the bacterium into the vascular system where it spread & caused typical vasular wilt disease. The most of pathogen get assess through this natural opening ex. In case of vascular wilt of cucurbits the bacterium Erwinia tracheiphila whichoverwinter in hibernating adults of cucumber beetles Diabortia vittata & D. Entry through Wounds: Many Weak pathogens that couldn’through get entry through the directly or through natural openings entres through the wounds The wounds may be natural or they may be caused by the activities of Many or other agencies. The lenticles are generally present on the stem tubers. citri (Citrus canker) b) Lenticels: Entry through lenticles is simillar to stomata. such as insects bits or nematodes. which causes storage rot of fruits. Aspergillus penicillium.Ex. enters through the injuries.

Perpetuation & disease development In absence of the cultivated host or under unfavarable condition the pathogen finds some alternative mode for survival in order to keep the infection chain intact alled or Perpetuation such sources for renewal of infection hai can be grouped as i) ii) iii) Infected host as resorvoir of inoculum. The pathogen must have the intiial inaculum enough to produce the disease on the host such inoculuim serves as the source of primary inoculum to produce the disease on the healthy hose. In case of yellow ear rot of wheat caused by the bacterium corynebacterium paitioi nematode Anguina tritici ( Ear coloccle of Wheat ) plays an important role in transmissions infection process. Many of fungal soil borne plant pahtogen which causes wilt (Fusarium oxysporum entres through wound caused nematode Meloidogyne sp. . Thus the primary inoculum incite the disease is the healthy host & secondary inoculum produced by the pathogen spread the disease in the population. After intiation of the disease the spores or other structures of the pathogens are produced speread the disease in population such spread of pahtogen is termed as the secondary spread & inoculum is called as secondary inoculum.The most of fungal & bacterial plants pathogens enters through wound caused by nematode. Saprophytic survival outside the host Dormant spores & other structures in or on the host or outside the host.

which incite the disease & once the plant infected the spores produced by pathogen on infected host spread by means of wind water spread the disease in population (secondary infection) In the absence of cultivated hosts the pathogen over winter or over summer survive in or ont the wild hosts which act asresorvoin of primary source of inoculum can be considered in three groups. the infected tuber acts as the sourve of primary inoculum.For ex. In late blight of potato. ii) Wild host of same familles (collateral host) In case of blast of paddy (Pyricularia oryzae) the pathogen survive over winter on the grass host & when themain host is presnet in the field it attack the host.citri the pathogen surivive in crop debrise & soil. Alternate hosts are those host on which the wheat rust pahtogen (Puccinia gramints tritici) survive on the allternate host barberry. i) The cultivated hosts: In the most of diseases like citrus canker by Xanthomonas compestries p.v. sclerotuim rolfsii they have rather a wide host range & thus alternate host may come into play in their survival. perpetuate in the varous proopogrative parts v) Perpetuation in the seed: tubers in potato and acts as primary source of inoculum. In many other fungi Rhizoctonia solani. iv) Per petuatioin in Prepenetration parts: Most of the pathogen such as suckers in banana. iii) Wild host of other families (Alternate host). .

Candid. Phytophtora produces the oospore which remains dormant for many years & when the favarable condition persist again germinate to produces the mycelium. Bean Mosaic virus also survive through the seed. Dormant organs of pathogen as source of survival & primary inoculum: The plant pathogenic viruses’ doesn’through produces any dormant structures they have to survive in the host.Most of the pahtogen loose sumt of wheat (ustilago tritici) the pathogen survive in the seed internally & acts as source of primary inoculum. These dormant structures of survival can be classified in the following manner (1) Soil borne fungi Dormant spores (coned chalmydospore oospore. The plant pathogenic bacteria in absence of host live as saprophytes.altearia sp. perithecia etc. produces seeds nematode produces. The fungi like pithier. Chalmydospore by Fusarium sp.galls. Saprophytic survival outside the host The most of the soil inhabitingmicro-oranisms survive in the absence of host as saprophytes. The phenerogamic palnt tphogens Cyst. 3 to 4 years.by cercopora sp. Produces the chalmydospore that can remain dormant for 4 to 5 years & when thefavarable condition & host available they germinate & infect the host. sclerotuim produces the dormant structures like sclerotia-wich survive for the period of pahtogens produces the various typos dormant structures. The many of vascular wilt fungi like fusarium spp. The majority of fungal The many fungi like rhizoctonia. .

powdery mildew the dormant mycelium of fungis present on the affected twigs or may be embodied in host tissue. Viz. Sclerotic by Rhizoctonia & Sclertium sp. Produces Micro coned. Perithecium by venture inequalis a) Other formant structures such as thicked hyphen & chlorite Thickened hyphae. Pycniospores. Polymorphism monitions infection chain & persistence of mycelium through periods of draught. free form uncertanities and risk involved in monomorphic fungi .desi cantion & freeing polymorphic fungi can adopt rigoros conditions & can have more successful life. b) Dormant mycelium under the seed coat or in the embryo: In addition topsail & seed the dormant organs of fungi can also be present on the host. Fusarium sp. phytophorta SP.Oospores by Pythium. In case of downy mildew. Spores produced by an organism are called polymorphs for ex. ) . macrocondidia & chalmydospore I addition to sexual spores. ii) Seed borne fungi a) dormant spores on seed coat In case of through of jawar (sphacelothecasorghi) spore are present on seed coat in the form of chalmydospore. Polymorphism: An organism having several (many) sperm forms in the life cycle is called saw polymorph & thephenomenon of several. telio spore & basidiospores. Physiological specialization (Ref Variability. Typical rust fungus produces five types of spores. ciospores uredosproes.

Anisogamous planogametes. asexual fruiting Body producing candid on short condo on short conidiophore Achlorophyllus: Without chlorophyll. affects the growth & survival of the pathogen in the soil.Factors affecting the survival of plant pathogens in soil Most of the factor likehigh temperature. anaerobiosis. antagonism. Terminology used in Plant Pathology (Glossary): Acervulus : Asubepidermal. Aeciospore: binucleate spore produced in aqueous. toxic chemicals. . Alternate host: The host belongs to different family than that of main host. Saucer-shaped. lack of nutrients. motile gametes that are morphologically simillar but differ in size. desiccation. perdition. irradiation.