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Eleanor Roosevelt

William DeWitt
book, written in immediate terms, gives a comprehensive account of the United Nations.



Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, active in the from its early days until her recent






with an experienced journalist, William DeWitt, an explanation of its work and
functions, and an appraisal of its future. The book outlines the concrete work

done by the

UN in various areas to mainsuch
as the



settlement of the Palestine question and gives special attention to the role of the

United Nations in the Korean war.
includes anecdotes about


some of the


It also describes the

work, and

quiet heroism, of the make headlines rarely
investigating missions Field Service who are

men whose names
members of
and of the

posted in various danger spots throughout the world.







guided tour through the headquarters in New York. From the men and


women employed

in the

Office of the

Secretary General to the window-clean-






explain how each person connected with this vast organization does his job. They give a graphic description of the house-

keeping problems involved in operating
(Continued on back flap)
No. 9800

MAt DEC 10


3 1148 00549 1998

16 1979

OCT 2 2



341*1 R?Su 65-49096 Roosevelt UN: today and tomorrow*





Puttiers. & New York .Eleanor Roosevelt ana William DeWitt UN HARPER TODAY AND TOMORROW BROTHERS.

New York 16. N.UN: TODAY AND Copyright. 1953. FIRST EDITION Library of Congress catalog card number: 53-8752 . For information address Harper & Brothers 49 East 33rd Street. or reproduced No in part of the book may be used any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Y. by TOMORROW Roosevelt Anna Eleanor and William A. DeWiU Printed in the United States of America All rights in this book are reserved.

social life and personal problems 72 disease CHAPTER 3 The UN Nobody Knows The more raising Agencies fighting fundamental education labor international exchange and investment mail weather telecommunications aviation Specialized food CHAPTER 4 The Private Citizen's Part United Nations emphasis on the individual what he can do to aid the international effort.) KANSAS CITY PUBLIC LIBRAS? . bank. post office. what's done for him achievements of Non-Governmental Organizations 141 Note on the Future t 147 What's possible and what's probable in the future what past and present work guarantees idea of the what the basic UN forecasts for the human race _ A (&/SQ.Contents Introduction: The UN and Human Rights and Shooting story vii CHAPTER 1 Politics 1 attitudes in warfare The Korean new aims and earlier crises voting question adventures of the chief bodies UN Field Service the UN CHAPTER 2 UN-ville 28 International treaty town members shops housekeeping varied jobs of Secretariat library.

VI CONTENTS Supplements: 101 Questions and Answers about the UN Charter and Statute of the International Court of UN 151 Justice Declaration of Human Rights Organizational Chart of Members of the UN UN 169 217 224 227 Abbreviations in the UN 229 231 Index .

some of the failures and some of the successes. during January and Feb- ruary of 1946. And they hoped under the Charter to construct international machinery that would foster co-operation tivity among nations in the varied fields of human ac- and thereby through bettor mutual understanding increase all the desire of peoples to live without war. None of the leaders or the nations they represented were under the delusion that acceptance of the Charter would collaborated UN automatically banish conflict. one can doubt that the nations which took part in the preliminary conference at Dumbarton Oaks. the methods and objectives. ware all honestly looking for methods by which they could refashion the world into a design for peaceful living. resolutions and reports. but they did believe that peace was impossible without observance o its principles. its main parts were the General Assembly. personal meaning for anyone who reads it Not the details of parliamentary procedure in the General Assembly. the Economic and Social Council. Following the Charter plan. and later at San Francisco No on the charter. or all the many-worded names of the hundreds of committees and the long chronology of their meetings. the Security Council. At the first UN meeting in London. this machinery was set up and put in motion. the Trusteeship vii .INTRODUCTION The UN and Human Rights THE PURPOSE of this book is to tell the day-to-day story of the United Nations in a way that wfll give it down-to-earth. or the delicate subtleties of international law. But the human story of the UN's work and the people who do it.

would determine a recommendation. of course. the beginning. They were designated in the Charter as permanent members and. (The Assembly has no power to do more than recommend courses of action to its members. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. rule.) In the vitally important Security Council. (Abstention.S. the required majority of seven for passage of any measure had to include the unanimous affirmatives of all permanent members present and voting. Council.) In writing this veto power into the Charter the intention had been merely to protect the Great Powers from interference in what they could reasonably define as their domestic affairs by any majority combination of smaller members. does not constitute a veto.. and no member is entitled to a veto. or two-thirds majority. But the Soviet member of the Council used it so often and in so many ways other than was originally intended that the General Assembly at last was driven to find methods of getting around the resultant impasses. which is entrusted with the primary responsibility of maintaining peace in the world. the International Court of Justice with subsidiary parts to be added as needed in accordance with the terms of the Charter. how- ever not as a all members take advantage one vote. however. except on questions of procedure. depending on its importance. and the United States of America) were given a great advantage. five of the eleven members ( China.R. Although the Charter merely says that each member "shall not have more than five representatives in the General Assembly/* five alternates in addition were provided for as a continuing of this rule. One method was authorized right to take Assembly the no longer under consideration in the up any question in a resolution giving the Security Council. This was the equivalent of veto power for any one of the five nations named. France.S. The delegation whole casts A simple. the U.Vlll INTRODUCTION and the Secretariat. the fumbling middle and the final failure of the League of Nations felt it essential for the Statesmen who had watched UN to possess an international police force capable of enforcing its .

therefore. and whose members were unused to submitting to any authority higher than themselves. The Council has apspecial classification. then collective force should be available to bring any recalcitrant into line. except. Articles 43-47 of the Charter provided for such a police force in rather general terms.. long accusto respect for their familiar internal laws." These are wards of member nations which regard them as essential to the latters* defense (the Marianas. possibly. If reason failed to persuade (which must be occasionally expected for a long time till member countries learned to concede the moral authority of international decisions as meekly as Americans had learned to concede the legal authority of the United States Supreme Court). proached the task of administering non-self-governing peoples with a humanitarian regard for their political. ment heads who originated the UN idea. It shares with the Trusteeship Council obligations to see to the welfare of Trust Territories in the category UN called "strategic areas. Both pacific and military measures to stop aggression are duties of the Security Council. whose regulations were unfamiliar and not invariably The argument was tomed acceptable to all countries they affected. the necessity for an adequate security system in this international union. The Economic and Social Council was set up and has operated pretty much as the Charter contemplated. UN Marshalls and Caroline Islands are the United States "strategic area" Pacific Trust Territory). Other Trust Territories. still needed constabularies to see that obedience continued. how much greater.INTRODUCTION decisions. that its terests . This failure has weakened the UN's prestige and made many of its tasks more difficult than they might have been. without this come under the single jurisdiction of the which was a particular interest of the governTrusteeship Council. k that individual countries. economic and cultural invery different from the old colonial days. But controversy between the United States and Soviet Russia over control of atomic energy and other aspects of disarmament prevented actual establishment of any military organization on a permanent basis.

the Council decided. more than was expected.X INTRODUCTION diversified work has been expanded and program. so that its aims would be clearly set forth and understandable to all the member nations. substantial. Recognition of these rights seemed to the Council one of the indispensable cornerstones on which a peaceful world could be built. Human all peoples. is headed by the Secretary-General and its personnel are selected by him. should be to write a Charter Rights. tive. later in this book. but not to be legally binding. color or national origin. partly in compensation for reverses in other sections of the UN \ The of the International Court of Justice UN and functions in is the principal judicial organ accordance with a statute embodied in the Charter which was based upon the statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice. 217) was intended to set standards and voice the aspirations of people throughout the world. which is housekeeper and administrator for all of UN. the Commission went to . Organizing as a group of eighteen members appointed by governments which were selected for being geographically representa- work composing the Charter. Therefore. the world court it superseded^ The Secretariat. the Council called together a Commission on Human Rights to decide Social Council felt its first The Economic and essential for of how of this could be achieved for Its first job. regardless of race or creed. But its members decided in the beginning to work at the same time on a declaration which would form the first part of the Chartei^This Universal Declaration of Human Rights (see p. The achievements of the many agencies and organizations associated with the Economic and Social Council have been numerous the Touching as they do on a variety of fascinating a number of these achievements will be recounted Me. and areas of from the beginning that a work was widespread understanding of any the Charter's emphasis on the value of human rights and freedoms and their rightful possession by all people. in the spring of 1946.

the economic and social rights." In an impressive speech before the General Assembly the Foreign Minister from Pakistan. felt that the South Africa. Sir Zafrulla Khan. and Saudi Arabia. its aim to provide methods of being calling to account signatories that failed to live up to their agreements. the only sin is to be a except Yemen. on the ground. and therefore was valueless. The not legally binding. he who cannot be- hypocrite. each in accord- ance with laws were its constitutional processes. and delegates said they hoped to give fundamental freedoms to their people. in which it is said that an individual has "the right to change his religion or belief. If changes of domestic required to attain the standards of the treaties. article The Saudi Arabia abstained because of the conscience and on freedom of religion. document went much rights too far. two nations absent (Honduras and Yemen) and eight abstaining (the Soviets and their satellites. they own would have to be made. which was absent. One be a covenant or covenants written in the form of treaties for ratification by all the nations accepting them. The reason given by the Communist members for abstention was that the Declaration failed to go beyond the eighteenth century in recognizing rights. that the Koran said he who can believe. on the other hand. but not such modern ones.INTRODUCTION XI Two was to other parts were planned for the Charter as a whole. largest of the Moslem states. despite this clause. strength brought along to the affirmative side all the Arab Moslem states lieve. After nearly two months of discussion the Assembly approved the Declaration. with forty-eight affirmative votes. The delegate . shall believe. as I remember it. and South Africa and Saudi Arabia). shall disbelieve. that it gave insufficient importance to the new rights of the twentieth century. On the of this speech Pakistan. it was easiest to and the final draft was presented through the Economic agree upon. had justified Moslem adherence to the Declaration. an3 Social Council to the General Assembly meeting in Paris in 1948. third part of the Charter was to be a plan of implementation.

since it was an extension of set up. for one thing.XII INTRODUCTION from Saudi Arabia explained that has King would not accept the interpretation of the Koran put forward by Sir Zafrulla Khan. such as India and Indonesia. Like the effect of the Magna Carta. it was decided to separate the task into two halves a covenant for civil and political rights and another one for economic and social rights. but it's there. This view was not borne out by higher courts. practical effect of such a Declaration. It did seem a little flexible to other Moslems. the UN Charter. Work on the covenant part of the Charter has been going on steadily since 1948. to be celebrated by all UN member nations. The first pair are more familiar. the Droit de 1'Homme and the Bill of Rights in our own Constitution. The UN has translated the Declaration into forty-seven different languages and has set December 10 as Human Rights Day. but the cause was a good one. Finally. more easily phrased in traditional legal phraseology and much of their content is already on the statute books of such . particularly because scale. which had been accepted as a treaty by the United and therefore was the supreme law of the land. the fortyeight accepting states combined their affirmation of the Declaration The with a resolution that bound them to acquaint their peoples with its contents so far as they could and to try to attain the standards it For another. with no legally binding power. might seem disputable. logical easy to measure. incorporated some of the Declaration's clauses into their constitutions. it isn't it's exerted on an international As an expression of fundamental UN philosophy it has enormous psychological influence and some of the psychoinfluence reverts to the benefit and prestige of the UN. But. but fashioning a feasible treaty form for human rights has proved very difficult. new governments arising. I think the Declaration's impact on people throughout the world has been of very considerable magnitude much greater than most States Americans suspect. Here in the United States some courts referred to the document in legal decisions and in one or two cases there was a thought it might carry authority.

Since the present Administration in Washington announced in advance of their completion that it would not present either of the covenants for ratification to the Senate (nor those on genocide and the political rights of women). rather oppose this clause in evasion of responsibility: on the ground that it's an they obligate their whole peoples. who will not be affected for some time no matter how they are written. Countries that are states. in maintaining the right of people to control their own natural resources it made no provision for compensating foreign investors or contractors on the loss of income when such resources are nationalized. Obviously. rather than give up all hope of gaining acceptance by our Senate. enant that and political rights covsaw dealt with self-determination of peoples. reservations. Moreover. It failed to explain under what circumstances people should have the right of article in the last draft of the civil I One self-determination. while our treaties we make their displeasure. to come. might be worth while to consider a question that is sometimes asked: why do we need a treaty? The basic answer is that law is a better framework in which to develop rights and freedoms But it than waiting for a change in heart by believers in the theory of a master race or the Lord-endowed privilege of one skin color to rule . but this could be met by inserting the standard federal-state clause which is part of many other American treaties. there is now less point in speaking about them to Americans. Nevertheless. social Commission foresees less they were combined in one rights. though part of our Constitution. I myself would prefer to risk if adding the clause will make for a step forward. It binds only the federal government to observe the treaty and only where Federal law is operative. which are much more if it's A nondiscrimination clause. would rouse antagonism in the United States. these omissions alone would prevent United States ratification. leaving not federations of sovereign bitterly to the states the decision in their jurisdiction.INTRODUCTION countries as our own. as we are in theory. Therefore the xiii trouble gaining their acceptance than document with economic and controversial.

in such a setup that friendly states would forget to complain against each other. while unfriendly ones would go out of their way to fill the docket. is My own feeling we can't gain ground by standing still. Aside from the adverse attitude of the American Government. education and better opportunities to work. as field workers of the that Specialized Agencies will attest. presents hard. I hope this book in the value of the full support. Human of from whom of high standing and many nationalpanels could be drawn to hear individual cases. Human rights and freedoms are essential to the economic development of many areas of the world. Without a law some hesitate to act who don't need a change in heart on their own beliefs because of social pressures. But even this limited and dubious beginning might be better than nothing. practical problems. as well as But there is no machinery to handle the great number of complaints sure to come. Nongovernmental organizations feel that peti- be received from sources of their own land. With a law. there is a good deal of informed and sympathetic opinion in favor is of shelving the covenants for the present. new areas can be opened as the additional markets we need for our products. Ifs also a vital issue that affects our world leadership among democratic nations.XIV INTRODUCTION over others. of course. Recognition of human rights and freedoms is thus essential to the preservation of our own standard of living. will serve to strengthen the belief of our people and the absolute necessity of giving it our UN ELEANOR ROOSEVELT . implementation. Then with health. There is a good chance. they need only obey to do what they consider right. governments have suggested setting up a Committee on Rights composed ities. Some tions should from individuals. Already thousands of them are on file in the UN Human Rights Division. The third part of the Charter. members with complaints permitted at first only by one state against another. waiting for action. while the Declaration given time to do all the informational ground-breaking it can in preparation for consideration of the actual treaties.



tude. I wouldn't go/* he said.000 dead But the blood and the waste of Korea do not." There are a thousand monumental problems facing the UN daily political. and it clearly hasn't. despite the UN's 1 . administrative questions of the utmost difficulty.CHAPTER 1 Politics and Shooting agreed. But there isn't a harder or more important type of question than the one raised by that cab driver. DRIVING to UN Headquarters in the spring of 1953. It's It recurs easy enough to point out the failure of his logic. again and again in one form or another. "You could go on a week end. "The guided tours are on seven days a week. and as an obstacle to understanding it has the rugged height. economic. without belligerence. But his attiwhich the end of the fighting won't affect. But I won't go till they stop the war in if Then she asked him Korea.000 American casualties in Korea are tragic and unanswerable proof of that. One trouble is that he's right. "Not that I have anything against them. The 140." she persisted. is also the attitude of millions of others. social. a passenger admired the beauty of its buildings aloud to her cab driver. or whenever you have a day off/* "No. weight and imperviousness to argument of the Andes Mountain range. The UN was set up to keep peace in the world. in a sense. He he had been inside and he shook his head. And no amount of future international harmony will ever bring back the 25. technical.

What we were doing there in the beginning. The UN was set 'up to keep peace. What tried in the case of Korea was something unique in the modern warfare a combination of patient. UN Three years of desperate and bloody fighting greatly confused the issues. lethal and prodigiously costly mess from which we ought to withdraw with what grace we could. if not deranged. it's hard to think of President Rhee's actions during the truce negotiations as anything but irresponsible. but limited to re-establishment and defense annals of of the South Korean border that existed before the invasion. or by negotiation. but anyhow fast. but ques- man Rhee turn on designed to tions that weren't even any longer often asked.2 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW inability to avoid combat in this case. By June of 1953. were not only questions that had no clear answers. It has no power to keep nations from starting wars if they so choose. Without some notion of at least the latter stages of that thirty-century history. except by military victory of its unified command. But only as a mechanism its members could use if they wished to iron out their differences without resorting to armed force. But in the light of the inhuman handling of his country as a in the nineteenth-century-andafter designs of Russia. by Japan. only to have South Korean President Synghis allies and protectors with "unilateral*' actions wreck early peace prospects by this time most of the background of Korea had been forgotten and in the public mind the name signified only an endlessly drawn-out. what the fighting was all about. they take on a motivation that's pawn . once started. protracted negotiation and at the same time military action that was powerful enough to stand off the aggressors and demonstrate to them plainly that they could not win. if only as a first step toward preventing future disasters. It has no power the member forces under to stop wars. it's true. what anyone hoped to gain. when the Communist command agreed to UN truce proposals. relieve us o the responsibility and the need for understanding what happened and how. for the thirty-five years before the end of World War II. Korea as an organized nation antedates the United States by about three thousand years. China and.

1867 to question. and it took a smashing victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 (the United States President was mediator for the peace. graphite. kaolin and hard coal. while the United States Army occupied the southern part. The second major Japanese conquest effort came in 1894 and this time the Chinese lost out in the fighting. copper. A provisional government composed of five representatives areas. iron. and a highly important strategic location. with torture and execution the answer to protest. It was this last that the Japanese said forced than into the 1904 conflict with Russia. Coming to the rescue with 60. silver. "Half-true* would be more accurate. Japan made her first major try at invasion in 1592.POLITICS perfectly clear AND SHOOTING 6 and open to sympathy.C.000 men. lead. China fought off the invaders for six years till the death of the Japanese Regent in 1598 called them home. and planted the seeds of an independence movement that grew steadily and passionately through the years till the final Allied victory in the Pacific in 1945 made the generation-long dream of release come true. tungsten. Soviet forces occupied the northern portion of the peninsula at the end of the war. culturally and govemmentally. together each from the two with the Joint Commission of the . But within a few years Russian attempt to establish a intrigue undermined the Japanese position. Anyone looking at the wrecked cities and ravaged countryside today might we! ask: "Why? What did they want?" The answer is: forests of great value in the north. Japan formally annexed Korea in 1910. below the 38th Parallel. zinc. Japan called the peninsula a "dagger pointed at her heart" Japanese rule over Korea was barbarously repressive. a wealth of mineral deposits waiting to be developed gold. Korea had close ties with China. but made no permanent hold on the peninsula. incidentally) to put the Island Empire firmly in the saddle. even if their intelligence stays equally open From the twelfth century B. and 1871 United a great many Koreans States and French expeditions killed in retaliation for the deaths of French misat sionaries and American adventurers Korean hands. with an army of 300. on. In 1866.000 men.

in turn. In early 1950 the Commission learned of incidents along the border . and. it General Assembly gave it official blessing. it went off on schedule and was declared by observers to be a free and valid expression of will by the two-thirds of the Korean population living south of the 38th Parallel. and on December 12. adopted a constitution claiming jurisdiction over all Korea. for the same reason.4 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW Occupying Powers. with UN field groups the observing. 1948. UN The Government of the Republic of Korea came into being. Nevertheless. this was out of the UN's jurisdiction. But the General Assembly went ahead and set up a Temporary Commission on Korea whose job it was to arrange free elections for a national assembly. was supposed to work out a plan for independence after a four-power trusteeship (the United States. the election was announced for May 10. the UN occupying powers withdraw their forces and setting up a new Commission on Korea to lend good offices toward unification of the whole peninsula. on May 1. like other questions connected with the peace treaties. would set up a national govern- ment. 1948. on the ground that absence of elected Korean representatives made it a violation of the Charter. but had been "unable to verify" the withdrawal of Soviet occupation troops for the good reason that it had been denied permission to cross the 38th Parallel. the two halves of the land remained divided and in the latter part of Joint 1947 the United States submitted the problem to the UN. and guards along the 38th UN UN Parallel prevented the Commission from going north of there to do its work. although the Soviet Government in the north hastily. But the Commission never came close to agreeing on anything. the United Kingdom and China) lasting five years. and mentioned bitter propaganda and hostile activities on both sides. with Syngman Rhee as President. asking that the In 1949 this Commission reported to the General Assembly that had observed the withdrawal of United States forces in accord- ance with the UN request. The Soviet bloc at the refused to have any part of this action. Moscow promptly objected that. It confessed total failure in unification efforts. Soviet Russia. which.

then the beginning of recovery from shock as the Communists took it with less umbrage than we had expected. President Truman designated General Douglas A. and. both as a concept for furthering world peace and as a mechanism for implementing the concept. and the fight was on. the overt addition of Chinese Communist armies to the aggressors. losses and victories. There were tests before. and the dwindling of it after actual talks began and got nowhere. in a quick series of meetings undertook to resist the attack with member forces under a unified command headed the United States. the political uproar in the United States when General MacArthur was relieved and took his case before Congress with the dramatic "old soldier" speech. day announced our opinion of the invasion as a breach of the peace and an act of aggression. on appointed military 25. UN by commander. but they rarely got to open fighting never on the scale of Korea and they were both briefer and less complex in their possible consequences. to report expeditiously States that same when The United the full-scale invasion began.POLITICS AHD SHOOTING 5 and June result. Clearly. which was also to appoint the All the rest is well remembered the retreats and advances of the troops. finally. the Russian permanent member and under United States urging the Security Council being absent. As a observers and they were in position. MacArthur to lead the UN forces. the rekindling in mid- 1953 the when UN the Communists at last stopped stalling and accepted truce proposals formulated by the Indians. the cease-fire itself. This was the . it of guerrilla activity within the Republic to the south. requesting an immediate meeting of the Security Council. the arguments of later returning generals over the question whether or not there was enough ammunition and whether or not we should have mounted an all-out offensive. and the eleventh- hour dashing of that by the South Koreans* unauthorized release of prisoners of war. For once UN the Soviet veto failed to stop action. with their concomitant misery and heroism. Korea has been a hard test for the UN. the sudden hope in mid-1951 when the Russians them- selves suggested discussing a cease-fire.

They remain where they were. Hammarskjold who have sacrificed . being unified cost. of course. There is a great deal to be learned from it now. . patience.6 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBROW sternest of trials for will power. on to bring the whole of continental China to its knees. again. . The United Nations does not foresee the . Finally. no matter what the the Yalu River and. as Secretary-General Hammarskjold puts it. for the issues over which the fighting began were not settled either by firing the cannon or by ceasing to fire the cannon. but if it seems infran- . Mr. acclimatization to which undoubtedly will require time. the victory for a principle "will have to be followed by a peace without vengeance. use of force to secure the fruits of victory in terms of land and power. to war "which ends without total victory for any party but only for a principle/* Americans tend to pride themselves on the somewhat debatable point that we've emerged victorious from all conflicts except Korea. the spirit of co-operation and the willingness to negotiate and compromise. . breaks with ancient. loved ones dead may find it difficult to accept. The friends of the and there have United Nations Charter provides for all manners of action to repel aggression but it makes no provision for the ultimate punishment of the aggressor." This. and there will be more as time goes on. hence the recurrent demand from some quarters during the fighting that we plunge forward. no matter what that taxi driver does For fire-eaters about the guided tours* one of the most painful lessons to be memorized is adapting ourselves. if resistance by the enemy continued. "is a full vindication of those brave men their lives. Mr. Hammarskjold insisted. once the fruits of an attempted aggression have been taken from him." This is a novel attitude that the parents. with perhaps a nose thrown in for good measure. said. The tradition is immensely strong. go The victory for a principle (the principle. endurance. Traditionally. . been heroes in both victories and lost causes. punitive tradition that de- manded an eye for an eye. to international protection against aggression). That there may be heroes in a deliberate stalemate is a new idea.

and: **WeVe done everything UN we could in Korea. UN. Unification of the two was stated with equal plainness to be a aimed at. to survive. was to re-establish and protect the preborder on the 38th Parallel. equipment aggression divided sections of Korea political objective. we have a chance of learning that it's impossible to obtain restitution for lives and treasure lost in a "victory for principle'* and in the long run bad judgment to try. without much more regard to the effect on friend than on foe. 7* Another painful truth we are learning is that it's not only the aggressor we need to watch. gets the habit of snatching at any and every advantage. he inferred. bring on destruction. he admitted his purpose was to forestall a trace and keep the UN forces fighting till the Communists were driven out of Northern Korea and the whole peninsula was united under his Government In effect. but which the UN proposed to achieve only by peaceful means. thought we the UN Unification ground. ""They started it. but also the weaker nation we're trying to protect.** As for the destruction. and manpower. What you want us to do now might well bring it on. Korean Ambassador You Chan Yang said it had done nothing for the Republic. didn't they? If we were able to accept the fact of life that it's sometimes impossible and even undesirable to force repayment of dollars loaned. ""We are still in terrible fear that the Communists will occupy our country sooner or later. are other countries. The of the truth. 1953.POLITICS AOT> SHOOTING gible 7 we can recall powerful other traditions that have yielded to the pressure of reality in our times. the might answer. but there is a larger question we have to keep in mind: the danger of a third world war. except. didn't they?" may well go the way of Calvin CooMdge's celebrated "They hired the money. waiting to and Rehabilitation Commission do its part in repairing damage. he accused the UN of breaking faith by not pursuing that military objective on its own. When Syngman Bhee released the prisoners of war. An underdog. is still on the . still is that the plainly stated military objective as translated into action chiefly by United States arms. of course." So. Of UN intervention to the end of June.

Soviet Russia.S. 1945.S. Soviet resolutions accusing the United States of bombing defenseless civilians were rejected . six of them elected by the Assembly for two-year terms. UN. the U. General Assembly. Unfortunately. of course. permitted such prompt UN On the return of the Soviet member August 1. a fundamental premise of the structure assumed that the five UN Great Powers allied in World major questions at least. Composed of eleven members. When the Charter was signed in San Francisco. gave one equal vote to each of the member nations and required at most a two-thirds majority of those present and voting for action on "important questions/' the Security Council got the veto. the premise turned out to be false. as well as new brought practical changes in the working ideas about warfare for public consump- Chief among these was a shift of functional emphasis from the Security Council to the General Assembly. France. The aim of was to prevent any combination of smaller from forcing irresponsible action. the burden and consequences of which would fall most heavily upon the Great Powers. the II War primary responsibility for maintaining international peace. After the war's end. the now familiar veto deadlock again made its appearance. instead of going along with the other four Great Powers on matters of importance. the Security Council had the would continue to agree on Therefore. and its own ideas were about equally resisted by the rest. the United Kingdom and the United States) after World War II would be the source of the world's main military strength and had by far the biggest stake in keeping the peace. them voted.8 UN: TODAY AND TOMORBOW The Korean conflict of the tion. old problem of Trieste. Since the Great Powers (China. they were made permanent members of the Council and it was agreed that the Council could take no action against which any one of this decision.. It was only the accident of Russia's temporary absence from the Council that resistance in Korea. although the main body. June 26. almost invariably opposed them. with countries East and West at irreconcilable odds on practically everything from disarmament to the old. The Security Council became a study in futility and frustration.R.

Generally speaking. Formosa was an integral part of China and American interference an act of aggression. including embargoes. it was Koreans fell some Communist forces was one of these group of the Assembly sent proposals to the People's Republic of China suggesting steps toward a truce. which formalized the shift in emphasis from the . retained its seat and its veto as a Great Power in the Security Council. weaknesses of Security Council organization in an emergency had become so apparent that the As early United States submitted to the General Assembly a "United Action for Peace'* plan. In replying. confined to authority only over the island of Formosa. the United States position was upheld in the Assembly and additional measures. and also to emphasize its claim of being discriminated against by denial of representation in the UN. was to mmimize the Chinese share in the Korean invasion by pinning the label of aggressor in Formosa on the United States. They insisted that the "rightful place" of the People's Republic of China in the UN be established as from the beginning of the conference.POLITICS eight to one. intervention of Chinese points. since the veto counted only in substantive matters and procedural questions could be decided by a majority of seven Council members. as September. which would be followed by a conference to settle Far Eastern problems. and that the subject matter of the negotiations must include withdrawal of United States armed forces from Formosa. to forward A United States resolution condemning the North under the Russian single-vote veto. But. AND SHOOTING 9 possible of the points debated to the General Assembeing bly. were taken against the aggressors. where the two-thirds majority rule applied and no single nation or small bloc of nations could hamstring positive action. To the Chinese and Russian Communists. the Chinese demanded as a basis of agreement the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Korea and leaving the settlement of Korean domestic affairs to the Korean people themselves. 1950. while the vestigial Chinese Nationalist Government. of course. of course. The A cease-fire including the question of Formosa and representation of Communist China in the UN. The idea.

The minority objected that the United States plan. and the UN's ability to act in a crisis was thereby considerably increased. establishment of some workable modus UN's part Vivendi. and resisting it suc- now nearly so negative as it may sound. Ultimate settlement of Korea's problems probably must await a general political settlement in the Far East. if of the Security Council or a majority of UN member its the Security Council. 1950. And it became internally stronger during the trial. not come out of the conferences to follow the truce. a threat to or breach of peace. the American proposals won. procrastination and provocation in the negotiations for a truce. or at the minimum. But on November 3. It not only stood off a powerful initial attack and won back ground yielded in the beginning. The fledgling organization. fifty-two to five. by depriving the Security Council of a portion of its powers. Its chief provision was for emergency special sessions of the Assembly on twenty-four hours' notice at the of seven request members states. to persuade citizens of its member their role to help make it succeed. In so doing first cessfully. but maintained its purpose and its principles undiminished through long months and years of painful military attrition and exasperating shifts. not to sit back . in effect changed the Charter. said which may or may What can be nothing very new.10 UN: TODAY AND TOMORBOW Security Council to the Assembly in case of threats to peace or acts of aggression. and it four hours' notice and also resisted convening the Assembly on only twentyby the vote of only seven Security Council members. These items surely belong on the credit side of the ledger and hope for greater accomplishments in the future as the eightyear-old organization grows up and becomes wiser and more articuoffer late more able. through disagreement failed to act in among per- manent members. still learning the ABC's of a One World culture. for it's countries that one thing. met its greatest crisis without falling apart which is not of the in the affair is it provided history's dramatic example of a permanently organized international body resisting aggression with military force.

At the San Francisco and Potsdam conferences it had been decided to deny membership in the UN to the Spanish dictatorship. A month or two later Poland charged in the Security Council that Franco's had caused international friction and were a danger to international peace and security. Our taxi driver friend is There were crises before Korea. asking to be kept informed. the case of Franco Spain is placed in the zero column. Professors Amry Vandenbosch and Willard N. up to September of 1951. In early 1946 this decision was endorsed by the General Assembly. this case has a and goes down in the count as a success. with which the profesmight not altogether agree. In March Iran again complained. stating that Soviet troops being maintained in Iranian territory contrary to treaty provisions were a danger to international peace and security. For instance. The Security Council discussed the matter and decided to delay action a few weeks. a somewhat arbitrary accounting. Russia wanted to take concrete activities measures to overthrow the Spanish regime.POLITICS AND SHOOTING 11 one and demand miracles example. judging what success or lack of it the had in dealhad had half a dozen ing with each case. Despite a lack agenda. In their opinion the UN UN reasonably well-defined successes. in a vacuum. the General Assembly. and seven in which This sors is it failed or could not act. four problems in which it made some progress or improvement occurred for other reasons. accomplishment On the other hand. Soviet troops then withdrew and of formal action flavor of by the Security Council. which had given aid and comfort to Hitler and Mussolini. The and Russia for further Security Council referred the question back to Iran negotiation. but keep the complaint on further discussion its was adjourned. Hogan have made interesting brief studies of the seventeen disputes or dangerous situations that were referred to the Security Council. or both. but the others wouldn't . in January of 1946 the Government of Iran asked to have alleged interference by the Soviet Union in its internal affairs brought before the Security Council.

Security Council easiest A clearer-cut success for the of the earliest and not one of the was Indonesia. Great Britain followed this advice and. brought before the Security Council in January of 1947 by the British. rather than Russian. as a matter of fact. only this time it was French and British troops. In February of 1946 the governments of Syria and Lebanon made a complaint to the Security Council that was almost identical with the one presented by Iran the month before. All this might be called action. then recommended that both parties submit the case to the Court of International Justice.12 go that UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW far. Albania sat in on the Security Council meeting and heard the British resolution against her lose by virtue of a Soviet veto.947. but Franco remains in command of Spain (receiving finanStates).S. cial aid. The result was the same. in which problems are resolved or changed for reasons other than Assembly or Security Council action. But the Council. whatever we may think of the wisdom of the Assembly's recommendations. Accomplishment. submitted it first . Albania was accused of laying a minefield without notification that damaged two British warships and killed British sailors. one problems it had to face. asked member counto recall their ambassadors from Madrid and instructed the UN Security Council to think of a course of action if Spain failed to establish a new and acceptable government. This instance falls into eventually won a judgment of the middle group of accounting. charging that British and Japanese military actions against Indonesians S. 843. The Ukrainian on January 12. despite Albanian protests over the Court's jurisdiction. the troops being withdrawn without any formal request or direction from the Counto cil. 1946. from the United and therefore the aim of the original discussion has not been achieved and the action is concase goes down as a failure so far as effective UN cerned. In the Corfu Channel affair.R. on a procedural vote not affected by the veto. that were alleged be trespassing. In December the General Assembly barred Spain from membership in international agencies and conferences connected with the tries (a ban that was lifted in 1950). too.

This was. Jan Papanek. 1948). of course. 1948. 1948. At UN instigation Dutch and Indonesian representatives then held meetings from April to August and. But trouble started again and continued all through 1948. 1949 (the blockade started April 1. in Czechoslovakia came before the Council in March of that year by way of a Chilean request to consider a plea from Dr. with the United States and the United Kingdom on September 29. economic and cultural matters. but the Soviet veto prevented action and it wasn't until the end of May. its fourteen-months-long of coal.POLITICS ANI> SHOOTING 13 threatened international peace and security. On January 28. the General Assembly took in the Republic of Indonesia as the sixtieth member of the UN. after the Netherlands had agreed. On September 28. a failure for the Security Council. 1949. a co-operative members to handle foreign affairs and defense. was brought before the Security Council by France. up till . the Netherlands in December denouncing the truce agreement and starting military operations in earnest. 1948. but the following year. the Security Council called on both sides to stop shooting and on the Netherlands to release the Indonesian President and other political figures being held prisoner. to independence for the Republic of Indonesia. The Communist coup Seiat of February 25. The celebrated Berlin blockade. food and other domestic necessities into the air-ferrying German capital. agreed on most of the disputed points. That November at The Hague a complete transfer of sovereignty over Indonesia was promised to the Republic of the United States of Indonesia by December 30 and the Netherlands-Indonesian Union federation of equal and financial. that direct agreement reached by representatives of the four occupying powers restored transportation to a common sense level. with the help of the UN Commission for Indonesia (the Good Offices Committee with expanded authority). Nothing happened then. in March. A Council Good Offices Committee went to Java in October and arranged a trace. Australia and India called the Council's attention to fighting between the Dutch and the Indonesians. was established. which was signed January 17. 1950.

false a Council Newly Communist Czechoslovakia declined invitation to talk the matter over on the ground that the Charter did not cover discussion of a country's internal affairs.14 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW the overthrow of President Benes the permanent representative o Czechoslovakia to the UN. trouble with guerrillas supplied by In a dispute between India and South Africa over alleged discrimitreatment of Indians in the latter country. in the apt tech- nical phrase. for an investigation of the change in the Czechoslovaldan Government." Total failure. none of which was or is a resolution condemning the a member of the UN. the Assembly passed three nations. 1949. to the scene of trouble. variety of other . had been sentenced on February 8. After Cardinal Mindszenty. 1949) over the accusations leveled against Hunexpressing grave concern and drawing their attention to clauses in the gary and Bulgaria for human rights peace treaties they had signed ensuring respect a carefully considered but decision by the International Court of Justice practically unhelpful and also Rumania (which was brought against Bulgaria. And so it goes. action but no practical achieve" ment. no progress was In Greece. two countries). Roman Catholic Primate of Hungary. For many of the questions brought before the Assembly and the Council it's necessary to send groups of observers or negotiators. For these Investigations and Inquiries'* the UN Field Service provides administration Mission and Field Service members and a services. Hungary and fundamental freedoms. more than four years was still confined. the UN made. Russia naturally denounced the alleand threats to use force as completely gations of Soviet interference and intended to divide the Great Powers and weaken the UN. "seized of the question. after into the dispute after the first later. Cardinal Mindszenty. Later. to life imprisonment for treason. or a combination of both. the General Assembly adopted a resolution (April 30. The Soviet veto expectably blocked further action and the Council remained. natory of order after helped to restore a measure hostile neighboring countries. In this case.

with every explosive economic. Palestine. religious. It his life violently in the cause of internationally espoused labor for UN peace. cultural and environmental with parallel elements in neighboring countries. who was killed four months earlier. on May 22. get killed. 1948. the British Mandate after that war which never could work out a solution. a relative success among Assembly of their most complex and element of efforts to resolve international quandaries.POLITICS AND SHOOTING 15 and often lead adventurous Byes. the legend of being the first man on earth to lose observers reflected the situation. the World War I White Paper in which the British held out hope for its realiis mob The background as they landed a scout plane. Before the British Mandate ended. and the ensuing confused hostilities between Arabs and Israelis. (To keep the record straight. the proclamation of the new State of Israel after termination of the Mandate (May 15. this doubtful honor really belongs Thomas Wasson. the resistance of Arabs who lived in the territory and countries surrounding it. difficult the Security Council and has been one modem life political. the conflicting religious and ownership claims to the Holy City of Jerusalem. finally deciding on a scheme of parti- . 1948).. problems. And four other to UN representatives similarly preceded Bernadotte to the grave the Frenchman Labamere by hand grenade. the General Assembly tried its hand at formulating a plan. The dramatically represented and violently conflicting field work of was here that assassins machine-gunned UN Mediator Count Folke Bernadotte to death and won him. United States Consul in Jerusalem and member of the Security Council Truce Commission. and sometimes they local adaptation. by snipers* bullets. they get neuroses from the continual hostility of natives in some of the places they stay.) of the Palestine problem zation. the Norwegian Ole Bakke by sniper and the Frenchmen Jeannel and Quera shot by a well enough known: the long desire of the Jewish people for a homeland. full of emergencies and troubles need for They get "jungle-happy" on long stints an the wilds. they get shot at.

Belgium and the United States. such as tents and and transportation. If the radio equipment available had seen better days. problem was to find field equipment. UN On June 11 the Security Council succeeded in achieving a fourStates as week truce and Belgium. with controversial Jerusalem as a separate unit under the UN trusteeship system. His first stoves. The mission moved to Haifa on June 25. it was long before. and the mission rarely knew when its messages were getting through to Mediator Bernadotte. to take care of the twenty-one military observers originally scheduled to be supplied by France. The story of this Field Service operation of all the others. the day after the truce began. Conference and General Services Department that later became A Field Service administrator Field Service) arrived in Cairo June 12. whereupon the Arabs came in with their rifles. efforts had to be redirected toward halting the bloodshed. not only because they could move his charges. to sides. and the military observers sometimes got the idea that they were seeing only what the side whose vehicles they were riding in wanted them to see. who was on the island of Rhodes. This plan won equal and set enthusiastic disapproval from both sides. But for ground transport in the beginning he had to depend on the jeeps and trucks of the belligerents. there was no Field Service he was a staff member of the division of the Secretariat's then. Radio communication improved then and the British . particularly since it was early in experience of such things. France and the United of the fifty members Truce Commission sent military observers. to be closer to the area of operations.16 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW tion into to Arab and Jewish States combined in an economic union be called Palestine. He was lucky to get his hands on four C-47 transports. along with volunteers mostly from the security guard at Lake Success. The Jews ignored it and up their own State of Israel which the United States and other countries recognized. but it has points of interest UN keep watch on both may not be typical the UN's ( actually. but also because the plane crews bore out transport pilots' wide reputation as able scroungers: they uncovered any number of necessary items that were hidden from ordinary view.

