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"Our" Anthropology of Technoscience?

The Machine in Me: An Anthropologist Sits among Computer Engineers by Gary Downey; Cyborg Babies: From Techno-Sex to Techno-Tots by Robbie Davis-Floyd; Joseph Dumit; Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium. FemaleMan©_Meets_OncoMouse™. Feminism and Technoscience by Donna Haraway; Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World by Stefan Helmreich Review by: David Hakken American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 103, No. 2 (Jun., 2001), pp. 535-539 Published by: Wiley on behalf of the American Anthropological Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 26/12/2012 08:43
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Appadurai an unfortunate predilection for neologisms-"neologicality"as he mightcall itandhyperinflated is not particularly remarkable texts that an abstract anthropologyof technoscience performing and largelypreceded have been influential longerthanethin anthropologyor nographicstudies by those trained whose workis informed deep dialoguewiththosein our by profession. Mills's workfits this notion. Jean Lave. impressiverangeof intellectuals academics or do engagein activities theycall anthropology ethnogthat "internal" Yet concrete performances. which is more a description the impact of the global on the local ratherthan an analysisof globalprocesses. FemaleMan?_ MeetsOncoMouseTM.a seamless dialecticbetweenproduction certainprivilegedsymbolicrepresentations the character of of various"realities" andthe construction special of [science] artifacts[technology]used in related practices/performances. GaryDowney. 56(4):388-392. Robbie Davis-Floyd and Joseph Dumit.State Universityof New York The Machine in Me: An Anthropologist Sits among Computer Engineers.REVIEw ESSAYS BOOK 535 more than that. Journal Anthropological of E. Modest_Witness@SecondMillennium. 26 Dec 2012 08:43:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 361 of the chief attributes the worksunof der reviewis thatthey makethe "seamlessdialectic" point how the artifacts [technolovividly.drawmuchless attenone tion thanthis abstract told anthropology. Stefan Helmreich.while "ethnography science and of the dialectic'sdensity. New York: Routledge. eds.Mills startswith a clearnarrative. Each is Hannerz's overlyrepetitious. Concrete.Berkeley: University of CaliforniaPress.Paul. Anthropologist 101(4):783-793.S.) technology" underplays What does the existence of this work suggest for the futureof our discipline?Since much of the debateon our This content downloaded on Wed.A favoritequestionfor Ph. he shows us how everyday practiceinvolves and entails the distantforces thatalterthe realities in termsof which people live. 358 pp.3 to (In line with these works. and Indeed.Indeed."repeatsthe Greekmistakeof privilegingscience over technology. "We areall anthropologists now. However. anthropologists the second is the purviewof do. he tells us. "Our" Anthropology of Technoscience? DAVIDHAKKEN Instituteof Technology. the realitiesthatMills illusof tratesin her book. The writingin all of the workssuffersfrom theirbeing collections ratherthan coherentlyarguedbooks. Organization in Inpress Explorations Class Consciousness theU. New York:Routledge.Paul in and 1997 That'll TeachYou:Cognition Practice a Union Human Local. Erem Durrenberger. of and Research. they document [sciences]as muchas vice gies] enablethe representations versa-hence the focus on "technoscience. publisher me thatevenwe do notreadourbooks! bitterly Anthropologiesof technoscience are among the few attenformsof "actual" that anthropology do drawbroader tion.they area sample of a muchlargergroup.4 to Its distinctivefeatureis a specialkind of knowledgenetof working. Donna does Hannerz's journalists.andSuzan the the and 1999a TheAbstract. 1996. Durrenberger. Political. becomerepetitive.I use technoscience referto a contemporary that practice is quiteglobalandof substantial importance generalsocial formationreproduction. Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World.dissertation fromwhata jour"Whathave you done thatis different is." "Ethnography of science.D. reference books thatjournalto Hannerzmakesfrequent ists and others such as officials of the World Bank have defenses written. in Univer1988 Cognition Practice. 314 pp. Organization What A Suffer 1999b TheWeak ExperiTheyMust: Natural and American mentin Thought Structure. 288 pp. raphy. theAcaa Union theUnited in States. in a differentway. Feminism and Technoscience. demic: and Labor Anthropology Human 58(3):305-312. butall too soon the chapters References Cited E."says the headlineof a summerGuardian reviewof the new CliffordGeertzbook. 1998. writingis sometimesponder- has ous if usuallyclear.'The works underreview show that the latter two groupsdo indeednow exist. 1998. New York:Routledge. Cambridge: Cambridge sityPress.thatis. nalist might have done?"The value of differentanswers dependson the committee. Cyborg Babies: From Techno-Sex to Techno-Tots. The first. ourdiscipline's ouractualtextualandgraphic media.Hannerzdiscusses thatdifference in his notion of longer-termrelationshipsamong of more distantfactorsas versusevents as crystallizations those forces at particular times and places.2in fact.

