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# CHAPTER 1 - LIGHTING AND EMERGENCY LIGHTING SYSTEMS

1.1 Lighting
In designing lighting systems the lighting requirement is mainly specified by the lux level of the interested area or the room. Other than that the specifications give the type of fixtures to be used or standards to be followed.

1.1.1 Lux (symbol: lx) The lux is the SI unit of illuminance or luminous emittance. Lux gives luminous flux per unit area (lm/m2) and the corresponding radiometric unit, which measures irradiance, is the watt per square meter (W/m2). 1 lx = 1 lm/m2 = 1 cd·sr·m–2. Radiometric (the science of measurement of radiant energy in terms of absolute power) units are based on physical power, with all wavelengths being weighted equally, while photometric (the science of the measurement of light) units take into account the fact that the human eye's visual system is more sensitive to some wavelengths than others, and accordingly every wavelength is given a different weight. The weighting factor is known as the luminosity function. There are two luminosity functions in common use. For everyday light levels, the photopic luminosity function best approximates the response of the human eye. photopic luminosity function

There is no single conversion factor between lx and W/m2; there is a different conversion factor for every wavelength, and it is not possible to make a conversion unless one knows the spectral composition of the light. So software tool was used in lux level calculations. 1.1.1 Software Simulations

Relux

Relux is a CAD software that can be used to simulate lighting arrangements in both in door and out door. A detailed model of the room or the outdoor scene can be built using the software platform. In building the model an AutoCAD drawing can be imported, as well as 3D models in Relux can be exported to AutoCAD environment. The software library includes various luminaries of various manufactures all around the world. So we can place the luminaries we want in the model and then
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lighting can be simulated. All the luminance calculations are based on a reference plane, which is specified by the user in building the model. The results are given in number of ways. 1. 3D view of the illuminated room or scene. 2. Table of reference plane. 3. Isolines of reference plane. 4. Pseudo colors of reference plane. 5. 3D graph of the reference plane.

Figure 1.1 : Modeling the Engine hall in Relux

Figure 1.2 : Lux levels of the reference plane given in pseudo colors.

1.1.2 Cable Sizing 1.1.2.1 Identify and Quantify Loads The lighting installations of each room was designed using the “RELUX” to give the illuminations (Lux level) specified by the CEB **** document. The placement and the number of fixtures were decided through this simulation. 1.1.2.2 Feeder Layout Design After Identifying all the loads, the lighting arrangement drawings were prepared, and the number of circuits required to supply the loads and the positions of the switches were determined based on fixture

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and door, window positions. 1.1.2.3 Design Current of a Circuit (IB) Accurate circuit design current has to be calculated to determine a correct individual cable size. The basic formulae to obtain a design current are as follows,

Over Current Protective Device Current Rating (In) As the current rating for the over current protective device a rating which is larger than the design current of the circuit was selected. Commercially available over current protective devices’ current ratings are 6 A, 10 A, 16 A, 20 A, 32 A,40 A,63 A etc. 1.1.2.4 Minimum Current Rating of the Required Cable (It) Minimum current rating of a cable was calculated using the over current protective device current rating using the following formula. The relevant constants were found in BS 7671: 2008, IEE Wiring
Regulations, 17th Edition

Where Ca= correction factor for ambient temperature Cg = grouping factor Ci =correction factor for thermal insulation : Appendix 4 table 4B1 to 4B3 : Appendix 4 table 4C1 to 4C5 : Appendix 6 table 6B

The average temperature was taken as 40 °C in selecting Ca. 1.1.2.5 Cable Size Selection
A cable size with a current rating is more than the minimum current rating calculated as above was selected from Appendix 4 table 4D1A to 4J4A of BS 7671: 2008, IEE Wiring Regulations, 17th Edition.

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1.1.2.6 . Voltage Drop Calculation
According to BS 7671: 2008_ IEE Wiring Regulations_ 17th Edition, the voltage drop between the origin of the installation and the equipment should not exceed 9.2 V, i.e. 4% of the nominal supply voltage 230 V.

Where Vd = voltage drop in volts (mV/A/m) = tabulated voltage drop given in appendix 4 table 4D1A to 4J4A Ib = design current of the circuit in amperes L = length of circuit run in meters If the voltage drop is higher than the allowable limit, a cable size larger than the current cable size have to be selected and the circuit should be rechecked for the voltage drop.

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