POLITICS AND SHOOTING 17 Middle East raiding its Office demonstrated own Anglo-UN solidarity by lavishly supplies. Both would-be combatant groups quieted down and went away without firing a shot Other observers tried the same stunt. during first the truce. once learned of Arab and with maleficent intentions. with the other waving the flag He also shouting "Stop. Partly. Among members observed of the mission the consensus was that both sides with reasonable scrupulousness. observers in the Haifa area had another extraordinary local through the center of which ran the imaginary Arab-Israel boundary line. flames appeared bullets went pinging through the and military observers ducked without dignity behind any fire-fighters handy truce expired on July 9 and the Arabs refused to renew it. groups approaching each other promptly grabbed a Jeep and a large white flag and patrolled a highway between the two groups.*' Oddly enough. with varying success. driving the jeep with one hand back and forth. The on returning And understandably took potshots at them. but a few educational bullet wounds taught them all caution in later times. A Secretariat member named John Reedman. its main theme being that he would have three hundred rather than a couple of . There was a forest afire. Israeli for instance. which took three years to straighten out the debits and credits. to the consternation of the accounting de- partment. Information began to trickle in to him. The administrator retired to Rhodes to devise new plans for the future. When tree. Fighting broke out again and in the absence of directions from the The Security Council the observers made a kind of tactical retreat to Beirut. probably never discovering where to charge some of the items. the absence of shooting stemmed from activities of the observers themthis first truce selves. One cause of trouble was that Arab farmers around Haifa in the early spring insisted Israelis who to had planted crops harvest them. Three or four times between early June and the end of the truce in July patriotic arsonists set it situation. it worked.

and guards along the Israel borders still get their pictures in the papers. Unfortunately. flared and subsided again. in Somaliland and Eritrea (where the chief business their triggers. Jordan and Syria. fingers missions Reception for on UN going back to Mussolini) graceful the Italians. too. Meanwhile. one death by . till at last. and it would be pleasant to cite the date as a happy ending. representations and suggestions were made by the Security Council and the Assembly. the Truce Supervision Organization and the Conciliation Commission were still mentioned in the Field Service budget for 1953. 1949. Lebanon. with nervous depends on the country. a series of armistices were signed by Israel with Egypt. to the point where buying mechanical parts for the 150 jeeps constituted one of the most serious worries. These. The official list of missions personnel is settling land disputes UN dead is twenty-three thirteen accidents. 1949.18 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Ms wing. 150 British jeeps were purchased. were impressed to drive them across the desert. in Palestine reluctant toleration. in India toleration. between February and July. were barred from had to be found and the planes' registry changed before they could be used. In Korea there has been a warm welcome. Eventually they reached dozen military observers under a count of six hundred. including full Army colonels and any number of Navy commanders. one suicide. which were chartered from the British. in the Balkans welcome by the Greeks acceptance by and the reverse by the rest. get independent mobility for this larger corps of observers. Israel was accepted as a member of the UN. On May 11. Disturbances flared and subsided. and a motley crew of steers- To men. A similar oversight occurred with aircraft. with British pilots to fly and pilots of other nationalities them. Israel. but Israel refused entry to the British ship chartered to bring them in. hostilities the administrative problems of the mission eased down. with larger office space and more experienced help. though fighting with the Arabs continued and new broke out with the Egyptians in the Negev that fall. Any number of resolutions.

their tempers disintegrate even those who efficiency goes below par* Hence. has been the subject of much diswas born. Finally. still troubles the Assembly and everyone else with a stake in the UN. As a result of the Interim Committee's studies the thirty-five Assembly in 1949 passed a resolution defining not subject nent members to determine kinds of Council decisions as procedural and therefore to the veto. the General Assembly. matter of not too vital importance. of course. sickness and injury usually at least suffer from the strain of their work and surroundings and their general of duty. volunteer to stay on rarely are kept more than a year on one tour primary concern with peace and international as the "centerpiece" of the UN security. As far back cussion and hard thinking ever since the UN as 1946. and perhaps now member considered the The point here. long time to come.POLITICS AND SHOOTING 19 natural causes and eight killed. Members that escape accident. including visas for Soviet wives of Aside from its foreign nationals. the Assembly put the problem up to its Interim Committee (the so-called "Little Assembly" that sat when the General Assembly was not in session) for other suggestions. which is a negative vote by a permanent member of the Security Council that blocks any decision other than those on matters of procedure. consider and act on anything and everything organization. the Assembly requested the permanent members to do their special voting privilege everything they could to avoid having The next year impede the Council in reaching prompt decisions. is the question of voting. the Assembly asked the perma- among themselves the types of decisions on which they would be willing to withhold a decisive negative vote for after seven affirmatives already had been cast. The so-called veto. In addition. which troubled the writers of the Charter. and probably will continue to be bothersome for a One vital question. may within the scope of UN powers. is that. their weight falls off. and then gain an abstention the opposing . it asked decimembers before important the consultation among sions so as to assure unanimity permanent whenever if possible.

One compromise ordinary voting rights in the General Assembly. on the basis of which randum Secretary-General Trygvie Lie. however. a proposal to consider the question in the Council was rejected on a five-to-five vote ( seven affirmative votes only were needed.20 UN: TODAY AND TOMORKOW the permanent of while the Charter requires for any Council decision unanimity of members present and voting. In 1951. But Chiang no longer has any authority over continental China. If the opposing member absent or abstains. and the Communist regime at Peiping repeatedly demands to be given the "rightful place" Chiang's representatives still hold in the Assembly and the Security Council. China under General Chiang Kai-shek status of a Great Power and was so admitted to the UN as a charter member. them either to is The voting problem had the includes the highly debatable question of government representation. with one of the five veto votes in the Council. Interest in the veto and Chinese representation has tended to minimize public contemplation of other aspects of the voting question that could in the long run turn out to be far more important. it would be appropriate for the UN to grant it the right of representation. but their moral position isn't altogether comfortable. 1950. only over his Formosan refuge. it does not require all be present or to vote. its ballot on the The adversaries of Communism are understandably cool to the idea of adding another presumptive veto to their troubles. wrote a memoto the Security Council stating his opinion that. with the United Kingdom on this occasion casting Soviet side. since the Peiping regime gives no external evidence of lacking internal authority and the suicidal mass attacks in Korea signified anything but a failure of suggestion put forth is that the permanent membership of China in the Security Council be abolished. There are a number of legal points involved. while delegates from both Peiping and Formosa are seated with obedience. since this was a procedural matter). the measure may pass. on March 8. . if the new government were shown by inquiry to exercise effective internal authority and to be habitually obeyed by the bulk of the Chinese population.




Besides the other reasons the Charter writers had in

mind for prothe veto power, there was the aim of compensating for viding disparities in General Assembly voting arrangements. It lias been
calculated that a thirty-one-vote majority in the Assembly could be counted from nations representing only 5.5 per cent of the total

population of the UN's sixty members. The two-thirds majority needed for major decisions could be had by votes representing only
11 per cent of the total population. Moreover, the twenty-one smallest member nations, with 2.3 per cent of the population, could
stop any measure that required a two-thirds majority. In the face of the theatrical conflict between Communist-controlled countries

and much of the

rest of the



tend to lose

sight of other considerations, such as the fact made evident during number of great nations which normally have gone along with our point of view in opposing Russia may

the Korean conflict that a

sometimes entertain reservations and certainly are more openminded about the Kremlin than we once deluded ourselves into
believing. In Asia there

appeared a political outlook that wasn't, between Washington and Moscow, but cerperhaps, equidistant
tainly responded to visual stimuli occurring well eastward of the Potomac. Clearly, the world isn't yet reduced to a two-power system.

In our


hemisphere there


the possibility of a General

Assembly veto not intended by the Charter writers and little considered by U.S. citizens occupied with worrying over the Communists. Ifs an arithmetical fact that the Latin-American countries
in the


to block

come within a single vote of being able measure. They have twenty votes among any important
acting together,

them now;

all they need for an effective veto is to pick up one extra from among the other forty nations. As an immediate cause for worry this Latin-American potentiality has little to recommend it, since die

countries to our south are well equipped with differences


themselves and so far have not been ostentatiously eager to upset

any major plans of




there, nonetheless.

Assembly and Security Council are admittedly a paramount weakness of the UN. Many remedies have
Voting procedures in the



been suggested, but none that would suit all interested parties and none that seems attractive enough, to win the necessary votes for a change of the Charter. In the other two main branches of the UN under the General Assembly, the Trusteeship Council and the Economic and Social
Council, voting is not the issue that it is in either the Security Council or the Assembly itself, since decisions are reached by a simple

majority of the

members present and


The Trusteeship Council

one of the UN's two chief methods of

watching over and helping the hundreds of millions of people in the world who do not own governments of their own. It is a revised

and improved version of the old League of Nations system of mandates, with many obligations for Administering Authorities to help the peoples under their control, economically, educationally
and in the development of self-government and other free


To become a Trust
sponsible for

Territory an area must have the country represent the draft of a Trust Agreement for approval

vary, but most contain these basic elements: a definition of the territory, name of the proposed Administering Authority, a description of its rights and obliga-

by the General Assembly. The agreements

and its promise to submit any dispute with another member over interpretation or application of the agreement to the International Court of Justice.


Trust Territories classified as "strategic areas" fall under the primary jurisdiction of the Security Council, but the Trusteeship Council attends to most of their needs not connected with the security of
their Administering Authorities or other aspects of international


Administering Authorities are required annually to report on the Trust Territories to the Trusteeship Council. The standard questionnaire prepared

by the Council contains 247 detailed queries, and members or suborgans dig still more deeply into special situations.

Natives of the Trust Territories, or any other individuals or organ-

izations for that matter,



have the right to comment or complain to

the Trusteeship Council, and close to a thousand of these petitions have received its consideration.

Every three years, approximately, each Trust Territory is visited by a mission from the Council to provide a firsthand view of the
situation and permit questioning on subjects that might have escaped the reports. With information so gathered the Trusteeship Council argues over

the quality of administration in the Territories, of which there are a dozen, with six Administering Authorities (some countries administer

more than one Territory), and argues further over recommendations for improvement. When the arguments are resolved, the recomare sent to the General Assembly and, if approved, are mendations
given in its name to the Administering Authorities. One recommendation of the Assembly that especially pleased the Trusteeship Council was that the UN flag should be flown alongside the flags o
the Administering Authorities in

Trust Territories.

Non-Self-Governing Territories that do not belong to the Trusteeship System include more than three score areas such as Hawaii,
Jamaica, Alaska, Bermuda, French West Africa, Tunisia, Barbados, the Belgian Congo, Hong Kong, Singapore and many others. The countries administering them report annually, not to the Trusteeship
Council, but to the Secretary-General. Most have had charge of the Territories for a long time and the main change that came with


UN relationship was assumption of a definite obligation to place

the interests of the Territories' inhabitants ahead of everything else. This concern with the rights of all people to human freedom, economic advancement and eventual self-government is the chief

trend since World

development of governmental^ dependent areas. Acquisition of colonies for home gain is no longer the form of big-nation rivalry it once was, and, while human enslave-


II in the

ment goes on

in one way or another, the years since the UN's beginhave seen the freeing from foreign rule of no less than 800,000,ning 000 men, women and children. This is a figure worth remembering


less fortunate things



beyond control have reduced its purely and weakened its direct power to maintain

Partly because events
political effectiveness

has turned perhaps more than was originally intended toward helping the world economically , socially and culturally. The third of its main councils, the Economic

peace among

nations, the





primarily responsible for these phases of



be nicknamed, owns an almost ECOSOC, plainly interminable list of responsibilities, too varied for quick and easy classification. Just to start with, it found economic questions more answerable on a regional basis and therefore set up three Economic Commissions to deal with them, in Europe, in Asia and the Far East, and in Latin America, Then it broke its job down further into functional commissions and subcommissions such as the Commission on Human Rights, the ones on Narcotic Drugs and Transport and Com-



munications, the Fiscal Commission, the Statistical Commission, Social Commission, Commission on the Status of Women and the

Population Commission. Standing committees deal with Technical Assistance, Negotiations with Specialized Agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations, the

Agenda and the interim consideration which must be a traffic problem.

of the

Program of Meetings,



a group of "special bodies'* attached to International Children's Fund (UNICEF). And there




course, a variety of ad hoc committees to do any odd jobs that


In the economic field





concerned with

the improvement of international trade, with statistical development all over the world (many figures on national incomes, for instance,
are far short of accurate), with conservation of resources

transport and communications, but it also various programs of Technical Assistance for underdeveloped countries. It works through one standing committee with eight of the

and with has a busy hand in the

Specialized Agencies, such as the

Food and

World Health Organization and UNESCO, on

Agriculture Organizatheir individual

and co-ordinated

and through another with the Technical

Assistance Administration



itself, which, along with helping the has its own favorite programs, including the Specialized Agencies, advisory social welfare services and training in public adminis-



In the


humanitarian and cultural


ECOSOC deals with
rights, forced



freedom of information, trade union

labor, slavery, protection of minorities, genocide, the status of women, missing persons, prisoners of war, family, youth and child

town planning,

welfare, living conditions in underdeveloped areas, housing and refugees, displaced and stateless persons, narcotic

drugs, migration, scientific research

and cartography.

Besides the three councils, the General Assembly has six main committees to help it function (First Committee: Political and Security; Second Committee: Economic and Financial; Third Com-

Humanitarian and Cultural; Fourth Committee: Trusteeship, including Non-Self-Governing Territories; Fifth Committee: Administrative and Budgetary; Sixth Committee: Legal).
It also


has four categories of lesser committees. of the General Assembly's miscellaneous jobs are: electing

the nonpermanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and Social Council and the elective members of the
Trusteeship Council; appointing the Secretary-General, on recom-

mendation of the Security Council; in independently voting concert with the Security Council electing judges of the International Court of Justice; receiving reports from the Secretary-General, the Security Council and other organs; requesting advisory opinions from the
International Court of Justice.

This last body,

its fifteen

members seated


The Hague, makes

UN nowhere member nations and also nonmembers under conditions determined by the Assembly on recommendation by the Security Council. Its cases may concern disputes or contending claims only between states, between no lesser disputants. But the Charter provides for its

to appeal) in cases involving

giving legal advisory opinions to various organs of the



only the

by entrusting certain functions to it. this answer says that member nations and omissions. murdered in the Israeli fall of 1948. UN was an nations that individually bore the responsibility for opinion handed down said of the UN: In the opinion of the Court. and is in fact exercising and enjoying.26 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBROW General Assembly and the Security Council may apply for them direct). . practically speaking. functions and rights which can only be explained on tie basis of a large measure of international personality and the capacity to operate upon an intercise national plane. In effect. if one party to a cause should refuse to abide by Its decision. a standard answer is that the international organization is To such UN UN merely a mechanism that works if we make it. It must be acknowledged that its Members. The UN area of Palestine in the at issue agent in the case was Count Bernadotte. but grinds to a stop if we turn away. The the Organization was intended to exerand enjoy. The International Court of Justice took a their citizens are responsible for its and errors since the latter quite different legal attitude from this on one notable occasion. Decisions of tie Court are enforced. not the UN. only by its prestige. which is authorized to make recommendations or decide on measures to take. have clothed it with the competence required to enable those functions to be effectively discharged. If it should fail. that is. and it is at present the supreme type of international organizacould not cany out the intentions of its founders if it was devoid of international personality. is simply a kind of funnel for the will and actions of the former. disapproving citizens as the taxi driver who wouldn't enter a Headquarters building till the stopped the Korean War. but this so far has always worked. with the attendant duties and responsibilities. the other party could apply to the Security Council. In nonlegal terms the question was whether the on its own entity capable of functioning in tie international sphere or merely a combination of its actions. It tion. The point on which the Court was asked its opinion was whether or not the UN was legally government responsible for injury competent to bring a claim against a done to one of its agents.

And ifs precisely this that the UN as an entity. agencies and people yet to be dis- UN cussed. of course. committees and Court Just outlined.POLITICS AND SHOOTING 27 "Personality** is a word that we are more accustomed to hearing in connection with psychiatry than with international processes. too. international understanding is a basic need. would appear. and on the possibly greater human-interest level of other divisions. The old to attain international health was through inter- national understanding: hazily. there is an analogy. Per- haps. still regard understanding (their f the patient plus his of himself) as the essential first step." daily makes both on the high legislative-judicialadministrative level of the Assembly. life The patient lay on a couch and from the womb onward. Similarly. . listening to some well-intentioned but old-school workers in the international vineyard. The early Freudian approach to establishment of mental health most heavily emphasized the need of understanding rehashed his intimate personality. Here. Psychiatrists. councils. it was assumed that if every country and its inhabitants knew and understood every other country and its inhabitants. nevertheless. or "international personality. the millennium somehow. but by itself it's not the panacea you might think. dynamic effort is needed for the cure. without any other stimulation. own But modem members standing habits is of the profession say action based on the underequally necessary dynamic effort to replace old bad and attitudes and procedures with new good habits and attitudes and procedures. presumably view of the way achieving recovery through understanding of its events.

Y. a natural thing. Kuwait . . . with separate 28 . one of the strangest communities in history." ". But it's part of life for an inhabitant of ing in their work. To begin a town within a city not just a special area within a city. "No. discussing Sao Paulo. . or some development organization with headquarters on his way to there. Bizerte. Then swingwide again to Kuala Lumpur. . An American transport pilot who thought he had traveled during World War II would be confused. I think it was Karachi. "Nairobi" from a corner rose above the Two distinguished-looking men were . Sixty nations send their representaUnited Nations. it's trict. Athens. in 1949. . experts do a great deal of travel- UN who stay chained to their used to communicating with remote associates that place-names rub off on them. of a tanning exhibition he'd seen outside young girl spoke reminiscently of A Bangkok. like a Chinatown or a financial section or a zoned residential disThis is with. Kamchatka. . N. The chance word cocktail chatter. tives to of course. Pangoing Pango. an ordinary American citizen feels as if an atlas had dropped on his head. The result for outsiders is a kind of geographical nightmare. Paris. desks get so Even native Americans UN UN-ville. .CHAPTER 2 UN-ville A BBITISH official told Rangoon the week before. Reykjavik. It is. . Lisbon. Bokar and Konar This is the sort of name-dropping that goes on among UN people. but a distinct and treaty-bounded eighteen acres. Back to familiar Rome.* 'We'd !* La Paz just left Beirut Bangalore.

" retail stores that reflect its unique personality. other things. legal service. community planning radio. from its in late 1952. own credit union. Soon afterward was a low-slung Conference Building creeping northward base. a high-geared land of "chamber of commerce. It has a tourist trade that many individual nations lightly knit population of as the shape its its would envy. the UN had a vagrant time of it. communica- newspapers. for the most part were on familiar ground. as neutrals of long standing. connected with the Conference Building at the north end. library. 3. periodicals and book publishing plant. its 29 own (aside from its international func- own post office. Before its sudden eruption on Manhattan. playground and many on a level with the flags of all nations.300 whose outlook on life is as singular buildings make on the name-dropping takes. were accustomed to having international conclaves on their hands and probably took the whole enterprise pretty much in stride. But the Swiss. police force. It has its own flag or emblem. New Yorkers had mixed feelings about the new community. its tions. No doubt the League of Nations caused a certain amount of commotion moving into Geneva. . Its official name. ire department. TV production outfits. clinic. in time for the troubled sessions beginning a new and spectacular General Assembly Building. as notable as the impression New York skyline. a government of tions). restaurants. Then the bulldozers got busy and almost before the Ethiopian delegate could say *Addis Ababa" there was a breath-taking new thirty-eight-story there skyscraper for the Secretariat. N. co-operative. bits to the idea. "United Nations.UN-VILLE laws. Until What happened New York was more feller temporarily at colleges and ex-war plants wherever it could find a room. Rockedonated the eighteen acres of abattoir-covered land on the bank of the East River.Y. League officials./* is recognized by post offices everywhere. its commission. checking in in drastic. which flies and film. And it has a permanent. And finally. too. that foreign embassies were technically part of the countries which they represented. Americans had been used if they ever thought of it at all. Mr.

on the streets of York. the feeling of strangeness was undoubtedly more acute. in social conversation ( our prone- New ness to ask the direct personal question. they were merely bits of single alien countries. Many live close together in Parkway is a housing development on the outskirts. and there Village. This was an $8. door-to-door Indian women found it wiser to wear their native saris example. As an extreme noise. means subway salesmen. a natural tendency task to live where they can see is permanent really UN staff members from other life countries haven't been absorbed in the of the city. tabloid newspapers. prejudice of the North American customs in tipping.80 UN: TOBAY AND TOMQRKOW of foreign territory within the United States. But they were never so conspicuous as this. a new residential community springing up in Connecticut: that will entirely inhabited be almost living in scattered York restaurants that attract certain groups: for There are by UN people. taxi drivers' conversation. quarters that they are exposed to things familiar to them enough to us but often confusing or even frightening turnstiles. New . though Western dress was more practical in the dust and traffic. and in a host of other categories are often baffling." their place of business.500. because even the diluted anti-Negro could be misdirected and embarrassing. rush-hour crowds. for instance). still greater cause of frustration Language difficulties contribute and there for people working at a common each otter after hours (as successful Madison Avenue advertising men build their houses in Westport. and though we were one of them in fact a less seemed strange. of course. Connecticut): at any rate.000-sized chunk of international territory. in retail stores (where courtesy is a rule sometimes overlooked). Moreover." For many of the people of UN-ville. Foreign employees apartments and houses tend to gather socially. The three main buildings on the East River are their "downtown. But widespread Amercan be a ican ignorance of the basic aims and functions of the UN and dismay. and they where they can in the city or its suburbs. owned by sixty nations. have to find living This. Thoughtprime mover in the plan it still Americans complained of "the encroachment of foreigners.

that New York City. the City's part of which cost more than $26. But the center of things River. but other much ever. Congress made a thirty-year. especially San Francisco and in the running until his offer.000 to the UN. To round out the eighteen-acre tract. might not have been here at all but for the gift o knd by Mr. First Avenue on the surface here now is limited to local traffic for the convenience of the UN. Most of the employees go to work through the but Secretariat Build- visitors enter at the ing entrance. howextraordinarily generous thing. of course. a mid-town Spanish place that provides entertainment the Latin Americans like. different nationalities on the seemed a good augury. near Forty-second Street. An International Board of Design. This since. The concrete and stone and glass with which the Design Board made substance of its ideas are now a distinctive but increasingly familiar part of the New York scene.000.UN-VUXE 31 example. north end of the General Assembly Building. the City acquired land and deeded it to the UN.000. too. has been generous. The United States was the UN's majority choice for site. the headquarters Philadelphia. This was an It deserves to be remembered. it deeded streets and waterfront rights and worked out a joint program of improvements with the UN. . Moreover. fifty-third plans. For construction of the buildings. the tightly knit business center of UN denizens. Once a main artery. One difficult and expensive item of New York's contribution was digging a tunnel for a four-lane roadway under the part of First Avenue which runs north and south past the UN site. an outstanding tourist attrac- composed the differences of its fifteen try and agreed on tion and. it had taken League of Nations architects 577 sets of drawings before they arrived at agreement. headed by American architect Wallace K. Harrison. near Forty-fifth. It is the group of buildings on the East Rockefeller. were cities. interest-free loan of $65. twenty-five years earlier.000. a Fourteenth Street Russian cabaret at which Scandinavians are regular guests.

And one hopes they have. dome above. 234 seats for the press. Since their deliberations are so important to mankind. through any one of seven nickel-bronze doors. Any significant times that It's number of guest seats. for more private worship there suitable to all the delegates. 270 seats for obis entitled to five delegates servers. Flanking the floor to the the from great delegates' behind which is the President's podium. and other matters that may lead to war or peace. Roosevelt's mail contains this or a similar statement: "The UN will never get peace for us till a every meeting begins with prayer. with its clean-lined hanging The great lobby. truth is do that General Assembly meetings. behind the President's podium. that representatives of member na- tions conduct their dramatic debates over war and peace. dramatic impression. leaf-covered vertical strips of fluted wood form screens like stage from the floor to the dome and covering the walls. many be a close religious association. two tiers of booths for information media around the sides of the hall and accommodation for about session easily could fill two or three 800 visitors. a huge United Nations emblem hangs on the wall. but it is a valid one. seventy-five feet high. 115 feet wide and roughly circular in shape. There are 636 seats for delegates on the floor (each mission and five alternates). makes galleries. Visitors feel as a new and different world. if they've stepped mediate. of course. into a "town hall of the world" is not Calling tie General Assembly a new notion. almost cathedral-like lighting. 75 feet 165 feet long. the sixty here." The President's request. at the always begin with a moment of meditation.32 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBROW the gift of Canada. Obviously. surrounded by 68 circular which will be placed the coats of arms of member golden shields on nations. spoken prayer that would be Moreover. Much people feel that there should of Mrs. is in the General As- . goldspeakers' rostrum. though no town before in AmerIt's ica ever boasted a political auditorium of quite such majesty. wings rising Between them. an imits subdued. which delegates may use to pray in accordance with any of their it would be impossible to compose a varying religions.

are a large conference room. four committee rooms. retire for contemplation and prayer. (This really postmarked "United Nations. have turned out to be something of a surprise to their sponsor. on two lower levels. who learned the business at another sight-seeing attraction for out-of-towners. Begun in the fall of 1952 under the direction of Carl Cannon.Y.UX~VELLE 83 sembly Building a Meditation Room. draped with a fiber-glass fabric from floor to ceiling. they are rounded by the draperies in the Meditation Room. mailed. Flowers for the Meditation Room are brought daily by the Layman's Movement for a Christian World. and a question-and-answer comer where visitors may and do make the most astounding inquiries. seven radio studios.** UN Post which is under the Secretariat Building. Jewish and other faiths. incidentally. Radio City. along with post cards relating to the UN. On the first level below the auditorium is a public lobby. A triumph of simplicity and nonsectarianism. It has all sorts of UN gift shop run by the United Nations Co-operative that sells art and a handicraft products from many is of the member nations. It has post office from which letters may be Office. the American Association for the United Nations. they became far more . which may be turned in any direction the worshiper chooses. In place of an altar there stands. which also supplies a signature book. recording rooms and a master control room for the communications system that serves all the Headquarters buildings. The guided tours start from this lobby. only a branch of the main N. where many of the delegates. 250-year-old section of log believed to have come from the Belgian Congo. It has a bookshop where a and its varied publications dealing with the activities are sold. There are a dozen or so simple chairs. Since corners have objectionable connotations in some faiths. Moslem. Christian. visitor's Beneath the General Assembly auditorium. upended. it's a small room. This serves as UN-ville's Main Street shopping center. toward the front of the room a beautifully polished. bare of ornament.) It has lounges and telephones and checkrooms. These guided tours.

Like an iceberg. Under the Council chambers are three large conference halls for the main committees of the General Assembly. All three are the same 72 feet wide. At least half a million customers were a mid-year conservative estimate to pay their dollar apiece during 1953 for a look through the General Assembly Building. Tours were to be doubled in number during the summer absence of delegates. These have exits leading to an inviting riverside terrace. Far below surface all is a huge refrigerating plant that air-conditions the Headquarters buildings. but is bulkier on the three levels below. the Economic and Social Council by Swedish Sven Markelius. the Trusteeship Council and the Economic and Social Council next to the fifty-five feet in size General Assembly the main organs of the UN. these chambers were decorated by artists from the traditionally peace-loving Scandinavian countries: the Security Council by Norwegian Arnstein Arneberg. On the upper floors of the building are offices for Secretariat personnel concerned with arranging the conferences. This operation at the calls for UN . and the Trusteeship Council by Danish Finn Juhl. to get into a baseball game or a movie expected instantaneous attention from a govern- mental show. when vacationists UN come to New York. There are also delegates* lounges at either rant. the lobby under the General Assembly Building a visitor armed with a pass) walks through a long wide corridor to the Conference Building. this structure shows only (if he's From above the surface. a delegates' restautwo private dining rooms and a cafeteria for Secretariat workers. Here are the chambers of the Security Council. end of the building. The officials soon learned that men and women who would stand in line patiently. Partly for the sake of symbolism. multilingual girl guides. without a murmur. The chief headache for tour officials came to be complaints from people who had to wait for places on a tour.34 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW popular than anyone anticipated. functions and answers to quesplus a running commentary on tions by the attractive. 135 feet long and 24 feet high.

too. they built it that way?" he asked. care for him The him transport. etc. because the inhabitants of UN-ville immigrated from such a wide variety of climates. are the From to the main is the south end of the Conference Building an escalator rises floor of the This. when they get ready. partly so that in the other two buildings diplomatic members of the sixty national missions may meet and argue in comfort and with all the mechanical aid that modem course. the office building of the UN.IM-VILLE more flexibility 35 than you might expect. many employees needed?' girl guides by tour members. "Like a smoke/* .. Partly. keeping records and communication with maintaining far-flung representatives of the organization. of skyscraper Secretariat Building. they sitting strike a match down the side and the whole thingH go up in know why Street spoke cynically to his companion. or to try to stop conflicts by negotiation on the in case of sickness or injury. Down in the depths. So do the field workers of the Specialized Agencies.800 men and the year around. supply Mm. hundred delegates on the floor of the General Assembly require similar backing. may be conducted. etc. 3. The enhave to offer a twelve-degree range of temperatures from gineers which individual offices may make their choices. where some women work science and well-trained technicians can bring them. provide six spot An idler looking up at the narrow side of the Secretariat Building from Forty-second **You box can matchon one end? They did it so. so that other necessary business of the UN. such as giving information to the public. too. and a garage designed to park 1.500 UN fire-fighting unit. The answer is any experienced Army man when a civilian "But why are so 7 a question asked the the same one given by is protests at the ratio of quartermaster and other rear-area personnel to men in combat. cars. and the special missions sent abroad by the UN to check up on trusteeships. The one man with a rifle needs X men to feed him. maintenance workshops of a a large printing establishment and docucomplete ment reproduction section.

The gift as a UNICEF's aid to children the world over. but is UN it in a receptacle (the floors are too clean for This relate you to consider). but if by "they" the idler meant UN people. and memorialize the UN's whole commemorates role in the pacification of Greece. lie had a wrong idea of their attitude. One supposedly hardboiled ex-newspaperman gave a hint of their real attitude. half-apologetic tone. to the right of spaces. looking around make sure he wasn't overheard. If you enter an elevator carrya lighted cigarette you are promptly asked to step out and put ing that regulations other buildings. where visitors on business are announced their passes to go up into the office areas. but it happens to may to the whole UN philosophy. Such regulations exist in many at the they are strictly enforced. like other officials. in charge of the Public Information Department. On the bed of the shallow pool are wavy alternate bands of black and white pebbles. to *Tm afraid/' he said in a low. the punctiliousness is UN that To an is re- with which the rule It spected goes a little beyond such explanation. however. Probably the chief reason for the rule tobacco offends some staff members on religious grounds. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. besides cool and lovely to look at in New York's hot summers. The lobby and receive In the elevators a good thing to remember forbid smoking. seem like laboring a trivial point. outsider. of the Secretariat Building has little to see but open banks of elevators and an information booth. Cohen. But. The black stones were gathered by women and children on the island beaches of Rhodes. always warns guests with him to put out their cigarettes before entering elevators. Assistant Secretary-General Benjamin V. seems more like a . the entrance.36 UN: TODAY AISTD TOMOBBOW Ifs true that the building does have something of the look of an oversized matchbox on end. he's so used to the strict prohibition that he has to think a moment before explaining the emphasis. is a being good memory-jogger for dedication. "we're all a little dedicated/' The fountain at the entrance to the Secretariat Building. It was a fifty-thousand-dollar gift from the children of the United States and its territories of Alaska. Hawaii.

and rugs and other which They to be an endlessly fascinating waterway. about the city in private . kitchenette. Administrative and Finanoffice buildings. delegations from the sixty tries member coun- do not have offices at UN Headquarters at all. at one time during the Korean fighting. the Norwegians on the next and so on (others think it's the place where the UN keeps its eight hundred secretaries and stenographers). plus the Technical Assistance Administration and Board. room. (To some irreverent staff members. bedroom. an invitation to the top floor was known as "reaching the 38th Parallel") Under the Secretary-General there are eight departments sharing the UN's detail work. the prospect is particularly magnificent. where the Secretary-General has his own offices and a small apartment (living Higher officials do go in for leather divans amenities. also get the best views of the East River. for the publications are not permitted to lie around in offices when not in use. on of offices not The elevators run up through thirty-eight floors different much except for the variety of of fezzes and other costume frequency variations from the American norm. 37 UN regard for law and order. with the Russians on one floor. pamphlets and documents you might expect in a place that manufactures the printed word on the mass-production scale of the UN. which contain workmanlike simple desks. the greater from others you see in New York. but are gathered in strategic storage rooms for cal where needed.UN-VILLE grass-roots demonstration of the every level of importance. tables and chairs most part. bath. Actually. Some visitors have had the idea that the Secretariat Building held offices for the various missions. On the thirty-eighth floor. decoration unspectacularly Swedish-modern). and not nearly the pile of books. well worth the happens struggle up the UN hierarchy. Steel partitions separate the nationalities. they're scattered Even the eight Secretariat departments aren't too neatly packaged. Tins last is because offices.

but probably not of the complexity of its work. It provides facilities. paring films. cables. It means making transportation arrangejournals and official ments and finding hotel accommodations in connection with the UN Then and meetings. On it meetings.410. So the Department of Public Information (DPI. occupying 74. thirty-sixth thirty-seventh way occupations of UN-ville inhabitants are classithese eight departments. is cial Services. seventeenth. telephone as if this weren't enough. To begin with.300 employees. not necessarily connected with involves purchasing for the Headquarters as a whole. a day-to-day basis. It Journalists regularly covering its activities has hundreds of privately employed (the figure goes over a thousand during Assembly sessions). The UN is literally the biggest source news in the world today. for the press. and editing and publishing the reproduction records. and telegraph services. it makes all the arrangements and provides the means seeing to it. surveys. it means furnishing translation. and superhandling mail.38 and fied UN: TODAY AND TOMORKOW example. And. outlets constancy of course) has half a dozen floors in the building devoted to prefeature stories. by the office space it is A run-down of its functions will show as quickly as anything could all why the Secretariat needs 3. This scheduled not to interfere with other first. . that they are properly activities. including liaison. radio broadcasts. photographs. And it maintains information centers in various parts of the world. of the departments. The tide gives a this department's objective.509 square feet of space. for on the sixth. Biggest brief the department called Conference and General Services. services for meetings and conferences. floors. managing the vising the files. Next to Conference and General Services in square footage is the of Public Information. And the relative amount o work by for the community as a whole is pretty required of each department In a general well indicated occupies. with 36. UN Department clear enough idea of of buildings and grounds. But there are countless other demanding stories and pictures and material for radio broadcasts. interpretation of the proceedings.

The Technical Assistance Administration. The Department of Social Affairs has 26. and organizing training schools and demonstration responsible for the operation and administration of programs on advisory social welfare functions. providing economic information particularly to the Economic and Social Council.474 square feet. the status of women. science. to use the proper term).608 square feet of space and a wide range of touchy duties.tfN-VTLLE 89 The DepartmeBt of Economic Affairs. by examining reports from Administering Authorities in the from the people of Trusteeships. studies and technical assignments for the Economic and Social Council on problems of human rights. health. but also to Specialized Agencies and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Humanitarian and Cultural).183 square feet. education. The story is that on one occasion an Oriental member got within ten cents of the deadline. though not designated as a department. it And culture and refugees. narcotic drugs. Administrative and Financial Services. member governments are liable to lose voting rights. It also has the not always easy task of collecting payments due from member governments. has 24 5 974 square feet and supervises the program of Technical Assistance for economic development.692 square feet.) The Department of Trusteeship and Information from Non-Self- Governing Territories. 32. labor. budgetary and fiscal programs. (Beyond a certain point of indebtedness. It issues publications and helps to write agreements (or conventions. keeps in touch with Specialized Agencies and other organizations concerned with health. education. 22. has centers. It also provides staff for the General Assembly's Third Committee (Social. and "main- tains relationships" with the Specialized Agencies on such questions. 17. work programs. is a hotbed of statistics. by receiving and studying petitions . awarding fellowships and scholarships. organizing UN missions of experts for countries that request them. serves the Trusteeship Council and other organs of the UN by drafting trusteeship agreements. cultural activities and refugees. It's also charge of UN personnel. It prepares meetings.

and the Secre- in departments seem to overlap other organs of the such as the councils and committees. the higher-level work of most of the departments must be carried on by experts In economics. as a mechanism. who deal in technicalities that wouldn't interest most readers. they are the workhorses for the other organs. 10. this plant (located under the Conference Building) regularly makes a million impressions a day of UN documents and . The Legal Department has only tary-General's If these offices. politics. 12. They do the research UN and formulate the material on which the other bodies take action. veteran of the hectic San the actual Francisco days when the just written Charter had to be reproduced under some of the most trying circumstances ever to confront a printer. print shop Under the direction of Dan DeWalt.093 square feet. it's merely because function. of course. 8. does research and prepares material for the Security Council and its subordinate branches and also for the General Assembly's political committees. It offers advice on peaceful ways to settle disputes and services missions of investigation or conciliation created by the General Assembly or the Security Council. Also in the departIs the question of disarmament. well oiled and smoothly functioning. Non-Self-Goveming to the Territories. title is Take what most people would call its Internal Reproduction Plant.659.40 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Territories. Obviously. including the security aspects ment's bailiwick of trusteeship agreements for strategic areas. Conference and General Services includes some of the more widely interesting activities. It's their job to keep the whole UN. sociology. pertaining to The subject matter Is anything maintenance of peace. They do field work and make the practical arrangements under which the other organs operate. and by making periodic survey visits The Department of Political and Security Council Affairs.658 square feet. And. health and other specialized fields. But a great deal of the lower-echelon activity Is fascinating.

41 is Any necessary typesetting done too. because UN maps must be "diplomatically correct/* In view of the radical and frequent boundary lines in recent times. Printed words are pictographs. the nature of its writing defies really rapid mechanical reproduction. Hence. But many of the words used in UN proceedings would not appear in the fonts of a newspaper acter for each word.XJN-VUXE proceedings. Printing and mimeographing are done in five languages English. the 267 employees. He has sixty sensitive nations ready to pounce if his pen wavers in fluctuations of the slightest degree. with an individual char- Chinese newspaper has to keep on hand a minimum of 4. Spanish. for UN meeta Chinese calligrapher has to sit in and make a transcript in ings what. but not a UN cartographer. of books and pamphlets. economical efficiency of Its operations. Vari-Typers and microfilm cameras are used. The downstairs in the print shop and reprophotographed duced. Russian and Chinese. And batteries of mimeograph machines make copies of pro- ceedings (chuted down from the General Assembly or Council chambers ) with phenomenal speed. even if there weren't. There Is no alphabet.500 of these characters. for want of a better word. The first four are simple enough. even a Rand McNaUy man might be forgiven for minor errors. As a matter of fact. A on an ordinary typewriter. outside. since there is a shortage of Chinese typewriters and. The plant has Its own artists and cartographers. and the latter have to be the very top men in their trade. who are paid at least union scale. Internal Reproduction Plant takes a good deal of pride in the smooth. like their jobs well enough to stay with them. must be called long hand. After a year and a half with IRP a man is still considered . but five offset machines here turn out the finished records of meetings. French. his speed is greater than any that could be attained and certainly not on a Chinese typewriter transcript is about 220 characters per minute. Although it's The UN nonunion little (you'll look in vain on UN publications for the familiar oblong union mark). but Chinese Is a special problem.

At the last meeting in Paris six IRP supervisors went along to direct the locally hired French printers. as it sometimes does in Paris. and speeding His most vivid impressions of UN printing. Machines were rented in London and Paris and the job went off smoothly enough to Probably there the rest of the UN permit four of the supervisors to return to the United States after thirty days. For getting the clock around to the various printing plants (several Chinese newspapers lent facilities) that were used for the rush job of getting out the Charter overnight in five languages. half a million dollars' worth of it outside the United States entirely. DeWalt was impressed with the French printers* eagerness to learn American methods of cutting corners the work. for example the IRP sets up shop right with it. which had had for the job in the beginning. There were. Typists and mimeograph machines kept up with the changes. A substantial part of the UN's printing is done outside of IBP. then revisions of the revisions. but also infuriatingly Someone found an deliberate). of course. and each time the printers had to reset type. took temperatures and gave first aid. and certainly there is a variety of problems that challenge abilities and keep up interest. the transportation. and a Chinese calligrapher developed such a swollen wrist from his work (which . to cast new characters The Chinese newspapers. Army and Navy provided elderly lady in Berkeley who was at the fine art of stitching bindings for the presentation copies adept (she turned out to be wonderfully skillful. had to recast them.42 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW is some of the feeling of dedication that runs through staff. just in case all the printing plants blew up at once. remain the frantic thirty-sk hours in San Francisco when his makeshift staff California across the (some members were students enlisted from the University of bay in Berkeley) worked three times around kept going by Red Cross volunteers who brought coffee and sandwiches. changes in the original text. then revisions of the changes. When the General Assembly meets away from Headquarters. however.

*' In the general sense. f/os derechos del hombre are the rights of men and . translators an office full of them for each Before of the five official languages put the speeches or resolutions or whatever the material is into the four others besides the original was presented. it means to us both classic A example ( UN men and women. literal translations don't always give the precise meaning of originals. its machines start humming. The five versions must correspond with utter exactitude. in the over which there was sharp argument* word "man. alone.UN-VUJCJE is 43 for done backliaiid with a sharply bent wrist) that he was helpless some time afterward. final version The (okayed at the printing plants by ranking dele- gates who spoke the five official languages) was printed in dupKcate and sent to the Conference for signature in separate police-escorted DeWalt carried the second copy himself and was unshaven and disheveled enough to be tamed by away by the Conference guards. A minor footnote: lish. Mr. plish Ahead of the editors. paragraph by paragraph. however. one in which it editorial section Unfortunately. all the Charter is written in American-style Eng- in Oxford though English. sentence by sentence and word by word. when ) is the English not used to distinguish a man from a woman. the Internal Reproduction Plant at UN Headquarters alone now manages to run through a thousand tons of paper a year. that time is now history. was Ceremoniously signed by delegates of all the nations. down to the last comma. including footnotes. But the first one got through and cars for insurance. But the literal Spanish translation "hombre** means man. editors must accoman extraordinary feat of blue-penciling. this copy to be placed in a leaden casket with a parachute attached and flown to Washington. and it's exactitude of meaning that is the objective. Then the five versions go to the where they are compared. with such spelling as "favour" for our "favor J* Starting at Hunter College with one discarded Navy mimeograph other UN documents are machine.

at 3. While. Council and General Assembly meeting places. but a running transfer of the ideas 5. in some ways it's an even more demanding occupation. or at least note the care with which delegates check to be sure translations are correct. Instantaneously also just to make harder. At Number 2. They won. Turning to Number 1 on the dial. French. For aid to the editors in particularly difficult cases there is a special small board o last resort called Terminology. which some people confuse with nature of things. it quite different. as most people know by now. hears in a language other than that being used by the not direct translation. one of the most interesting activities -** The headset under the direction of Conference and General Services.44 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW women a point to which Latin women objected vigorously. In the UN Table of Organization there are places for sixty-four . for visitors. the equivalent of '"human rights. What he speaker is and information being presented. But interpretation. at each seat in the Conference. the listener hears the speaker straight. 4 Russian. 6. in the cannot require quite the precision that written it. Chinese. he hears the speech in English." they exclude At any UN conference or meeting you're likely to hear argument over translation. in whatever language he's speaking. It's composed of half a dozen language experts who revise translations on which to agreement. and an exacting one. is transfer of language does. and got a different translation in the Spanish text. and to achieve this a good interpreter needs not only a thorough knowl- Spanish. The aim is immediate clarity. which must have been a test of imagination. glossaries Atomic energy is one of about a hundred subjects covered in the glossaries. too. It's also. Translation is one task. the editors cannot come For Chinese words the linguists often had to invent atomic pictographs. Terminology also compiles of technical terms translated into all five official languages. has a dial with six numbers on it. edge of both languages involved but the wit and intelligence to transfer the content of one to the other idiomatically and with the force it and flavor of the original.