a trademarked geneticallyengineered laboratory species. Alife forms manifeston the computerscreen. of lematicby specifyingfour differentappropriations the and most of the papersuse the cyborg as cyborgconcept.Her witnessing is also the broadertechnosciencepracticesof comsocial relationsof active puterscience andin the particular Alife researchers. and Haraway's tripletitle. Stefan Helmreich startedfieldwork in the midthe 1990s at the SantaFe Institute.for example. for UnlikeBoyle.andthe rootsof thesetropesin the collectiveheritage of Western. Judeo-Christian culture. Gary Downey's involves illuminatingspecific practices analyticapproach themin broader cultural context. 2 * JUNE2001 futureturnson the issue of the role of science in the study of culture.Specifically. locatedpracticeat the addressesAlife as a geographically Institute. does this "actual"anthropologyof technosto cience have somethingspecialto contribute ourinternal as well as the broader debateoverinterdisciplinarity? What anthrodo these workssuggestaboutwhetherprofessional to pology has a specialcontribution maketo technoscience studies. they attempt stimulate commonprobapproach. This evocation highlights Alife's creators' construction of Alife as an alternate form of nature in the substrate of the silicon chip.His centralfoby placing cus is to specify the ways in which a nationalist discourse on CAD (e. Robbie Davis-Floyd and Joseph Dumit have not imposed commonality of analytic style or to a Still.and OncoMouse. No. Alife is also "second nature" in a more standard sense-that is. buthis site broadens Serially.or is a disciplineof anthropology largelyirrelevant to an anthropology technoscience? of Afterdiscussingthe I texts and the technoscienceculturethatthey portray. there is not space to address each of the essays. an e-mail as address. both physicallyand intellectually.andthe necessarily more up" the languageof hyproach-as opposed. that it reflects very culturally specific presumptions that to its creators are "second nature.these authorsgenerallyargueby employing recursivesketchesof correspondences among. in the DavisFloyd/ as Dumit volume. Helmreich's description of This content downloaded on Wed. Thus her "modestwitness" drawsits namefromthe scientistictropeof RobertBoyle. particular thepaintings othergraphin ics contained herbook.Even thoughtrainedin biology and has choice to hangout history.characteristic the field. Like the other authorsunderreview. of Silicon SecondNatureis an ethnography the technoscientificpracticesassociatedwith artificiallife or "Alife. which follows largely from being privileged." as it were. "Silicon second nature"evokes ShernyTurkle's computing ethnography.and in (cyber)space.the preocof cupationsandtropicpracticescharacteristic people like them." With most other U. "denatured intellect"takento be the ideal "Dr. In keeping with the postmodem analysis/aesthetic to which they are committed. focus specifically on how these authorsnegotiatethe contractionbetweenthe particularly strongform of "studying on the one hand.and thatof theirinformants.536 * ANTHROPOLOGIST AMERICAN in the title implies. Many of them are written by anthropologists and are based on ethnography or at least a rich appropriation of the ethnographic gaze. a transcendent. Alifers share a "pre-conscience collective. His title uses double meanings to characterizekey Alife characteristics.for example. 103. at includingperformances international Alife conferences. white.g. pothesis testing-is just one of the ways in which these writers manifest increasinglygeneral preoccupationsof Another contemporary ethnography. framed by a conceptualmeeting between a FemaleMandrawn from science fiction and copywrited. whose writers intensely root their own in situknowledge. as the way to save the competitivestanding of the UnitedStates)providesan implicitterrain which on of what CAD is for studentsconstructan understanding andhow it relatesto them(andvice versa). In a short review.he out.S. Cyborg Babies is a collection of diverse pieces.Watson" scientificexperimentation. As often via cascadinghumanistic figuresas by "objective" discourse. is Modest_Witness@Second_Millenniumperhaps best seen as a piece of "performance as anthropology.Haraway madea deliberate with us." argument by example for the situatingof knowledge that Donna Harawayadvocates. each of which says something about the characterof human