The feels itself lucky to have fifty-two of them. work four-hour shifts. to meetings where their knowledge Of the present staff. Although the language requirements are a little stringent for most persons regard themselves as linguists. may be Even if useful. Interpreters ordinarily meeting goes on all night. (As one result. finance. the ideas expressed are diametrically opposed to those he holds in private life. At Lake Success. tact.13N-VILLE 45 interpreters. they aren't too bad. nd than A UN UN But nowadays when a brash young person phones to ask. correct. A good interpreter loses himself in the job. for the reason that competent men and women in this field are harder to well-informed estimate top-light nuclear physicists. he transposes them to the other language with as much enthusiasm as the speaker himself. The requirement does not include work who with Chinese. radio listeners have been known to telephone and complain that interpreters of Russian speeches were Communists and ought to be fired. But of dozens language a corresponding knowledge of of applicants who can UN speed. "What do 7 I do to learn to be an interpreter?* the courteous brush-off is touched with concern and the thought that something ought to be done to train new operatives. during a speech behind windows in . eight are women. ) Interpreters are visible all the chambers (they find it helpful to and they're often caught copying the very gestures see the speakers) of the orators they're interpreting. For is this English only juggle three languages accurately in ordinary business or social cirneeds in cumstances. refugee prob- lems. the total number able to do the work as 120 for the figures whole world. it's rare to find one who comes close to demanded. their motto is "Think/' but there's no time to think. An must know three languages well enough to reproduce interpreter either of two in the third. As one of the veteran interpreters pointed out. such as economics. alertness and understanding. Reactions have to be practically automatic and at the same time. but at last report twelve vacancies existed. but if an important they work all night Effort is made to assign those with special interests.

the fortunately available. but all would have been well a if the orator hadn't been so proud of his speech that he asked for The woman's voice that appeared on it deeply hurt his recording. Spanish. Vishinsky to hear himself speaking in Chinese. they were so engrossed five reached for nonexistent glasses of water when the one occasion an interpreter so far lost himself in his work that he forgot everything except his alter ego. A Chinese dignitary His delivery was so hard to understand. Another time. to explain. it made it. language itself but the accent applied insisted on addressing a meeting in English. however. that the interfound the double task of figuring out what he meant and to translate the Chinese English into English English and from there Russian and Chinese happily took it into French. they at- tached wires backward or slipped up in some other way. in is at a closed meeting. Paris. where it should have started. What should have been recorded from the Number 1 slot on the dial. Chinese makes for varied difficulties. and the technicians set up the apparatus. On the playwas an unnerving experience for Mr. of course. they a few seconds behind in their interpreting. As a quick solution they got a woman interpreter yond with sympathetic laughter. itself. Shamefacedly the interpreters offered to run the discourse back through English (as would have been . for all to hear: "I don't terpreter spoke sharply Since no one else did either.46 that all UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW late by the dynamic Mayor La Guardia. however. but Vishinsky particularly asked for it. Unaccountably. They were. who and failing in the organization of happened to be particularly prolix Mayor quenched his thirst On Ms thought Momentarily you/* the inmissing the drift of his remarks. the speaker. Usually Russian Vishinsky was making a speech when the public is excluded recording omitted. the lapse was greeted understand preters into the other languages altogether betranslating it simultaneously their powers. On one occasion it wasn't the to English that caused trouble. into his microphone. the speech as he back later. came out of Number 6 instead. feelings and required a high degree of professional diplomacy.

recall. terpretation/' a second system. But after it's finished the consecutive inter- whose primary qualification for the Job is evidently total and repeat what the speaker said. The kind of interpretation heard through the headsets from the interpreters' soundproof booths is known as "simultaneous. Only in the Security Council and the Disarmament Commission. Russian and Chinese. miraculously reproducing gestures. who can tune in via a high UN gadget called the MX on whatever discussion they wish. Accurate translation and interpretation are a conspicuous necessity The UN's techniques are interesting 7* from the "gadget point of view. the five official languages are not by any means native to all the delegates. emphasis and sometimes even preters. said These carefully worked out methods of communicating what is on the floor of the General Assembly. Of course. in any of the languages they wish. whenever they wish. most of whom are forced to carry on business in tongues that are foreign to them. called "consecutive inused. where misinterpretation is liable to inalso volve special dangers.UN-VDLLE 47 necessary from the Chinese) into the original Russian. in French and English. but also to the offices of officials in the Secretariat Building." It's the rale in most UN meetings. American visitors are even struck by the trivial fact that direction signs throughout the Headquarters buildings are in two languages. in English. but also significant as indications of the way modem technology can help clear the way to understanding. the council chambers and in all the five official languages include wiring not committee rooms only to seats in the various meeting places. But within practical limitations the UN does quite a linguistic job. Spanish. French. French and English (TPulT and "Tirez" on the doors) and will be more so when the a "officializing" of Spanish to a first-place position requires adding for effective international effort third language. rise intonation. . During a speech simultaneous interis preters present it in the usual way. but he told them not to bother conceivably afraid it might all end up in Ubangi.

if it's at all UN controversial or dependent on opinion. Its 3. But if your question goes beyond the strictly factual. you will be switched to information and one of the six girls on duty there will give you an answer in no time. you may get a sobering. you're given over to the agency or organ most closely concerned. as you might expect.260 telephone installations require the services of twenty operators. Mail comes into UN-ville at the rate of about four thousand letters a day. particularly long distance. If you want to know the date of the next Committee Four meeting or the name of the head delegate from Mexico. As a farfetched exif you call irately to ask why Soviet Russia isn't thrown out UN. telephones and telegraph. It's opened and looked at by three men who have knowledge of half a dozen languages. tells the telephone company what it wants. ) Distribution of the letters come in is made and periodicals and small packages that via dumb-waiters that run up shafts through the thirty-eight stories of the Secretariat Building probably the tallest dumb-waiters in the world and then by messenger to the in- dividual offices. The UN switchboard is open twenty-four hours a day. 365 days in the year. and gets it. Connected with the switchboard an information bureau. UN-ville. who route it to the proper offices for response. Additional magazines and newspapers arrive by . well-documented explanation from an official of the Security Council itself. of the respondence section set up for the purpose. Ingenious rotary lists of facts help speed their work. Conference and General Services makes its own engineering plans for telephone operations. including supervisors.48 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW the more prosaic level of mail. is one of the world's most dedicated users of Alexander Graham Bell's invention. One item is the special jacks that can be plugged in sentatives for direct by communication from is press and radio reprethe council chambers and General Assembly hall to news rooms outside. (General letters from the public are answered by a corample. to necessitate the full-time services of a On Conference and General Services does a large-scale communications business large enough telephone company liaison officer in that category.

(The Library is a small. take division of the department oversees the housekeeping procedures. not included in the Design Board's plans for Headquarters but purchased already built from the City. In addition. UN toward First Avenue. This letters. It's about fifty yards from the Secretariat Building. operates an architectural drafting (with three draftsmen) to design changes in office space. 363 are up 11.422 Services. like those use of traveling UN staff members who need passport pictures and aE the others who need pictures for their passes. lighting. there is a direct circuit to Geneva for about one hour daily. By emphasizing the fact that method of communication avoids the censorship imposed in various places on cable and radio transmissions.000 cubic feet of space. six-story building. air-conditioning arrangements all and such its interior matters. members employed by Conference and General occupied in Buildings Management Service. A considerable portion of the important letters goes by diplomatic pouch. ordinary commercial open channels are used for wire and radio communication. and does kinds of other odd jobs. or at least the lack of privacy. unstandardized objects .UN-VHXE 49 underground pneumatic tube from the Library. But for the most part. room guards. runs the fire department and the corps of takes care of the grounds. From there messages are distributed to other points in Europe. there are thirty pouch centers in regular use as destinations. UN The carpenter shop keeps six men busy maintaining furniture and such as making more or less unpurchasable. The archives alone. for the picture" machine. Conference and General Services also of UN correspondence and responsible for all filing documents. repairs the furniture. for inis active documents and staff Of 1. which receives a staggering volume of publications from all over the world. ) Outgoing correspondence handled by the mail room amounts to about five thousand letters a day. the mail room has succeeded in reducing the flow of this cablegrams to an economical level of about 170 outgoing and incoming messages a day. Under authority there's even a "take your own at amusement parks.

UN command if a fire broke out. Both make a minor career of preventing fires and accidents. and have stopped there. (The guards. If a real conflagration ever occurred. such as slipping and failing. too. their schemes of decoration. and guards spend most of their time giving courteous directions. sheet metal and air-conditioning repair shops.50 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW temporary booths for the guards. are trained in fire-fighting. But officials go No firemen and guards on knocking wood and urging the force to keep on the alert.) were constructed with practically every buildings conceivable safeguard against burning. There are also plumbing. are another trim and well-trained without much outlet for their indicated talents. on duty at all times in shifts of three. is a particular pet of Conference and General fire The Service. plain-clothes men who accompany personnel carrying money (people connected with the guided tours or cafeteria. the has built a playground which City youngsters having no connection with the are permitted to use. It has ultramodern equipment and a thoroughly trained force of fifteen men. Nevertheless. no real robbery attempt has come along to test the capacity of the guards. rather than checking the damage o crime or negligence. with its station in the third basement of the Conference Building. 140 of them. Just as no real fire has ever happened. Only three group are armed. in the unoccupied area to the north. their best hope for excitement being the interior often oppose the use of fire-resistant materials in designers. at the present Headquarters. department. however. violence of any sort. the most serious blazes so far have come from cigarettes carelessly tossed in wastebaskets. for The example). with no damage to anything except discarded papers. The UN UN would give pause guard assigned to keep peace here has a job on his hands that to the career peacemakers in the General As- . New York City Fire Department would be UN guards. and maintenance men as well. ready for but the firemen would be in Since the UN any emergency. Their job is promoting safety. the firemen keep on the alert. all who the resources of the available. (Outside the Headquarters buildings proper.

telephone. the Headquarters district is inviolable to Federal. unless by regulations conflict (in which cases they would have precedence over national or local unlikely UN UN ordinances). Like a number of other housekeeping tasks and building services. fire protection and snow removal must be supplied to the UN on equitable terms. except consent. state or local officers. post. with its needs treated as equal to those of "essential agencies of the Government of the United States. transportation. but also quite a cleaning chore. There are 1. domestic statutes must be observed. drainage. unless it happened to be a Federal offense. However. which supplies nine men to polish the year around. the cleaning is done Secretariat Building under contract on a fixed fee basis with a private American firm. gas. Being a he manages.400 windows which let so much symbolic light into the (and by a special process of manufacture filter out heat) are not only a distinguishing mark that never fails to catch the eye of visitors. he would be turned over to City police. the FBI or Postal detectives. Incidentally. would be given charge. in which case. water. the U. telegraph. ) New York father If a crime should be committed within the Headquarters district." Since the Govern- ment of the United States is required to "take steps accordingly to ensure that the work of the United Nations is not prejudiced/* it seems clear that having the gas or phone cut Secretary-General's major worries. collection of refuse. The men keep busy.200 additional windows in the other Headquarters buildings and green glass spandrels between the windows of the Secretariat Building that have to be cleaned. off is not one of the The 5. and a pursesnatcher has as good a chance of winding up in the Tombs from the General Assembly Building lobby as he does from Times Square. too.-UN agreement for the Headquarters district carefully specifies that services like electricity. .S.TOC-VILLE 51 himself. or whatever the proper authorities were for the transgression. Under the terms of the agreement with the United States which governs UN operations on American soil. presumably. sembly and Security Council to the south. and the culprit apprehended by the barehanded guards.

already is at the somewhat strained seams and visiting officials would have a time finding temporary parking space for their papers if it weren't for the fact that permanent occupants of offices do so much traveling. serves 85. save employee time and elevator use going to the cafeteria. Shortage of room elsewhere in the building has cut into its capacity. the dining room.52 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Inside cleaning is another contract job. however. UN employees and people coming to Headquarters on business. by the way. originally extra office space for the supervisors. The thirty-eight-story Secreplanned for forty-two stories. it's run by the To Co-operative. 21. too. The service station in the garage is not a department function. inherited a rodent-and-roach problem from Mr.500 cars for delegates. the dining room and cafeteria are operated by employees of a hotel chain. regarded as cheaper and more efficient than hiring people directly to do such work. The cafeteria. gardens and 440 trees that beautify the grounds are Contract workers likewise clean the under guarantee by the gardening outfit that set them up. on which the UN spent still $300. Conference and General Services says what food is to be served and names the price range. road and grounds keepers and exterminators work on this basis. the expense of paying for supervision and the finding of Employing the contract system is tariat Building. involving. The one and a half miles of elevator shaftways throughout Headquarters that provide 250 miles o elevator transportation per day are under the jurisdiction of girl operators who also are supplied by outside contract.000 customers a month. UN . Radio elecall tricians. but probably will be cared for under contract later. filters and inject anticorrosive into other parts of the air-conditioning system. For parking cars the department has a subterranean garage that was intended to take care of 1. as that would. the storage space that was meant for Chevrolets being occupied by supplies. The lawns (like putting greens). Rockefeller's previous bovine tenants that they would willingly return.000 for equipment. with 54 mops going during the day and 140 at night. sidewalk.000 for lunch only. The exterminators. Similarly.

000 for mimeograph materials such as paper." maintenance work of cleaning. (These Times the figures.000 for public utilities.000 for the telephone company. electrical work and elevator operation. you can't blame them either. incidentally.UN-VHJLE there are portable 53 wagons that trundle through the Secretariat Building.000 for travel by delegates and Secretariat personnel on special missions.000. mornings and afternoons. $200.000 the U. and you can't altogether blame him. if you want a drink. carrying coffee. Treasury pays as our share of the regular UN budget. In addition. stencils and chemicals. second in size to Con- . Moreover. inks and envelopes. This wastes no official working time or elevator space. Although citizens have been known complain about the $15. Conference and General Services foresaw a bill of more than $2. replacement of slaughterhouses with spent by the UN. showing how much in dollars UN establishment in were only part of an article and cents the United States got out of New York. however.000. half of which would go to American transportation companies.S. bringing the refreshment to the customer.) Another of the Secretary-General's departments that has more than technical interest is Public Information. its staff and its the magnificent UN Headquarters real estate values in the City area. pens. beam when the subject comes up. The item labeled "Purchasing and Transportation" among Conference and General Services duties covers such a multitude of if he's asked about it.000. buildings has doubled or tripled and increased tax revenue.000 for office fixtures. But in the lounges. In the light of items like things that an officer of the department gets irascible $254. rolls and other tidbits. and particularly New York businessmen. general questions American businessmen. $130. the measurable cash money to delegations in this country is at least $37.500. you go to the bar yourself and bring it back to your table.000 for pencils. This is a logical and pleasant service. A New York Times study of the figure of $4. $614.000. or $300.000 for tract 1958 UN budget gave an over-all which included the con- "common services.

Radio coverage of UN activities is. even more impressive. with news and feature material on the air twenty-two hours a day. This is demonstrably true by any standard choose for measurement quantity. In effect. head of Public Information. The UN. Assistant Secretary-General Benjamin V. in the is the greatest single source of news world today. as has been said before. DPI to claims. Cohen. is and it's a UN boast that these news programs axe never "jammed/* member states rebroadcast its Since most programs. two thousand foregathered. universality of you interest. the UN. says the UN was the first major user of television. has probably the biggest loyal radio audience in the world at the lowest cost.000. wherever a radio receiver can be found. Special broadcasts at times are estimated have more than 500. porters accredited to the Normally. And expanded plans UN for use of films on TV will demonstrate the UN's activities to more and more millions as television develops. At what have lately been the infrequent meetings of the Security Council (though delegates are required to stand by at times in case one should be called) eight or nine hundred correspondents make their appearance. with a program called *TJN Casebook/* Certainly. "Sweetheart of the Philippines. UN-ville s Chamber of Commerce.000 officials cite listeners. At the 1951 General Assembly all in Paris. if anything. in twenty-five or twenty-six different languages.54 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBROW it's ? ference and General Services with 291 staff members. importance. the new medium has given dramatic presentation to the picture." who broadcasts UN news on every Philippine network and whose followers include thousands of Filiwho gather at communal listening posts in the remote jungles pinos or on the towering mountains. there are about three hundred privately employed reUN. Short-wave transbroadcasting to other parts of the world. Stations in number the United States alone that carry programs about the UN fourteen hundred and not a cent mitters are rented for news paid for time. For the enthusiasm of the station in every audience such cases as Claudia Cruz. with fifty or sixty daily newspapers represented. .

(2) all the other media services of the Department of Public Information. and (3) Information Centers scattered about the world (seventeen of them overseas). on a subscription basis.UN-VTLLE There are also films to 55 be shown on screens not o the television services variety there are filmstrips and other visual materials. and other material is of formidable proportions. To begin with. For vide the best facilities possible for working newspapermen and the radio press at all conferences. and abroad. the monthly United Nations Reporter and the annual Yearbook of the United Nations and Everyman's United Nations. Much of the department's work public is stage-managing. newspaper. arranges may press conferences and helps to furnish background material. by request only. a teletype service is available. and there are news services and news feature and books and pamphlets. But Public Information's own production of copy and photographs tion. Besides. For these releases and the texts of important documents and resolutions and the like. the Department has a and illustrated news feature service in several languages printed which is sent. it covers in the most objective style it can manage all the activities of the UN at Headquarters. magazine articles or books. The press releases stemming from this comprehensive coverage total between three and four thousand a year and are aimed at the needs of: (1) the press and radio correspondents covering the UN. There is Centers and UN also limited radio service to the same recipients. the department is responsible for the semimonthly United Nations Bulletin. Newsreels and TV get the same atten- in spreading information to the headline news its function is to pro- Beyond that. to press associations. cannot afford commercial coverage of the UN and still are eager for authentic information. here A Daily Report and Weekly Summary are sent to Information missions in various parts of the world. particularly weeklies. radio and delegation offices. Press Services facilitates any interviews writers wish for feature stories. Because many smaller newspapers. to several thousand papers in forty different countries. .

that they could probably if manage by themselves. many of production could be easily absorbed permit. necessary. UN Headquarters who send reports directly tation At one time they all received basic documenand other information directly from the department. Somewhat more than half of these are granted by Secretariat officials or other UN dignitaries.) are a with the UN particularly valuable means of disseminating information. they are in particular demand. outside help has been asked and a great deal given.. The UN cannot afiEord much. head and able platform per- of the radio division.M.C. however. are such indefatigable formers. These Non-Governmental Organizations have a high absorption point for speeches. but now. The Department of Public Information gets close to a thousand requests a year for speakers. Therefore. and the rest are referred to the Voluntary Correspondent Speakers' Units or other outside sources of lectures on the UN. the Information Centers have been made for reasons of responsible for keeping them up-to-date. etc. and not only by their own members. Administrative and Financial Services. The two thousand Non-Governmental Organizations associated times the present amount but the budget does not (the International Chamber of Commerce. Y. commercial picture syndicates and national information services help in the expensive distribution of photographs. it's As information experts.A. International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. economy. Assistant Secretary-General Cohen and Mrs. Many have accredited observers at to their organizations. But it can give independent movie producers collaboration on material and in the process of production.56 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW for information The "market" enormous. in the way of making films. for instance. If the from the department is clearly budget permitted. besides drawing up budgets and handling the UN's expenses (including collecting the where- . and part of their function to go along with as many requests as is physically possible. Dorothy Lewis. and does just that Similarly.

sidewalk and road keepers all of whom work under contract arrangements and are hired by their own outside bosses. the work equitably their nationals An effort is made to distribute may member nations when they want it for among all which not of them do. Of something like 120 or 130 jobs the only 20 were filled. . New basis of skill and experience. explaining that too many of its best technicians had been killed in World War II. these missions are made up of permanent UN staff members. the cleaning people. The Headquarters guards. Soviet Russia. enter. furniture repair men and the like) are processed through Personnel. for ex- ample. and not necessarily from the angle of deciding on quotas for the various A particular headache is that in choosing from far countries reliance must be placed on the among applicants judgment of third persons. on the normal the economists ? statisticians. another Nearly aH of these 1. UN wanted Russians to fill in the Secretariat. In the more specialized jobs other considerations etc. exterminators. Except for specialists and added from outside for specific problems and manual clerical help hired locally. locksmiths. There are about 3. though suspected by some Americans of using the UN as a base for information-gathering activities. York 8. economic and cultural missions. deals with the question of personnel. has been reluctant indeed to supply needed technical help. plumbers.300 regular employees of the in New York. A the Security Council and the Trusteeship Council overseas. member nations. firemen and 150 to 160 manual workers (carpenters. sheet metal workers.UN-VHXE 57 withal to pay them). The international aspects of staffing are Personnel's chief problem. special task of Personnel is staffing the various missions (there were eight in the field at last count) serving the General Assembly.600 are hired locally. But not the elevator operators. and in Information Centers. lawyers. mainte- nance and radio electricians. 600 or UN 700 at Geneva and others scattered around the world on political. About 800 of the 800 clerks.300 are stenographers and typists.

this set sounds lavish. though travel time not counted in vacations. because as working members UN of the organization they advertise its aims and increase its prestige more than anything else could in their own birthplaces. or is totally disabled). because there are no budget provisions to take up the added work load made by such For the second UN employee absences. and probably pay most medium-grade staff members receive less than they would in comparable private American employment. the answer is wants them to go home. to the Secretary-General's $33.000. aside from the fact that the UN likes to an example in working conditions. UN They range from the beginning gross of a messenger. UN employees receive a $200 annual allowance for each child under eighteen (under twenty-one if the boy or girl is still in school full time. . To most Americans. office heads can In addition to salary. are for the benefit of American emnot exempt ployees. thus equalizing rates of compensation among all personnel. thing. sick leave and maternity leave. who are the only nationals working for the UN from income tax.230 (after deductions.900). It's simply divided as best the do among nonvacationing employees. there are a couple of very prac- tical justifications. some staff members is live on the other side of the effort.000 with added allowance of $20. plus a system of health protection. But. $2. and these annual holidays may be accumulated up to a total of sixty working days.) Very few salaries get to the $10. accustomed though they are to fairly generous vacation privileges. Everyone is entitled to six weeks* leave with pay.000 level. money coming out of the deduction fund goes to their taxes. a net $1. This is one reason why the UN pays for their transportation. the trip two weeks would be hardly worth the you protest that that the they could take their vacations closer to UN-ville. Vacations are another matter. If globe and. however.58 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW salaries are not munificent. For one for thing. And for social security there is a United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund. six-weeks vacations are not so costly to the as they might be to private industry. (Deductions. incidentally.

The feeling of uncertainty among the remainder that developed as a consequence found pointed expression in a not very funny Joke. didn't recognize him. promise) to exercise in all an. to discharge these functions and regulate my conduct with the interests of the United Nations only in view. and not to seek or accept instructions in regard to the performance of my duties from any government or other authority external to the Organization.UN-VUXE 59 and "reasonable compensation in the event of illness. but I back from London. entered the Secretariat Building and was stopped by a new guard who asked. and haven't found out yet!" just got There have been ticklish questions at issue between the and UN the United States Government over the loyalty screening of American personnel. discretion and conscience the functions entrusted to me as international civil servant of the United Nations. One prominent staff member committed suicide in what was believed to be despair over the attitude of Congress and a large section of the American people. accident or death attributable to the performance of official duties on behalf of the United Nations/' The wave stirred of loyalty investigations and fear for national security up within the United States in recent years has affected American personnel in the UN. TE did last week. affirm. Others resigned or lost their jobs as a result of suspicion that they had been connected with various organizations labeled as subversive. . A high American official. Its text: I ment solemnly swear (undertake. These may take a good deal of time to answer to the satisfaction of both parties. according to this story. loyalty. But they also earnestly want the American people to have a better understanding of the nature of the loyally that's required of UN staff members. authority and "face/* The Secretary-General and other leaders are inclined to have confidence in their own judg- UN for selecting staff members (with appropriate background from the proper governmental agencies that are willing to help supply it). "Do you work here?" the guard *1 don't know." replied the high official. since they relate to delicate balances of jurisdiction. This is clearly outlined in the oath or declaration which each staff member is obliged to make.

partly because of the relative permanence of his position (unlike the President of the General Assembly who changes each year.60 UN: TODAY AND TOMOKROW is This oath (or affirmation if the employee's religion forbids oaths) taken before the Secretary-General. UN He also has the more mundane and not less burdensome task of being the Secretariat's chief administrator. the International Labour Organisation.400.000. with a right stipulated in the Charter to bring any matter he considers a threat to peace before the Security Council and a duty for so long that he began to Hammarskjold who doesn't mind to notify the General Assembly when the Security Council ceases to consider such matters. It's only one of thousands of ceremonies and duties that are the lot of the Secretariat's head man. but the bought it while still under This is a six-story structure standing about fifty UN construction for $1. It was intended originally for the New York City Housing Authority. and the co-ordination of The other three are the Office of the Executive As- sistant to the Secretary-General. its embodiment and its spokesman to the world. now Dag pronounced "Hammershield") is a top political figure in the UN. Under the Executive Assistant. and the Protocol and Liaison Section. The Secretary-General (Trygve Lie if it's seem irreplaceable. among other things. such as UNESCO. . One of the four sections of his Executive Office deals with the Specialized Agencies. This gives him more power than may be apparent. the General Assembly Affairs and Administrative Section. is UN-ville*s Library. the World Health Organization and their activities. he has no set term of office provided in the Charter) and partly because of his widely ramified authority over the whole organization. or an authorized deputy. The Secretary-General. tends to become its chief personality. Under him are the already described eight regular departments of the Secretariat and the Technical Assistance Administration and Board. yards west of the Secretariat Building.

It receives about 2. documents and periodicals a year.000 books from the League of Nations Library. The small tables provide good working things an outsider notices with pleasure about the space. seventy Trust and Non-Self-Governing Territories .500 books annually.Its main reference room has 10. and borrows from other are received libraries about 6. and Specialized Agency documents.S. now known as the UN Geneva Library. and microfilm editions of the New Its Jork Times. and Economic and Social Affairs departments. ) they In addition. the Library has a continuing arrangement with the New York Public Library to borrow any of its books.000 periodicals and adds about 1. Woodrow Wilson Memorial about 19.XJX-VHAE 61 One of the first UN Library is that he may smoke in it He's allowed to move around in the stacks at will. lection. Documents. Legal. directed to the proper sections by co-operative and knowing librarians.000 books. It has a collection of 50. picked up and delivered daily by UN Library has four branches within the Secretariat Building serving the Political and Security Council Affairs. the Library Beginning at Hunter College in 1946 with a small reference colnow has about 150. State Department. and copies of al UN 000 maps.000 volumes. It has a collection of 40. routes 117. Books are chauffeurs. It loans more than 50.000 new official gazettes and documents each year. including all New York. Trusteeship.000 documents and periodicals from departmental libraries to offices The UN and individuals. (None of the 400.350 items a year to its pamphlet file.000 government documents. UN reference material and volumes from special collections.000 volumes. almost always as gifts. including all those of the U. is in remain in Switzerland. and receives about 80. including dictionaries and encyclopedias in many languages. from fifty-two member countries.000 volumes of documents and publications by and about the League of Nations. the Russian Izmstia and the Library contains London Times. It has copies of the laws and statutes of UN member nations.

a souvenir guidebook that is photographically excellent and packs in a generous assortment of pertinent facts about the organization. agricultural production. two-thirds of it gratuitously. the business district of UN-ville and the business is the sober one of world improvement. the lobby on the first lower level of the General Assembly Building. with manufacturing facilities scattered all over the world and more than a hundred sales agents. no whodunits mentioned. on public health. tax agreements. The published results find avid buyers among practical people . send material. on world economic trends. peddling products everywhere that people read. and twenty nonmember institutions also Many private organizations and There This are. such as its UN UN Columbia University Press in this country. The same restriction of subject matter applies to the retail book- shop on UN-ville's Main Street. find its specialized publications concretely valuable titles and are taking a steadily increasing interest in the that appear on the Bookshop's shelves. not escape.62 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW nations. (The taining to the is one of the largest book publishers on earth. no volumes of poetry. and it's open every day in the week. is still no how-to-be-happy tracts. This is chiefly an outlet for UN publications. on any number of other technical matters are within the capacity of the UN when no other organization has the facilities to make them. on on foreign investments. but in reading about the as well a great many others are interested UN UN Your United Nations. This is as seeing it. though it also sells books per- which are published commercially. no matter what their political attitude is toward the UN. Many drop in just for post cards. Business and professional people. which number close to three hundred a year. not counting translations or periodicals. quickly sold fifty thousand copies and was reprinted in a new edition of forty thousand. including all holi- days except Christmas. you will have noticed. Studies on international on tariff agreements. a sample of the general interest. no historical novels. ) An average of thirteen hundred customers patronize the Bookshop daily.

the Gift Shop has looked like a bargain sale at Macy's. The quantity of each item sold is too small to interest large-scale commercial retailers. bric-abrac and ceramics and jewelry from a wide variety of sources. silk Indian scarves. And a major purpose of the undertaking. The sales. Ever since its opening in the fall of 1952 (Mrs. he met resistance that no amount of argument could overcome. business in 1954. herself a buyer-graduate of the famous department store. and its executive director. including the 68 most prices are low. Thin. UN United States. the Bookshop on UN-vile's Main Street confines itself to serious-minded merchandise. and though books are expected to do a $300. He was sure his own countrymen would regard them with the same favor and that a profitable American market could be set up for the Ethiopian artists. however. whose work was selling at home for a matter of pennies. Mary any number shelves Dean. as well as a teacher of arts and crafts.000 The Bookshop If itself is its Department. but through the Gift Shop the arts of the and crafts of countries whose wares were previously unknown to Americans receive an introduction in favorable surroundings.TJN-VILLE in sixty-three countries. Roosevelt officiated at the ceremony). The Government felt that the primitives were too primitive. the near-by Gift Shop compensates with a colorful and by comparison frivolous assortment of goods for sale. though relatively minor in dollar volume. Scandinavian pewter pitchers. When he took his idea to the Government. and of other imported articles decorate its counters and but only momentarily. Merchandise of the Gift Shop comes from various member nations UN. an improper advertisement for the level artists this is . do stimulate the and craftsmen of distant and underdeveloped countries. has been hard put to it to keep it stocked. through Sales an appendage of the Public Information and Circulation Division. the American economic adviser to Ethiopia some years ago became fascinated by the beautiful primitive paintings on thin goatskin he saw in Addis Ababa. As an example of why such indigenous arts and crafts need stimulation.

C. fifty. and financial and other sorts of trouble with the mechanics they hired to do repairs. And everyone would Government. $2. be given charge of the cafeteria.. that where an individual failed in such a case. At the end of each fiscal year. be happier for buyer.500 was statutes. easily UN could override the Government's objections. ten dollars a share. an organiza- tion like the Gift Shop. Gift Shop and picture The to Gift Shop is an operation of the UN Co-operative. their Gift Shop and Bookshop purchases. . D. No body work is done. It regularly pays the legal limit in dividends. because safety regulations forbid it. members get a cash rebate on their year's buying. The point is. of course. and three mechanics internal health of and a washman attend to the cleanliness and UN-connected cars. But it still sells oil. The idea of the Co-op came up at a cocktail party back in 1947 when the UN was at Lake Success. when profits have been totted up. it artists. after the annual meeting. 4 per cent. the stock sells at share. Its Nowadays. Complaints tail over the situation were practically the whole content of the cockconversation until someone suggested the co-operative solution. there are 750 members of the Co-op. Incorporated under Washington. with only nebulous commercial outlets in mind.64 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW and not to of Ethiopian culture be exported. then had temporary quarters. Members and nonmembers alike save receipts on their service station payments. with a widespread reputation for high cultural standards and the weight of prestige behind it. which also runs the service station in the UN garage and has tried. The economic adviser even had to use caution getting his personal collection of the paint- ings out of the country when he left. the for gas and oil. Staff members were having mechanical trouble with prewar cars. where the UN In the present UN garage the Co-op service station sells no gasoline. but failed. the minimum purchase being one maximum. It enthusiastically agreed upon and the founders pledged to start their venture. Co-op made its first deal with the Sinclair Oil Company and set up a service station near the Sperry plant.

is that Congress also has the right to tax. It may strike Americans as odd that an organization of sixty great nations. Y/" branch and the main UN Post Office under the Secretariat Building are not run by the UN. but by members of UN of the United States Post Office Department. Although the private American Association for the is . no doubt. As a rare source of independent income. with contributions to meet it proportioned as fairly as he knows how among the member nations then hope that they deliver. stamps are the one source of independent income owned by the UN. 65 Nonmembers may apply this percentage of their purchases only against the price of membership stock is to Secretariat personnel. Only Besides document sales. N.000. including the Specialized Agencies and the Ex- panded Technical Assistance Program. this postmarked "United Nations. The printing stamps is an expense of the international organization. whereas the Secretary-General can merely propose a budget. is a branch of the UN Post Office. where visitors may buy stamps and mail letters Contrary to some opinion. they engender a paternal pride and concern far greater than the dollar proceeds would seem on the surface to warrant an esti- mated net for 1953 of $400. The only other reasonably immediate prospect the of proit-making UN has in the way these were set up by the guided tours.UN-VHXE usually 10 per cent. Our Conso. to the Co-op membership open delegation staffs of member nations and to the representatives of non- governmental organizations who UN UN regularly consult on or observe activities. selling UN stamps. The difference. gress spends scores of billions a year without excessive anxiety over their origin. with a modest over-all annual budget. UN. At any rate.000. the philatelic shop near the main Post Office does make money but for for the collectors. but States. all the rest of its funds being contributions from member governments. not for mailing use. right outside the Bookshop. Another busy spot on UN-ville's Main Street. revenue from their sale-for-use goes to the United philatelic profits accrue to the UN. should bother itself of only a hundred million or about a tiny sum like $400.

90. The of of sharp commercial small-loan practices.725 active accounts. themselves to life in New York. plus a 25^ membership fee. It reason for its interest rates growth is plainly apparent in a comparison of its with those of commercial institutions. The Credit Union began with thirteen charter whom in $1.24.000. Most of them want time adjusting UN to learn strict how we live. Under the direction of Miss Aroos Benneyan. and long-time foe members.75 and be $24. and at last reports were still paying back the substantial loan on which they started business ( girl guide uniforms cost $125 apiece). and In- formation from Non-Self-Governing Territories. to share in our social life. Back in 1948 the UN Volunteer Services was organized to do whatever was possible to meet this social problem. and a share costs $25. (On a $500 un- secured personal loan repaid within a year the charge by a conservative New York bank not a loan shark would be somewhere between $36. the idea has been eventually to turn the proceeds over to the UN General Fund. So far UN such . The maximum invest- On ment permitted is $3. its most successful venture has been a scheme for persuading American families to invite individuals.66 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBROW United Nations.8 per cent interest. There are now about 1. the charge by the Credit Union would savings accounts the Credit Union pays 3. For the financial needs of UN individuals there is a Credit Union. meaning members. families or groups for visits in their homes.) $58. But language difficulties. each and the shares became more chipped grew valuable. to get out of the UN orbit occasionally and experience for themselves the things that are familiar to Americans.75. staff members from far countries have a hard Admittedly. long hours of work and lack of opening acquaintanceships tend to stand in the way. It will accept up to $50 a month in deposits. started in 1948 largely through the inspiration of Victor Administrative Officer in the Department of Trusteeship Kwong.

and the invita- The UN guests frequently sort tions of tin's have been able to reciprocate and thereby further the relationships. Pennsylvania. not as VIFs. in which private hosts are not involved. New York. and everyone had a fine time. It was a weekend and some unusually in- telligent person supervising the local arrangements handled the question of churchgoing (none of the party was Christian) with excellent taste. On Saturday night each family invited its guests to attend church the next morning. but they joined in the ixee-trimming and other ceremonies. but as cross-section The UN people pay for their own representative staff members. The visits often have led to lasting friendships and to a marked broadening of social for the people. the mayor greeted a visitors. for periods varying from three days to three weeks. and the results have been remarkably free of disaster. without any approval or disapproval either up to the UN way. This had the good effect of creating a feeling of "belonging" without any sense of coercion. but otherwise they are guests. Communities usually take to the idea and give it a good deal of local publicity. and for incidentals. At Camp . the Chamber of Commerce treated them to a party of UN sight-seeing tour. if any. Volunteer Services also arranges outings of various sorts for UN employees. life UN off wel was a Christmas an Iranian family of four to a Scarsdale. and the various families among whom they were split up for housing had them join in our outlandish customs for celebrating Halloween. home. Both hosts and guests have been surprised by the rapid establishment of mutual understanding. transportation on such jaunts (Volunteer Services arranges it). treatment of household employees. but left the choice very clearly visitors. At Skidmore. They are chosen. travel etiquette.UN-VUXE visits 67 have been made In seventeen states. like. visit by It was the Middle-Easterners* first exposure to an American Christ- One unlikely-sounding holiday that came mas. Miss Benneyan gives them a very practical briefing before they leave describing proper clothes.

Kowarski spends a day work- have been offered at reduced ing out solutions for the various problems that result in that home. And. Dora Kowarski. at a special price of five dollars and meals. the UN has a Staff Counselor. this is When new Secretariat personnel are one of the things they are told. For the special pleasure members on Sunday afternoons discounts. etc. but also with the really personal problems of staff members. The UN Credit Union is useful for the more standard loan purposes. There are other amusements available after working hours. fifteen hundred problems were brought for consideration. For example. Mrs. rhythmic gym classes. The first rule of the Staff Counselor's office is that information UN divulged there stays there. 68 typical for instance. Again in the private life area. hiking. before going they had spade-is-a-spade all possible embriefing on manners. There is bowling and a stamp club. but there are cases of exceptional need it cannot cover. clothes and customs.UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Nawakwa. There is a staff section of fifty-six seats in Carnegie Hall available to at half-price. He needs extensive medical care and rest. no urging that the staff use it Yet. to obviate resort American summer barrassment. the ones that aren't amenable to group treatment. New York. whose job it is to help not only with the usual difficulties of being an alien. rowing. in three and a half years. Florida of the distaff side many New York stores give UN UN holiday trips prices. there is no publicity for the confidential service.. Money is naturally one of these. a man with a wife and two children at home collapses from stomach ulcers. briefed. danca person for both housing ing. A large proportion of these were primarily a matter of blowing off . takes note of badminton tournaments. Mrs. closer to home. again. they got swimming. And taps the Staff Benevolent Fund to help with expenses. golf tournaments. No one outside it has a right to see the records or demand any disclosure of what they contain in connection with individuals. near Lake Sebago. meetings of the Art Club and the Bridge Club. Otherwise. The Secretariat News. like any local American paper.

wanted agencies. surprising if romance failed to make some sort of in such an office. So the Staff Counselor had to arrange a marriage by proxy. the Staff Counselor's office managed to arrange a dis- new governments placed person It status. and the latter has power (which it has been known to use) to set aside decisions of the Secretary-General. before the ceremony was performed. Nevertheless. Since countries nowadays have sudden and violent of many political complexion. and they lived happily ever afterward. Visas for "terminated" employees are a recurring puzzle. tions. because not all states permit proxy marriages. But. The . or leave the country. changes sometimes of sovereignty as well. the Staff Counselor spends a great deal of time listening to expressions of discontent over working conditions. salaries and superiors. But her parents refused to let her join him. Kowarski found one that did. from rate of pay to prices in the The Council has a joint Appeals Board and an Administrative Tribunal for the more difficult or high-level-policy questo cafeteria. their nationals often do not dare go home after losing UN jobs. UN This item of travel is a major characteristic of Me in UN-vflle. they do not have and cannot get credentials from theneither to go elsewhere or stay here. off in For emergency medical aid the 3. but Mrs. field worker in one of the would be A some wild and distant area on UN business.UN-VUXE steam. This wasn't quite so easy as had been expected. In the case of a Chinese. one of its main uses is for inoculation of cholera or typhoid or whatever diseases they are likely to enagainst counter on business in far places. One instance that called for a search appearance of the statute books is recountable. to marry an American girl.300 employees have available a well-equipped modern clinic in the Secretariat Building. travelers rather typically. On the other hand. cil 69 The UX has an employee organization called the Staff Counwith representatives in all offices available for consultation or complaint on practically anything and everything that can happen Headquarters personnel. He couldn't return.

With the exceptions necessary selves as constantly on exhibition. perhaps more accurately. staff members present to the world a uniformly pleasant front of courtesy and helpfulness. Perhaps they do. just as a watchmaker delicately and painstakingly adjusts the hairspring while considering the ideal operation of the watch as a whole. it should be noted that squabbles do occur and jockeying for position. and mostly eager. it's World duty an international civil servant of the a citizen's as well as his privilege to idea. to go places. Partly it's out of normal human curiosity and venturesomeness. but there are vary- . and envy and various other well-known Perhaps a UN colloquialism will illustrate the general point. But the wider-than-usual outlook on life that evidently work seems to have a lubricating effect on human goes with UN to prove the rule. is easy least of all getting along with human beings. But to them to be partly. smoothly. Nothing. And he has an ability to keep that comprehensive image spread fast on his retina while concentrating patiently on the particular tiny part of the repair work that's his own assignment. High officials are distinguishable by their fine views of the East Biver. too. tenaciously arguing a minor point of parliamentary procedure. everybody's oyster. The UN idea is essentially the One Since land. saving a dollar on maintenance expense. It's conspicuous enough in a country given to rough pleasantries for an observer to wonder if they regard themrelations. with everyone a citizen. of course. The it world physically. know his own UN has a particular call to see the world. but international civil servant not only has an urge to see the also to see it in his mind's eye functioning as might. In less fancy terms this means seeing a happier future for the human race in teaching an Afghanistan fanner how to use a hoe. bit failings. But if all this dedication and human-kindness concentrated in one community seem a ordinary human overpowering. it's because the world rather literally seems their oyster or. the parts working in unison instead of clashing and banging and breaking one another to bits. filing letters or even pounding out a routine press release.70 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW people here are willing at least.

71 ing degrees of elevation among them and a 7 number in the of office windows. marked by the a three-pane pasha** is well up these are **a hierarchy. but a ""four-pane pasha* tops him. UN-ville may not be precisely what town boosters like to call big happy family." but it is the only place in history where the whole world has hung its hat and gone to work on the common problems of mankind. Hence. ..

What **They ought to turn it the UN Does for Health into a hospital/* ing over his shoulder toward the New York. International Labour Organ- isation. UN. and at UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Fund). is another UN that few Americans know about at all. International Bank for Reand Development. International Meteorological Telecommunication Union and International Civil Aviation Organization. though they have left the other seven flat. Food and Agriculture Scientific Organization of the United Nations. UN a bartender mutters.} . would be to name them. A fair bet against any group of Quiz Kids They are: World Health Organization. or rather this part of the UN. United Nations Educational.CHAPTER 3 The THE UN Nobody Knows way and the UN UN Vishinsky knows in one UN some American tabloid newspapers know in another are puzzlingly different from the any nonpartisan citizen can see for himself in New York. and Cultural Organization. Let's have a look at all ten of the Specialized Agencies. Oddly enough. a UN that may be more important in the long run than the one repre- But there sented This by political talk in the Assembly or Security Council. is unromantically called the Specialized Agencies. International construction Monetary Fund. pointplant on the East River in OK {72. there are three of these Agencies that the Russians continue to support. World Organization. Universal Postal Union.

UN NOBODY KNOWS don't 73 What lie and other Americans with the same prejudice forget or know is that it really is a hospital probably the biggest. One of WHO's most vital services is in this field. The less burden children are to parents. A plague-bearing flea can attach the clothing of a visitor in a Middle Eastern bazaar and on Tuesday or Wednesday start spreading a blackon Monday. itself to WHO . eventually to conduct their own health programs. Three diseases are the chief concern of the World Health Organization. from. star message against isolationism in New York or Chicago. These are malaria. best and farthest-reaching hospital the world has ever known. for in the long run what's bad for Indonesians or if "So what Africans or Icelanders It is is also bad for us. to take thought of political matters. And here. in coand FAO. Since disease and low productivity are an inseparable pair of areas of land that farmers industries afflictions. either. spraying cuts down the malaria rate. And not a very bright attitude. Indonesians do have yaws?" is an all too common. the health effort has operation with WHO a spiraHng effect on family productivity. Where they are endemic or epidemic. calloused attitude of some Americans. Twenty-four monitors stand by the radio and telehours a day. there are not only mOlioiis of deaths 5 there are also great diseases known and economic do not have the strength to cultivate. tuberculosis and the various venereal afflictions. too. They are the most serious and contagious to mankind. the more parents can do for children. Children in want get special care from UNICEF. the point of view both of mortality disability. a significant but frequently ignored fact that disease in our time travels just as fast as the airplane. mainly syphilis. With higher incomes and better nourishment they are able to cope with other problems to increase their productivity further. and handicrafts that languish because workers lack the energy to do a proper job. to bring aid to underdeveloped areas of the world. to learn new skills. every day. while the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) provides expert tilling advice that healthier UN WHO often works with other Specialized Agencies of the DDT men and women can then put to good use.

had given more than a hundred governments and territories. Under the UN's expanded Technical Assistance Program it was allotted an additional five million for public health projects. Therefore the mass interthem goes along with the attack on syphilis. spoke of the experi- . No flea-bearing rats operatives had were found at the arrival port. that the disappointment over limitations on financial support is understandable. (Actually. and WHO of disease. the best talents of all the basis. in two years of operation. vessel into quarantine. to while WHO did electronic detective work.74 phone fever UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW in Geneva. using and stimulating when it first was so startling seemed auspices. But yaws and bejel. ) Dr. But present-day a great deal has been accomplished. though not transmitted venereally. The inland breeding place was immediately had an unheralded victory over the spread off. syphilis is the only strictly venereal disease in this operational category. Brock Qnsholm. another case of the plague was tracked down and the two were connected by fleas found in the ship's marked baled rice cargo.677. WHO There. former head of WHO. But the instantaneous organization of vaccines and medical crews broke the back of the threat in four days. and ignorance. so check backward to the source of the ship's cargo. along with poverty WHO's on a concerted world-wide world's nations. Take the campaign. By direct help to the end of 1952. practicable. where the Agency's headquarters Once they heard a message from Panama that yellow out. have similar symptoms and results. WHO At this crossroads of the Western Hemisphere a true epidemic could have been dreadful. Switzerland. Another time a ship arrived at Singapore with one suffering had broken crew member from a high temperature and other symptoms of bubonic Radio messages to and from Geneva promptly got the plague.000. deep in the Asian inland. The idea of attacking disease. are located. even in so short a time and with under UN such meager financing. VD national attack on and respond to the same treatment. WHO regular expenses in 1952 came to $7.

as an example of the need for such training. some places where the incidence rose to 90 per cent. in the manner of all wars. Rotterdam has been one of the world's prime sources of syphilis VD not only because ships carried it from there to the ports of other continents. World War II. brought a great increase of VD but it also brought the magic drug. the eradication of syphilis among any group as migra- tory as sailors presents problems. cure than control. supervises conferences of medical people. had only forty-four doctors. The present working aim is less Preliminary surveys showed large areas of Europe and Asia where half the people were syphilitic. One of the ? WHO WHO early trial raids occurred in the remote Ghund Valley of India. On presentation of the book he gets whatever further care is indicated. together with the dates and other particulars of his treatment up to the moment. free. with all but two of them practicing in Addis Ababa). a doculike a passport that each patient carries with Mm. penicillin. Historically speaking. right through the heart of Europe. So to match its mass attacks on malaria and tuberculosis. where 65 per cent of the entire population had positive blood tests. Obviously. and even offers fellow- WHO ships for the training of nurses and doctors in underdeveloped countries (the whole country of Ethiopia.UN NOBODY KNOWS ment 75 in control Ms experts conducted among sailors touchat the key port of Rotterdam in ing Europe. . The drive had completely stopped the spread single-shot peniof the disease. gives expert technical advice on the treatment of syphilis. Aside from modernized methods of diagnosis (the quick WHO Kahn and factor in ment Kline tests) and treatment (penicillin). in any port through which he passes. decided in favor of a mass attack on syphilis. Every infected person in the valley was given a single shot of later check teams returned to assess the penicillin* Five months results. cillin Their tests turned up no new cases. It shows its his entire clinical history of syphilis. the important success was innovation of the treatment book. But the experiment has had success. but also because the sailors of smaller vessels spread it along the Rhine Valley.

34 starvation to American minds. was approximately equivalent to that of a couple of quinine tablets. UNICEF and together began the biggest mass vaccination program in countries got WHO . farm families in malarious areas had an average gross income per year of $196.15.000). covered with dreadful sores. bejel and pinta. an injection or two of penicilHn does even more. At the end of World War II millions of children in Europe and Asia were undernourished. And the land healthy farmers found themselves able to cultivate increased of flies by 67 per cent. DDT eradication along with the mosquitoes sharply reduced typhoid fever and dysentery. involving single penicillin shots. As incidental benefits. then clothing. chickens relieved of their pest afflictions laid more eggs. An antiyaws campaign in Haiti. get his injection and within a few days turn up as sound as a bell. In the light of the suffering of 300. results. Afterward. The annual cost of this antimalaria campaign. never-ending miracle A of satisfaction to UN Held workers is to see a crippled youngster. bejel and pinta run a close race to syphilis in causing human misery and economic loss. Food and Before Agriculture experts got up figures on the economic DDT spraying. underclothed and often homeless prime targets for tuberculosis. Yaws. it seems insignificant.000.000. income in those same areas promptly rose to $385. After the insecticide campaign. The in eleven first winter three million children European emergency food as a primary measure through UNICEF.000 people back to work and increased Haitian national production by five million dollars a year. Greece was the scene of intensive antimalaria measures by WHO teams. sent 100. cows gave 15 to 20 per cent more milk.000 victims of malaria the world over (with annual deaths 3. disfiguring and often incapacitating diseases that plague great areas of the Orient. It cures them.76 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW With yaws. but well above the world average. per person protected. Some idea of the extent of this economic loss is available in the estimated annual cost of syphilis and this to United States industry alone: a hundred million dollars doesn't include hospital and medical care just loss of productivity.

gives indication of the work. plague and cholera in India. The world program calls for nearly 60. (2) central technical services in many fields^ such as health statistics. Michigan. Nevertheless. Detroiters spent $200. and it has organized a variety of special training centers.400. The Detroit experiment not cheap in the spectacular sense of spraying to get rid of malaria nevertheless saved 1. where there has been a five-year program aimed at control of the disease. ( 1 ) advisory services to governments particularly with regard to control of communicable diseases and training public health workers. the educa- tional and nutritional measures used to fight against it are hard to assess on a readily understandable basis of statistics. The guess it's that tuberculosis takes five million lives a year. In Asia alone 9. specifically against tuberculosis. tries. tioned above. 3.000. It provides of whom there are WHO consultants for schools. laboratory material and teaching equipment.600 fellowships to doctors. an item from Detroit. supplies medical literature.000 WHO has many other purposes besides fighting the diseases menIts over-all on the program. in the control of typhus in Afghanistan. epidemics battles by no The communicable diseases against which Its experts have helped means stop with those already mentioned.000 children and vaccinating wherever TB is has so far failed to penetrate. in setting up and efficient national health services on their own. (3) izing therapeutic substances. aside from BCG vaccination. Up to the end of 1952 granted 2.000 a year in sanitaria benefits that should accrue from WHO's DDT costs alone.000 children have been with the preparation called with tuber- culin. WHO .THE UN NOBODY KNOWS history.200. 77 BCG.000.000 of testing them vaccinated. A prooperating digious amount of training is needed in underdeveloped areas. health research. but often a slow killer and. seminars and demonstrations in many countries. aim is to advise and help member counmore than seventy. standardemergency aid in and disasters. nurses and sanitary engineers from seventy countries. WHO's work is divided roughly into three categories.

78 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW filariasis leprosy in Ceylon. way that we can all under- mother from South Africa. Without precisely the same variant of every twenty Group O a transfusion would have been as fatal as no transfusion at all. It was a nice idea. over both the others a tracing of the world geography of ill health. The transfusion was flown to London and the woman's Me was saved. sounding maladies UN's and a clever one got the idea of showing three Specialized Agencies maps of the world. finally. The doctors w6re sure she would die without a blood transfusion. Out of 998 blood samples tested one offered by a Somerset blacksmith turned out to be right. became dangerously ill and entered a hospital. Now WHO had nothing to do with the hospital in which this . But they knew her blood was a rare variant of Blood A Group O that occurs in only one person out of thousand. In both London and Washington smallpox. however. but it didn't work out for video because the three maps were identical in outline and showed up on the screen as only one. It's many different efforts of the UN turn out hard sometimes to hold people's attention with world-embracing concepts. hookworm. in the Sudan. The figures get too big. rabies and poliomyelitis. trachoma in China and the cerebrospinal meningitis Philippines. The first was to outline illiteracy. the masses of sufferers too great to hold our sympathy as human individuals. has been used often to illustrate dramatically Once some TV people were preparing a program about the how closely related so to be. (elephantiasis) in South Thailand. But sometimes is WHO able to give help in a humanly dramatic stand and appreciate. Holland and Denmark. it maintains influenza centers for study of this practically universal affliction. When news in of her plight was broadcast offers of donations came from Germany. On top of that was to go a tracing of the areas of hunger. The incident. as well as from England. France. and in various other places worked with less bizarrelike diphtheria. and. whooping cough. visiting in London.

One of WHO's important services mentioned earlier but not named jaw-breakingly called the Epidemiological Intelligence Service. definitions A committee of WHO does the same job for so-called Tjiologicals" A things like insulin. WHO and what ones to oppose. which the South 1 African mother gave as her blood type. has one other important responsibility of this sort. the symbol H* R * (cdE/cdE). This is the Geneva office that keeps a twenty-four-hour-a-day watch for outbreaks of the plague and other epidemic diseases. Where it the picture was deep in the background. was immediately understandable to the London doctors and they made no mistake in the transfusion. hashish.UN NOBODY KNOWS woman lay. WHO's International Pharmacopoeia has standardized the and standards of identity. By agreements among the member nations its findings have the force of law. cocaine. but rarely receives their attention. Thus. Although poliomyelitis usually is thought of by experts of it at . penicillin. It WHO is the question of addiction as applied to drugs. Old-time "dope" was simple enough to identify: opium. But the jet-speed spread can work the other way. titles. heroin. we think of it as fast-acting protection against jet-speed of horrible diseases from poverty-stricken foreign lands to spread our shores. 79 entered nor with the broadcast of her story. But the chemists are busy nowadays with a thousand new has to determine what ones pain-killers and sleeping pills. What this means to the ordinary purity citizen is that he can take a prescription to a drugstore with confidence. morphine. Under its auspices international standards for blood-grouping had been agreed upon and named. quality. It is this work of international standardization that should have special meaning for ordinary citizens. vaccines that are more difficult to test for uniformity. strength and of drugs in common use. diabetic victim can tell you how Important standardization of product is with insulin. too and has. in the sigare reasonably safe natory countries. If we think is all. whether he's in Teheran or home in Topeka. WHO has to decide whether any new drug is habit-forming or not.

which contain about two-thirds of the human race. you ought to look at the rest of the world. starvation. women and It children left alive in the world. and two In colossal world wars failed to dent rising population rapidly. it Someone put this bluntly: "If you killed off half the people in the underdeveloped countries. After centuries of disease. If so. or at the best hunger. semistarvation totals." to those seemed who set up the UN Food and Agriculture would be not only more humane than all. they rose ever mouth to feed appears more on earth . It's calculated that an extra fact. Over a fifteen-year period from 1934 to 1949 the respective rates of increase were 9 per cent for food. The problem for agriculturally backward countries which means a very large part of the world is the brutal fact that food production falls behind what's needed to keep the population alive. To listen to the acrimonious debate over "parity prices" and watch the heated pulling and hauling that go on in American politics over support or nonsupport of markets for farmers' produce. you might not think of our agricultural situation as happy. there still wouldn't be enough food for the men. Therefore. 12 per cent for people. but more practical. At the same time world population increases at a faster rate than farm produce. it not so long ago broke out in India "iron lungs'' after it by air. and in Chile. The aim here for a long time has been to control our output in such a way that food doesn't glut the markets and depress prices to the point where farmers lose money.80 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW as a plague on privileged countries and doctors in underdeveloped countries sometimes have trouble recognizing the symptoms. Our farms are hugely productive and could be even more so. is the common lot of most human beings. and WHO had to send What the UN Does for Food Production With Americans the only serious problem about food is finding money to buy it. Organization that a concerted effort to increase food production this.

He a cotton expert and was sent abroad under the Technical Assistance Program to advise on how to improve Afghan cotton producis tion. because he little or no useful information about the place he was being sent not even weather reports. usually in combination with other UN Specialized Agencies. such as the World Health Organization. Kabul. W. healthy. proved some of the practical possibilities in specific areas. Three hundred miles later by jeep Dickinson saw it: some old steel-beam turning plows that he dated to the time of Noah. choosing it in places along the same parallel of latitude in the United States. from the East to the West Coast In the walled capital of Afghanistan. and some awkward old mattocks that weighed about twelve pounds apiece. where modem methods were used. Dickinson returned from ten months spent on the rich soil of northern Afghanistan and in an interview gave some fascinating examples of these obstacles. looking at the results of FAQ's 1946 world food survey (the first such survey ever attempted). he couldn't judge in advance the likeliest type of cotton and had to take with him a variety of seed. Later FAO experiments. day in and day out. the experts were convinced the job could be done. 81 every one and a half seconds. surplus crops were common and easily could be increased if markets for them existed. A good part of their confidence stemmed from the clear fact that in literate. An FAO technical expert named W. could find Dickinson's problems began in the United States. When he asked for small common garden hoes the Afghans looked blank They'd never heard of such things.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS out. Not knowing the weather. most of the government ministers had never made the mountainous trip to the north where he was scheduled to work and had no idea what equipment might be there for his use. year in and year Moreover. Dickinson's first job in Afghanistan was to design a hoe . Thus. But no more than a beginning can be claimed and there are formidable obstacles. energetic countries.

but here he ran into different obstacles. weeds and twigs. and after a few hours of instruction they were hoeing away as familiarly as if they'd been bom on a Mississippi plantation. his second year thirty. and he finally won the battle. they got their Government to order thirty thousand hoes. They wanted to thin the standing cotton out by hand. Maintenance men have to be shipped in along with the tractors. there was practically nothing else they could use in that treeless country. when they saw his methods bringing three and a half times the former yield. there was cake. Afghanistan previously had to import all but 10 per cent of Its spindles cloth. then return and set up a three-thousand-acre model plantation in the north. he admitted .82 workers UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW and have a hundred copies made* Later lie had to teach his how to use them. to double the country's weaving capacity. His first year he trained eight agricultural students to spread the gospel of modernization. But their beginning attitude was "negative. Dickinson could. make it seven times the former yield with fertilizer. plus a five-hundred-acre one in the south. he claimed. Dickinson made a strong impression with that three-and-a-half-fold increase. The Afghan Government also bought fifteen thousand new from Germany. Nevertheless. Still later. aside from grass. counting on Dickinson's expanded cotton production to feed them. The Afghan Government sent him back to the United States to buy forty-five tractors. Moreover. The sheep expert wanted FAO it competition for the cottonseed for winter feed. Cottonseed cake turned out to be the best available fertilizer. there Dickinson said that once you gained the Afghans* confidence was nothing they wouldn't do to follow your suggestions." even though they realized they were behind the times and needed to change. but he insisted on at least this much of modern methods. These students teach farmers to use the new methods and also other students who will spend their full time teaching other farmers and students so that the lesson spreads quickly. but it was used as fuel in their pottery plants and.

Asked what co-operation he had to get for his work. diplomacy was as 83 much a requirement of success as technical competence." he overcame by acquiring a loyal and But Dickinson "nearly had to break his neck" intelligent interpreter. It set up a Council to keep business going between annual meetings of the governing body. the FAO Conference. One of the Council's duties is to keep a watchful now) pool such eye on price trends and supplies.- 800. Ifs not certain .THE UN NOBODY KNOWS Obviously. as usual in new underoccur. and arrange to have member nations (sMy-six When FAO began in 1945 roots level It had information regularly. lie said with. the fanners Hardly a soft assignment. statisticians were gathering the facts takings.000 tons. surprises about rice most important single item of life in much of the All this may sound FAO Oriental world. but.000 tons. various areas and like this: "1947 They were comparing annual production totals of came upon one area whose figures went something 2. its job wasn't on quite such a grassto gather statistics.000. as in the world food survey mentioned above. the central government. and his employer couldn't be sure he knew what was difficulty The language going on. before he got him to translate accurately. The other is the farmers* eagerness and ability to adopt new methods once they've been shown their value.000 tons. unadomment: *The provincial govtelling ernors. Two main report." The 1949 total was so wildly out of proportion that they rubbed their eyes and asked the gov- ernment in question for confirmation or explanation. I948--2. so that interested parties may take proper action. pretty routine. 1950 2. Add a third: that it's neither a quick nor easy job to show them.100.200. and the village chiefs. 194927. One points stick out like sore thumbs from Dickinson's is the almost incredible primitiveness of the tools and methods used in backward areas. Eastern politeness sometimes prevented him from passing along statements that might be unwelcome. and send notice around when surpluses or shortages seem likely to occur.000 tons.

in Rome. up nutrition education programs and to establish a government varieties dE nutrition service.S. a vaccine to control contagious means of curing mastitis. ton. and set up headquarters first in Washingbooks. oilseed crops and vegetables. It got together an organization of more than six hundred workers. artificial insemination. would estimate the local crop. Italy. whick FAO gets . when the UN FAO mediately important project for Technical Assistance. whatever his title. then. who and it was no part of their duty to question or criticize if something had gone haywire beneath them. it was properly entered in the civil servants. For European dairy herds depleted by the war. Despite such minor contretemps. legumes. from member countries take samples for experimental purposes. that Expanded Technical Assistance Program was ready to accept the largest share of its twenty-million-dollar budget largest because it was agreed increased food production and management was the most im1950. Their addition was faultless. Already FAO had had pertinent experience. By first got under way. in 1951. books. FAO managed to compile enormously useful background material. These local estimates were put together at higher and higher levels of government til they reached the bureau where thought of themselves as having a position worth did the final totting up and set the sum down in their capitalization. In 1949 FAO established a seed fund of outstanding cereals. In Greece FAO nutritionists had helped to set started a school breakfast feeding plan for children. who was U. roughly. a large proportion of them food or agricultural scientists. grasses. FAO experts had provided several solutions: the latest techniques of abortion. but they learned something valuable about the workings of civil service minds in that part of the world. The present Director-General is Norris E.84 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW they ever got either in satisfactory terms. so that was the end of it. was that the leading man of each little village. a farmer from Oregon. Dodd. The system of gathering such figures. Undersecretary of Agriculture before joining the FAO staff.

for experimental planting. for example. It has sponsored Fisheries Councils in the Indo-Pacific area and in the Mediterranean. Also. Fish may be more so. promo- . but early indications. to success. etc. such as a 25 to 30 per cent yield increase in the Mediterranean area. (it 35 this information to any- knowing the advantages of hybrid com seed produces three-quarters of a billion more bushels of com in the United States than farmers could grow with the older. and more recently to India. stocking FAO has sent its experts pretty around the world. have found a few things in their wanderings that they knew nothing about before a Japanese-developed sweet potato on Formosa. that the to increase their supply of proteins was with fish. FAO knew that the most important need in the diet of undernourished peoples quickest and easiest way was proteins. pointed isn't always a one-way matter. offered advice on research. to mature early or late. refrigerating. Chile. and an early-maturing muskmelon in the same area. in 1947. A disease-resistant bell pepper found near Lanchow in China. began sending it to twenty countries of East. For technical Information on commercial ishiog techniques. administration and marketing problems. Spreading agricultural know-how States experts The United A frost-resistant apricot in Thailand.. You probably have seen pictures of some of the results towering over the heads of Iowa visitors. in ponds. John Fridthjof. tion stunt in Santiago. etc. Earlier. It will take time to test all the possi- FAO Europe and the Near bilities for best results in all the varied conditions of the countries to which the sample seeds were sent. to thrive on drought or excess moisture. And one of its all much even organized a widely publicized experts. These hybrids can be bred for a variety of characteristics to meet local conditions to resist pests and diseases.UN NOBODY KNOWS performance records on the seeds and gives one interested. But perhaps such items aren't too interesting to nonfarmer readers. open-pollinated varieties). with a higher starch content and a higher yield.

a pleasant story about fresh water fish and the FAO. But doing a More than 90 per cent FAO good deal of be more There starts subject of fresh water specimens that may to low-income inlanders who can't pay the meaningful work on the cost of transportation is and refrigeration from the seas. Furthermore.86 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Not to be misunderstood. Schuster instantly saw a practical point that overshadowed the mystery.000 hake during the week. Schuster looked curiously at them when a fish culture expert its mouth. But Mr. above the city o Santiago. he called it Fish Week.000 visitors to his displays on Santa Lucia hill. particularly the deep-sea variety. No one knows how far mankind really could go in exploitation of this ready-and-waiting source of is nutrition. were mouth-breeders. native to the coast of Mozambique and never before seen either in Indonesia or any of the thousands of miles of water between Indonesia and Mozambique. and a movie theater that gave evening performances of fishery subjects made in Canada. daily radio talks. lectures at the University of Chile and recipe give-aways. Commercial booths on the kilos of fried hill sold 35. The farmer displayed five fingerlings he*d raised in his pond and while Mr. Here he had a small museum showing fishery development in the country. H. of the world's fish food has been taken from the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Schuster was visiting an Indonesian fish farmer. he drew 250. usually in the shallow depths off the edges of continents. before either the FAO or the was born. It back in 1939. they were mouth-breeders They one released spawn from of an African species called Tilapia. How they made the trip no one is likely ever to know. Since fresh water fish usually spawn only . And at the end of the week the Chilean Minister of Economy and Trade announced that the follow- ing year (1952) his Government would spend $3. Publicizing it with thousands of posters and pamphlets. Fish Week thus turned out to be both a business and an FAO triumph.000 on new shore f acilities for fishing activities and on modernizing fishing craft and gear. UN named W. the United Kingdom and the Scandinavian countries.720. then another did the same.

and they need other kinds of attention to prevent their waste and to encourage their replacement. But the reasons. Lack of wood presented itself at the end of the war as one of the toughest obstacles to restoring housing for the people of tries involved in the struggle. They were just what the fish culture The Tilapia's young were introduced into other Indonesian ponds and by the time Mr. * Wood is used for cooking Timber is (though coal and gas and for construction. coun- FAO studied the problem on a European regional rather than . In the markets of Bangkok the Thais are glad to pay as much for them as they do for the most popular native fish.000. Farmers use trees as windbreaks raw material plastics. Trees and forests need scientific care and protection to grow. all too). It comes as a minor shock to some people to learn that trees are as much a responsibility of the Food and Agriculture Organization even when they don't bear fruit as hake or cotton plants or cattle. expert ordered for Indonesia. where they bred as happily as in Indonesia. In 1950 FAO sent a couple of hundred Tilapia from Indonesia to Thailand. fish farms have to be restocked each season with fingerlings caught in streams no easy task or raised in hatcheries. and they need the to check soil erosion and to help keep water from flowing forests away to the sea too fast. brackish or salt water. Mr. for textile fibers. But the Tilapia bred without a tremor in fresh. when stated. are clear enough. for paper. The Japanese propaganda experts found it worth while to claim their country had introduced the fish. and by the end of 1952 numbered 100. for electricity are. stagnant. Schuster got back from his war years in Japanese prison camps they had increased and multiplied to the status of a staple food.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS 87 in rivers or special breeding ponds.. But artillery and aerial bombing also destroyed forests. World War II destroyed a tragic number of homes in Europe that could have been most easily and quickly replaced with wooden structures. Schuster's fingerlings clearly are making a peaceful conquest of Asia.

The rape Meanwhile. of America's unparalleled forests is still an unforgivable belated conservation efforts during the past generation have sin. and also on various leftovers of feasible to establish a sugar-cane bagasse. of reading a morning newspaper that stems from a Borneo bamboo . then. in Scandinavia and North America.88 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW and made suggestions which resulted in sending to were still able to export limber millions of dollars' worth of forestry equipment. as well as lesser woods. but FAO gave most of the technical advice and influenced national basis countries that national governments not only to begin large-scale planting of new forests. FAO experts study ways to lessen the drain on Canadian. but begun to prove the arguments of their proponents. motor fuel. etc. but to mesh their forestry programs with those of other countries into a regional pattern. such as plastics. for example. By the end of 1948 lumber supplies had risen almost high enough to meet the demand. in the not too distant future. that well-established methods could pulp tropical hardThey agreed woods. Late in 1952 a conference of thirty pulp and paper experts at an FAO conference in Rome concluded that it would be tropical brand-new pulp industry based on and subtropical woods. and that varying cost factors in less tropical agricultural products developed countries (higher chemical. transportation and interest charges as against lower labor and raw material prices) might balance out and permit actual competition with the old established pulp industries. The UN Economic Commission for Europe had a considerable hand in this good work. Swedish and American forests made by the insatiable hunger for newsprint and the other products of wood pulp. but worked right along with everyone else toward getting the facts as straight as possible. Director-General prise Dodd noted with what seemed like some sur- and a good deal of satisfaction that representatives of private industry at this conference made no effort to withhold their knowl- edge and experience from the FAO members. You have a good chance.

many areas of the world entirely of trees. since it is a tree that proverbially grows fast and has almost as many uses as species. The hungry larvae of the tent caterpillar. programs established to maintain the forests that which partly means replanting after cutting. the entomologists. that many improbable places on the globe wifl of Down Under. In its native North America the fall webworm restrained by the lethal discipline of forty different parasites that feed on it Hence its harmlessness. Late in 1952 a group of experts from interested countries went with officials FAO for a two-months tour of Australia. to learn all they could of its f oibles. some almost The obvious advantages and water conservation afforded by woodlands make these lands a subject of interest to FAO. and nations to the west of Austria are seriously alarmed about their prospects. of their troubles In maintaining existing forests required enlisting emergency aid from another FAO branch of experts. which number a thousand. But somehow. back in 1940. and they would like to create new forests. have been denuded of of forests. FAO forestry experts focused their attention for reforestation purposes on the eucalyptus. It seems likely. FAO existing foresters would like to see the best possible use made of which partly means reduction of waste. Cause of it all was an insect that Americans regard quite properly as a pest but innocuous the fall webworm (Hyphantria One cunea) or tent is caterpillar. like to see definite exist. they would timber. a future have a look as result. so inoffensive in Amer- . the tree's best-known habitat. care and usefulness. where they were first noted.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS forest. Since the only continent in the world without a eucalyptus is Antarctica. specimens crossed the Atlantic undetected and passed nervous borders without authority to a place near Budapest in Hungary. 89 while your wife brings in breakfast wearing a plastic apron life that started For soil different reasons as Philippine teak. Other Eastern bloc countries besides Hungary are no doubt affected. Since then their numberless progeny have infested large areas of Yugoslavia and spread well into Austria.

for example. health and culture. in living standards. There is a possibly apocryphal daim that one ingenious FAO expert invented a machine to halt in- sect immigration a kind of large mechanism at the small end and a megaphone. Females flew lovingly in and were of ground to bits. involving 9. under a new convention sponsored by FAO a single form does for all). As an emergency measure the FAO and various European countries had to institute a major spraying and dusting campaign. but interest has been intense and the full story. ate UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW every leaf from over a hundred species of temperate zone shrubs and plants. UNESCO and the Mexican Government Pdtzcuaro. of parasite policemen were left behind in America and the larvae have been wanton in unimpeded destruction of plants and trees.000.000 trees in Yugoslavia. using local resources. with a grinding sound-maker that imitated the mating call of the male insect. or helping to establish standards FAO under which plant life may pass from country to country (the Dutch once had to make out eighty different forms for exporting tulip bulbs to different countries. have joined forces to see what could be done to improve the lives of all the inhabitants of a backward community. The final outcome is by no means yet assessable. when it is ready to be told.90 ica. The forty types trees. but Perhaps its . people from all most dramatic educational effort has been at where FAO. once they got to Europe. 300. As a long-term measure FAO sponsored a co-operative research program on the biology of the fall webworm and also the American parasites that have to be exported to do police duty abroad. set up training schools of them by the and established fellowships (perhaps five hundred end of 1952) for special training of qualified local over the world. But the key purpose of scientific FAO remains the dissemination many scientific modern knowledge. has plenty of other problems of a border patrol nature desert locust control. It has held meetings. A practical insurance project FAO hopes one day to set up. should be fascinating.000 in Austria little and not a money.

is establishment of an Emergency Food Reserve. their only practical source of help on a world-wide basis. pieces of cardboard. They were five-year-old orphan girls. bits of colored stone and odd strips of satin. Not long ago thirty of the inmates decided to show their gratitude. on an altar in the kindergarten. "to nent basis at the end of that establishing the Fund on a perma- But. where the strife of recent years has uprooted so many families and cost so many lives. Contributions for its support were purely voluntary. UNICEF (the United Nations International Children's Fund) has sent food to the convent since 1948." It seems a shame to versally admired and that an organization so uniloved should have had to lead a hand-to- many people mouth existence. for ready use in case of disaster anywhere in the world.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS hasn't so far 91 been able to get beyond the discussion stage. But that's the case.000 children under fifteen are in what amounts to a constant state of need a state that holds little hope of major improvement for at least a generation UNICEF. by mid-1953 seemed to have a future even more .** life with a view. not with the permanent and autonomous character of a regular Specialized Agency. as UNICEF publications put it. the What There is UN Does for the Children a convent on the border between Jewish and Arab territories in the Middle East. shimmering. UN but for a three-year period. They placed the little statue. of 1946 It was established in December by the more or less General Assembly. by governments and individuals. In December of 1950 the Assembly voted a new three-year lease of time.000. The scheme has many complicabut it tions. also has many attractions and someday may be a fact. With where all the orphans could see and each remember to give thanks in her own way to the now embodied benefactress they called "Mademoiselle UNICEF. although more than half of the world's 900. they put together and lovingly dressed a ten-inch-high figurine.

And their parents had no choice In the matter. Then UNICEF stepped cotton. And the cMef cause of uncertainty was die To most American parents. made a start to fight It. as a direly needed emergency do something for the thirty million European children UNICEF started. historic with the aid of the World Health Organization. The Scandinavian countries. UNICEF supplied It in the cheapest. lack of proper clothing and destruction of housing. ragged and starving. One is getting them to children present three common probeat properly to balance the dessert with spinach. past. leather. on their own. The third Is getting doctor or the dentist on schedule. 1946. coats In and. chiefly wool and themselves fabricated shoes and shirts. Yaws and malaria and syphilis are diseases of children as well as . Calmette and Guerin). Then came the pressing demands of health. It costs have reached sixty million children and from twenty to thirty milabout a dollar to vaccinate twenty-four that children. This campaign. most nutritious form dried skim milk. Another is getting them to dress properly the rain. rubbers in them to the To most different that parents everywhere else on earth the problems are so Americans sometimes have trouble comprehending them. and UNICEF found the raw materials from which the needy countries and suits. tuberculosis was reaching epidemic proportions. Food was the first need and on the advice of the Food and Agriculture Organization. will scientists the vaccine. The first winter three million youngsters In the eleven hardest-hit European countries got this help. who developed when completed on a world-wide tested for tuberculosis with tuberculin lion vaccinated. For something like half a billion children there never have been shoes or milk or doctors. mufflers in cold weather. in agency to whom World War II had made homeless. easiest. After food came clothing.92 United lems. With so much malnutrition. UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Its uncertain than States. began the campaign of vaccination with BCG (Initials of the word "bacillus'* and the names of the two French basis. dresses. The estimate is BCG provides about two years of immunity for four-fifths of the children not already Infected.

since one penicillin treatment costs about fifty cents. that figure was cut by half. only 575. But in health and hope and happiness something incalculable.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS adults 93 and UNICEF began ization to fight them on a mass scale. Aren't you gold-bronze you're to going be cured?" she merely shrugged her shoulders. Twenty mil- have had protection against malaria. working with the World Health. On a table near the door lay a crimson hibiscus and she stopped to put it in her hair. Then he saw how carelessly she was dressed.** As economic conditions improved over much of the world. an hour or so later. many Javanese have become turies. But when he asked. received her injection and there was a new light in her eyes. but also in Central America. and of the three and a half million still being fed. And there the great In the beginning a "eup of milk** was the symbol of UNICEF. how little regard she had for her appearance not even the typical Javanese flower in her hair. is not only in Asia. The field worker says this fourteen-year-old was the most beautia glad ful girl he'd ever seen. comes under the same program. with dark. On her way out." In money. afflicting four-fifths of fatalistic about it and if they go at all to the clnics do so without much hope. The spread of syphilis and bejel.000 got their skim milk for the . OrganA UN1CEF field worker gives One day he saw a clinic fourteen-year-old girl in a UNICEF-WHO on the island of Java. he saw her again. By 1952 two million children in Asia had been tested under UNICEF auspices for lion yaws. ** skin. 375. Despite the fact that one shot of penicillin is usually enough to stop the disease and two shots are almost a sure cure. antituberculosis program. At one time there were seven million children "sitting around the UNICEF food table. She had talked with other patients. where yaws has been a blight for cen- the rural population.. a human idea of the results. ridiculously little. of course. chiefly by DDT spraying. The UNICEF worker thought: "I wonder if the lucky young man who gets her will ever know how much he owes UNICEF. expressive eyes. fine features.000 treated.

Here the idea is to encourage locally mantained school-feeding programs. lack of which causes night-blindness. for example. then she realized it couldn't be her Jos6 because of the firm. In Africa. A thirteen-year-old boy in one of the provinces was night-blind could see practically nothing after dark. Jose. To offset rickets. In Central America UNICEF joins other UN Special- The rest of the three ized Agencies in distiibuting the skim milk for demonstrations to show its value in improving general child health. 340. rather than simple survival. had forgotten to in time and hurried along in fear as the sun went down. in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Asia. His frantic parents gathered the neighbors and sent searching parties through the jungle. but somehow it never got too dark for him to see.000 youngsters were fed skim milk to combat a widespread diet deficiency disease called kwashiorkor. and a half million typified a change in aim for UNICEF. At first her hopes rose. Gradually he realized that his night-blindness was gone and his And the start home fear changed to joy. . This. and round out children's diets generally. into trees* He would have been stumbling and bumping "I But it was! "Mama!" Jose shouted. The aim became health for the children. While they were beating the woods. It went all the way down long before he reached the nipa hut that was his home. can see!" story came out.94 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW were refugee children chief purpose of preventing starvation. maternal and child welfare centers receive the milk. as one specific target. elsewhere in Latin America. One night he failed to arrive home before sunset. They and those living in drought-stricken areas. again. UNICEF also provides fish-liver oil in various forms our traditional cod liver oil is one. They contain large quantities of Vitamin A. Similarly. is in considerable part an educational measure and wherever possible is done through schools. playing baseball. There is a nice story about it from the Philippines. At school for the month past Jos6 had been getting shark-liver capsules from UNICEF. the mother heard someone approaching the house. rapid step.

THE UN NOBODY KNOWS 95 The whole village was educated that one night Much of UNICEF's educational work is carried on in conjunction with the Food and Agriculture Organization. UNICEF. then to train native technicians how to apply them and also teach other native technicians. The aim. In the latter field. The their sixty-four countries it had aided spent within their own this boundaries the considerably larger sum of $190.** It gathers the best up-to-date technical knowledge and takes the to lead in spreading it Also.000.000. The idea first is to show the value of milk and fish oil to children's health. then to show local populations how to produce their own. Otherwise. 1952. its tech- niques and procedures follow the pattern of other UN organizations. much to do with pasteurization. World Health Organization and others. it has a mobile corps of experts ready In another as it way UNICEF Food and Agriculture and World Health.000. is first to demonstrate the value of modern methods. became contributors to the . the Middle East and Latin America that now guarantees safe. in gratitude a number of these assisted countries themselves Children's Fund. Up to July 1. and was own money. follows the procedure of such agencies It insists that the money effort. how to use what is produced in the most effective way. been many voluntary contributions from other-than-governmental sources) were $165. spends in any country be matched by equivalent sums in local That this rule has been carried out is evident from a couple of figures. the Food and Agriculture Organization naturally has greater comIt not only demonstrates how to produce more^ but also petence.000. had refrigeration and Although UNICEF is not officially a Specialized Agency. UNICEF has as its main functions to furnish a "nucleus of knowledge and initiative. In the case of milk this has drying. low-cost or free milk to four million children. Beyond that. send to trouble spots. of course. UNICEFs total receipts from govern- ments and individuals (there have. given equipment for these processes to fourteen countries in Europe. as with the Food and Agriculture Organization. up to the middle of 1952.

Even 1953. sixteen nations voted to continue the children's organization. South America. the abstention. To poverty-stricken What the UN Does for Education last Newspaper headlines of the few years offer a kind of reverse for this heading. Despite our usual pride in American generosity for such worthy causes. the most generous giver was not the United States. something like: **What Some U. on the same topped our record. stemmed back to resentment against the dollar amounts we had previously contributed as compared with those other nations If gave. that meant He answered: 'It's the American word for ^cow.S. implying doubt about continued American support. or per capita. there was a feeling that the organization's name on crates and boxes ought to be translated into the various languages of receiving countries. parents in scores of now friendly countries the of that symbol and the supplies and technicians that disappearance bear it would be a bewildering deprivation for their children. in the "cup of milk* program. School Boards Want to Do to the UN.96 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW the principle observed elsewhere in the On UN. basis. the United States delegate was the only one to abstain. or at least the initials forming it into the different alphabets.. the United States always has been the largest dollar contributor to UNICEF. there has been resistance against appropriations for UNICEF and in May. when the European need Early for food was worst. that countries should give support in proportion to their means. even along the Arctic Circle. someone asked an Italian child what UNICEF basis. . 'UNICEF" had become an actual word in far parts of Asia.' A little later. when UNICEF*s aims expanded and supplies began to be sent all over the globe. when Soviet Russia voted in favor. But the packing cases already shipped all bore a stand- " ard UNICEF symbol and before a decision was made. On a comparative population. one fact deserves note." The answer is pretty close to mayhem. so that they would be surely recognized. And there were several other countries. but little Iceland.

In several instances UNESCO literature about the was cited as an example of the propaganda UN method in this effort. The closest the book itself came to a philosophy of world government (as anyone who bothers to examine it will see) was to urge international understanding and co-operation. But they are also of the United States Government. despite argument from substantial sec- tions of the communities involved. UN It is true that UNESCO materials available to schook that tries to' be objective. now explicitly stated objectives and for many years past. The more practical charge is that UNESCO tries to take control of the American system of education. Never- of UNESCO. UN was it In Los Angeles. and issued as Publication No. in California and Texas^ chiefly. even though in was banned in Los Angeles schools. It was signed by Superintendent of Schools Alexander Stoddard. UN theless. Scientific and Cultural is the chief target of the school boards" enmity. though elsewhere^ too. teaching aboiit the removed from the schools. along with the rest of the school board.. along with the electric light. 498 of the Curriculum Division of Los The **" Angeles City School Districts. which perhaps fought the issue out most bitterly. leanings. teaching about the this case it was begun by the school board itself. The imputation is that Communists invented the ideal of world government. But all this obscures what is probably the main point of makes pamphlets and other teaching want them. they merely try to explain the workings of the UN. but their dislike often includes the rest of the international organization. whether Republican or Democratic. it has been UNESCO tries to undermine the traditional freely charged patriotism of our school children by giving them an ideal of world government. None of the signers could very well have been on the payroll of UNESCO. happens that the start of the debate came over a little book called in UNESCO. True.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS 97 UNESCO Organization) (United Nations Educational. and. To the observer who these materials do not seem to have Marxist UNESCO Amer- a point which one would expect to appeal to practically all . airplane. these are aims as they are of the as a whole. radio and other ideas.

teaching native trainers how to teach their fellow natives what they mean and how to make them. . with its ancient and respected civilization.98 leans. finally. and. and practice agriculture about as It isn't stupidity that was practiced five thousand years ago. tell what merchandise they're buying from the label or write a two-line note. A few years ago. then teach the value of writing and reading in that form. there is help one small underdeveloped area in Africa where five hundred different UNESCO's than ten of those five hundred ever have been put into writing by anyone. translating them into marks on paper. any proper nutrition or anything else about domestic science. tuning their ears for strange primitive vocal sounds. it's plain ignorance. then work out a way of registering the phonetic sounds of the varying dialects in that common writing form. teaching the natives what the marks mean. These people can't tot up figures. a task that has no real comparison with the American Tittle red schoolhouse. Plus a few other essential forms of knowledge. whether or not to try to reduce the five hundred different dialects into some common writing form. then teach the natives this brand-new. They have little or no notion of sanitation. In the and on remote mountain plateaus there is no such backjungles ground. first." Here we had a written language many centuries This is old and a traditional respect for dealing with it on paper. into dialects are spoken and less which the hundreds of dialects all would fit. and. except in their heads (if they have idea of figures). India. Scholars have to start from scratch. UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW UNESCO's biggest project Is to a kind of little red schoolhouse" big enough to teach reading and writing and arithmetic to the more than half of al the people in the world who are illiterate. utterly unof the better native thought-of technique. As an example of the difficulties it faces. it strength is being channeled into a gigantic drive to these people. makes them so. finally. UNESCO's task in this area would be to decide. so that knowledge will spread. students to teach the rest of their fellows prepare some how to use it. It's hard for most Americans to realize that there are a billion and a half people on earth who can't read a street sign in any language.

the project would require million instructors and cost one and a half billion dolars a year. If you worked the problem out in an ordinary American classroom context.UN NOBODY KNOWS won have shocked set 99 It up a democratic form of government Americans to know that 85 per cent of the could not and did population qualified to vote in the first not cast ballots. singlehanded atis that his individual efforts. is a first step toward universal democracy and away from tyranny. teachers? Actually. on its An army marches stomach. in 1953 its activities. This. He have taught ABCTs to some fifteen million has worked in sixty-four countries and. UNESCO thousand dolars a year to the teachers.'* UN Specialized Agen- "training The slogan. the on the ballots to what they represented would have meant ability to ability In the it them anyhow. illiteracy. February 16. A democracy marches on its UNESCO proposes to produce this of the human race that does not have and the UN consider.* Long before the UN had genesis in Franklin D. weak see the Profile The New * For an excellent fan account of Ms Jorker. a newspaper. fifty The money. Frank C. but where would UNESCO find the fifty million UNESCO Hence. were few radios. The calculation directly or indirectly. Since they couldn't read newspapers or magazines either. simply because they couldn't read them. 1952. in his phrase. Laubach back in 1929 began an indomitable. persons. by Robert Rice in . was conceived by an incredibly energetic and purposeful Protestant missionary named Dr. with thirty pupils to a class* and an average of three more than now. Eoosevelfs mind. tically all Specialized tack on world Dr. is little compared with what we spend on armament. Laubach. TEach One Teach One/* which now permeates prac- Agency Technical Assistance activities. its spend on all only way of spreading "fundamental eduto had about cation' is the cies same as that of so many other trainers. 7 of course.