reproduction in the era of technoscience. the technoscientistswho areHelmreich's"natives" generallymakea claim: computingcan create entirely new life stronger forms. her witness:in time. exampleis the author's reflexivepresencein theirnarratives.indexesthe complexityof the argument she wishes to make.Perhaps most importantly. at the end of Harawayhyperlocates the second millennium.He examines as well the considerable of spiritualdimensionsof Alife andthe implications Alife as a late-twentieth-century intellectual practice. of on the active ethicalposture technoscience ethnography. Also like Helmreich. and heterosexual." as While "Alife"can be constructed narrowly the idea that simulationsof biological processes may procomputer of foundly influence our understanding life. book takes the of the structure a textin generallinguistics. an analyticfigure. male. he is interested the way that student's bodies become inscribed in the machines and the machines in the students' (and others') bodies. Harawaylocates her projectwithinthe of intersection feminismandtechnoscience. The Second Self (1984). TheMachinein Me is similarto Silicon SecondNature in that it involves participant observationstudy of a specific technosciencepractice:The graduateeducationof softwareengineersin the use of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems. of other. This narrativeapfor example. the linguisticand social practicesof theircreators. Helmreichis as with the rhetorical well as researchconvenconversant as tions of contemporary ethnography.. acknowledgedinstitutionalleaderin Alife. technoscientists. 26 Dec 2012 08:43:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

he a also demonstrates rich understanding the internalisof sues raisedby unforeseendrugconsequences.for exreproduction Thus. and ethnographicwork. The readeris to take the analyticsshe performs as a metacritique science not of but as a necessarycomponentof a reconstructed technoscientificpractice.the HumanGenome Project. passage illustrates some scientists'cavalierwillingnessto presume masteryof others'crafts.democracy agencyin scientific research.On the one hand. These worksshow how one can groundan ethicalsensiHelmreich bilityin thereallyexistingworkof technoscience."she ap"theethproachesthe theorizingthatused to characterize in moment" anthropology withless trepidation. 26 Dec 2012 08:43:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .BOOK ESSAYS 537 REVIEW "CulturingArtificial Life" communicates the multiple senses of just how highlyculturedAlife's formsare:They are both quite like somethinggrown in a biology lab and are more generally "culturally as constructed.Her work is clearly the single strongestinfluenceon supplement explicationof practiceswith her best understanding what these practicesshouldbe of like (Hakken 2000). litan for historical. and having fewer levers with which to influence whateverorganizations. because potentialnew Yet social formationdynamicat most exists only in embryo. engagement Moreover.such as and He modernity. amodernity.all the works underreview demonstrate understanding an of whatis at staketo thenatives.and networkswe share. studyingit inherentlyimplicatesone in its creation. Robbie Davis-Floydidentifiesstronglywith the "natural" rhetoricsof the midwives with whom she collaborates.he presentsalternative lems drawnfrom withinthe Alife community'sown disof courses. nological Like all ethnographers. (once again) the cyborg. race. insistencethatshe be an locatedwithinscience. As This content downloaded on Wed.less descriptiveperspective her thatHarawayaddresses set of issues in technoscience: the and reconstituting witness. a mature anthropologyof technoscience would help contemporaryhumans/cyborgsunderstand more fully how technosciencepracticesare implicatedin socialchange.Good science ethoftenprovokes informants' defensesof the prized nography terrain claims to knowledge. Joe Dumitlocates to himself in his own family's reproductive experience. also includes voices critiquing own perspective: Alife researcher his An uses academic languageto critiqueHelmreich'simposition of a politicalagendaon his research.technoscience ethnographers generally"study to theirinformants. Haraway'sinsistence that she is not a relativist restsuponanintellectual commitment to the problemsof technoscience.Thisanthropology's contemporary opportuderivesfromthe popular nity to be perceivedas