Laubach selected three words that syllables.** None of a moment longer than the student's attention. If he doesn't. which uses much of his pictorial methodology and counts heavily on his "Each One Teach One" philosophy. . practically none of which he can speak himself. What this particular pressed by Moro savage had to say was: "Everybody who learns has got to teach. and if that fails. he feels it's the lesson's fault. He is a great unbeliever in "No. but the people's language was Maranaw. not so much with the idea of starting a pedagogical revolution as with the purpose of forwarding his evangelical mission. in effect: "You're doing fine." The disciples knew very well he meant it. giving." He states categorically that no success on the "Each teacher should ever ask a question that the student cannot answer. Laubach's enormous lessons. Laubach's. Laubach started with the savage Moros on the biggest Philippine island. When Dr. which he used in Maranaw in was rising 1 per cent per ^making month. Dr. Two years later 20 per cent of the population could read and write their native alphabet. Laubach put it on paper for the first time. He wrote each of the words across the top of a large chart. Part of Dr. not the pupil's. On Mindanao in the word. which was financed by the Union Congregational Church of Upper Montclair. Dr. Their only literate citizens wrote and read in Arabic. smilhis lessons lasts ing at the pupil and saying. then broke it down below into Dr. Laubach began Ms fight against illiteracy about 4 per cent of the population in his Lanao province of Mindanao could read and write. and they went out and taught But the Moro's approach was miles away from Dr. 111 kill him. had all the consonant sounds in the language.100 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW "made lessons'* in 239 languages or dialects. in Arabic. all along with the syllables as they actually appeared possible vowel variants to go with the consonants. He believes strongly in the virtues of slapping on the shoulder." the far simpler Roman And the literacy rate Mindanao had a debt to one early pupil who was im9 One Teach One slogan. New Jersey. Mindanao. He has been a valuable adviser to UNESCO. a fortunately simple language that never before had been put on paper.

White men went armed on Mindanao as kte as 1928. and with reason. But within five years of the 1929 start of Laubach's campaign. Laubach got all the converts was his aim in the beginning. lie could But. Laubach illustrated it with a picture of a very fat boy whose stomach was for "fat" perfectly round "wa being the Burmese word s w added a great deal to Dr. For three hundred years under Spanish rule of the Philippines the Moros had been intractable thorns in the side of authority. The Moros also became sympathetic to Christianity handle which. But the missionary^ work on Mindanao was valiant pioneering that proved spectacularly how much could be done by a single devoted man. Laubach to elaborate his in the various countries. It was something else. thirty years after the Spanish-American War. too dramatic proof of the experts have UNESCO value of such effort. Laubach's system and the ^fundamental education" program includes basic teaching in sanitation and domestic science as well as reading and writing. and Dr. Later prefects presented Dr. For spoken example. since no other much more serious difficulty to interfere. They were never conquered and over the centuries they developed a proud pugnacity that carried on ova: into the era of American sovereignty. the missionary has remained . method and suit it to special circumstances The chief addition is pictures^ which are illustrate adroitly worked out to language sounds with representations of things whose names coincide with the names of the written character. the Moros changed to peaceful ways and it was possible for Americans to live on the island in safety. lie had already learned how In this venture to lie was fortunate in in having a very simple it language with and being able to deal with in Ms own alphabet. despite that astonishing figure of fifteen million taught to read and write through his efforts. in Burmese the written character for the sound **wa" is a circle. Dr.UN NOBODY KNOWS Within an the or as to discover little 101 as twenty minutes was to read.

the World Health Organization and the Labour Organisation have sent experts. how to build a model pig pen. It is also a kind of UNESCO showInternational case for fundamental education. In addition. how to drive Food and a tractor.000 people living in Central and South America who lack these abilities. TTie aanua! world population increase in backward areas far outstrips the gains in readers and writers for which he has been responsible.200. nutrition and agri- . how to control insects in the orchards. the Food and Agriculture Organization. For the estimated 70.000 Mexicans how to read and write. and ignopoverty as disease. The stated purpose is to raise living standards using only the economic and cultural resources locally available. experts. Fundamental education centers. and a joint operation of the Mexican Government. Poor people reproduce more often than those in better circumstances. taught 1. Jaime Torres Bodet. Perhaps the is most interesting in the early 1940's in the Pdtzcuaro Lake region of Mexico. encouraged and advised by rance remains as firm a friend o of UNESCO now in Haiti. beginning with the first pilot project are working in many scattered areas of the world. UNESCO the Organization of American States.102 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW unhappy about the problem of illiteracy. the Food and Agriculture Organization. 1952. The Food and Agriculture experts* function is to demonstrate modern ideas in home economics. except for the advice and encouragement of UN and government experts. the International Labour Organisation and the World Health Organization have planned and set in operation has any chance of long-term success.000. with the familiar "Each One Teach One** slogan. It is the Patzcuaro experiment now offers much wider hope. Agriculture field men engage in such homely projects as demonstrating how to prune fruit trees properly. UNESCO's Director-General from 1948 to was Minister of Education in Mexico and started his own program of fundamental education which in the course of two years. Under their direction the village of Cucuchuco became famous as the first community in the region to install its own practical water system. Only the sort combined attack on all three that agencies of the UN like UNESCO.

But there are visual teaching materials. the new techniques by down-to-earth work problems. any carpenter can build the press for runAfter much ning off copies. The trainees who go out to spread this confidence the people have had remarkable success. allowed to and removed. fifty-fifty What they did was to cover a glass plate with a mixture of paraffin wax and beeswax on which the artist direct. So. decided to work out something new. largely by practical personal demonstration of what to do and how it succeeds. UN the area were pictorial Half the fourteen thousand inhabitants of the twenty villages in illiterate and not much interested in changing. as in the natives to spread in the villages. after lines were cut out with a simple engraving tool. of reading and writing helps. however. they perform on a kind of dual stage. provided by the agency. They inked it. This. experimentation they arrived at what they called the glueplate process so cheap and so simple that any teacher-artist combination can use it. And they did. One of the underdeveloped areas^ is to generate that new ways of cultivating land and caring for livestock are really worth the effort of applying. two men. Then. UN field workers have to be ingenious and ready to meet local needs everywhere. Along with teaching handicrafts and teaching students how to make teaching materials. is where knowledge UNESCO comes in. Posters were especially useful. At P&tzcuaro. Simple though these are. a mixture of glue and glycerine was poured over the wax. The cost less than two cents. Not only do they extemporize to raise the standard of living for the Indians of the immediate region.UN NOBODY KNOWS culture. too. to rouse 103 in co-operative effort for to improvement by the communities. The approach helped. smoothed paper over it (any size can be used) and had a fine reproduction. thus providing the stereotype or printing surface. Uru- UNESCO guayan Julio Castro and American Jerome Oberwager. but also furnish an solidify . partly.. could draw his picture and do his lettering correcting as he went. but all the known reproducing processes cost too much or presented too great technical difficulties at Patzcuaro.

104 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW drama for visiting instinctive teams of trainees from at least seven- teen other Latin-American countries. watching them at their work of teaching others. the seventy million Latin Americans who cannot read and write will have an ever increasing chance to learn. It has catalogued both in French and English the fine collection of recorded folk music from all over the world in the French National Eecord Library in Paris. It sponsored an international treaty that went into effect early in 1952 abolishing import duties on a wide range of educational. 1953. It helps libraries to collect books. scientific and cultural materials. show little or no though they do have genetic . it serves as an exchange bureau for scientific and cultural information of every conceivable sort. of forty-five museum experts and educators from twenty-five countries in Europe. anthropologists and all may object. international exchanges of staff and the creation of icas. Negroid and Mongoloid variation in intelligence and aptitude. which are a form of international currency that facilitates the purchase of books and other cultural materials. But fundamental education is by no means the only important function of UNESCO. One such Magazine. It helped to set up an educational film center in Turkey. It sponsored a meeting in Brooklyn. Asia and the Amerpart to promote the international establishment of mobile museum units. These visiting teams go about the Pitzcuaro area with the local trainees. It has set up the system of UNESCO Gift Coupons. As it widens. Now project and then UNESCO sponsors a special project to which people with long-standing special opinions was publicized in Life three-year study by sociologists. in more fellowships. On a higher intellectual level (for those who benefit). Then they go home to their own countries and each one starts teaching one in an ever widening circle. It persuaded the Universal Postal Convention to lower postal rates on newspapers and periodicals. May 18. New York. It was a geneticists from over the world on the controversial subject What Is Race? The major conclusions of the scientists were that the three main races of the world Caucasian.

which had just dictated the terms of peace after World War its I. was heresy at the time and other members of ILO. Particularly policy decisions. let alone writing Mr. His difference with Lloyd George. lofty and powerful place in the scheme anyone thought of publicly disagreeing with letter of dissent. almost literally shook in their boots. bet at the time Lloyd George was key member of the League's Supreme Council. of things that hardly held such a remote. It doesn't sound so heretical today. who had not yet come to know Albert Thomas well. since people were hardly less curious then than they are now about the Russian situation. and that. pertinently enough for us today. It was to this that Thomas objected. not of ILO. But their way of taking note was to consider a Commission of Enquiry of Albert their own. even the genetic differences may disappear* What the UN for Labor "We took the initiative so easily as all that I have written to Lloyd w I'm not going to let him do this to me.BN NOBODY KNOWS differences that 105 make for the differences in their outward appear- ance. and we are not going to be thrust aside George to tel him so. and the Supreme Council. and the Supreme Council took note. In the end no League of Nations or ILO inquirers made the junket. Lloyd George a direct a dissent that said his august tribunal privilege of was usurping the It really a small and not much regarded off- shoot of the League. as the races more reely? as they are doing. national This was Albert Thomas speaking as first Director of the InterLabour Office of the League of Nations^ in 1920. but Director Thomas' letter to Lloyd George had the unusual effect of bringing ILO up for discussion during an entire Supreme . The suggestion won a good deal of public attention. ILO had suggested what would be known now as an investigating committee to go see what actually was happening in the new Soviet State. perhaps. had to do with Soviet Russia.

who was to set up an office account. after a full explanation. When the ILO staff member took it to his own bank the manager irst asked: "What is the International Labour Office?" Then. But it has had prominence ever since. if he must have immediate action. not exactly unwanted but hopefully understood to be in the background. ILO started as a kind of stepchild of the League. An idea were temporarily incident. The of the situation may be had from one in the Bank of England. the Specialized Agencies ILO holds the unique of being the only organization that bridges the gap between position the old League of Nations and the present UN. as a further indication of our financial difficulties. ILO headquarters London. had a fatal accident occurred. he continued to look doubtful. adding dolefully: "Do you realize that lolled when you leave the if you were run over and bank the money will be the legal property of your heirsF' As the staff member later wrote: For six months the whole of the funds of the International Labour Office remained at the mercy of the traffic in London and Genoa until. The Labour Office never before had had such prominence. It should be added. that there were times when. any dispute between unscrupulous heirs and the Office would have been over something less than a five pound note.000 check was on staff. when the Office at last reached Geneva. There was something staff else that E. The International Among UN Telecommunication Union and the Universal Postal Union are considerably older in years than ILO. And finally insisted that the ILO staff member deposit the check in his own account (which had rarely held more than &4). They did their necessary business independently. proper and regular arrangements were made.108 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Council meeting. For expenses the treasurer of ILO gave a check made out for him personally to an English member of the 5. but they were not connected with the League. member just quoted. suggesting that a resolution of the ILO Governing Body (which was not due to meet for another six weeks ) would really be neces- sary before accepting such an account. . and who Phelan (who was the ILO wrote an excellent biography of J.

to do with President nothing Wilson's creation. to work together. Gradually the two schools of civil servant thought began to see the special merits of each other's systems. Ms "in** basket till at last he exploded in a meeting and demanded to know who the practical joker was. Since neither had ever France naturally took leading tried such an underrather violently both taking with the other before. Newer agencies often have profited from its time-tested administrative advice. The wild laughter that greeted Ms explosion didn't improve Ms temper along with new ones. gradually.UN NOBODY KNOWS Albert Thomas) it may not sound Since the United in 107 a for today. it was important. to lower working hours. tO prevent unemployment. The system called for initialing the sBp on a routed paper or document once the interested person had finished with it. any international legal standing. of government administration differing concepts and of the civil servant's function at varying levels of authority there was probfriction. Great Britain parts in the League. In this case the ably bound to be misunderstanding conflict of came to a Marions over a public relations man^s "in** and "out" basket and the British Civil Service Registry system. And. since it was part of Ms job to see practically everything that went through the office. TMs long history of international elbownibbing is one of the particular values of ILO to other parts of the UN. No other agency has had its wealth of experience. It gathered admirable labor statistics. but would humorous detail. The mountains of papers he waded through justification 5* one day and put in his "out basket kept returning the next day. but it helped to clear the air. wMch kept documents in a central file til called for or unless they were routed on to someone else in the organization. and to have mutual respect. The standards it recommended and worked for never won. But this the press relations man hadn't learned. at any at the 1 . they became realities many of them. to moment. he had a certain for hysteria. Again. bit by bit. but. Under the League and in the interregnum before the UN. ILO worked steadily to set up better conditions of employment for men and women.

but the focus of attention was on labor's welfare and problems. The DirectorGeneral promptly wrote the Greek Government a polite letter asking and social . Its claim was that the ships were obsolete and had been transferred to registration in Panama to dodge taxes. Mr. but in the end revised its laws pretty much to the satisfaction of the workers and the threat of boycott ended.108 rate. On the other hand. in 1948. In a number of directions ILO has become more "operational*" For instance. David A. as time went on. Director-General of ILO since 1948. The emphasis turned to over-all inits viewpoint from II and UN creased productivity. UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW The eight-hour clay* for example. Morse recalls a more striking case that had its scene in Greece. in which labor should have a Just share. while the Transport Workers postponed the boycott. The Government of Panama rather bitterly objected to parts of the ILO investigation. currency regulations. safety rules and labor standards. Morse. thinks of the change as ^acceleration^ or "implementation" of long-term ILO working plans. By time of World War as a Specialized Agency even more by the time ILO entered the had broadened. ILO was caled upon some years ago to intercede in a dispute between the International Transport Workers Federation and the Government of Panama. as distinct those of the rest of the community. but dragged on without action till finally. From the beginning. ILO investigated. the seamen's organization threatened a boycott of certain ships flying the Panamanian flag. from the investigation. ILO suggested a number of changes in Panama's maritime laws. Actually. the matter had come before the ILO Maritime Commission as far back as 1933. in what might be called the diplomatic field. and the protection of women workers. Then. Information came to the ILO Committee on Freedom of Association that a number of union leaders had been sentenced to death in Greece and were in early danger of execution. in 1919. it became clearer that the primary objectives of the labor movement could not be achieved in a vacuum. ILO had had a unique "tripartite" worker-government-employer membership.



of the


the crimes with

which they were charged




letter at


rendered against them. trade unionism had

anything to do with the cases, insisting the men had been tried and sentenced to for treason, but it went on to say that the Greek Government had which covclemency

and they were therefore from execuother tion, though imprisoned for Me. It appeared, however, men in much the had been executed, and in labor position
in question

ered the

got credit for highly persuasive letter- writing. More imthe incident reflected the prestige of its Freedom of Assoportant, ciation Committee as a protection for trade unionists throughout


the free world.

In the more contemporary field of increasing productivity, ILO has spread out pretty widely, along with the rest of the Expanded Technical Assistance Program. Over half its field work is vocational training, and mostly training trainers. William Yalden-Thomson,
Assistant Director-General in charge of Technical Assistance operations, defines the worth-while field man as one who can get the feel
of local materials of them. Also

and teach natives

and more important

of the locality to make the most for ILO's purposes one who
to teach other natives.

has the knack of teaching natives



wants to get job-training going, in the most effective manner possible, but it also wants to get its experts out and on another Job
Just as fast as the local

people are trained well enough to take over

for themselves.
last paragraph sounds like Asia or South America. But probILO's most spectacular project so far has been the politically ably delicate business of Yugoslavia. As everyone knows, Yugoslav head



Marshal Tito





satellite country to break

(and up to now only) leader of a away from the Kremlin, carryprofessing

ing his nation with

him and




His country represents a wholly singular gray between the stark black and white of the world's political division today, depending



on and to an extent promising to defend the one leaning toward the other philosophically.
Since the break with




or economically.

Tito has had no easy time either Earlier standard Communist efforts

toward farm collectivization backfired and
stayed in



Finally he came

can build





program ILO, saying, in effect: "We find people to run them/' What

his industrial

he wanted particularly was foremen, well trained in specific jobs. Because of the political aspects, ILO foresaw fairly hideous trouble in the project, but it also saw a challenge worth accepting

and went ahead.

The sometimes vaunted advantages

of a dictatorship

worked out

one way. ILO wanted very carefully selected trainees and Tito saw it got them, cutting every strand of red tape that interfered. The 370 men chosen were briefed with the greatest care to avoid

between them and

their politically different host-trainers,

mainly to Western Germany, France and Belgium. For precaution, ILO set up Sweden, Holland, a rigid inspection system to operate during the training period in
then were sent
over Europe
the various factories where the trainees were installed.



sent to Yugoslavia from various European countries 350 veteran foremen to prepare the ground in Tito's factories for the return of

the newly trained natives. Then ILO sat back to wait, in trepidation. It was almost a disappointment, things went so smoothly. The Yugoslavs turned out to be eager beavers who loved every minute
of their training

nent questions.

and kept their instructors after hours asking pertiThere wasn't a trace of political trouble. Factory

managers liked the trainees' work so well that in a number of cases they asked permission to keep them on.
payoff came with the disastrous floods that swept England and the Low Countries in 1952. The Yugoslav foremen-trainees in the Netherlands emptied their pockets of every

Perhaps the


guilder to help. When the project

was ended Tito requested another million


lars of


ILO Technical Assistance to renew the training drive. Greece
asked for foreman-training aid.


Israel, taking notice, also
less spectacular


an ILO man

in Haiti,

but more typical piece of work was done by who found out a way to tan local skins into

very beautiful leather and taught his method to thirty Haitians. They picked up his evangelical enthusiasm and began spreading
his technique to other trainees and trainers. there is every likelihood that the island will have a profitable small tanning industry where nothing of the sort existed before.




the kind of grass-roots, pay-as-you-go, one-thing-at-a-time

development most ILO people believe

They have had


years* experience in the ups and downs of international effort and their resultant philosophy is one of pretty adamant gradualism. They

refused to give up death when the
States Point




the League folded. They were flattered to them to join the fold. After the United

Four program poured $66,000,000

hydroelectric irrigation server described as "something out of Evelyn Waugh with about a hundred yards of usable road, electricity no one could read by and


project (the results of

an Afghanistan which one ob-

the rest confusion"),

who was

ILO imperturbably sent out a practical Greek to find out what the Afghans had the capacity expected resources to do for themselves, then help guide them to make
The budget
for the Greek

the most of both.

was about $12,000 a

ILO keeps its head cautiously hidden in or twice, on the contrary, it has been found with its neck rather conspicuously stuck out. The Altiplano survey was such an occasion. Its categorical title was Tndigenous Population Survey"

not to say that

the sand.


and a number of sparkling ideas were expected
looking citizens

to dazzle forward-

once proceedings got under way. Actually, they
to the extent that fourteen or fifteen

did get under



experts spent four months studying the Andean plateau of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuamulti-thousand-feet-high dor that goes by the name of Altiplano. Here, at least a quarter of




the earth's tin and a lot of other minerals

make fabulous




and periodic political revolutions for some people. But here, too, the "indigenous population," illiterate, diseased and poor beyond description, scratches out practically no living at all. ILO thought


might make a spectacular scene for pilot projects in a new way life, teaching new skills to use on the old resources, educating,

eradicating disease. And the preliminary survey, sparked by ILO, was considered something of a classic. But other Specialized Agencies that were expected to share the work and expense of a four-year program became reluctant, particularly after a sharp cut in the expected Technical Assistance funds, and the project at last report was uncertain, leaving ILO out on the limb with partial commitments that couldn't be carried on to any worth-while conclusions without the other Agencies* co-operation. ILO stuck its neck out in another direction at about the


time. This particular protrusion happened in India. Privately owned textile and engineering industries asked ILO to supervise testing of a managerial technique called "productivity and payment by

In the United States

it is


known and argued over

as the "incentive plan." The peculiar delicacy of this venture lay in the fact that in India employment at any sort of wage or pay is a land of privilege that Occidentals do not understand. Somewhere

between 40 and 50 per cent of the Indian adults able to work are normally unemployed, in any Western sense. They are in a permanent condition of unemployment, not expecting anything


regularly paid job of any sort for half the people is more or less in the dream world of those "You, too, can make $15,000 a year if

advertisements that


correspondence courses in this country.

Except that this half of the Indian population can't read. The peculiar delicacy and danger of the venture was that

might destroy a few jobs. A very few even six or eight or ten would be enough to lose face for the labor unions. Yet they were willing to take the chance, and ILO embarked on the experiment,
insisting only that

both labor and management be in together on

every step of the way.


object, of course,

was increased produc-



and the


an especially desperate need of India

worth taking.
Preliminary results in the engineering field showed increases from 12.5 to 116 per cent; in textiles from 6 to 36 per cent.





"operational" or "accelerated" or "implementa-

tional" philosophy of


at work.

is, people send experts out into the



like to feel, less disposition



who come back and

write elaborate
of the latter-

reports that are "filed



As an instance

day emphasis on concrete results, they suggest a minor project in Jordan. When it was brought up, ILO had doubts the Government of Jordan would be interested enough in the end to contribute its proper share. But an expert nevertheless was sent, though with
specific instructions to find

out the Government's attitude before

getting the Agency too involved. To the surprise of Geneva headquarters, things began to pop almost immediately. The Government

quickly agreed to the project and at once allotted land for buildings, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency came up with a
$40,000 grant, the expert completed a foot-high pile of blueprints

and before his return home learned that work had already started on construction two and a half weeks after he set out. This, ILO people felt, was action. They like to cite seventy-three-year-old Sir Malcolm Darling as a similar example. Arriving in Pakistan on an ILO mission, he asked for transportation and got evasive replies. "Well," said Sir Malcolm, "if you haven't a jeep, give me a burro and let's go/' Or, regarding another Pakistan mission, the anxiety of a male member over a

member who disapproved

of Oriental religious discriminato

tion against

women: "The first week I was afraid she was going a religious war. The second week I was sure she'd win it/*

Training, of course,

a vital function of



Agencies, particularly under the Technical Assistance Program. ILO's training is essentially vocational. Where, as at the famous proving ground in Patzcuaro, Mexico, there is a combined effort


several agencies,

ILO people

try to


their teachers in the

The tendency has good exemplification in a minor branch of ILO*s program. disability insurance and wage scales. The enormous conflict over collectivizain the long chronology. probably the most explosive political and economic issue to man.. industrial safety regulations. like many other organizations. FAO ILO. is known to it. He may carpentry before he knows tree goes out of jurisdiction into somefired with enthusiasm and find himself in get Similarly. expert at farming to FAO.114 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW skills strictly vocational channel. in historical perspective. But ILO. workers are involved. ILO expert in the field. Nevertheless. giving instruction in handicrafts. such as the eight-hour day. cannot fail to take an interest. was Whether in our day land merely an item is best farmed in small areas for philosophical reasons of personal ownership or in large areas for most economical use of machinery. meReading and writing are up to find. Asia and elsewhere. The problem. Where once ILO made its greatest point in setting up standards. Bennett. is to guarantee proper administration. our own Civil War. Mr. thing else. etc. present-day commotions in the Philippines. it now makes greater effort to implement those standards. as is particularly true with social security laws. tion in Soviet Russia. A. is a question that the experts argue at length. This is rehabilitation work and placement o persons disabled either in industry or by any other cause. made it dramatic with a very . essentially means breaking up big absenteeownership estates into smaller owner-operated farms. chanical and the like. finds itself hip-deep in a pretty world-wide movement for land reform. of course. Whichever way a decision goes. Historically. down through the Middle Ages. Every conceivable political label has been attached from Roman times and before. UNESCO. Most of its aims are already immortalized in beautifully written laws. protection for women at work. for planning. it. health to WHO. A. because it Land it reform. a dividing line is often hard to Ask an FAO what point a has as a longtime goal reasonable standards of living for all workers.

Long. it knows more about manpower than any other organization. When we really We think o the dark. may say: *Tm practically blind. 7 HE liberal you close to beggaring the competence of every other organ of the UN. we think o industrial land of way it's nice to know It's that the United States has a liberal definition of blindness. Worldwise. has a very definition of blindness. Yet for the purposes ol employment. ILO What mankind than anyone else. In a negative blindness. And the sums have a billion- markedly in contrast with other UN outlays. compensation and insurance there obviously have to be measurable degrees of vision impairment. These agencies are the International Monetary Fund (known as the Fund) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Dedollar flavor velopment (known as the Bank). has the capacity to accomplish ILO knows better The knowledge some day should prove useful. if the expression doesn't sound too careless. ILO watches good to know that a strong over such matters without our asking.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS casual remark: "The United States. What the UN Does about Money Although the UN and all its Specialized Agencies operate on an annual budget hardly greater than that of the New York City Department of Sanitation (which. long ago most national currencies had their value related to the value of gold. Workings of the Fund are impossibly mysterious to nonfinancia minds (like ours) that can barely understand how to balance a checkbook. is the favorite comparison). also organization like Finally. UN has one over-all competence that com.' People with more or less normal sight tend to think of blindness as a condition without qualification. and talk of poverty is as sad in the Secretariat Building as it is in any normal American household. for some reason. two of the UN's Specialized Agencies do have money to play around with. and even then fluctuations in exchange (or relative value of one national currency to another) were fre- ." But we don't mean anything o the sort.

There are complicated exchange restrictions enforced by governments practically everywhere. It also helps member countries. to keep their currencies available. quent and Shrewd men who understood such matters made money out o them. Partly because of such restricone country owing another country money because of unequal imports and exports may have great difficulty making payment. had exchanged $896. the problem o understanding is even more intricate. inflation. the Fund's Articles of Agree- ment require member governments to adhere to the high standards of conduct in financial and foreign exchange affairs set up by the organization. Aside from advancing a monetary helping hand.408. Moreover. the Fund has been active in urging relaxation of exchange restrictions. improve credit draft new banking laws. Fund eases such short-term crises. gathered work gathering and data on the shifting economic and financial scene. Fund in the feels it is definitely exchange The Fund's staff of financial is and economic constantly at technicians. when possible and beneficial.116 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW erratic. and many currencies have different valuations domestically and abroad. Fund experts from thirty-one countries. by the same method of putting Up to the beginning of 1953 the Fund of these relatively up dollars." Further than this specific purpose. the at par. By making American dollars. francs or sterling. have directly helped members to combat policies. . with most of the gold in the world underground at Fort Knox. establish foreign exchange budg- ets and study the financial aspects of development programs. Through constant consultation with governments the improving the international code of ethics field. Admitting that these "may for the time being have to exist in many countries/' it still hopes to help its fifty-four members work toward a "relatively free state of international trade and payments.380 currencies for the weaker currencies of strong some twenty-two countries to help with their international financial problems. Belgian francs and British pounds sterling tions. and analyzing these findings are available to members. Nowadays.

Since it's unavoidable that a number of ation. and to contribute thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of employment and real income and to the development of the productive resources of members'* by promoting "international monetary co-operation through a permanent institution which provides the machinery for all consultation Yet. of international trade. it is is as buy from the Fund..000 for the United States.. This servpartly ice charge has been the Fund's chief source of income. The Fund is particularly proud that no leak has occurred in con- when a major money policy nection with any of its operations. Bank for Reconstruction and Development was more or less in tandem with the Monetary Fund. such as currency devaluabout to take place. are high: "to facilitate the expansion . very roughly. partly in gold and partly in its own currency. To join. This.000 to $2. either in the original Articles of Agreement or it joins the Fund. is officials know what's going on. which some readers in the question. Sales of exchange are subject entitled to scribe to a service charge of three-fourths per cent.) It's even necessary for a office . smart operators obviously can cash in on advance information.S. The quota determines the member's voting power and also the amount of foreign exchange. a government must suban amount equal to its quota. there is always the chance of a leak. The Fund's purposes. of course.000. Some set up board members work with both institutions and the two share an The International building in Washington. where it gets eight might hundred-odd million dollars with which to do business.750. As a matter of fact. if eligible. The quotas vary from Panama's $500." change. payable in gold or in gold and partly in the member's own currency. and collaboration on international monetary problems. its assets are more than ten times that figure. is how it works. Each member government assigned a quota. (They are the only Specialized Agencies with headquarters in the U.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS The Fund receives interest 117 no financial support from the UN.

Paraguay. the establishment or expansion of industry and agriculture. Southern Rhodesia. reflecting . Thailand. other things being reasonably advantageous. Iraq. their functions are clearly distinct. But the Bank is intended to lend directly for the reconstruction. Nicaragua. Iceland. Will it help the country or the area to be- come more productive? Will it help balance the economy? Will it help to make jobs that are permanent? Will it help to make people more content? If it will. There aren't many Wall to think this Street men or bankers in small towns who can afford the fundamental and in the long run very of the Bank. but it's available half-billion dollars of investment money reconstruction of the continent's ravaged industry. Its effect expand themselves and thereby improve the people's living standon the individual is indirect. But for a banker with imagination it must be far more cheerful deliberation than in the case of an ordinary com- not to give money away and therefore weigh the probabilities of repayment before is mercial loan. practical philosophy Before the Marshall Plan went into effect in Europe it used its way. India. of course. The Fund is intended to help keep national currencies stable.118 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Fund before it's country or territory to become a member of the eligible to become a member of the Bank. Australia. Ceylon and also countries closer home. visible to anyone. experienced credit men any loan is made. Uruguay. so that industry. Brazil. Turkey. tion is to help in the its atten- Now turned mainly toward less highly developed countries in other parts of the world. The effect of its operations in making jobs and improving living standards is concrete and im- money mediate. because one of the chief considerations always is the effect of the loan itself. the Belgian Congo. Pakistan. The idea. Colombia. trade and agriculture have the confidence and favorable financial atmosphere But to ards. The place-names of its investments read like an atlas Mexico. Iran. Loans to date total a billion and a half dollars. Ethiopia. Of that total the largest amount went for reconstruction. Peru. then it probably will be repaid and is worth making.

The scene River. also with the help of Bank funds. is the Damodar Valley. policy. river. but also roads. One ment loan to India is an attractive example of the Bank's invest- Bokar-Konar project a combination electric power flood control irrigation and increased water supply development similar to our own Tennessee Valley plan. a public agency patterned after the American TVA. About 4. And part of which is clearing of the jungle offers new tillable land. also is responsible for setting up model farms in the new farming areas where the paddy farmers learn modern agricultural techniques. development in this case. use of improved manures.500 people have been working to build the communities out of what was useless jungle. which is conducting the whole program. Bokar twelve males downstream is where a steam electric plant under construction.500. The area had been inaccessible before. and forestry. agriculture power development. Bokar and Konar offer regular jobs something rare any- where in India. which is sched- uled for completion in 1953. to be taken over by the farmers whose land will be inundated when the dam gradual migration both to been a the new farming land and the cities from is in operation. instead of the traditional mud). through which flows the Konar Bokar and Konar are two new cities springing up on the Konar at the site of a dam being built with the help of Bank funds. fourth. tion of both the Engineers are instructing the Indians in construction and operadam and the steam electric plant. electric Third is transportation. such as contour plowing and terracing to prevent erosion.000 and it was paid in April. and fifth. building not only houses ( out of concrete block.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS 119 the urgent needs of Europe in the immediate postwar years. to aid the The sum was $18. India's Damodar Valley Corporation. industry. The second largest amount reflects the newer phase of the Bank's activities. 1950. . incidentally. But there has surrounding areas. The new houses have electricity. running water and adequate sanitary facilities none of which had been known in this region of India.

And its direction is in the hands of Indian Government officials. The problem of lifting living standards. This is not by any means to hint that the Bank would be re- sponsible for bringing the Indian people out of centuries of abject Incentive for the poverty. cement plants and locomotive is expected to go repair shops. . There are dozens of other probable results. Then he goes on to insist that outside aid cannot be the complete answer to economic development anywhere. Eugene R. He chides Americans who say our ten. stating that 90 per cent of the capital for reconstruction came from Europe itself. has helped and in doing so has shown the nature of its aims. but to help create conditions and skills for using it effectively. project was Indian. Capital from outside will then find a fruitful basis on which to work" A few other quotes from Mr. . quoting one of the conclusions reached at the Commonwealth Economic to Conference in London late in 1952: "The major sources of capital promote development must come from within each country. But the Bank. Increased power will benefit ciated industries already established in the valley and develop new ones. often emphasizes in connection with our part in the European postwar recovery. . . The fact that the Bank merely helped with its loan and cannot all take credit for its the good that may result parallels a point that president. which up to now has been mined the steel and assolargely by hand. nevertheless.000 kilowatts will surely raise and make cheaper the output of coal. "is not just to provide capital. Black give a good notion of the Bank's thinking. If all the good effects eventuate the Bokar-Konar project might well turn out to be the inspiration for a whole new way of Indian life. such as fertilizer plants. he says.or twelve-billion-dollar contribution did the job. . Production of many other minerals along with the effects already mentioned of added electric power. Black. . Its loan is only a part of the financing. .120 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW is The Damodar Valley rich in mineral resources and the addition of the Bokar electric plant's 150.

. assess the comparative economic value . should greatly aid the country's domestic and international commerce in agricultural products. . enterprises. and the pressure is is one of growing populations on available food supply major problems. Moreover. productive agriculture of usually a basic requisite for ultimate industrialization. means that must begin modestly with small and but it is extremely difficult for the Bank to light industries. To grants be forgotten of lending is . "In if a healthy market is to be provided . many underdeveloped industrialization countries the lack of basic facilities . Farm productivity must rise if man-power is to be released for industry. . but because such loans tend to demoralize the whole financial structure. farm earnings must increase for local manufactures. making possible the dissemination of market information and able to loans for processing plants make the control of freight shipments. . the development bank should be which will increase the earnings from Ethiopia's agricultural exports. for telephone and radio communication. because one of the chief considerations always is the effect of the loan itself.. . The Bank objects to very long-term cheap loans. is 121 fundamental in the underdeveloped coun- Agriculture their is the chief economic activity in most of them. But it must not and the Bank does not forget that one of the effects on lending itself.. but several projects winch will have a cumulative effect "We on a country's economic life. we have made separate loans for highways. of many small industrial . .THE UN NOBODY KNOWS TFarm production tries. and for a development bank. and new communications. . for instance. are particularly glad when we are able to finance not merely one isolated project. . The roads should give farmers and stock-raisers an incentive to added production through easier access to markets. They imply a lack of interest in repayment on the part of both parties and end by reducing the chances of repayment. In Ethiopia.** It was said more cheerful earlier that a banker with imagination must find it to deliberate over a loan of the International Bank kind than an ordinary commercial one. not because it wants to deny aid where it's needed. .

during his conquest of Britain that got letters to In 1800 it took thirty days. logical step was someone them: the postman. the UPU continued its previous practice . But if it's a loan. on time. . When mes- sages could to carry be written and read. to carry messages The throughout his huge empire. international organ existing today. The United Nations accepted An attitude like this of rather aloof equality by the part toward the whole suggests a solid amount of self-esteem.C. Until the year 1635 mail service Rome in twenty- was largely a royal prerogative . of declining invitations to sessions which were of no interest to it.. And there is no doubt that UPU has grounds for it. It is mail. What As the the UN Does about the Mail in point of members largest of the Specialized Agencies the next oldest and perhaps the most successful (ninety-three). it should be treated as a loan. the Bank. the agenda of which contained items likely to be of interest to the UPU. and paid off..122 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW in aid. . Its history easy enough to be romantic about the business of carrying goes back to the beginning of writing. . like any other self-respecting financial institution. called just that. The Union developed regularly and without interruption. in the manner by of our own nineteenth-century Pony Express. For its part.. and Liaison Commission. the Universal Postal very little nonsense from anyone. . Union sent representatives to several meetings of the United Nations. In the case of real loans. On the other hand. who used relays of horsemen. the Bank has no objection. gives good advice in every way possible. and sends him customers. the next viz. . . Julius Caesar organized a mail service six days. takes a paternal interest in the borrower. with full interest. . the Union invited the United Nations to send representatives to the May-June session of the executive this invitation. . Darius the Persian. first regular postal system on record was set up in 500 B. A Union takes few sentences from the 1952 UPU Postal report will give an idea: In 1951. relations between the United Nations and the Universal .

THE UN NOBODY KNOWS 123 or at least a private privilege. The sender paid and got a receipt. agreed wasn't until 1874 that an international congress at Berne. that year established a public post between London and Edin- burgh. England and France concluded the first postal treaty in 1670. either. Thomas Witherings. But then. the system was to charge by distance rather than weight and a person sending a letter overseas might have a choice of three different prices. de- pending on the route the ship took. additional treaties between countries were signed. the present UN But it was UPU Specialized Agency. provided for uniformity in treatment of correspondence. as did the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. met in Paris in 1863. which costing he sent along with the letter. The United States suggested the first conference to find a solution. which was called the International Postal Convention. But the American Civil War interfered. But all over the world communication by letter continued to be helter-skelter and unreliable through the eighteenth and much of the nineteenth centuries. It also provided for the establishment of what in 1875 was called the General Postal Union and in 1878 changed its name to the Universal Postal Union. but there irritating differences in rates remained and methods of handling. many With the great expansion of trade in the nineteenth century. with a pigeon-and-balloon service out of besieged Paris to Tours. by which England supplied semiweeldy packets across the Channel and France carried the mail overland to Lyons. It was from that practice that the postage stamp finally developed in the nineteenth century. In seventeenth-century Paris there was a local postal service a sou per letter. Switzeron a plan to bring order to world mail delivery. for simplification of accounts and for reduction of rates. livery. it was during the latter conflict that airmail first became known. and pressure mounted for international It regulation. Britain's postmaster.) And it land. as an independent entity that did the job of . which were to be calculated on weight rather than distance. He was never too sure of destroke of individual The postage stamp was not a midnight genius. and for a long time thereafter. (Incidentally. This agreement.

") What it does such as: for settling international accounts. Soviet leaders recogUPU is one of the three Specialized Agencies with after leaving all the others. And. Circulars requesting information which is later published in other ( its advice is homely titles. and "Use of Bicycles in and publish information of all kinds relating to postal issue lists of air and steamer services and act as an office "Two Features Rural Areas. That figure is probably not much The over two billion at present. of Mailbags" is collect service. figure of sixty billion letters a year does not mean only letters moving from country to country. the mail knows no frontiers. The basic principle is to states as a single territory. Under its aegis about dis- sixty billion letters a year are handled inexpensively and with one person in a thousand patch. at uniform rates and with uniform treatment. regard states all member has to be. So smooth is the operation that not has any idea how it's done. it by the best means it Hence every country has access to the rail- way. though Berne. UPU does not interfere with internal practices of members. is one that puzzles many people. Like radio signals and the weather. which they stayed single-territory principle imposes state to transmit foreign mails entrusted to The a duty on each member uses for its own mails. well-deserved self-esteem. The sixty billion letters are the total handled both internationally and internally by member countries.124 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBHOW Hence its setting the world's mail delivery to rights. Since UPU's member it and territories (ninety-three of them) for any practical purpose comprise the whole world. shipping and airmail services of every other country in the world. and has circulars give a hint in their available through the International Bureau at had effect in promoting efficiency. the basic principle behind it is exceedingly simple. how any could keep track of two billion items scattered accounting system This last function . being realists in their way. Switzerland. Probably because the operation is so vast. attitude of The job UPU does is almost incredibly vast. this means that national borders are disregarded. nize the fact.

What happens is that every three years member countries compare a month's transactions one with another and pay off the differences through UPU. raised print for the blind (the 1952 Congress voted for free transmission of such literature). with low-rate mailing rates. One of the duties of the International Bureau at Berne to adjust disputes among members and many over such payments. UPU to balance books to the penny. collection orders and subscriptions to periodicals. at local post offices. regulations in handling eight types of "ordinary mail" single and reply-paid post cards.12 gold In addition to adjusting disputes. small UPU packets and phono-post articles. A standard requirement of UPU members is that they follow letters. reflecting much thought and weighty deliberation francs. postal checks. printed matter. commercial papers. sharp legal over the sum of 5. or about $1. money The orders. the International Bureau stands ready to answer questions of any member as to practices that affect the other members. such as phonograph records. There are seven other postal services outlined in agreements supplementing the basic Postal Convention. zation had urged these changes. and Cultural Organi- . cash on delivery packages. with twenty-two clauses subclauses. UPU members have to observe the agreements only if their governments have ratified them. Obviously.75.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS makes no attempt 125 around among ninety-odd countries and territories. Scientific The United Nations Educational. Not that the business is done is casually. and amplification of a scheme to permit payment to foreign in national currency. A UPU Report immortalizes one such argu- ment more in nearly six pages of type. samples of merchandise. In 1952 two of the more interesting changes were a 50 per cent reduction in rates on all newspapers. The services cover insured letters and boxes. for subscriptions newspapers and magazines. all correspondence. UPU Postal Convention Congress meets every five years to revise the Universal (as the International Postal Convention was renamed in 1947). parcel post. books and magazines sent abroad.

in the sense that action. and almost all of it has been negative. A lot of their work It hasn't. that no one does anything about the weather. rain and storm now have made modern aviation possible even if it's still not practicable to plan a picnic a week in advance. Meteorologists have done a great deal about the weather. In one year it handles 2. through its International Bureau. and even if farmers* forecasts and more available almanacs are the only institutions brave enough to prognosticate next spring's climate. under just . to distribute and territories and is required. too necessary to work our It is will pay the price and make the on the millions of tons of air much even possible to make rain without cost and without fantastic new mechanisms. On the positive side. added to the organization facilities for the ex- change of technical information among ministrations. of course. under them to all other members. it has within recent years.126 UN: TODAY AND TOMORBOW Although UPU does not interfere in the workings of its members' domestic postal services. remote from the socalled civilized world. the observation has resulted in better short-term detailed patterns of wind. it has consisted of observation rather than constructive Nevertheless. the philatelist's friend. there has been enough experimentation for meteorological realists to say flatly that rain-making is a scientific possibility. has been done in strange and lonely places. It receives stamps of aH kinds each year to It is also from all member countries the Convention. provided we are willing to equipment hanging over our heads. all the member postal ad- The with the International Bureau supplies member postal administrations many millions of international reply coupons that are used facilitate correspondence between countries.500 different kinds of stamps. What the UN Does about the Weather been true for many years. as Mark Twain complained.

air currents are a matter of particular concern. The trouble is that there aren't enough modem weather stations. For instance. Benjamin Franklin had ideas about wind patterns that gave a good deal of can say with assurance inspiration to later students of weather. accurately reported. only what it is. But winds. in the Allied invasion of Europe during World War II it would have been enormously valuable to have monthahead predictions. There isn't enough radio equipment. in all the meteorologically im- And portant parts of all the world. is or choose a a matter of great moment to WMO. experts can make fair estimates of the near future. therefore the day-to-day global weather pattern is anything but complete. Since aviation has become so important. She howgot more out of it than the Western countries. One of the things officials like to emphasize is that a weather report never says what the weather wiU be. But the best meteorologists could do for the Air Force was a twelve-hour forecast.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS with 127 the right conditions. Learning more about them. even for the Infantry. Range of planes has been increased so vastly that most of them can fly around or over storms. manned by well-trained technicians. From present conditions. . WMO are called forecasts. and the technicians have no explanation. Oddly enough. Airplane spraying of clouds silver iodide or dry ice has done it. new destination within a thousand miles. followed by a three-hour jump-up. But these are generalities that don't help much in specific situations. have a generally easterly direction. locally. are fickle at all altithough they tudes. and now. These ever. But the main meteorological work has been and remains trying to find out what weather has been and what it is now. from much detailed observation that weather travels generally We from west is to east And we can say with equal assurance that this the reason why operative member Soviet Russia remained a supporter and coof the UN's World Meteorological Organization long after leaving all but two other of the Specialized Agencies. and how to cope with them. a good deal of winter weather moves westward from Siberia.



failed to see.

Weather has a connection with agriculture that no farmer ever But large-scale agricultural enterprises, like Hawaiian pineapple growing, have turned increasingly to modern meteorology for their forecasting needs. There is less reliance on the old-time farmer's instinct about rainfall and more on statistical records of
the past, along with attention to current indications. In Syria farmers have wheat harvest in May and look anxiously to the sky for clouds that may drop a little water to fill out the wheat
buds. But the French, on their departure, left no weather data behind them, on which to make even the most general predictions. In the Judean hills, where there are six months of sunshine a year,

but the only radio receiving sets are in the coffee shops. In Iraq there is need of irrigation, but the farmers don't want to use the precious dammedthe farmers
to expect rain,


know when

up waters
to rain.

if it's

going to rain.

And they


know when



As the

latest of the Specialized

April 4, 1951,



Agencies (it came into being predecessor, the International Meteorologi-

cal Organization, stemmed back to 1853), portunity to boast of definite achievements than

WMO has had less

opof the others.

But the problems it faces and some of the projects it proposes to carry out are a good deal more fascinating than the average layman
might suppose. Aside from rainfall,

and such weather matters of

interest to

farmers, there are insects. Locusts, for example, travel with the winds. They also breed according to moisture conditions. Hence

they are a fit subject for meteorology and a expert was invited to the Middle East to help in the fight against them. In to do something about nonBaghdad he got a request for



migratory insect pests, which was a bit harder for a weatherman. is co-operating with the Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on arid zone research. Since



the dry belt extends entirely around the world (even through Haiti) from about 25 to 35 degrees North, the value of increasing



easy to appreciate.


particular researches



are in: sources of energy (wind and sun especially); the use of dew; the possibilities of artificial rain. Another large-scale idea that appeals to some officials,





affect agriculture, is a climatological

survey of





a smaller scale, but

important to a very large area,

the hope of establishing in Afghanistan a rainfall observation post for the Upper Nile River. Such a plan as this last one depends
in the

place on a request from the country involved. This, of


WMO works closely with the Food and Agriculture Organization,
as one

true of all Technical Assistance programs.
expect. In


some ways


co-operation, as one also


expect, Civil Aviation Organization. Much of the proposed work is too technical for useful mention here, but one interesting task already has been attended to. This was defining the point meteorologically at

perhaps even more important to the International

which an airplane ought

to attempt a forced landing

couple of other interesting jobs are: tional cloud atlas picturing all the kinds of clouds that appear over the various parts of the earth and (2) working up global charts of


on water. (1) preparing an interna-

thunderstorm frequency and distribution. The latter involves helping to perfect a mechanism for counting flashes of lightning.

A radical idea for future thought and experiment that has nothing
do with aviation, agriculture or ships at sea, but does appeal to the imagination, is concerned with architecture. It has been talked of in Israel. The notion is that the temperature and wind measurements of meteorology could well be taken into account in the

construction and siting of houses. Judicious use of such knowledge might result in a new sort of "indoor climating/*
is directed toward trainMeanwhile, the practical work of and advising governments that request help in ing technicians modernizing their systems of weather observation and reporting. There were half a dozen Technical Assistance projects confirmed for


1953, with a total budget of $75,000.

One advantage


has over some of the other Specialized

an international code of reporting that obviates Ian-



guage difficulties. A Rumanian girl wanted to apply for a job in the weather bureau of Israel. No one in the office could understand Rumanian and she had no other language which in almost any
other occupation would have meant an impasse. But in this case she merely walked over to the map and plotted the weather on it, without error, from cabled information on the desk not sent
in the

Rumanian language. She got the job and

later learned Israeli.





for Telecommunication

The word "telecommunication"

looks formidable



not the

one in the world to pronounce. From an academic point of view it isn't even a very legitimate word, since it's half Greek and half Latin. But the aim in coining it is clear enough to gather in one word the name for a number of ways to send and receive
messages. These are chiefly the telegraph, the telephone and radio, but just to be on the safe side the definition includes "visual or
electromagnetic systems."

The Greek

prefix "tele"

merely means


took very


time after Samuel Morse invented the tele-

graph for European countries to put it to use. And they promptly found it necessary to make international agreements about standardized operation, kinds of apparatus and collection and accounting of rates.




Austria, others quickly followed

agreement came in 1850, between Germany and in 1865 twenty countries

signed a treaty at Paris, which created the International Telegraph Union to handle all the problems.

Radio was




not remember a time


safeguard for ships at sea.

might be forgotten by some who do was free of commercials ) as a Radio and SOS were practically synonythe air

mous in the public mind. But even in those simple days it quickly became apparent that international regulations were necessary to standardize signals and define responsibilities. At a conference
in 1906 at Berlin twenty-seven countries accepted the principle that it was a duty to answer a ship's call for help, either from shore or

from another
ship. This conference set


up the

International Radio-

And in 1934 this Union joined the original International Telegraph Union to form the International Telecommunication Union, which thus has the longest organizational history of
telegraph Union.


Specialized Agencies.


also the second largest in point

members, with ninety-two countries or territories on the two as associates. Only the Postal Union has more.

The telegraph and telephone have been around long enough not demand anything very revolutionary in the way of international
at least in peacetime. Perhaps as a result, it ITU turned into and remained for many


has been intimated that

years something of a European gentlemen's club. got in until 1945.

No American

is a different and much more exciting matter, even the conflicts involve electronic objectives and techniques though that are well over most nontechnical heads. In a figurative, as well

But radio

as literal, sense, one expert pointed out, radio


the most sensitive

area of the

modern world.

In a 1927 conference of the International Radiotelegraph Union (before it merged with the International Telegraph Union to form the present ITU), the nations reached an agreement not to interfere with existing radio stations.

That meant they agreed to stay

off transmitting frequencies assigned to stations already in exist-


This was advantageous for American radio, because we were pioneers in the field and had pre-empted most of the desirable frequencies. But

The 1927 agreement was

could hardly increase our popularity abroad. reaffirmed in 1932 when the radio and

telegraph unions decided to merge into ITU. After the actual merger, in 1934, ITU had headquarters at Berne, Switzerland, and authorized frequency assignments came to be known as the "Berne List"
Qualification for listing depended on two things: ( 1 ) date of first use of a frequency by a station and (2) date of notification to ITU.

So far so good. This was the day of relatively low frequencies and things went along smoothly enough. But suddenly the day of high


short-wave radio. And, to put
filed application for


mildly, the

situation changed.

In 1939 the Russians

short-wave stations at

every five kilocycles along the spectrum. They
justify their applications


little effort





or even

by faking


though here and there something of that sort happened. All they did was attempt to take over practically the whole upper range of frequencies by means of a little paper work.
Actually, in 1938 the spectrum had been charted only up to 200,000 kilocycles and it wasn't till an ITU conference at Atlantic City in 1947 that the new importance of short-wave was recognized by

extending the table of frequency allocations


to 10,500,000 kilo-

At this 1947 Atlantic City conference the United States took the lead in an effort to change the method of allocating frequencies. The practical purpose, of course, was to outflank the Russian paper
maneuver, but to everyone except the Soviet bloc the proposals

seemed reasonable. Mainly, they involved junking the old date-ofsystem in favor of more pragmatic quessuch as the working condition of both sending and receiving tions, equipment, and whether or not the station asking a frequency allocation really was in operation. A kind of international court for radio allocations was to be set up (International Frequency Registration Board) and a world conference at Geneva was to make out a basic list of allocations from which to start work and which the Russians would have to accept. The Russians did not accept. They resisted, and went right on refirst-use-date-of -notification

Finally, late in 1951,

ITU held an

Extraordinary Administrative

Radio Conference at Geneva which decided to override the Rustional court for allocations

and put the Atlantic City proposals into effect. The interna(IFRB), as a result, is now in operation, and the Russians, at last reports, were still resisting.



brochure about


"will record frequency assignments

diplomatically says the IFRB made by the various coun-

ITU remained one still of the few fields where in- ternational co-operation obtained after the schism between East to eyewitness reports. of course. is that radio signals are no more barred or hindered by frontiers than is the weather. The tasks that the International Civil Aviation faces are just as Herculean and brand-new at the same time. And. 133 and advise ITU members with a view to operating the maxi- mum number of radio channels in those portions of the spectrum where harmful interference may occur. but the sort marked by a daily. confusion in the ether might be even more extreme than it is in the political council chambers. Despite conflicts. And that. it might be interesting to know how such advice works out. Food producmail service. is funds assigned 1 per cent of the Technical Assistance Program about $200. even telegraphic comin tion.000 and in 1953 had about half a dozen projects in the field.** Granted understanding of electronics. at least most Specialized Agencies face. according belligerent sort of "co-operation" represented in the General Assembly and various conferences. it wasn't the and West. international civil aviation did not . Most of these were concerned with showing countries how to improve their telephone and telegraph systems. learning.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS tries. As a major factor in transportation. Herculean though have a long historical background. health. without some effective agreement among nations about the use of frequencies. munication are or all activities which men have had many years Organization many centuries of experience. finance. These were awarded only to electronics engineers or applicants of similar technical background. or reassessing their radio setups. ITU What the The tasks that UN Does for Civil Aviation they are. courteous "Good morning/* The reason for this. There were also fellowships for training in communications. Such chaos would be just as harmful to one side as the other.

Florida. True. those questions began to make themselves heard right after World War I. This led to a Pan American Convention in 1929 similar to the Paris Convention. or over that country. during the war. Air Transport Command planes alone flew twice that distance in a single month! answer questions that were never asked before the last war. when the first commercial air service was Although ICAO must established between London and Paris. But. hanged that made international civil aviation what it is today. But probably its most important content was a formulation of what has remained the fundamental principle of international air law: that each nation's and sovereignty extends to the air above it. that the planes of one country may not fly to the airfields of another country. without express agreement between them. In 1927 Pan American Airways began its overseas career with scheduled and flights across the narrow sea between Key West. volume of air traffic But it wasn't till 1944 that the became formidable enough to make broadly in- an obvious necessity. It was the war itself. with its cost-bedemands for fast transport to all the corners of the globe. volume of air traffic was still military in 1944. of course. This means. They knew. too. of course. that many political and economic conflicts forgotten during the alliance of war would inevitably pop up in peaceternational action The . They knew that on a commercial basis the world-wide system of navigational and meteorological facilities that the military had set up would be almost prohibitively expensive. great but aviation people were looking to a future of air-minded travelers after hostilities ceased. This attempted to set cal regulations up an agreement known as up uniform techni- to perfect air navigation. in the five years from 1934 to 1939 air route mileage doubled and miles flown tripled. to a figure of 300.134 exist till UN: TODAY ANB TOMORROW after World War II. Cuba.000. Havana. The 1919 Peace Conference took note and its Aeronautical Commission drew the Paris Air Convention. The two hop-skip- and-jump crossings of the Atlantic that same year helped to draw attention to the questions.000 miles a year. in 1919.

in its Specialized Agencies. From that meeting. even when cross frontiers. and Spain rejoined the organization. by agreement among nations and by co-operation with other international organizations trying to unify and codify international law. on air navigation. the committee in charge aims to build air up a body of international air law. 135 had and And that there were innumerable Chicago legal questions that never been settled internationally. on an The Air Transport Committee ters like is concerned with commercial mat- payments for the use of airports and navigational facilities. air transport and legal matters. fifty-two Allied neutral nations met in to discuss what might be done. eventually. an ex-Axis state. It has tried to get recognition.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS time. international basis. taxation. which is more important to the average ternational Air Transport" struggles to improve traveler. International Civil Avia1947. Under it a unit with the awkward title of "Division on Facilitation of In- and standardize and other such procedures that have tended customs. And it struggles to straighten out such diffithey cult questions as the legal status of an aircraft commander and the liability of an air carrier to passengers. officially bom Between 1945 and 1947 there was an interim organization abbreviated as PICAO. To complete negotiations for association as a Specialized Agency. But it is the work of the first committee. of property rights in aircraft. at that time. (In 1950 the UN's prohibition of Spanish membership in Specialized Agencies was rescinded. Italy. Oddly enough. Starting with the last. at the same Assembly.) The work of ICAO breaks down into three main categories: navigation. ICAO's first Assembly had to an amendment to its constitution which had the effect of pass with the UN dropping Spain from membership. One of its members was Spain. immigration to keep planes expensively on the ground longer than necessary and passengers waiting. So. in 1944. was accepted for membership. came the April 4. insurance. international airmail. tion Organization. gathering statistics. and Franco's dictatorship was not welcome in the UN or. that .

ICAO appointed a Joint Support Committee. . Warner's statement. pointed out obstacles to its aims in these words: [Air transport] requires. Bucking headwinds and turbulent weather. It is not sufficient that radio communications be perfectly operated at 90 per cent of the aeronautical ground stations of the world. but also in the poorest. in rotation. One that happened in 1947 won wide attention. and obviously. because of remoteness or of climatic and geographical conditions. and others where sweat-blurred eyes and sweat-slippery hands are a constant threat to precise adjustments. the passengers and crew. A different sort of aid was given a plane flying westward from the Azores. . Yet. if the equipment of the remaining 10 per cent is worn out or neglected or inattentively operated. Edward Warner. mentioned in Dr. The pilot. it lost the saved all use of most of its navigational radio equipment and ran low on fuel. he adds: The safe and regular movement of aircraft depends upon unbroken perfection in the performance of certain services. but also figured in some thrilling rescues at sea. . The vessel at Stafill To some of the gaps ^ tion C. . Guard Cutter Bibb. in spite of thirty-foot-high seas. the Bermuda Sky Queen. ran out of fuel and landed in mid-ocean with sixty-nine passengers aboard. These vessels not only radioed weather and navigation guidance to aircraft. . with a low fuel supply and reports of more bad weather ahead. a network o tion aids extending almost from pole to pole. among other things. president of the ICAO Council. . Under it the first collective action was to establish a floating network of weather stations in the North Atlantic. . are very commonly located in the territories of the governmental authorities which would be least able to bear even moderate expenses for such purpose. but ironically and painfully. but managed to Thome" on the weather station vessel. U.S. These were served by twentyfive vessels. An unscheduled flying boat. They are needed in the wealthiest areas of lie world.136 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW has most general interest Dr. it happens that the installations which are most difficult to make and most costly to maintain. of various nations. The thirteen stations agreed on in 1946 were revised downward in 1949 to ten. Some must air naviga- be installed where the touch of metal to the ungloved finger is an almost fatal error.

Council. Reaching it safely. meteorology. they go into effect. This means that every member is bound to abide by them or notify ICAO of any discrepancy in its own practices.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS 137 thought an attempt to reach Newfoundland by dead reckoning was a poor risk and wanted to ditch Ms plane by the surface vessel But the vessel persuaded him to wait. has the duty of recommending all sorts of international terest The standards and practices that will improve air navigation. air routes and aids.. personnel licensing. Two more These are the ten Specialized Agencies already in existence (plus are planned. If the Council adopts them. then lead the first plane into Newfoundland. communications. plane in trouble will make for the nearest station vessel. under which the Joint Support Committee arranged for these oceangoing weather stations. One of . search and rescue. got in touch with an eastbound plane and persuaded its pilot to change course. rendezvous at the station. Then. But perhaps the most useful thing about them that they provide a fine sense of security for pilots. but not yet realized. The ocean station vessels also have made many rescues for disabled surface ships. Out of the first dozen sets of new standards adopted by the Council and submitted to member states. then pre- work out ICAO passed on to member governments. nical matters The procedure sents to the is for ICAO technical divisions to gestions which the Air Navigation Commission sugconsiders. Air Navigation Commission as a whole. the pilot will regain con- A fidence and continue on to the nearest land. twelve went into effect What's to Come UNICEF). knowing his course is being plotted and help wiH be sent if he gets into further difficulty. Its inand work are concerned with a wide variety of largely techairworthiness. Often enough that sense of is security has saved a ditching. who know they are there always. they are unless a majority of the member governments disapprove. rules ground of the air and air traffic control. ready to help. accident investigation.

the World Meteorological Organization the least. It covers 55. 1947. These resulted in a treaty called the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In 1950 fifty member nations by the pledged an additional sum of twenty million dollars. breaking through the international trade barrier of tariffs will be a paramount task. 1949. and Specialized Agency people hoped that this would grow larger year by year. eight of shipping restrictions and discriminations. Technical Assistance began with a relatively small appropriation itself ($288. of the Specialized Agencies the Specialized Agencies are allotted varying shares of the Technical Assistance fund. and Torquay. above the UN UN appropriation. promoting international co-operation in maritime navigation. con- Bank and For ITO. In addition to their regular over-all income of forty millions. with an over-all total of about forty million dollars a year. other Specialized Agency still to come is the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO). it couraging of maximum use of safety measures and seeking removal now operating and which require support from their members ( the Bank and Fund are self-supporting) range from a few hundred thousand to eight or The budgets nine million dollars a year. 1950-1951). UNESCO. en- way. While establishment of the agency has been postponed indefinitely.000 in 1949).138 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW is these two the International Trade Organization third (ITO). put into effect on a provisional basis by thirty-four countries. In a rough The will parallel the International Civil Aviation Organization. to aid international trade. for an eighteen-months period. the tariff task has been attacked ceived of as of a triumvirate. Annecy.000 tariff rates. World Health Organization and the International Labour Organisation have the heaviest regular expenditures. titte member with considerable success in three conferences (Geneva. including the the Fund. There even began to be something like competition in courting underdeveloped countries for projects (any Technical Assistance project has to be requested by the country in which it is to be car- .

The fund for 1952 was nineteen millions and while it increased in 1953 to which were twenty-one millions. But if the wood is to be used to make a table or a chair. Some observers feel that the technological strides of advanced nations in recent times are so great that they have reduced the chances of underdeveloped areas' catching up to an all-time low. Laubach complained. The idea of persuading the human race to raise itself economically and culturally by the bootstraps using the little money available to UN agencies as a land of advertising fund may seem over-am- . Its nurture crafts? Such jurisdictional questions are usually minor. the illiterate. though not for publication. Some. longer established. the allotted shares of it had to come back to earth Agencies and concern them- selves with the quality of their projects rather than the quantity. too. say. Some officials considered this a good thing. As Dr. For others. the poor and the diseased reproduce faster than the more fortunate part of the human race so far has been able to create literacy. and chopping it up for firewood. just where does FAO stop before it impinges on International Labour Organisation territory? Or UNESCO's. which teaches handiso closely that overlapping tree example. for that matter. At times the functions of different Specialized Agencies approach becomes almost unavoidable. the co-ordinated work of all of them. decent jobs and proper health conditions for them. on an earth-circling scale. is something that never before has been tried. are complete innovations. But the 139 boom in beneficence failed to expand according to expectations. tainly Cutting it down may be. Nevertheless. for example). Take the and protection from insects are cerwithin the province of the Food and Agriculture Organization. What their efforts in the long run will mean to the human race is still too early to judge. and on the whole the Agencies get along well with one another. the Specialized Agencies are a brave and hopeful as individual projects (ICAO. however. the worldwide character of their present operations is unprecedented.THE UN NOBODY KNOWS ried out). certainly. new venture. And.

The "Each One Teach One" technique has given a fine start- ing account of itself. and vanced countries like Germany or Japan. . which deal in one way or another with almost all the peaceful activities If the have any large measure of success. concerted drives of the dozen Specialized Agencies. one of wars will disappear. Whatever the Specialized Agencies do to raise living standards in the less privileged areas is all to the good. and that underdeveloped cannot wage a modem war. in education. And it promises to be a great deal. With time it may prove to be the geometrical progression the world needs to solve its desperate human problems. But the colossal incountries simply equalities of our world are an invitation to trouble. It is true that discongreat breeding ground tent can be whipped up to the fighting pitch in technologically adaspirations of mankind.140 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW bitious to some. But pilot projects in food production. in labor training already have shown far more than promising results.

the Dictators. Mr. It other serves a The sometimes maligned United States State Department deword of credit in this respect. the question of labor conditions in the then newly established Soviet regime of Russia.CHAPTER 4 The WHEN to Private Citizens Part ILO's director. if not worse. wrote his indignant letter Lloyd George in the early days of the League of Nations it was generally considered as something approaching a breach of etiquette. specific provision such private organizations to co-operate practically with the another direct result. that the international importance of Everyman's opinion began to be understood. functioned on a very high level and anyone of less than ambassadorial rank rarely was seen. sonally. As women's organizations suc- ceeded in getting distaff rights written into the international constitution over the resistance of die-hard masculinists. much later. when it functioned at all. representatives of UN. But at that time protocol was more important. people emphasize the point that Philosophically minded the Charter's wording starts "We the peoples. Albert Thomas. The League. let alone heard. Presidents or what not. At the San Francisco con- ference which wrote the representatives of help. Roosevelt. had an un- deniable significance." Not "We the Governments. UN Charter the State Department invited Non-Governmental Organizations to sit in and was made in the Charter for As one result. but it was definitely not a popularity conquest for him per- was through Mr. His point. Kings." "We the 141 UN . Albert Thomas* demarche made a sensation. Churchill and some modern statesmen.

UN people say one of the most dramatic examples is Non-Gov- ernmental Organization's work Tony Sender's expose of forced labor. No one in the United States need worry about criticizing Russian labor policies.142 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW the human beings. It took enormous effort on the part of Senator Sparkman. a Krem- Another target is the explosive issue of petroleum. tion. British and Dutch. It seems unlikely that a gallon of gasoline will go down much in price as a result of the effort. At the European meeting of the Economic and Social Council in mid-1953. a curtain story as lin. would have the time. It's hard to overemphasize the significance of this fact. but the fact that NGO such closely guarded high-level financial operations were disclosed to the public is impressive. her American Federation of Labor boss. was drawn over the tragic political concession to the "new look" regime in the but the horrid details are still in the record. that the International Chamber of We YMCA business. opposed publicizing a report on their quiet agreements. Only a Non-Governmental Organization would have the Only an NGO keep at it till it did come such a thing to pass. this refugee from the Nazis never could have forced the facts of Soviet slave labor to international attention. The story is too long to present in detail. courage and endurance to intestinal fortitude to bring to pass. NGO but comments on Standard Oil may entail The word "cartel" has unpleasant connotations a certain cauand it was un- derstandable that the world's biggest oil producers. . But the day-by-day functioning of such Commerce promotes NGO's in connection with the it UN is something that gets far of a less attention than deserves. that trade union organizations watch over labor rights. to get the report out into the open. American. that child welfare outfits do what they can to protect helpless youngsters. And it isn't Tony Sender's story entirely: without the support of Matthew Woll. And the Charter goes on to specify peoples/* in which private organizations may make themselves felt at ways the world's highest political council tables. aided by the International Co-operative Alliance. Everyone knows that the exists.

THE PBIVATE It's CITIZEN'S PABT 143 of estimated that there are thirty million American members NGO's connected with the UN. Category A is the highest form of consultative status. There are 239 mostly international organizations that take a more active part in UN affairs* These. and 400 million the world over. there are approximately spasmodic. but whereas Category is permitted a comparatively garrulous two thousand words of length. as time goes on and the relations between the more grow closer. however active NGO's and the Council activities. also for much of the work itself. Counting all the organizations that make any effort. authorizing its members to appear before the Economic and Social Council. The majority of these are national outfits that content themselves with reporting events at the to their mem- UN UN berships. And the Economic and Social Council Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations may at any time call in members of Categories A or B for consultation on matters considered to be within their special competence. have been assigned three forms of status: Category A. Actually. Category B is limited to five hundred words. are identical. The Secre- on the register to submit tary-General may written statements. TThese observers have fairly regular background conferences of their invite organizations . of course. International and national NGO's may ask for the privilege of appointing observers to sit in and report on UN public meetings. to present written or oral statements. Category B (and some organizations merely listed on the register) also may present written statements on subjects in which A they are deemed to have special competence. and their means of accomplishing them often overlap. it becomes harder and harder to find the dividing line between the govemmentally appointed international workers and the nongovernmentally appointed. to keep up with four thousand listed. Their purposes. The Economic and Social Council has a Standing Committee de- voted to the Non-Governmental Organizations and it depends on them for much of the support of its work. Category B and listing on the register. and to suggest items for the Cornell's provisional agenda. upon application to the Secretary-General.

since the UN." This functions." One direction of the effort this occurs in is to help shape policy. separate from those of newspaper. Study of the of Trade Unions. makes studies of economic subjects which are frequently published by the UN. The International Chamber UN of Commerce. at which they are briefed by the Assistant Secretary-General in charge of the Department of Public Information or another official of similar rank. 1953. Abolition of discriminatory measures of an economic and social character from which workers suffer on grounds of race and color World Federation 5. There is a phrase sometimes used about NGO work "a two-way street. 3. 2. NGO publications. NGO speakers and NGO writers for non-NGO publications compete with the UN's own vast mill of words to tell what Dorothy Lewis' Radio Department calls UN "the greatest story being told. depends heavily on NGO's to keep the world public informed of its operations. Conclusion of an International Convention on Customs Treatment of Samples and Advertising Material International Chamber of Commerce. The World Health Or- . for example. 6. Often the Specialized Agencies. Up to April. is not the least valuable of NGO The range of NGO interests and special knowledge is vitally sig- nificant to the and Social an idea of the 1. 4. UN. always hard-pressed to find money to pay for its necessary activities. Forced labor American Federation of Labor. NGO tMnking takes: work for men and women Administration of oil resources International Co-operative Al- liance. NGO's had submitted 345 written statements to the Economic and Social Council. Some of the items suggested to the Economic Council by NGO's on which ECOSOC took action give direction for equal World FederaEqual pay tion of Trade Unions.144 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW own. economic situation of Africa World Federation of United Nations Associations. radio and press association people. This is an important part of DPI's work.

are rarely quotable. The political ments. emphasizes the novelty of all intergovernmental organizations. This lending of local authority to aims is far more important to UN the development of the international organization than seem. too. both the government that presented the proposal NGO UN its and the NGO would be embarrassed* And the NGO might lose usefulness. has been created during the last three decades. talking chiefly to The UN NGO UN and leaders of the audiences shared the platform with her and made anything she said believable and worth hearing. It made no great difference. .** Most of the early experiments were nongovernmental. The Food and Agriculture Organization takes heed of farmers. for obvious reasons. other direction of the "two-way street" is spreading the gospel. she insisted. governmental International Telecommunication Union. Most often the policy-affecting work of NGO's is economic or technical. an astute student of the history of international af- fairs. A year or so ago Dorothy Lewis made a strenuous speaking conventions. however. The strongest impression she got from it was the effect of association. representative of gov- ernments but privately operated. like the Universal Postal Union and the tional machinery. pointing out that "at least 90 per cent of the present vast interna- and nongovernmental. or. but out of the fact that tour. trusted friends And they asked her to speak at other meetings hundreds of them. The experience in international cooperation acquired by Non-Governmental Organizations through is not the the years and now made constantly available to the UN least of its assets.THE PBIVATE CITIZEN'S PART 145 ganization accepts advice from individual doctors or medical and public health associations. it might Lyman White. But sometimes it's achievepolitical. what she said or how she said it The impact of the idea came not out of her words. If it became known that an rewrote the trace proposal of a member nation.


Nebraska. the Dakotas. from which we gained the states of Louisiana. Oklahoma. Montana. which 147 we got . There is an assumption of long standing in some quarters of the American press that American diplomats are always outwitted by wily foreigners. But the direction the UN has chosen for its long-term course is surely toward verity. The UN's facts are mostly technical economic. is as the world's greatest repository of information. But we do have today. Political truths are still and difficult to prove. who point to concrete historical facts like: (1) the Louisiana Purchase. We may least but at not yet have learned how to act sensibly on the they are becoming available. the openness of most of its meetings.Note on the Future COLERIDGE plirased the old thought: "And in to-day akeady walks tomorrow/' No one is expected to make an acceptable prediction for next year's uncertain. most of Minnesota and parts of Colorado and Wyoming for fifteen million dollars. A decade from now is more and a generation inconceivable. Missouri. One good thing that often escapes attention is the fact that we are beginning to know more about ourselves. UN or next year's world. statistical. facts. scienrare tific. The public availability of its information. The UN. Kansas. the constant stress on President Wilson's ideal of open covenants openly arrived at are well-marked highways to ultimate revelation. a reflection of the twentieth century. (2) the accession of the Territory of Alaska. financial. This assumption is not shared by foreigners. Iowa. Arkansas. And despite the all-too-apparent tragedies of our time there are good things on which to base hope for the future.

however. no one can How the spectacular native moves toward self-government in the heavily populated territories of Asia and Africa will turn out is another question for the crystal ball.148 UN: TODAY AND TOMORBOW from Russia for seven millions. Relative na- How UN tional decipower changes with time and the basis on which sions are made now may be unrecognizable fifty years hence. though landowners may oppose philosophy. worry about United States willingness and ability to take care of its responsibilithe rest of the world. Iron Curtain and what will come of it. If we could accurately foresee a change in the reluctant attitude of so many Americans toward the UN. the many hundreds of millions UN of soil-tillers will certainly sympathize. so his death has disorcurrent thinking. Therefore. the twenty Latin-American member nations will influence the future history of the is still another question. Although the sum is less than we willingly chiefly UN spend on a single aircraft carrier. How much unrest there actually is behind the say. ties to The American share of total expenses. because we pay more than other member nations. As Joseph Stalin's imperialistic course of action after II World War the early logic of the UN. do not unduly worry about American diplomats' ability to They do. take care of American interests. recalling such events. How the resulting internal political upganized heaval in Russia will eventually affect the rest of the world is imoff all threw possible to guess. including Technical Assistance and the Specialized Agencies. we might more confidently predict a successful future for the organization. after a war which Congress expressly resolved was declared to free Cuba. Foreigners. amounts to about seventyfive cents per capita per year. (3) the annexation from Spain of the Philippine Islands. But a point to remember about the UN's role in these matters is that both its thinking and its practical agencies favor land reform and land reform is the most ancient and powerful of all revolutionary forces. UN What is reasonable to predict is that the UN will continue and . we complain about it.

the everyday work it does race. is the best thing that ever has happened to the human to trust it . may be partly offset by its tions may sometime decide present political weaknesses economic efforts and the member naIts with the necessary powers to keep the world in order.NOTE ON THE FUTURE become more effective 149 with time. Meanwhile.


: According to its Rules of Procedure. Q.: of September. the UN However. by agreement of a maof the opening of the ses- Q. is not always followed.: Are visitors allowed in all the meetings? 151 .: How By can visitors get tickets? A. this latter provision Attendance by Visitors 3. or later the day of a meeting or the day before. calling the admissions office at UN Headquarters at 8:30 A." However. Meetings are called by the chairman of the Council and according to the Rules of Procedure of the Security Council the interval between the meetings "shall not exceed fourteen days.M. the General Assembly meets in regular session once a year starting on the third Tuesday sion 2. 4.: When does the General Assembly meet? A.. i Questions and Answers About 1. the Security Council "shall be so organized as to be able to function continuously" meaning that state members of the Security Council have permanent representatives at the headquarters of the United Nations so that they are available for meetings called on quick notice. does the Security Council meet? According to the Charter. Q.. jority of the members the date may be postponed. When A.

.: A. to cover languages of tibe UN.: many people participate in a meeting? A. Q. Verbatim reports are also made because these can be easily duplicated for the members and Secretariat. plus the direct transw mission of the speaker's voice. There is a dial with numbers 1.: What is a "closed" meeting? A. Mechanics of Meetings 7. French. Russian or the original. to How depends be heard on a certain 11. space permitting..: Yes. dial to whatever language he wants Chinese. 5.: A closed meeting is one to which only advisers are permitted. 5. What is a Rapporteur? Rapporteur.: A. do the earphones work? Q. members and their 6. English. or reporter. 2. A up 10. Q. Q. Q. As for actual "participation/'' this upon how many delegates wish item..: A.152 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW A. 3. Q. if can be done without interfering with the conduct UN business. Why is a meeting canceled? A meeting is canceled by the member if chairman at the request of a is the reason for the request deemed sufficiently important. The listener can "tune in the five official by turning the 9. Spanish. the verbatim record can be 8.: May of visitors take pictures? it A. Q.: Visitors are allowed in all public meetings. checked with the record of the meeting. is responsible for drawing the official report of a meeting or session. . In case of question. 4.: Are meetings recorded? Why is there duplication of recordings and verbatim reports? All of the meetings are voice-recorded by UN Radio for the archives.: A. and How 6.: Representation varies according to the Charter-dictated size of the body.

: What The is the story of the UN flag? A. The UN flag may be displayed on either side of any other without being deemed to be subordinated.: The General Assembly and mine their the Security Council. sided by two olive branches.S. The and emblem Secretary-General urged the adoption of an official seal and on December 7.: 153 Wliere does tibe chairman of a committee sit? A. extending to 40th Parallel South. Q. ancient Greek symbols of peace. 1946. Trusteeall deter- ship Council and Economic and Social Council own parliamentary rules. There are sixty flags 14. Office of Strategic Services in April. in response to a request for a button to be worn by delegates to the San Francisco Conference. On October 20.: what is the sixtieth to join the UN family? A. The revised emblem consisted of a map of the world on a pole aximental by equidistant projection. the Assembly adopted without objection a resolution that the flag of the UN should be the official emblem adopted by the General Assembly. The chairman sits in the middle of the long table facing the other members. the of the UN General Assembly approved with slight modification the San Francisco design.: Indonesia. and with 100th Meridian West of Greenwich in the lower vertical position. 13. The UN flag may on no account be displayed lower than the flag of any individual nation. nor be smaller. Q.: What are the Rules of Procedure? A. Voting varies from a simple majority decision to the veto right owned by permanent members of the Security Council.. The flag flag is flown in all Trust Territories alongside the flag of UN the Administering Authority. 1947.: UN emblem was designed by the Presentation Branch of the U. 15.101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE UN 12. Q. 1945. Q. . The San Francisco design was a circular representation of a map of the world.

: Spain is not a member of the United Nations. Interpretation System 18. Q.. Spanish 20.: UN personnel wish they knew the answer to this question. 19.: is to be added. How much A competent interpreter is very hard to find. say French and Spanish.: broadcasts often are rebroadcast by member nations. Only those of particular interest.154 16. Chinese. is no way to tell the number of languages What are the five official languages? A. However. Q. French. Spanish and Russian. Q.: How can a person train himself to become an interpreter? A. 23.: UN therefore there used. Chinese interpreters need only be able to translate Chinese into English and English into Chinese. 21. Q. A. and practically impossible to train.: In what languages are they broadcast? Are A. French and English. . do interpreters make? About $100 to $200 per week.: is French used in the Headquarters? signs around Why UN A. English. Q. A.: A.: How does The simultaneous interpretation work? interpreters listen to the speech in one language with earphones and interpret it into other languages on their microphones. What are the language requirements for an interpreter? The average interpreter must know two languages. 24. Why is an official language? Spanish A. Q..: A.: 17. 22.: UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW all the UN meetings broadcast? No. as the most common tongues of diplomacy. Q. well enough to translate both into colloquial English. have been the "working" languages.: Spanish is an official language because of the twenty Latin American member countries where Spanish is spoken also the Philippines. Q. Q.. The audience as well as the delegates "tune in" to whatever language they wish to hear.: Although there are five official languages.

offices. .: ^ pays for the budget? A. 28.: What A. its various bodies..: Is adopted by the General Assembly. Q. to the budget? No. The interpreters are supposed to be sufficiently fluent so that they can use a similar slang expression in the language into which they are interpreting the speech. Q. salaries and maintenance of UN Headquarters in 29. Q.: Will Chinese last as UN 155 an official language if the Communists are seated? A..: Yes. The budget and scale of contributions are then discussed in Committee 5 of the General Assembly and 31.101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWEKS ABOUT THE 25. Q. The budget does the budget include? includes all of the expenses of the United Nathe largest part spent for? tions.: The Secretary-General draws up a tentative budget based upon the budget of the year before and expected expenditures for the next year. 30. New Who York.. The Committee on Contributions determines what percentage of the budget each memnecessary ber should pay. 26. missions.. etc. Q. This is examined and revised if by the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions. The sealing of the delegates of the People's Republic of China in place of the Nationalist Government delegates would not change the status of Chinese as an official language.: The state members of the United Nations. Budget 27. Q.: How is do the interpreters manage when a slang expression used? A. membership in any of the councils determined by the finally amount of contribution A. Q.: What determines how large much each country pays? the budget shall be and how A.: What For is A.

: Yes. Q.: Yes.S. determined by the Committee on Contributions and finally adopted by the General Assembly.. By whom are the personnel of the UN paid? The personnel of the UN are paid out of the general budget of the UN. The United Nations pays for the travel of five representatives from each member state to meetings of the General Assembly. In 1952 the General Assembly adopted a resolution stating that no country should contribute third o the budget of the UN. Q.S.S. on the basis of ability to pay. the largest contributor to the state of the UN budget? UN is deter- because the United States has the largest delegation? A. contribution has been raised during recent years..: No.S.S.: Who pays the delegates? A.R. As a rule no provision is made for members of the and the Trusteeship Council Security Council. U. like that of the other members. All other expenses. and travel and subsistence for members of regional commissions. A. 35. this has nothing to do with the scale of contributions. 32. regardless of nationality of the employee.: Why is A.R.. the a government changes hands and has Does the new government obligated to pay the remainder new government is of the contribution.R. on the theory that these meetings are generally held at Headquarters.: budget so small? 36. The contribution of each member mined oh the ability to pay. Q. is the U. The if U. Q.: Is it Why The is A.: Is there more than one- 33. Q. including salaries.: states.S. Q. 38.S. the U. . are paid ECOSOC by the member 34. travel and subsistence for members of special committees and commissions (sometimes only travel). Q.156 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW an article limiting the contribution of any one to one-third o the entire budget? country A. share of the 37. contribution.: What happens paid part of its contribution? pay the rest? A..

43. 42. Q.: Are there any provisions for barring a nation from the A. or adherence by member states is called for (as in the Genocide Convention). Q. According to the Charter a nation may be expelled by vote of the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council.: A. Individual decisions of the councils and committees are not necessarily subject to approval of the General Assembly except in cases where expenditure of money is involved. 44. Scientific and Cultural one of the Specialized Agencies of the is United Nations. Q." Membership is effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.: If a country gives up its membership in the UN... etc. returning.: Does the General Assembly have to approve any decision made in councils and committees? The General Assembly receives reports from all bodies of of the UN and can make recommendations to any one of them. membership open to all "peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter. According to the Charter.: How is an organization like UNICEF created.: What is UNESCO? is The United Nations Organization Educational.101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE Structure UN 157 and Organization of the General Organization and Charter 39. Q. 41.: UN What to the determines whether or not a nation will be admitted UN? is A. Q. 40. See Answer 39.: A. In the Charter UN? A.. can it return? no provision is made for withdrawing or but presumably both are possible. and in the judgment of the Organization. are able and willing to cany out these obligations. Q. What its status with regard to the machinery of the UN? .

R. the United Kingdom.S. Security Council 45.158 A. Since the Security Council so organized as to be in con- tinuous session.. who would have the primary for the maintenance of peace. Q. France. 48. the soThere are cil: A. party to 46. which agrees in advance to accept the obligations of the Charter.: A. a dispute. Q. not a Specialized Agency. What problems does the Security Council discuss? Any matter relating to the maintenance of peace and security brought to its attention by a member of the United Nations. UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW The United Nations established 1946. the Rules of Procedure provide that the chairmanship of the Council be changed in rotation each month (in the English alphabetical order) members will have equal opportunities..: so that all How many nations are permanent in the Security Council? Why are they permanent members? How decided? permanent members in the Security CounChina. "for the purposes of the dispute. They were designated as permanent members at the time the Charter was drafted on the theory that on questions regarding the maintenance of peace and security.. These are specified in the Charter.S. . Executive Board was named by the General Assembly in the resolution establishing the Fund.: by the Secretary-General or by a nonmember.: By accepting in advance. It is International Children's Fund was by vote of the General Assembly in December.: Why does the Security Council change chairmen each is month? A. should always responsibility have a voice. the United States and the U. a nation not a member of the bring a disbefore the Security Council? pute A. the obligations of pacific settlement provided in the present How may UN Charter" 47. but an integral part of Its the United Nations. Q. Q.: five called Big Five.

Q. which is a "strategic area trusteeship.: A. vio- What The can the UN do an Administering Authority lates its treaty with the UN? etc.. and make recom- mendations for rectifying the action. administration..: UN 159 does Trusteeship mean? A. What is How does it operate? The Trusteeship Council ministering trust areas." The agree- ment under which Assembly. Security Council that are not Administering Authorities of such trust areas and as many nations without trust areas as necessary to composed of the nations adthe permanent members of the tering make an equal division between adminisand nonadm in istering powers. Trusteeship Council can censure the Administering Authority. but the General Assembly has asked each Administering Authority to indicate "the period of time in it is expected that the Trust Territory shall attain the objective of self-government or independence.: There is the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (the The UN which Marianas.S. it receives petitions from the inhabitants of the areas and sends visiting missions to the areas to 51. Marshals and Carolines) under U. The Trusteeship Council examines and makes recommendations concerning the administration of the trust areas. the Trusteeship Council? is 50.: What is a U. The General Assembly could also make recommendations. this last area is administered was ap- proved by the Security Council rather than by the General .101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE Trusteeship 49. Q. A.: make if on-the-spot investigations.. Q." 52. Trust Territory? A.S. has no authority to "make" the territory independent.: Trusteeship is the term used to define the relationship be- What tween an administering power and non-self-governing ritories ter- designated as "trust" areas. send visiting missions. Q.

Tenure of office is decided How . Q. How voting independently. long does the same personnel represent their country in the Secretariat? A.. No two may be nationals of the 54. A. How is A. etc. a Registrar and such other may be The full Court sits except when decides to form a "chamber" of three or more judges to consider certain types of cases.: At The Hague. Netherlands.: A.160 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW International Court 53.: The Court necessary. nationals in Morocco. 55. same member states.: Where does the Court meet? state. decisions? Done any work? important The Court has had several important cases brought to it and has rendered important decisions and advisory opinions on the Corfu Channel Case. Perhaps one juries suffered members UN of the most far-reaching was the advisory opinion in the last-named case which declared that the had an inter- UN national personality and was able to sue for reparations from a member or nonmember Secretariat 57. reparations to personnel for inin the service of the UN. Q.: The fifteen judges of the Court are elected for nine-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council. rights of U. admission of to the UN.: state. Nominations are sent in by the Q..: The members of the Secretariat are selected on as wide a geographical basis as possible.S. 56. the Court organized? elects a President and Vice President for threeofficers as it year terms.: are the judges appointed? By whom? A. the Anglo-Iranian Oil Has the Court taken any important Case. Q. but no member "represents" the country of his nationality. Q.

58.101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE UN 161 according to regulations approved by the General Assembly. Members are retired at the age of sixty. Q. Q. Q..: Does a Secretariat employee cease to be a citizen of his own A.: Is there a representative of the Secretary-General at all security. nationals are exempt UN by their governments from income taxes.: This varies is needed to pass a resolution? from body to body. if the question is an important What majority one. Resolutions are adopted in the General Assembly by a two-thirds majority of members present and voting. He the UN. The Secretary-General is meetings? A. appoints bring to the attention of the the UN..: A. Other than relief employees enjoy very few diplomatic immunities or privileges. his responsibility? By whom A. or by a simple majority if the question is of a more . The Secretary-General is is he appointed? the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. All employees except U. from income UN his job. 59. Voting 62. but UN or partisan considerations. thing. Q.: Yes.S. and may Security Council or General Assembly any matter he thinks may threaten the maintenance of international peace and appointed by the General Assembly on recommendation of the Security Council. Q. He does not "preside" over anythe chief administrative functions of performs makes an annual report to the General Assembly of the on the work the staff of UN during the preceding year.: country? lie takes an oath giving Ms primary allegiance to the international organization and guaranteeing that he will not be swayed in his work for the by any national No. 61.: What does the Secretary-General preside over? What is taxes.: Does he pay taxes? A. 60.

commissions and councils? A.162 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW routine nature. committees they might establish.: Is geographical distribution the same on tees. Committees of the Assembly take decisions by a simple majority. Procedural questions are decided by the affirmative votes of any seven members. Q. Q. Resolutions in the Economic and Social Council are adopted by a majority of the members present and voting. including the affirmative votes of the permanent members.: During the time the Soviet Union was absent from the Security Council. It must also be remembered that the Charter says that the members' vote must include the "concurring votes of the permanent 7 it does not . Q..: What is A. The councils elect the members of any commissions or How are 66. 63." Membership on Councils and Committees 65. specify "all" or "five.. The same is true in the Trusteeship Council.: countries appointed to councils and commissions? The General Assembly elects the members of the councils and any commission or committee it might establish. the Council took the position that an absence was tantamount to an abstention. Commissions and committees take decisions by simple majority. Abstention meant by abstention? means that a member does not vote to the either.: A. 64.: What happens members unanimous vote of the in the Security Council is five permanent on substantive matters not present? A. itself initiated when Russia The Soviet is Union the custom that an abstention not a veto. all the commit- An effort is always made to have as wide a geographical . Q. In the Security Council decisions are taken by a majority of seven. for or against a resolution.

in fact it might help to build up the forces of collective security. cause a threat to the peace of the world.: All nations are represented in the General Assembly the six main committees of the General Assembly.101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE distribution as possible.. the peace? If so. Are the "Big Five" on all the councils? A. At the present time the UN has the force of world public Isn't there 70. (X. Can the UN what? A..: Is there Trusteeship Council. Q.: Why opinion. primarily due to tensions existing among the Big Five and lack of agreement on the Military Staff Committee which is composed of the Big Five. the "Big Five" are automatically members of the Security Council and the members 68. Q.. sarily . all have been so any body where the nations are represented? A. committees and commissions is not the same. The Collective Measures Committee. UN 163 vari- membership on the ous councils. but they far. es- tablished by the Assembly's "Uniting is for Peace" Resolu- tion in 1950. Q. including a UN legion. studying measures for collective security. and in Substance Questions Regarding Enforcement: 69. The UN cannot prevent one country from sending armaments into another country.: What force is there behind the UN now? A. however.: According to the Charter provisions. Also. member countries have been asked to indicate what forces they would be willing to contribute for future 71. Q. It is not mandatory that they be of the Economic and Social Council. Suclx an act does not neces-. however. The agreements envisioned under Articles 43 and 45 of the Charter have not been completed.: UN action. doesn't the UN have an army? Charter provision for one? A. do anything when one country is sending another armaments and causing a threat .

Japan. or a the UN program? What the difference? A. newspaper and radio rooms and space for misoffice cellaneous purposes. Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Cambodia.. None of the sixty member nations has space in the Secretariat Building. Hungary. Bulgaria.S. Q. Jordan. The Secretariat Building contains the working offices of the various departments under the administration of the Secretary-General. Rumania. Finland.164 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Miscellaneous 72. . Libya. Ireland. Republic of Korea. Spain Specialized Services. plus liaison offices of the Specialized Agencies. Laos. In 1950. Q.: Albania.: Is the Point is Four Program a U..000 people are now represented United Nations something like 80 in the per cent of the world's 76. What about the membership of Spain? By resolution of the General Assembly in 1946 now is a member of several UN 74. Spain was barred from membership in the UN and the Specialized Agencies. Portugal. however. Q.000. Italy. Vietnam. the families of the Secretariat live in the building? No. The UN Technical Asall Program a multilateral one in which mem- bers of the United Nations are invited to participate.: A.. Mongolian People's Republic. Austria. Q. Q.: Do population.: What nations have applied and not been admitted? for membership in the UN A. 73. the General Assembly reconsidered the question and decided that the Specialized Agencies should be free to decide for themselves whether Spain should become a member and be allowed to participate in their work. Democratic People's Vietnam. Point Four is name given is to the United States bilateral program sistance of technical assistance. Ceylon.: What per cent of the world's people are represented in the UN? A.: Over 1. A.800. Nepal. 75.

UN operation..: A.: Yes. 78. Otherwise.: How many vetoes have been registered? 55 by Russia. Who would be responsible in the event of a crime committed on UN property? Depending on the nature of the offense: municipal.: A. Q.101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE 77. Q. however. The total of all three UN 80. Q.000. Q. 79.. Q. Q. comes to less than $100. The design is intended to make all religious creeds comfortable. state or Federal authorities would be in charge. in which case UN regulations would take precedence.: Is there A. and for the Expanded Technical Assistance Program are not included in the normal budget. No question of Soviet Russia's connection with 82. Q. Q. 83.: the conflict was formally raised. Does the Meditation Room have any special symbol? No.. 81.: A.: UN 165 a UN coin? Does the UN profit from sales of UN stamps? Not from those used for mailing.: Is it possible to revise the UN Charter? A. one by France and Russia.000 a year. except for its lack of symbols.: A. one by France. No. Normal procedure would be for UN guards to apprehend the transgressor and turn him over to the American authorities. only from those sold to philatelists.. with of the international organization? forces resisting aggression in Korea were fighting UN member only against Northern Korean and Chinese Communist armies. unless special legislation of the UN conflicted with the American statute.: Has the UN budget increased or decreased since the organfor 1953 ization started? A. One of its provisions requires that it automatically receive reconsideration after the first ten years. 84. The normal budget 1952. was less than the one for Funds for the Specialized Agencies.: How The could the Korean conflict be a Russia a A. a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly is necessary .

not on Are there eating No. Rockefeller donate the land which Headquarters stands? the UN members. Q.: Yes. subscription price. Q. or write Miss Aroos Benneyan of Volunteer Services. make a monetary contribution to is UN? a general fund.. Q.: Is UN playground restricted to children of UN em- ployees? A.: 88. 3361.: Yes. 85. people visiting the 87. $1 per year. any child playground. New York. No.: Can the I. or to the Bulletin (published biweekly). Q. subscription price.: UN on business. UN all by two-thirds of permanent members of the on A. A. Q. Write to the Secretary-General. there 91. to speak about the 93. $4. Can anyone garage? besides UN employees park his car in the UN A.: What can I do to entertain UN personnel? A. with ratification including Security Council..: per year. Can a private citizen contribute to the services are always UN Library? A.: How can I get someone UN for my local organization? .: New York City. Q. 86. 90.50 92. as an individual. Telephone PLaza 4-1234. the facilities for visitors UN business? A. A UN guard supervises the 89. You can subscribe to the United Nations Reporter (published monthly). United Nations. Q.: Yes. New York.. Yes. Q. Ext. United Nations. by the UN Library. Q.: Did anyone besides Mr.166 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW for any specific change. may play there.. How can I keep up with UN activities? A. exchange Any documents from however remote a source are received with gratitude welcome..

: In 98.: What What still is A.: A. 99. UN? are the three Specialized Agencies that Soviet Russia supports and co-operates with? Organization. Where was the first meeting of the UN held? London.: do you pronounce the name of the new SecretaryDag Hammarskjold? A. Ext.: Are there pages. Q. Q.: International 96. Q.. New York. or telephone PLaza 4-1234. Q. Department of Public Information. Q. Q.: Because some UN personnel have religious objections to the use of tobacco. United Nations." since this is the meaning of the word in English and no average American could get close to the proper pronunciation. 101. 100. A. 94. but the chief dependence for communication is on the telephone. UN 167 Write Volunteer Speakers.101 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT THE A.: does the Secretary-General serve? The President of the General Assembly? A. Q.800 windows polished. for the duration of one session.: long does it take to wash the UN Headquarters windows? A crew of nine men works the year around keeping the 6. How not mind having his name pronounced "Hammer-shield.: World Meteorological 97.: and International Telecommunication Union. the President of the Assembly. Universal Postal Union A. 95. There are messengers who deliver mail. . under the Charter. England.: the oldest organization connected with the Telecommunication Union.: Mr. 3411. Q.: Why the no-smoking rule in the elevators so rigidly observed? is A. as in the United States Senate? No.: By resolution of the General Assembly the Secretary-General serves a five-year How long term and is eligible for reappoint- ment. Hammarskjold has publicly announced that he does General.: How A.


by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods. and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights. and to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples. and to establish conditions under tions arising to promote dom. and which justice and respect for the obligafrom treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained. in the dignity and worth of the human person. and to ensure. which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind.Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS WE THE PEOPLES OF THE TUSTTTED NATIONS DETEBMINED tO Save Succeeding generations from the scourge of war. save in the common to unite interest. and our strength to maintain international peace and security. in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small. social progress and better standards of life in larger free- AND FOR THESE ENDS i| to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors. that armed force shall not be used. 169 .

Article 2 in pursuit of the Purposes stated The Organization and 1. All Members. cultural. its Members. Accordingly. 2. To lems of an economic. To maintain international peace and security. adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace. in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership. and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law. and 4. To be a of these ment center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attaincommon ends.170 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS. achieve international cooperation in solving international probsocial. sex. shall act in accordance with the foHowing*l?rinciples. shall fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter. our respective Governments. or religion. who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form. . Chapter I PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES Article 1 The Purposes of the United Nations are: 1. and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace. 3. have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations. or humanitarian character. and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace. and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race. and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples. The Organization Members. is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its 2. in Article 1. language. and to bring about by peaceful means. thorough representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco.

2. taking preventive assistance to 6. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state. sign the present Charter and ratify in accordance with Article 110. Chapter II !M3EMBEBSHIP Article 3 of the United Nations shall be the states which. by peaceful and justice. or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations. these obligations. 1942. 5. and shall refrain from giving is any state against which the United Nations or enforcement action. in the judgment of the Organization.CHABTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS 3. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter. are not endangered. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. 4. All 171 Members stall settle their international disputes means in such a manner that international peace and security. are able and willing to carry out 1. but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII. or having previously signed the Declara- The Members tion by United Nations it of January 1. . 7. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security. Article 4 states Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and. All Members action it shall give the United Nations every assistance in any takes in accordance with the present Charter. original in the United Nations Conference on International having participated Organization at San Francisco.

a Trusteeship Council. an International Court of Justice.172 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Article 5 A Member of ment from the the United Nations against which preventive or enforce- action has been taken exercise of the rights by the Security Council may be suspended and privileges of membership by the The General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. an Economic and Social Council. Chapter IV THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY Composition Article 1. 2. 9 The General Assembly Each Member shall shall consist of all the Members of the United Nations. and a Secretariat. have not more than five representatives in the General Assembly. A Member Chapter III ORGANS Article 1. Article 6 of the United Nations which has persistently violated the contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Principles Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. 7 There are established as the principal organs of the United Nations: a General Assembly. a Security Council. . Article may be established 8 The United Nations men and women equality in its shall place no restrictions on the eligibility of to participate in any capacity and under conditions of principal and subsidiary organs. exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council. Such subsidiary organs in accordance as may be found necessary with the present Charter. 2.

except as provided in Article 12. or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations in accordance with Article 35. may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations. The Secretary-General. paragraph 2. may make recommendations with regard to any such question to the state or states concerned or to on which action is the Security Council or to both.CHAKTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Functions and Powers Article 173 10 The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter. Article 11 1. except as provided in Article 12. The General Assembly may in the consider the general principles of maintenance of international peace and security. Article 12 1. shall notify the General Assembly at each session of any matters relative to the maintenance of international peace and security which are being the Security Council and shall similarly notify the Gendealt with by . and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both. 2. 4. with the consent of the Security Council. and. The powers of the General Assembly set forth in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10. 3. cooperation including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments. While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present Charter. or by the Security Council. the General Assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the Security Council so requests. and. Any such question necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security. 2.

social. Article 1. cultural. 15 and consider annual and The General Assembly shall receive special reports from the Security Council. the General Assembly may for the peaceful adjustment of any situation. Article 1. immediately the Security Council ceases to deal with such matters. Article 14 recommend measures Subject to the provisions of Article 12. as to race. . including situations resulting from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter setting forth the Pur- poses and Principles of the United Nations. these reports shall include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided upon or taken to maintain international peace 2. educational. sex. IS The General Assembly purpose of: a. functions and powers of the General Assembly with respect to matters mentioned in paragraph 1 b above are set forth in Chapter IX and X. shall initiate studies and make recommenda- tions for the promoting international cooperation in the political field and encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification. Article 16 The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to die international trusteeship system as are assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations. The further responsibilities. promoting international cooperation in the economic. or religion. or the Members of the United Nations if the General Assembly is not in session. language. which it deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations. regardless of origin.174 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW eral Assembly. and security. and assisting in the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction b. 2. including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic. and health fields.

the new Members to the United Nations. including the determination of additional categories of questions to be decided by a two-thirds majority. Article 19 is A of Member of the United Nations which in arrears in the payment contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the its financial amount if it is The General Assembly may. the expulsion of Members. Council in accordance with paragraph 1 c of Article 86. the election of the non-per- manent members of the Security Council. . permit such a Member to vote satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the of the contributions due from Member. nevertheless. made by a General Assembly on important questions shall be two-thirds majority of the members present and voting.CHAKTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Article 1. control of the it for the preceding two full years. and budgetary ques3. Voting Article 1. 18 shall Each member of the General Assembly have one vote. 175 17 and approve the budget of the The General Assembly shall consider Organization. questions relating to the operation of the trusteeship system. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned. Decisions on other questions. 3. the the Economic and Social Council. shall be made by a majority of the members present and voting. These questions shall include: recommendations with respect to the main2. 2. the suspension of the and privileges of membership. Decisions of the tenance of international peace and security. the election ship election of the members of of members of the Trustee- admission of rights tions. as apportioned The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by the Members by the General Assembly.

however. Chapter V THE SECURITY COUNCIL Composition Article 1. three shall be chosen for a term of one year. France. It shall elect its President for each session. Article 22 it The General Assembly may deems necessary for the performance of establish such subsidiary organs as its functions. in the first instance to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the maintenance of international peace and security and to the other purposes of the Organization. the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The General Assembly shall elect six other Members of the United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security Council. 24 In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations. due regard being specially paid. A retiring 3. and also to equitable geographical distribution. Special sessions shall be con- voked by the Secretary-General Members at the request of the Security Council or of the United Nations. its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsi- . the United Kingdom of Great Britain shall and the United States of America and Northern Ireland. be permanent members of the Security Council. Functions and Powers Article 1. member shall not be eligible for immediate re-election. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years. 23 The Security Council shall consist of eleven Members of the United Nations. 2.176 Procedure UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Article 20 The General Assembly shall meet special sessions as occasion of a majority of the may in regular annual sessions and in such require. The Republic of China. Article 21 The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. Each member of the Security Council shall have one representative. In the first election of the non-permanent members.

The . and agree its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf. a party to a dispute shall 3. powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these down in Chapters VI. plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments. with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47. pose be represented at all times at the seat of the Organization. Voting Article 1. The specific duties are laid 3. when necessary. 27 have one vote. 2. and under paragraph 3 of Article 52. and XII. special reports to the General Assembly for its consideration. the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating. by an abstain from voting. 28 to function Security Council shall be so organized as to be able Each member of the Security Council shall for this purcontinuously. Article 26 In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources. Each member of the Security Council shall Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of seven members. in decisions under Chapter VI.CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS bility for 177 that in carrying out the maintenance of international peace and security. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The Security Council shall submit annual and. Procedure Article I. provided that. VII. 2. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made affirmative vote of seven members including the concurring votes of the permanent members. Article 25 of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present The Members Charter. VIII.

The Security Council shall lay down such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations. the continuance of which likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. arbitration. shall be invited to participate. conciliation. first of all. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places other than the seat of the Organization as in its judgment will best facilitate its work. own choice. if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council. upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means. mediation. when it deems necessary. enquiry. in the discussion relating to the dispute. in the discussion of Security any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially affected. 33 is The parties to any dispute. be represented by a member of the government or by some other specially designated representative.178 2. Article 29 it The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as necessary for the performance of its functions. call The Security Council shall. including Article 31 of the United Nations which is not a member of the Council may participate. . without vote. if it so desires. resort to regional agencies or arrangements. UN: TODAY AND TOMOKBOW of The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at which each members may. own rules of procedure. without vote. Chapter VI PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES Article 1. or other peaceful means of their 2. judicial settlement. seek a solution by negotiation. shall. Any Member Article 32 which is Any Member of the United Nations not a member of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member of the United Nations. Article deems 30 The Security Council shall adopt its the method of selecting its President. its 3.

or any situation to international friction or give rise to a dispute. recommend The appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment. to the attention of the Security Council or of the General Assembly. 37 to in Article Should the parties to it a dispute of the nature referred 33 it by the means indicated in that Article. The proceedings brought to its attention under this Article will of Articles 11 and 12. for the purposes of 1. Article 1. of the General Assembly in respect of matters be subject to the provisions 36 Security Council may. the obligations of pacific settlement provided in the present Charter. . Any member of the United Nations A the dispute. In making recommendations under this Article the Security Council should also take into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties to the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provisions of the Statute of the Court. 2. fail to settle 2. in order to determine whether the continuance of the dispute or situation is which might lead likely to The Security Council endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. they shall refer to the Security Council. Security Council should take into consideration any procedures which have already been adopted by the 3. Article 1. If the Security is Council deems that the continuance of the dispute in fact likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and or to security. 2. The for the settlement of the dispute parties. Article 35 may bring any dispute.CHABTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Article 179 34 may investigate any dispute. or any situation of the nature referred to in Article 34. 3. at any stage of a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 or of a situation of like nature. it shall decide whether to take action under Article 36 recommend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate. state which is not a Member of the United Nations may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of the General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if it accepts in advance.

make recommendations to the parties with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute. or . sea. Article 42 Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate. or land forces as may be necessary to may maintain or restore international peace and security. or position of the parties concerned. AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION Article 89 The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace. air. blockade. and other means of communication. by air. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights. and other operations land forces of Members of the United Nations. call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable.180 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Article 88 Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37. and the severance of diplomatic relations. or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42. Chapter VII ACTION WITH BESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE. postal. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail. Article 40 In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation. radio. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional measures. it take such action by air. the Security Council may. before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39. and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. Article 41 The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions. the Security Council may. Such action may Article include demonstrations. BREACHES OF THE PEACE. to maintain or restore international peace and security. claims. sea. if all the parties to any dispute so request. breach of the peace. sea. or act of aggression and shall make recommendations. telegraphic.

assistance. The strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined. necessary for the purpose of maintaining international 2. in order to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security. Members shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for combined international enforcement action. and facilities. armed forces. within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to in Article 43. undertake to make available to the Security Council. includ- ing rights of passage. on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements. 3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. They shall be concluded between the Security Council and Members or between the Security Council and groups of Members and shall be subject to ratification by the signa- Such agreement tory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. OF THE UNITED NATIONS Article 181 48 L All Members of the United Nations. Security if the Member so desires. When the Security Council has decided to use force before calling upon a Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfillment of the obligations assumed under Article 43. Article 46 Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee. their degree of readiness and general location. and the nature of the facilities and assistance to be provided. by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee. invite that Member.CHABTBR. peace and security. Article 44 it shall. to participate in the decisions of the Council concerning the employment of contingents of that Member's armed forces. or agreements shall govern the numbers and types of forces. Article 45 In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures. 47 There assist be established a Military Staff Committee to advise and the Security Council on all questions relating to the Security shall . Article 1.

requires 3. with the authorization of the Security Council and after consultation with appropriate regional agencies. any other state. as the Security Council may determine. The action required to carry out the decisions of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security shall be taken by all the Members of the United Nations or by some of them. when The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under the armed forces placed at Security Council for the strategic direction of any the disposal of the Security Council.182 peace and UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Council's military requirements for the maintenance of international of forces placed at its security. and possible disarmament. 4. . which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems. Any Member of the United Nations not permanently represented on the Committees with it shall be invited by the Committee to be associated the efficient discharge of the Committee's responsibilities the participation of that Member in its work. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of the United Nations directly and through their action in the appropriate international agencies of which they are members. Article 49 The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council. whether a Member of the United Nations or not. Article 50 If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security Council. 2. 2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or their representatives. Questions relating to the command of such forces shall be worked out subsequently. Article 48 1. the employment and command disposal. may establish regional subcommittees. The Military Staff Committee. the regulation of armaments.

provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The Security Council shall encourage the development settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initiative of the states concerned or by reference from the Security Council. for pursuant to Article 107 or in of this Article. of pacific 3. The arrangements or where appropriate. provided in paragraph . or agencies But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements without the authorization of the Security Council. 52 the existence of regional Nothing in the present Charter precludes or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the arrangements maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action.CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Article 51 183 inherent right of indiNothing in the present Charter shall impair the vidual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations. utilize such regional Security Council shall. by regional agencies as defined with the exception of measures against any enemy state. The Members of the United Nations entering into such arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make every effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before referring them to the Security Council. for enforcement action under its authority. 2. until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. in order Chapter VIII REGIONAL ABRANGEMENTS Article 1. 4. This Article in no way impairs the application of Article Articles 34 and 35. 53 I. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defense shall be shall not in any way immediately reported to the Security Council and and responsibility of the Security Council under the affect the authority time such action as it deems necessary present Charter to take at any to maintain or restore international peace and security.

be charged with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by such a state. 57 various specialized agencies. and conditions of social progress and development. Article 56 to take joint and separate action in with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes cooperation set forth in Article 55. full employment.184 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW on on regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy the part of any such state. human rights and fundawithout distinction as to race. and and c. universal respect for. international cultural social. problems. health. established by intergovernmental agreement and having wide international responsibilities. all mental freedoms for or religion. the United Nations shall promote: a. state as used in paragraph 1 of this Article any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter. as defined in The . The term enemy applies to Article 54 The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies security. for the maintenance of international peace and Chapter IX INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COOPERATION Article 55 With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples. and observance of. sex. All Members pledge themselves Article 1. and related and educational cooperation. until such time as the Organization may. b. 2. solutions of international economic. language. request of the Governments concerned. economic and higher standards of living.

Subject to by the General Assembly. which shall have for this purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X. cultural. in economic. health. 3. six members shall nomic and Social Council years. 4. A retiring member shall of the Ecobe elected each year for a term of three be eligible for immediate re-election. social. initiate negotiations among the states concerned for the creation of any new specialized agencies required for the accomplishment of the purposes set forth in Article 55. Chapter X THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Composition Article 61 1. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized agencies. eighteen members of the Economic and Social Council shall be chosen. educational. in accordance with arrangements made by the General At the Assembly. under the authority of the General Assembly. Article 60 set forth in this Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the Organization Chapter shall be vested in the General Assembly and. Article 59 The Organization shall. first election. and related fields. and of six other members at the end of two years.CHABTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS 185 their basic instruments. in the Economic and Social Council. 2. the provisions of paragraph 3. where appropriate. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall have one representative. shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Article 63. Article 58 for the coordination of The Organization shall make recommendations the policies and activities of the specialized agencies. The term of office of six members so chosen shall expire at the end of one year. . The Economic and Social Council shall consist of eighteen Members of the United Nations elected 2.

social. 2. and related matters and may make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the General Assembly. 2. It may call. consultation with Article 64 1. It respect for. with respect to matters falling within its competence. 63 The Economic and Social Council may enter into agreements with any of the agencies referred to in Article 57. to the Members of the United Nations. The Economic and Social Council may take appropriate steps to obtain regular reports from the specialized agencies. may make recommendations and observance of. for all. It may prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly. international conferences on matters falling within its by the United com- petence. cultural. human for the purpose of promoting rights and fundamental freedoms 3. Such agreements shall be subject to approval by the General Assembly. and to the specialized agencies concerned.186 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Functions and Powers Article 1. It may coordinate the activities of the specialized agencies through and recommendations to such agencies and through recommendations to the General Assembly and to the Members of the United Nations. 62 The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic. It falling within its may communicate its observations on these reports to the General Assembly. health. 4. Article 1. defining the terms on which the agency concerned shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations. 2. in accordance with the rules prescribed Nations. . educational. It may make arrangements with the Members of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies to obtain reports on the steps taken to give effect to its own recommendations and to recommendations on matters competence made by the General Assembly.

It shall the present Charter or as Voting Article 1. without vote. 3. perform services Members of the United Nations and at the request of perform such other functions as are specified elsewhere in may be assigned to it by the General Assembly. . up commissions in ecoand for the promotion of human rights. in its deliberations on any matter of particular concern to that Member. Article 70 The Economic and Social Council may make arrangements for representatives of the specialized agencies to participate. It The Economic and at the request of may. Decisions of the majority of the Economic and Social Council members present and voting. 66 Social Council shall perform such functions as fall within its competence in connection with the carrying out of the recommendations of the General Assembly. with the approval of the General Assembly.CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Article 187 65 Social Council may furnish information to the Security Council and shall assist the Security Council upon its request. and for such other commissions as may be required for the performance of its social fields The Economic and Social Council shall set Article 69 The Economic and Social Council shall invite any Member of the United Nations to participate. 2. specialized agencies. 2. without vote. in its deliberations and in those of the commissions established by it. 67 Social Council shall Each member of the Economic and have one vote. shall be made by a Procedure Article 68 nomic and functions. The Economic and Article 1. and for its representatives to participate in the deliberations of the specialized agencies.

to develop self-government. The Economic and Article 1. and to assist them in the progressive development of "their free political institutions. The Economic and its rules. where appropriate. economic. b. the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories. to . according to the par- ticular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and their vary- ing stages of advancement. c. and educational advancement. to take due account of the political aspirations of the peoples. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and. promote constructive measures of development. and to cooperate with one another and. and their protection against abuses. with national organizations after consultation with the Member of the United Nations concerned. Chapter XI DECLAKATION KEGAKDING NON-SELF-GOVERNING TEKRTTOBIES Article 73 Members of 'the United Nations for the administration of territories which have or assume responsibilities whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount. to further international peace and security. within the system of international peace and security established by the present Charter.188 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBROW Article 71 for consultation Social Council may make suitable arrangements with non-governmental organizations which axe concerned with matters within its competence. Social Council shall meet as required in accordance with which shall include provision for the its convening of meetings on the request of a majority of members. to this end: a. when and where appropriate. to ensure. 72 The Economic and procedure. and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost. to encourage research. and. Social Council shall adopt its own rules of its President. including the method of selecting 2. with specialized international bodies with a view to the d. with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned. their political. their just treatment. social.

statistical and other information of a technical nature relating to economic. and commercial matters. Members CHAPTER XII INTERNATIONAL TRUSTEESHIP SYSTEM Article 75 its The United Nations shall establish under authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements. Article 76 The basic objectives of the trusteeship system. and their b. progressive development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned. and 189 purposes and scientific e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for information purposes. shall be: a. social. no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas. economic. to encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race. c. in social. social. Article 74 of the United Nations also agree that their policy in respect of the territories to which this Chapter applies. in accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter.CHABTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS practical achievement of the social. and educational conditions in the territories for than those territories to which they are respectively responsible other which Chapters XII and XIII apply. or re- . and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the trust territories. subject to such limitation as security and constitutional considerations may require. economic. promote the political. must be based on the general principle of goodneighborliness. economic. to further international peace to and security. sex. due account being taken of the interests and well-being of the rest of the world. These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories. language. and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship agreement. set forth in this Article.

and commercial all Members of the United Nations and their nationals. Article 1. territories of the which may be detached from enemy Second World War. 79. 80 Except may be agreed upon in individual trusteeship agreements. and also equal treatment for the latter in the administration of d. made under Articles 77. states as a result b. 77 trusteeship system apply to such territories in the followas may be placed thereunder by means of trusteeship ing categories shall The agreements: a. economic. including the mandatory power in the case of territories held under mandate by a Member of the United Nations. and voluntarily placed c. to justice. 2. and matters for ensure equal treatment in social.190 ligion. territories now held under mandate. It will be a matter for in the foregoing categories will subsequent agreement as to which territories be brought under the trusteeship system and upon what terms. relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality. UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW and to encourage recognition of the interdependence of the peoples of the world. and 81. placing each territory under the trusteeship system. territories under the system by states respon- sible for their administration. and until such agreements have been concluded. without prejudice to the attainment of the foregoing objecto the provisions of Article 80. and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 83 and 85. shall be agreed upon by the states directly concerned. Article 79 The terms trusteeship of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the system. nothing in this Chapter shall be construed in or of itself to alter in any manner the rights whatsoever of any states or any peoples or the as . Article 78 The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the United Nations. including any alteration or amendment. tives and subject Article 1.

without prejudice ment or agreements made under Article 43. and of including the approval of the terms of the trusteeship agreements their alteration or amendment. United Nations under the trusteeship system relating to social. facilities. Article 84 be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the maintenance of international the administering authority may make peace and security. and educational matters in the strategic areas. to any special agree- 83 functions of the United Nations relating to strategic areas. . Article 82 There may be designated. Article 81 The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the trust territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise the administration of the trust territory. avail ship agreements itself of the assistance of the Trusteeship Council to perform those func3. of the trusteeSecurity Council shall. AH The The basic objectives set forth in Article 76 shall be applicable to the people of each strategic area. shall be exercised by the Security Council. may be one or more states or the Organization itself. economic. Such authority. and assistance from the trust territory out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in It shall carrying in this regard by the administering authority. Paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be interpreted as giving grounds for delay or postponement of the negotiation and conclusion of agreements for placing mandated and other territories under the trusteeship system as provided for in Article 77.CHABTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS 191 terms of existing international instruments to which Members of the United Nations may respectively be parties. subject to the provisions and without prejuolice to security considerations. Article 1. 2. To this end use of volunteer forces. tions of the political. as well as and the maintenance of law and order within the trust for local defense territory. a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies. hereinafter called the administering authority. 2. in any trusteeship agreement.

the Trusteeship may: consider reports submitted b. including the approval 1. shall he exercised by the General Assembly. a. shall consist of the following Members of the United Nations: those b. The Trusteeship Council. authority. in carrying out their functions. 2. and c. Functions and Powers Article 87 its The General Assembly and. 86 The Trusteeship Council a. of those Members mentioned by name in Article 23 as are not administering trust territories. under Council. as many other Members elected for three-year terms by the General Assembly as may be necessary to ensure that the total num- those ber of members of the Trusteeship Council is equally divided between Members of the United Nations which administer trust terri- tories 2. shall assist the General Assembly in carrying out these functions. Chapter XIII THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL Composition Article 1. and d. and examine them in consultation with the administering authority. accept petitions by the administering authority. -such Members administering trust territories. operating under the authority of the General Assembly. c. provide for periodic visits to the respective trust territories at times agreed upon with the administering authority. . The of the terms of the trusteeship agreements and of their alteration or amendment. Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall designate one specially it qualified person to represent therein. take these and other actions in conformity with the terms of the trusteeship agreements. and those which do not.192 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Article 85 functions of the United Nations with regard to trusteeship agreements for all areas not designated as strategic.

avail itself of the agencies in Economic and Social Council and of the specialized regard to matters with which they are respectively concerned. Article 91 The Trusteeship Council assistance of the shall. of the Decisions of the Trusteeship Council shall be members present and voting. made by a majority Procedure Article 1. and educational advancement of the inhabitants of each trust territory. Chapter XIV THE INTEBNATIONAL COXJBT OF JUSTICE Article 92 International Court of Justice shall be the principal judicial of the United Nations. It shall function in accordance with the organ annexed Statute. 2. Voting Article 1. 90 Trusteeship Council shall adopt its the method of selecting its President. All Members . The own rules of procedure. 93 of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Article 193 88 The economic. including 2. shall include provision for the its with convening of meetings on the request of a majority of members. Trasteesliip Council shall formulate a questionnaire on the political. 89 Each member of the Trusteeship Council shall have one vote. when appropriate. social. The Trusteeship Council which shall meet as required in accordance its rules. Article 1. which is based upon the Statute of the Permanent The Court of International Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter. and the administering authority for each trust territory within the competence of the General Assembly shall make an annual report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such questionnaire.

Article 1. make recommendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give effect to the judgment Article 95 * Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members of the United Nations from entrusting the solution of their differences to other tribunals by virtue of agreements already in existence or which may be concluded in the future. The Secretary-General shall by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of Council. Chapter XV THE SECRETARIAT Article 97 such staff as The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and the Organization may require. He shaE be the chief administrative officer of the be appointed the Security Organization. if it deems necessary. 94 decision of the International Court of Justice in Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to comply with the any case to which it is a party. If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court. may the scope of their activities. . may also request advisory opinions of the Court on legal questions arising within 2. the other party may have recourse to the Security Council.194 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBROW 2. which at any time be so authorized by the General Assembly. The General Assembly or the Security Council may request the International Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on any legal question. which may. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations may become a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice on conditions to be determined in each case by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. 2. Article 96 1. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized agencies.

to the Economic and Social Council.CHABTER OF THE "UNITED NATIONS Article 195 98 Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the General Assembly. Appropriate staffs shall be permanently assigned Secretariat. of the Security Council. 3. Article 99 The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security. 100 In the performance of their duties the Secretary-General and the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or from any other authority external to the Organization. 2. and integrity. and of the Trusteeship Council. Article 1. Each Member of the United Nations undertakes to respect the exclusively international character of the responsibilities of the SecretaryGeneral and the staff and not to seek to influence them in the discharge of their responsibilities. The paramount consideration in the employment in the determination of the conditions of service shall of securing the highest standards of efficiency. The SecretaryGeneral shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on the The work of the Organization. to other organs of the United Nations. 101 The staff shall be appointed by the Secretary-General under regula- tions established 2. of the staff and be the necessity competence. and. They shall refrain from any action which might reflect on their position as inter- national officials responsible only to the Organization. regard shall be paid to the importance of recruiting the staff wide a geographical basis as possible. of the Economic and Social Council. Due on as . the Trusteeship Council. Article 1. and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him "by these organs. These staffs shall form a part of the by the General Assembly. as required.

Article 108 In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United Nations under the present Charter and their obligations under any other international agreement. The General Assembly may make recommendations with a view to determining the details of the application of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article or may propose conventions to the Members of the United Nations for this purpose. Representatives of the Members of the United Nations and officials of the Organization shall similarly enjoy such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the independent exercise of their functions in con- nection with the Organization. 105 Hie Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the fulfillment of its L purposes. . No party to any such treaty or international agreement which has not been registered in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article may invoke that treaty or agreement before any organ of the United Nations. their obligations under the present Charter shall prevail. 2.196 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Chapter XVI MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS Article 1. Article 104 each of its The Organization and the shall enjoy in the territory of Members such legal capacity as may be necessary Article for the exercise of its functions fulfillment of its purposes. 102 any Member into Every treaty and every international agreement entered into by of the United Nations after the present Charter comes force shall as soon as possible be registered with the Secretariat and published by it 2. 3.

on behalf Article 107 relation to Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action. consult with one another and as occasion requires with other Members of the United Nations with a view to such joint action of the Organization as may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security. 1943. in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that Declaration. 109 of the United Nations for the A General Conference of the Members purpose of reviewing the present Charter may be held at a date and place to be fixed by a two-thirds vote of the members of the General Assembly and by a vote of any seven members of the Security Council. and France. . signed at Moscow. in any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter. October 30. Article 1. including all the permanent mem- bers. shall. Each Member of the United Nations shall have one vote in the conference. taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments having responsibility for such action. the to the parties Four-Nation Declaration. Chapter XVIII AMENDMENTS Article 108 Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in of the accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds Members of the United Nations.CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Chapter XVII TRANSITIONAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS Article 197 106 Pending the coming into force of such special agreements referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the Security Council enable it to begin the exercise of its responsibilities under Article 42. of the Security Council.

2. and the session of the General conference shall be held if so decided by a majority vote of of the mem- bers of the General Assembly of the Security Council.198 2. Article 111 which the Chinese. France. which shall notify all the signatory states of each deposit as well as the Secretary-General of the Organization when he has been appointed. Duly Charter. of The present and Spanish texts are equally authentic. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. all the signatory states. French. If such a conference has not been held before the tenth annual Assembly following the coming into force of the present Charter. the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. it The states signatory to the present Charter which ratify it after has come into force will become original Members of the United Nations on the date of the deposit of their respective ratifications. present Charter shall come into force upon the deposit of ratiby the Republic of China. and by a vote any seven members Chapter XIX RATIFICATION AND SIGNATURE Article 110 1. and by a majority of the other signatory states. UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Any alteration of the present Charter recommended by a two- ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations including all the permanent members of the thirds vote of the conference shall take effect when Security Council. and the United States of America. shall . English. 3. The ratifications shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America. Russian. A protocol of the ratification deposited shall thereupon be drawn up by the Government of the United States of America which shall com3. The present Charter shall be ratified by the signatory states in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. The fications municate copies thereof to 4. the proposal to call such a conference shall be placed on the agenda of that session of the General Assembly.

. DONE at the of San Francisco the twenty-sixth day of June. Governments of the other signatory IN FAITH WHEREOF the representatives of the Governments of the United Nations have signed the present Charter. one city thousand nine hundred and forty-five.CHARTER OF THE certified copies thereof shall TJNTTEI) NATIONS 199 to the be transmitted by that Government states.

STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE Article 1 The INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE established by the Charter of the United Nations as the principal judicial organ of the United Nations shall be constituted and shall function in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute. or are jurisconsults of recognized competence in international law. 4 The members and by of the Court shall be elected by the General Assembly the Security Council from a list of persons nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. A person who for the purposes of membership in the Court could be regarded as a national of more than one state shall be deemed to be a national of the one in which he ordinarily exercises civil and political rights. Article 1. candidates shall be nominated by national groups appointed for this purpose by their governments under the same conditions as those prescribed for members of the Permanent 200 . In the case of Members of the United Nations not represented in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. 2. be composed of a body of independent judges. who possess the qualifications required in their respective countries for appointment to the highest judicial offices. Chapter I ORGANIZATION OF THE COURT Article 2 The Court shall elected regardless character. Article 1. no two of whom may be nationals of the same state. in accordance with the following provisions. of their nationality from among persons of high moral 3 The Court shall consist of fifteen members. 2.

and to the members of the national groups appointed under Article 4. be laid down by the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council. In no case may the number of candidates nominated by a group be more than double the number of seats to be filled.STATUTE OF THE INTTSBNAHONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 1907 for the 3. Article 9 At every persons to bear in mind not only that the be elected should individually possess the qualifications reelection. its legal faculties and schools of law. shall all The Secretary-General 2. each national group is recommended to consult its highest court of justice. not more than two be of their own nationality. may nominate more than four persons. 201 Court of Arbitration by Article 44 of the Convention of The Hague of pacific settlement of international disputes. by national groups. and its national academies and national sections of international academies devoted to the study of law. The Secretary-General shall submit this list to the General Assembly and to the Security Council Article 8 The General Assembly and the Security Council shall proceed independently of one another to elect the members of the Court. the electors shall . the Secretary- At least three months before the date of the General of the United Nations shall address a written request to the members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration belonging to the states which are parties to the present Statute. No group shall of whom Articled Before making these nominations. 7 prepare a list in alphabetical order of the persons thus nominated. in the absence of a special agreement. these shall be the only persons eligible. paragraph 2. paragraph 2. the nomination of persons in a position to accept the duties of a member of the Court. The conditions under which a state is which is a party to the present Statute but electing the may participate in of the Court shall. Article 1. within a given time. inviting them to undertake. 2. members Article 1. Save as provided in Article 12. not a Member of the United Nations 5 election.

even though he was not included in the list of nominations referred to in 2. a second and. 3. for the purpose of choosing by the vote of an absolute majority one name for each seat still vacant. In the event of more than one national of the same state obtaining an absolute majority of the votes both of the General Assembly and of the Security Council. 10 obtain an absolute majority of votes in the Those candidates General Assembly and in the Security Council shall be considered as elected. If the joint who fulfils Article 7. a third meeting shall take place. conference is unanimously agreed upon any person the required conditions. one or remain to be filled. If. Any vote of the Security Council. If the joint conference is satisfied that it will not be successful in procuring an election. if necessary. Article 11 If. three appointed by the General Assembly and three by the Security Council. Article 1. those members of the Court who have already been elected shall.202 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW quired. shall be taken without any distinction between permanent who and non-permanent members of the Security Council. proceed to fill the vacant seats by selection from among those candidates who have obtained votes either in the General Assembly or in the Security Council. one or more seats still remain unfilled. 3. 2. he may be included in its list. after the third meeting. Article 12 1. a joint conference consisting of six members. within a period to be fixed by the Security Council. after the first more seats meeting held for the purpose of the election. whether for the election of judges or for the appointment of members of the conference envisaged in Article 12. . may be formed at any time at the request of either the General Assembly or the Security Council. the eldest of these only shall be considered as elected. but also that in the hody as a whole the representation o the main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world should be assured. to submit to the General Assembly and the Security Council for their respective acceptance.

that of the judges elected at the first election. In the event of an equality of votes judge shall have a casting vote. the resignation shall be addressed to the President of the Court for transmission to the Secretary-General. 203 among the judges. the terms of five judges shall expire at the end of three years and the terms of five more judges shall expire at the end of six years. however. The members their duties shall finish 4. 3. they any cases which they may have begun. Article 1. 13 be elected for nine years The members of the Court shall and may be re-elected. 17 No member case. counsel. A 16 any political or administrative No member of the Court may exercise function. of the Court may act as agent. 2. or engage in any other occupation of a professional nature. provided. Though replaced. 2. the eldest Article 1. Article 14 as that laid Vacancies shall be first election. within. one month of the occurrence of the vacancy. The judges whose terms are to expire at the end of the abovementioned initial periods of three and six years shall be chosen by lot to be drawn by the Secretary-General immediately after the first election has been completed. filled by the same method down for the subject to the following provision: the Secretary-General shall. In the case of the resignation of a member of the Court.STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 4. Article 1. and the date of the election shall be fixed by the Security Council. This last notification makes the place vacant. or advocate in any . proceed to issue the invitations provided for in Article 5. until their places of the Court shall continue to discharge have been filled. Article 15 member of the Court elected to replace a member whose term of office has not expired shall hold office for the remainder of his predecessor's term. Any doubt on this point shall be settled by the decision of the Court.

Any doubt on this point shall be settled by the decision of the Court. when engaged on the business and immunities. shall not prevent the Court from sitting and exercising its functions elsewhere whenever the Court considers it desirable. Article 21 1. before taking up his duties. . The Court shall appoint its Registrar and may provide for the appointment of such other officers as may be necessary. No member of the Court can be dismissed unless. The President and the Registrar shall reside at the seat of the Court. Formal notification thereof shall be made to the Secretary-General by the 3. shall enjoy diplomatic privileges Article 20 Every member of the Court shall. counsel. Article 1. he has ceased to fulfil the required condi- tions. Article 18 1. 2. in the unanimous opinion of the other members. Registrar. The seat of the court shall 2. The Court shall elect its President and Vice-President for three years. the dates and duration of which shall be fixed by the judicial 1. or advocate for one of the parties. 3. or as a member of a national or international court. No member may participate in the decision of any case in which he has previously taken part as agent. or in any other capacity. This. The members of the Court. they may be re-elected. This notification makes the place vacant. Article 19 of the Court. Article 23 remain permanently in session. 2. make a solemn declaration in open court that he will exercise his powers impartially and conscientiously.204 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW 2. except during the vacations. 22 be established at The Hague. The Court shall Court. or of a com- mission of enquiry. however.

24 special reason. 3. The Court may from time to time composed of three or more judges as the Court may determine. 2. the Rules of the Court may provide for allowing one or more judges. 2.STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 2. 205 Members duration of which shall be fixed between The of the Court are entitled to periodic leave. unless they are on leave or prevented from attending by illness or other serious reasons duly explained to the President. having in mind the distance and the home of each judge. the matter shall any such case the member of the Court and the President be settled by the decision of the Court. A quorum of nine judges shall suffice to constitute the Court. If. according to circumstances and in rotation. Article 27 for in Articles 26 judgment given by any of the chambers provided and 29 shall be considered as rendered by the Court. Members of the Court shall be bound. Article 26 form one or more chambers. he shall give him notice accordingly. The full Court shall sit except when expressly provided other- wise in the present Statute. 3. to be dispensed from sitting. for for example. The Court may at any time form a chamber for dealing with a of judges to constitute such a chamber shall particular case. The number be determined by the Court with the approval of the parties. Article 25 it is 1. he shall so for some inform the President. cases relating to transit and communications. constitute the Court 3. Hague 3. A . a member of the Court considers that he should not take part in the decision of a particular case. the dates and by the Court. 2. If the President considers that for some special reason one of the members of the Court should not sit in a particular case. for in this Article Cases shall be heard and determined by the chambers provided if the parties so request. labor cases and dealing with particular categories of cases. Article 1. If in disagree. Subject to the condition that the number of judges available to is not thereby reduced below eleven. 1. to hold themselves permanently at the disposal of the Court.

17 (paragraph 2). 5. upon the Bench a judge of the nationality any other party may choose a person to sit as judge. members of the Court failing such. 20. In addition. sit in Articles and exercise their functions elsewhere than at The Hague. they shall. for the purpose of the preceding provisions. or if to give place to of the nationality of the parties concerned. to the judges specially chosen by the parties. it shall lay down 2. without the right to vote. the President shall request one two of the members of the Court forming the chamber the or. functions. at the request of the parties. Article 29 With a view to the speedy despatch of business. be reckoned as one party only. Judges chosen as laid down in paragraphs 2. may hear and determine cases by summary procedure. The provisions of this Article shall apply to the case of Articles 26 and 29. they are unable to be present. 6. with the consent The chambers provided for of the parties. 4. Such person shall be chosen preferably from among those persons who have been nominated as candidates as provided in Articles 4 and 5. 2. 3.206 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Article 28 26 and 29 may. the Court shall form annually a chamber composed of five judges which. In par- ticular. SO its The Court shall frame rules for carrying out rules of procedure. who impossible to Article 1. If the Court includes of one of the parties. and 4 of this Article shall fulfil the conditions required by Articles 2. Any doubt upon this point shall be settled by the decision of the Court. if necessary. In such cases. 3. The Rules of the Court may provide for assessors to Court or with any of its chambers. and. each of these parties may proceed to choose a judge as provided in paragraph 2 of this Article. If the Court includes upon the Bench no judge of the nationality of the parties. two judges find it shall be selected for the purpose of replacing judges sit. Should there be several parties in the same interest. sit with the Article 31 Judges of the nationality of each of the parties shall retain their right to sit in the case before the Court. 1. .

6. and compensation shall be free of all taxation. Article 1. other than members of the Court. The judges chosen under Article 31. allowances. 82 Each member of the Court shall receive an annual salary. B4 Only states may be parties in cases before the Court. 7. and shall receive such information presented by such organizations 2. and compensation shall be fixed by the General Assembly. allowances. The salary of the Registrar shall be fixed by the General Assembly on the proposal of the Court. 2. subject to and in conformity with its Rules. Vice-President shall receive a special allowance for every day acts as President. Court. own initiative. Chapter II The expenses of the Court shall be borne COMPETENCE OF THE COURT Article 1. 3. 8. The on their 3. shall receive compensation for each day on which they exercise their functions. Whenever the construction of the constituent instrument of a public international organization or of an international convention adopted thereunder is in question in a case before the Court. They may not be decreased during the term of office. the Registrar shall .STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 207 and 24 of the present Statute. Article S3 by the United Nations in such a manner as shall be decided by the General Assembly. may request of public international organizations information relevant to cases before it. and the conditions under which members of the Court and the Registrar shall have their traveling expenses refunded. 5. The above salaries. These salaries. They shall take part in the decision on terms of complete equality with their colleagues. tions Regulations made by the General Assembly shall fix the condiunder which retirement pensions may be given to members of the Court and to the Registrar. The on which he 4. The President shall receive a special annual allowance.

subject to the special provisions contained in treaties in force. Article 1. conditions under which the Court shall be open to other states shall. any question of international law. Such declarations and shall be deposited with the Secretary-General shall transmit copies thereof to the parties of the United Nations. may be made unconditionally on the part of several or certain states. c. the jurisdiction of the a. who to the Registrar of the Court. 3. b.208 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW and shall municate to so notify the public international organization concerned it copies of all the written proceedings. When a state which is not a Member of the United Nations is a party to a case. The declarations referred to above or on condition of reciprocity or for a certain time. the nature or extent of the reparation to be made for the breach of an international obligation. d. com- 85 The Court The shall be open to the states parties to the present Statute. be laid down by the Security Council. jurisdiction of the it The and all 2. as between the parties to the present Statute. 86 refer to Court comprises all cases which the parties matters specially provided for in the Charter of the United Nations or in treaties and conventions in force. Article 1. to be acceptances . the Court shall fix the amount which that party is to contribute towards the expenses of the Court. would constitute a breach of an international obligation. Court in all legal disputes concerning: \ the interpretation of a treaty. to the Statute 5. This provision shall not apply if such state is bearing a share of the expenses of the Court. Declarations made under Article 36 of the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and which are still in force shall be deemed. 4. the existence of any fact which. 2. in relation to any other state accepting the same obligation. The states parties to the present Statute may at any time declare that they recognize as compulsory ipso facto and without special agreement. but in no case shall such conditions place the parties in a position of inequality before the Court. if established. 3.

be referred to the International Court of Justice. 2. the judgment shall be delivered in English. in the pleadings. Article 38 1. d. In the event of a dispute as to whether the Court has jurisdiction. Article 87 Whenever a treaty or convention in force provides for reference of a matter to a tribunal to have been instituted by the League of Nations. subject to the provisions of Article 59. whether general or particular. shall apply: international conventions. as subsidiary means for the determination of rules of law. judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations. 2. the matter shall. it prefers. a. as between the parties to the present Statute. Chapter III PROCEDURE Article 1.STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE period which they 209 of the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice for the still have to run and in accordance with their terms. c. . the matter shall be settled "by the decision of the Court. the judgment shall be delivered in French. each party may. establishing rules expressly recognized by the contesting states. whose function is to decide in accordance with international law such disputes as are submitted to it. international custom. the decision of In this case the Court shall at the same time determine which of the two texts shall be considered as authoritative. The official In the absence of an agreement as to which language shall be employed. or to the Permanent Court of International Justice. as evidence of a general practice accepted as law. This provision shall not prejudice the power of the Court to decide a case ex aeqtto et bono> if the parties agree thereto. b. the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations. use the language which the Court shall be given in French and English. 39 languages of the Court shall be French and English. If the parties agree that the case shall be conducted in English. If the parties agree that the case shall be conducted in French. 6. The Court.

at the request of any party. as the case may be. They may have Court. either by the notification of the special agreement or by a written application addressed to the Registrar. counter-memorials and. 2. notice of the measures suggested shall forthwith be given to the parties and to the Security Council. the assistance of counsel or advocates before the 2. 3. 3. any provisional measures which ought to be taken 1. Court and These communications shall be made through the Registrar. The Court shall. if it considers that circumstances so require. 43 2. authorize a language other than French or English to be used by that party. and advocates of parties before the Court shall the privileges and immunities necessary to the independent exerenjoy cise of their duties. The Court shall to preserve the respective rights of either party. In either case the subject of the dispute and the parties shall be indicated. Court. . The Registrar shall forthwith communicate the application to all concerned. replies. 4. The procedure shall consist of two parts: written and oral. Pending the final decision. counsel. 42 The parties shall be represented by agents. also aU papers and documents in support. The Article 1. He Secretary-General. if necessary. Article 1. agents. shall also notify the Members of the United Nations through the and also any other states entitled to appear before the Article 41 have the power to indicate.210 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW 3. 2. Article 1. A certified copy of every document produced by one party shall be communicated to die other party. 40 Cases are brought before the Court. 3. in the order and within the time fixed by the Court. The written proceedings shall consist of the communication to the to the parties of memorials.

the 46 The hearing in Court shall be otherwise. Article 49 The Court may. at each hearing and signed by the Registrar and the 2. These minutes alone shall be authentic. For the service of all notices upon persons other than the counsel. Article 51 nesses During the hearing any relevant questions are to be put to the witand experts under the conditions laid down by the Court in the rules of procedure referred to in Article 30. Article 1. Minutes shall be made President. Article neither is able to preside. bureau. counsel. COURT OF JUSTICE 5. 2. and advocates. 211 of The oral proceedings shall consist of the hearing by the Court witnesses. call upon the agents produce any document or to supply any explanations. of the Vice-President. at any time. commission. agents. body. 44 agents. . the Court shall apply direct to the of the state upon whose territory the notice has to be served. 47 1. entrust any individual. unless the Court shall decide that the public be not admitted.STATUTE OF THE INTEBNATIONAX. Formal note shall be taken of any refusal. Article 48 The Court shall make orders for the conduct of the case. if The hearing shall be under the control of the President if he is unable to preside. with the task of carrying out an enquiry or giving an expert opinion. or other organization that it may select. or unless the parties demand Article public. Article 45 or. Article 50 The Court may. and make all arrangements connected with the taking of evidence. experts. even to before the hearing begins. government The same provision shall apply whenever steps are to be taken to procure evidence on the spot. and advocates. shall decide the form and time in which each party must conclude its arguments. senior judge present shall preside.

so. due notice having been given to the agents. subject to the control of the Court. the agents. and advocates have completed their presentation of the case. satisfy itself. before doing jurisdiction in accordance with Articles is well founded in fact and law. It shall contain the names of the judges the decision. 2. 36 and 37. to defend its case. All questions shall be decided by a majority of the judges 2. Article 58 The judgment It shall shall be read in be signed by the President and by the Registrar. the President or the judge acts in his place shall have a casting vote. it may refuse to accept any further oral or written evidence that one party may desire to present unless the other side consents. deliberations of the Court shall take place in private and remain secret. 2. Article 1. The Court must. counsel. who In the event of an equality of votes. any judge shall be entitled to deliver a separate opinion. . the other party may call upon the Court to its decide in favor of 2. 53 Whenever one or fails of the parties does not appear before the Court. open court. The Court The shall withdraw to consider the judgment. The judgment shall state the reasons based. 54 When. Article 1. but not only that it has also that the claim Article 1. 3.212 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Article 52 After the Court has received the proofs and evidence within the time specified for the purpose. who have taken part in Article If 57 the judgment does not represent in whole or in part the unanimous opinion of the judges. claim. 55 present. the President shall declare the hearing closed. Article 56 on which it is 1.

2. in question. the Registrar Every if it but state so notified has the right to intervene in the proceedings. 4. recognizing that it has such a character as to lay the case open to revision.STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE Article 213 59 between the The parties decision of the Court has no binding force except and in respect of that particular case. Article 1. and declaring the application admissible on this ground. 2. 63 to Whenever the construction of a convention is which states other than those concerned in the case are parties shall notify all such states forthwith. when the judgment was given. Article 1. The Court may require previous compliance with the terms of the judgment before it admits proceedings in revision. The application for revision must be made at latest within six months of the discovery of the 5. Article 60 as it The judgment to the is final and without appeal. unknown to the Court and also to the party claiming revision. it may submit a request to the Court to be permitted to intervene. . In the event of dispute upon meaning or scope of the judgment. Should a state consider that it has an interest of a legal nature which may be affected by the decision in the case. Article 61 judgment may be made only when based upon the discovery of some fact of such a nature as to be a decisive factor. It shall be for the Court to decide upon this request. the Court shall construe the request of any party. An application for revision of a it is 2. The proceedings for revision shall be opened by a judgment of the Court expressly recording the existence of the new fact. which fact was. 1. No application for revision may be made 62 after the lapse of ten years from the date of the judgment. the construction given by the judgment will be equally binding upon it. always provided that such ignorance was not due to negligence. 3. new fact. uses this right.

2. Article 66 an ad- 1. States tions having submitted similar statements. each party shall bear costs. Questions upon which the advisory opinion of the Court is asked be laid before the Court by means of a written request containing an exact statement of the question upon which an opinion is required. notify any state entitled to appear before the Court or international organization considered the Court. cation. or. to Should any such state entitled appear before the Court have failed to receive the special communication referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article. such state may express a desire to submit a written statement or to be heard. and within the time limits which the Court. written statements. to the extent. at a sit- by the public ting to 3. and accompanied by all documents likely to throw light upon the ques2. own Chapter IV ADVISORY OPINIONS Article 1. should it not be President. by means by of a special and direct communisitting. oral statements relating to the question. or to hear. the Registrar shall in due time communicate any such written statements to states and organiza4. shall tion. be held for the purpose. should it not be sitting. Accordingly. the President. within a time limit to be fixed by the President. that the Court will be prepared to receive. shall decide in each particular case. or. as likely to be able to furnish information on the question.214 UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Article 64 its Unless otherwise decided by the Court. The Registrar shall also. 65 The Court may give an advisory opinion on any legal question at the request of whatever body may be authorized by or in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations to make such a request. The Registrar shall forthwith give notice of the request for visory opinion to all states entitled to appear before the Court. and organizations having presented written or oral statements or both shall be permitted to comment on the statements made by other states or organizations in the form. and the Court will decide. .




The Court shall deliver its advisory opinions in open court, notice having been given to the Secretary-General and to the representatives of Members of the United Nations, of other states and of international organizations immediately concerned.


In the exercise of its advisory functions the Court shall further be guided by the provisions of the present Statute which apply in contentious cases to the extent to






be applicable.





to the present Statute shall be effected by the same provided by the Charter of the United Nations for amendments to that Charter, subject however to any provisions which the General Assembly upon recommendations of the Security Council may adopt concerning the participation of states which are parties to the


procedure as

present Statute but are not

Members of the United



have power to propose such amendments to the Statute as it may deem necessary, through written communicapresent tions to the Secretary-General, for consideration in conformity with the

The Court

provisions of Article 69.

Universal Declaration




Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, December 10, 1948

recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,



in barbarous acts

disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and

the advent of a world in which
as the highest aspiration of the

human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed






essential, if



not to be compelled to have

recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,


it is

essential to

promote the development of friendly





affirmed their faith in fundamental

the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter rehuman rights, in the dignity and

worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of
life in

larger freedom,



themselves to achieve, in the promotion of universal respect co-operation with the United Nations, for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW WHEREAS Member States have pledged

and freedoms understanding of these rights the full realization of this pledge, of the greatest importance for



The General Assembly
Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common the end that standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to of society, keeping this Declaration every individual and every organ shall strive by teaching and education to promote constantly in mind, and freedoms and by progressive measures, nafor these


rights international, to secure their universal


effective recognition

and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves of territories under their jurisdiction. the and



beings are born free


and equal in dignity and rights. They All human towards one are endowed with reason and conscience and should act
another in a spirit of brotherhood.

is entitled to all



the rights and freedoms set forth in this Everyone Declaration without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, or other opinion, national or social origin, language, religion, political birth or other status.

Furthermore, no distinction shall be

made on

the basis of the political,

international status of the county or territory to jurisdictional or


a person belongs, whether it be independent, or under any other limitation of sovereignty.





Everyone has the right to



and security of person.


No one

shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade be prohibited in all their forms.



No one


be subjected

to torture or to cruel,

inhuman or degrading

treatment or punishment.




the law.


the right to recognition everywhere as a person before



All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection

against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration any incitement to such discrimination.

and against



Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.



No one


be subjected

to arbitrary arrest, detention, or exile.


Everyone independent and

is entitled

in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and

and of any criminal charge against him.


Everyone charged with a penal offense has the right


be pretrial at

sumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense.

No one


act or omission

be held guilty of any penal offense on account of any which did not constitute a penal offense, under national

or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time

the penal offense

was committed.

No one



to arbitrary interference with his privacy, or correspondence nor to attacks upon his honor and repu-

be subjected

Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such
ference or attacks.


conscience and religion. without any limitation due to race. ARTICLE 16. Men and women its dissolution. 1. nationality or religion. Everyone has the right to freedom includes freedom to change his religion or belief. 2. and freedom. including his own. ARTICLE 14. No one shall be arbitrarily nor denied deprived of his nationality the right to change his nationality. 1. and Everyone has the right to leave to return to his country. servance. during marriage 1. have the right to marry and to found a family. practice. The family is and the natural and fundamental group unit of society entitled to protection by society and the state. of full age. ARTICLE 18. to manifest his religion or belief in teaching. 3. any country. Everyone has the right to tion with others. worship and ob- . ARTICLE 15.220 UN: TODAY AND TOMOBBOW ARTICLE 13. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes arising from non-political and principles of the United Nations. with the free and Marriage shall be entered into only full consent of the intending spouses. of movement and residence Everyone has the right to freedom within the borders of each state. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Everyone has the right to a nationality. is ARTICLE 17. 2. 1. 2. asylum 2. and at They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage. and to enjoy in other countries Everyone has the right to seek from persecution. own well as in associaproperty alone as 2. this right either alone or in or community with others and in public private. 1. of thought.

No one may be compelled to belong to an association. and supplemented. try. 1. ARTICLE 22. has the right to social security and entitled to realization. 1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his coundirectly or through freely chosen representatives. 2. as a state. ARTICLE 21. without any discrimination. to free choice of employment. 3.UNIVERSAL DEOtABATION OF ARTICLE 19. if necessary. this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. social and cultural rights indispensable for his free development of his personality. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and asso- ciation. dignity and the ARTICLE 23. just Everyone has the right to work. is member of society. of the economic. Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his 2. 1. HUMAN BIGHTS 221 Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. through national effort and international cooperation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each Everyone. has the right to equal pay for equal work. by other means of social pro3. to and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unem- ployment. . ARTICLE 20. 2. country. tion ensuring for himself tection. Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneraand his family an existence worthy of human dignity. Everyone. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek.

Technical and professional education shall be made 1. and the ing. 2. Everyone has the right from any which he is the author. It shall promote understanding. at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. 3. 1. housing and medical care and necessary to security in the event of unemployment. Elementary education shall be compulsory. shall enjoy the same social protection. ARTICLE 24. disability. and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. all Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and fundamental to the strengthening of respect for human rights freedoms. of livelihood in circumstances beyond 2. ARTICLE 25. interests resulting to the protection of the scientific.222 4. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family. moral and material or artistic production of . Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. whether born in or out of wedlock. generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to on the basis of merit. its benefits. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community. Everyone has the right to education. UN: TODAY AND TOMORROW Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the pro- tection of his interests. Education shall be free. old age or other lack his control. right widowhood. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall their children. racial or religious groups. All children. including food. ARTICLE 26. sickness. tolerance and and friendship among all nations. 1. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and 2. literary. be given to ARTICLE 27. clothsocial services.

UNIVERSAL DECLAKAHON OF ABTICLE 28. 3. 1. in which alone the free and development of his personality is full possible. of others and of meeting the just requirements of and the general welfare in a democratic society. ARTICLE 30. group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed forth herein. Everyone has duties to the community. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any state. public order These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms 2. at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set . ABTXGLE 29. morality. HUMAN BIGHTS 223 rights Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms.



Syria 19.Members of Afghanistan (Nov. 1946) Egypt El Salvador Ethiopia Thailand (Dec. 19. 19. 1946) Argentina Australia the UN UN (May 11. 16. 1946) India Indonesia (Sept 28. 19. (Dates indicate entry into the of non-charter members. SO. ) Iraq Israel 1949) Lebanon Liberia Belgium Bolivia Brazil Luxembourg Mexico ReNetherlands New Zealand (Apr. 1948) Byelorussian Soviet Socialist public Burma Nicaragua Canada Chile Norway Pakistan (Sept. 1946) Turkey Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic France Greece Guatemala Haiti Union of South Africa Union of Soviet Socialist Republics United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States of America Honduras Iceland (Nov. 1950) Iran Uruguay Venezuela Yugoslavia 227 . 1947) China Colombia Costa Rica Panama Paraguay Peru Philippines Cuba Czechoslovakia Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Poland Saudi Arabia Sweden (Nov.


Abbreviations Nations Bank. International Trade Organization ITS. International Penal and Penitentiary Commission ITO. United Nations Relief and Works Agency Universal Postal Union WHO. UPU. Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization IPPC. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade International Civil Aviation Organization ICJ. International Telecommunication Union NGO^s. General Assembly Social Council Agriculture Organization Fund. Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East UN. Scientific and Cultural Organization UNICEF. United Nations International Children's Fund UNKRA. Economic Commission for Latin America ECOSOC. World Health Organization WMO. Economic Commission for Europe ECLA. International Labour Organisation IMCO. United ECE. International Law Commission ILO. ICAO. United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency UNRWA. Technical Assistance Board UNESCO. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ECAFE. World Meteorological Organization 229 . International Monetary Fund GATT. Economic and FAO. International Court of Justice ILC. Security Council SG. Technical Assistance Administration TAB. Non-Governmental Organizations NSG. United Nations Educational. Non-self-governing Territories SC. Secretary-General TAA. Food and GA. International Tracing Service ITU.


111-12 American Association for the United Nations. climatological survey. 77. General Assembly. 135 91-96 UN activities for. 49 Cablegrams. Jaime Torres. Children. 49-50 Castro. 119-20 Bolivia. UN. 136 Black. A. 104 Budget. Staff Council. 111. Staff Council. 123 Air Navigation Commission. UN. Aroos. 123. 48 Benes. 78-79 Bodet. 49 Caesar. UN. 169-199 Chiang Kai-shek. 89.. 120-21 Blood-grouping standards. Julio. UN. Alexander Graham. 131 Bibb.. Guard Cutter. UN activities for. UN. 52 Sebago. 132 Attendance by visitors. 49 Bulgaria. 15 Bangkok. 8. 66. U. 33. 13 Administrative Tribunal. 111 Bookshop. Switzerland. New Jersey. Count Folke. A. 114-15 Benneyan. Amstein. 33 Carnegie Hall. 34 UN. Lake York. Eduard. Ceylon. ICAO. 103 Baghdad.S. UN Staff. 15. 147 Albania. 34-35 Air-mail service. 124. 155-56 Building Management Service. 69 Archives. 137 Air Transport Command. 14 Amusements. 78 Charter. Carl. Eugene R. 14 Benevolent Fund. 151-52 Auditorium. 135- 136 Alaska. 81-83. 134 Air Transport Committee. 102 Bokar-Konar project. 90 Arneberg. Air-conditioning plant. Julius. 122 Cafeteria. 6. Atlantic City. 32 Australia. 67 Berlin blockade. 231 . 68 Carpenter Shop. UN. Camp Nawakwa. 136 Bernadotte. 56-62 Bennett. Bermuda Sky Queen. 68 Chicago. civil. 87 Bell. 62-63 British Civil Service Registry system. retail. 129 Africa. ICAO. 53. 133- Cannon. 68 Appeals Board. 20 137 UN. 42-43. 12 107 Altiplano survey. 157158. 67-68 New Aviation. 39. 16. 141-42. 26 Berne. 65-66 New York. 229 Administrative and Financial Services. Ole. 69 129 Afghanistan. UN. Illinois. Brooklyn. 128 Bafice.Index Abbreviations.

Norris 88 National Record Library. Winston. 141 activities for. Benjamin. 16 Filing system. 13-14 Daily Report. Damodar Valley. UN.S.. 72.. 127 Dickinson. Drug control. UN. 48-49 Conference and General Services. 38. 139.. 80-91 Food survey. 11-12 Franklin. 85 Chinese Nationalist Government. 64 Agreement on Tariffs and Economic Commission (ECE). 64-65 Eucalyptus trees. London. 73-74. UN. 97-105. 19. 84. 79 Department. 48-53 Conference Building. 80-81. 91. 109 Fall Corfu Channel affair.232 INDEX Education. regular. 144. FAO. 114. international. 52. 133Civil aviation. 113 Detroit. 31. 184-88 35. 96-105 China. 34-35. American. Dan. Scientific and Cultural (UNESCO). 54 Cuba. Economic Economic Affairs UN.^66. 40-41. 89 Everyman's United Nations. 108-9 Frencn Paris. UN. John. Brock. for 34. 120 Communications. U. Fridthjof. 77. 42-43 114. 102. 24. 50 Elevator transportation. 78. 81-83 Diet deficiency campaign. 129 Cohen. Educational. 145 85 Fort Knox. (ECOSOS). 84. 54 Coleridge. 36. 24-25. UN. 133. 55 Fishing activities. Michigan. General 132-33 and 22. 12 Correspondence. Social 104 radio. 65 Coolidge. 85-87 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 73. 72. 22-25. Dodd. 57 Entomologists. Samuel. 77 DeWalt. 139 "E" in UN UNESCO. UN. 81 Formosa. 95. 29. . 116 Franco. UN. world. 68 Cruz. 143. Francisco. 93-94. 147 Commonwealth Economic Conference. 50 Fisheries Council. 85-86 UN activities for. 102 "Cup of milk" program. 35. Chile.. Claudia. 138 General Assembly (GA). 30 Czechoslovakia. 89-90 Epidemiological Intelligence Service. 56 Executive Assistant to the SecretaryGeneral. Calvin. 122 Darling. 88 Ecuador. 52. ILO. W. 49 Credit Union. 128. 49 Finns. 151 8. 7 Co-operative. 90-91 Employees. 18 Ethiopia. Congress. 89-90 Fellowships established. Freedom of Association Committee. 9 Chisholm. Mexico. 119 Darius the Persian. Sir Malcolm. 97 UN 137 Cloud atlas. Benjamin V. 93-94 Dining room. Food production. Frequency assignments. 40. 9. 129. 79-80 Eritrea. 33. 14-15. 74 Churchill. UN. 90 Field Service. 138. 80. 55. 60 Expanded Technical Assistance Program. 52 Emergency Food Reserve. 85 Garage. 85 Cucuchuco. UN. 56 Fire departmenet. 96 Customs. 119-20 Damodar Valley Corporation. 125. 148 * web worm (Hyphan tria cunea). Organization. W. 39 Council 142. UN. UN activities. UN. FAO. 52 E. India. 111 Europe Trade (GATT). UN. 75 UN.

142 International Court of Justice (ICJ). 12. 72. 160. 85. 84. 72. UN. UNESCO. WHO. 115-17. 138. 57 Insecticide campaigns. 1. 91-96 Kwong. 76. Joint Support Committee. 14. 131 International Trade Union (ITO). 29. 15. 72. UN. 16 Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 123. UN. 74. 5-6 KowarsM. 111. 12-13. Adolph. 80. 61 Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization Internal Reproduction Plant. UN. Finn. Israel. 60 31 UN. WaUace Health Hitler. 139 International 62 General Postal Union. 113 Juhl. Workers Fed44-47. 119 Chamber Commerce. Fund. 132 Ghund Valley. 129. 128 15-18. 106. 14. 73. 133-37. (IMCO). 11 Hogan. 33-34 Haifa. 25-26. UN. 138. 75 Gift Coupons. Dora. 40- Java. 126 International Konar River. 75. 55. Housekeeping service. International Postal Convention. 43. 138 International organizations. 77. 233 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). 138 International Transport eration. 18 Korean war. 50-51 Guided tours. 58-59 ICAO. 128 79 6. Co-operative Alliance. 69 (UNICEF). 89-90 Italy. 72. 112-13. India. 14 Hunter College. UN. 86-87 11 Iraq. 1. 112 Indonesia. Harrison. UN. 135 Izvestia. 142. 138 International Board of Design. 63-64 Greece. 76. Victor. 130-33. 111. 123 Geneva. 61 Iceknd. 56. 117-22. 144 International Children's UN Korea. 136 Jordan. 143 International Pharmacopoeia. Hammarskjold. India. 155 Iran.. 130 Information bureau. Willard N. 96 Illiteracy. 139 International Meteorological Organization (IMO). 18. Switzerland. 130. 145 International Telegraph Union. activities. 79. 108-09. 76. 72. 73. UN. 68. Joint Staff Pension Fund. 34 UPU. 84. 88. 48 Information Centers. 129..INDEX General Assembly Affairs and Administrative Section. 93 Jeannel." 111- Interpretation system. 111 Guards. 11 131 International Telecommunication Union (ITU). 49. 72. of 124-25. 24. 57. 72-80 K. 105-15. 125 International Radiotelegraph Union. 17 Haiti. 138 UN. 102. 61. 154- 108 119-20 "Indigenous Population Survey. 15 44 International Jerusalem. 128 International Monetary Fund. 76. 49. 115. Dag. 200-15 Labour Organisation International (ILO). 104 Gift Shop. 52 Hungary. 1-6. 113. 31 International Bureau. 31-34. 98-99 India. 66 . 60 General Assembly Building.

61. 60 Publications. J. 56 Legal Department. 103 Organization. 60 Press services. Fiorello. UN. 18 Panama. 162-63. 126-30 Meteorology. 83. Oberwager. UN. 188-89 Labarriere. 60-62 Lie. 44-45. 69 Meditation Room. 61 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's). 13 France. 94. 13 features service. 62-63 . 20. 134 Papanek. 122 Population. 34 Marshall Plan. 33 Meetings. 23. UN. 97 Louisiana Purchase. 130 Postage stamps. 141-45 Non-Self-Governing Territories (NSG). 102-04. 59 Loyalty oath. 73. 105-15 Labor. 65 Potsdam conference. 60 York Public Library. 59-60 Lyons. Dorothy. Pennsylvania. 108 Pan American Airways. 12 Lecture service. 113 15-16. 31 Philippine Islands.S. Jan. Trygve. 78. 76. 30. 53. La Guardia. David A. 139 Layman's Movement for a Christian World. UN activities about. 45-47. 40 Lewis. UN. 157-58 Organization of American States. 123 Paris Air Convention. 111 Phelan. 33. 45 Land reform. France. 74. 93 Markelius. 46 UN News Lake Success. 90. UN. 100-01. 11 Printing establishment. 16. U. 106 London Times. 108 Morse. Patzcuaro Lake... Cardinal. 113 Mimeographing plant. 110. Benito. 57 Peru. 55 Mozambique. 227 activities. David. UN. 50 Point Four Program. 31.. Ill Poland. General Assembly Building. 105- Lebanon. 67-68 Pakistan. 90. 134 Paris. 115-22 Moros. 104. 148 Medical clinic. California. 99-101. Sven.I. 40 Pony Express. UN. UN. Mexico. 33 League of Nations. 60 Life magazine. P. 100-01 Morse.. UN. 118 People's Republic of China. 11 Political and Security Council Affairs Membership. 126 Post Office. 144. 41-43 Mindanao. 102 Mindszenty.234 INDEX Near East. UN. 39-40. UN. 152-54 Playground. 11 President of the General Assembly. 29. UN. 145 Library. 85 Netherlands. 61 York Times. 105. 102 Outings. Personnel. Mexico. 100-01 UN Department. 40-44 Protocol and Liaison Section. E. Frank Q. 14 Money. England. 80. 129-30 Laubach. 114 Language difficulties. 102-04. Samuel. 113 UN activities about. 122-26 Mail service. New New New 66. UN. 55 York City Housing Authority. 123 MacArthur. 49. UN. 141 London. 35. 15 activities for. 5 Mail. 134 Paris Peace Conference. 107-08 9 Philadelphia. UN. 61 Los Angeles. Jerome. 141 22. 134 Pan American Convention (1929). 65. 41. 86 Mussolini. mechanics. UN. UN. Douglas A. 48-49 Malaria control. Palestine. 104 Lloyd George. world. 147 Loyalty investigations.. 92.

87 Thomas. 39 Somaliland. Staff Council. FAO. 84. 31.. 107. UN. 17 Reforestation. 159. U. Santiago. 189-92 Trust Territories. 97 Structure.. 60. and Rehabilitation Com- UN. 34. 132 Singapore. 12. 59. 69 Staff Counselor. 104 Twain.J. 148 Telecommunication. Radio. UN. 114. Rumania. 85. 3 Salaries. 31. 68 Secretary-General. 4. 37-38. 128 UN. 84-85 Sender. 141 Rotterdam.. 55 coverage. 14 Russia. 16 Truman. 69 Secretariat News. 74-76. 65 State Department. 126 Unification mission. 11. 105.S. 35-40. 15 Questions and answers. and Information from 34. 113. 124. Sudan. Upper Montclair. 138. Italy. 88 Roosevelt. 141 8. Reporters. Jr. 65. 52. UN. UN. 113 Table of Organization. Alexander. Temporary Committee on Korea. 22-23. 81. 148 Quera. Joseph. 130 UN activities for. 39-40. 8 Truce Commission. 22 Tuberculosis campaign. 144 Pulp industry. UN. Franklin D. 77 Turkey. 53-56. UN.. Rhee. 7 Union Congregational Church. UN. 9-10 Agencies. 78. 33 Radio coverage. 44-45 Technical Assistance 39. 87-89 Relief and Works Agency. 99. 129 Tilapia. Mark. 72-140. 132.. 127. 142 Short-wave radio. 54 Administration 99.INDEX Public 235 Information Department (DPI). Albert. 54 Reedman. FAO. Tony. 67 Social Affairs Department. Harry S* 5 Trieste. 37. Syria. 188-89 Seed Fund. New York. 2. N. Specialized Trusteeship Council. 141 Thunderstorm frequency. 142 Sparkinan. 43-47 Italy. 89-90 Terminology. 68-69 Stalin. 7 Rockefeller. 54-55 UN. 148 135 Spain. 78 92-93 Syphilis control. UN. 56 Speaker service. 38. 133.. 85-86 Scarsdale. 151-68 130-33 UN activities for. 157-58 Radio City. 48 UN. H. 176-78 8. 158. 109-11 Translation. Pennsylvania. 4 Tent caterpillars. 86-87 Tito. 51. 151. 74. New York. 63. Trusteeship 11. UN. see Soviet Russia Telephone Television service. Teletype service. 143 Security Council (SC). Marshal. Russo-Japanese War. 88-89 90 Spraying and dusting campaign. accredited. 18 Soviet Russia. 148 . 67 Schuster. 61. 31 Rome. Non-Self-Governing Territories Department. UN. 23. 29. 36. UN. John. 141 Stoddard. Stamps. 11-12. 44 Thailand. Senator. UN. 58 San Francisco conference. 160-61. 29. Syngman. 66. W. 100 "United Action for Peace" plan. UN. 75 (TAA). 86-87 Secretariat. 74 SHdmore. 192-94 Trusteeship system. 84. 69. Chile. John D. 194-95 Secretariat Building. 130-33 Telegraphy.

55-56 Nations Reporter* 56 States Post Office Department. 11 Venereal disease campaign. 8-9. 134 Meteorological Organization 72. Andrei. 151-52 American homes. 72-80. 66-67 Volunteer Services. 8. 88. 144-45 World 93 Veto power. 123 Woll. 15 Nations Bulletin. 24. Matthew. Thomas. 92. 81. William. 138 II. 126-30 Weekly Summary. 107. 147 Universal Postal Convention. 58 World Health Organization (WHO). 217-23 Is Race? 104 White. 90. 66-69 Visits to Voting. UN. UN. 46-47. Window cleaning. Visitors. 136 Washington. 145 Wilson. 95. 76-77. 74. 57. Vaccination program. 104 Universal Postal Union (UPU). 76. 111 Weather. 92 Vandenbosch. 72. 92. 93. 28.. 114. 142 Your United Nations. 74-76. 122-26. 92- 138. D. 161-62. Declaration of Waugh. 56 You Chan Yang. Amry. 86 Vacations. 102. 19-22 (WMO). 106. 72 attendance by. UN activities about. 145 University of Chile.C. 175 Warner. Thomas. 109-11 . 62 Yugoslavia. World War 127. 84 Yalden-Thomson. Vishinsky. 7 Young Men's Christian Association. Lyman. 75. 126-30.236 United United United United 65 INDEX Nations. 55 What Universal Human Rights. 109 Yearbook of United Nations. Edward. 51 Witherings. 142 Woodrow Wilson Memorial 61 Library. Evelyn. 65 Wasson. Woodrow. New York.







and a glossary of abbreviated titles which will provide readers with a helpful source for ready reference. are doing in the field of international finance. the Ora list of its members. Rights. and the Food and Agricultural Organization are World Health doing to fight all disease. the In- the Organization. ternational Children's Emergency Fund. in labor. improve illiteracy It crops. It explains how Non- Governmental Organizations. Mrs. "he various services i of" specific instances what sixty dp workers from "eel at home in Arne. Roosevelt's foreword deals espewith the work of the in the cially UN Rights played a leading part.. The book includes a Question and Answer Supplement which covers a wide she herself has field of Human an area in which range of subjects. from the complicated problem of voting procedure to the language requirements for a interpreter. the UN. also deals The book with a little-known aspect of the UN. what other agencies and what has been accomplished in terms of communication and transportation toward bringing the people of the world closer together. . Reprinted in full are the Declaration of Human ganization Chart of the UN UN Charter. The . sp iu* . help the private citizen to share in the United Nations program. such as the YMCA and the Chamber of Commerce. In a dramatic stories. : hieroglyphic long list of series of it alphabetic die UN's 'cs. in backward areas tells train workers and reduce over the world..'om front flap) the it b. 0801 . No. describes what groups ^SCO.

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