significant belief that technoscientific developmentis driving social formation towardsome new dynamic. as a "convert.This of imposesa specialethicaldutyon the ethnographer techher noscience.thorough culturalresearchon technosciencewith some intellecup tual urgency.he presentsclearexnographic of the problems the heartof Alife research at and plications the techniques whichthey areapproached. It is from a more analytic.way.In each of these areas. Such researchcan threaten natural scientists.In contrast. the is Downey's approach to demonstrate valueof a socioculturalawarenessto the educationof buddingengineers. theseauthors offerssubstantive withtheactualworkof technoscience." offersourdisciplinemeansto have a substantial impacton social formationreproduction. in opposition to the cyborgic rhetorics of technoscience medicine.In the final economy he in to chapter. those studying technoscience must gain access to the field. "important" informants give you the to time of day-most technoscienceanthropologists find it a necessaryto demonstrate degreeof masteryof the technoscientific practicesin which they wish to participate.contemporary reproductivetechnology.showinghow heterosexism political and are presences in each simulation. NaturalscientistPaul Grossarguesthat attemptsto account culturallyfor the construction science have met of with mixed success and have questionablevalue. Helmreichnavigatesthe paradox demonstrating of technoscience masteryby maintaining somewhatgreaterethdistance. "cyberspace. Perhaps this is because." Science. During at least one moment while "sittingamong comhe the puterengineers. Rather merelycelebrating than the wonderof it evokes the possibilityof alternative claim-makingprocesses. In his contribution CyborgBabies. Pace a case for taking Gross. and an awesome ability at synthesis." experienced "goingnative"seductive appealof demonstrating mastery. the On through constructions these probof other.butit also highlightsa tensionin ethnographic study of technoscience.andI wouldimagineappealing(to them).puttingat risk both access of to the field and the capacityto engage in technoscience.This practiceeffectively forces her to a dystopian use of the cyborg image. and reflexivity.His ethnographic portrait how Alife is lived in the labprovidesthe dimensionality whichthebestpracfor titionersof constructivist scienceeducationstrive. philosophical. and Society (STS) scholarsgenerallyexpect Technology. postmodernity. institutions.not outsideit. up" In addressinga standard "studying up" problem-how to convince busy. Makingless money and having less prestige than them. technoscienceanthropology ample.He sits with themin a strong. surveystheplaceof Alife research relation broaderissues of contemporary culturalconcern.Despite theirwide arrayof positionings. technoscience to practices be.thesebooksprovide good. erary. choosingas well to critique Helmreich's The graspof anthropology. appreciation existingSTS. she demonstrates criticalpyrotechnics. deconstructsnarrativesthat distance Alifestubbornly science fromthe broader social practicesin which its pursuit is embedded. A distinctivecast to technoscience anthropologists' entreeproblemsfollows fromour often havingless powerthanour informants.

these authors As skill demonstrate.Because the corpusof which these texts are exemrelevance. 2000 "Ethical Issuesin the Ethnography Cyberspace. textsareimportant their of in own The not to nor right. I prefer. Thereis at leastone perspective fromwhichthis is problematic. Nader. Technology. career benefited anthroon has from My to criticisms of pologicalattention it. gender.David 1999 Cyborgs@Cyberspace: Ethnographer An Looksto the Future. Thereis not evidencehere of a distinctlyanthropological problematic. Stone. Many of Davis-Floydand Dumit's authorsdraw attentionto activistgroupsthateffectively stake claims to spaces in technoscienceinnovation andimplementation. to has I find little. Perin.and Computingof the GeneralSectionof the AmericanAnthropological Association.I havealso drawnattention opposite problem:Demands for a high level of mastery to might limit the practiceof technoscienceethnography the small groupof ex.Pfaffenberger. selected berepresentative. can we engage in a manner avoidsthe male powermoves so muchat their that core? These works offers valuable suggestions: Listen have to say anddevelop carefullyto whattechnoscientists the skill to explaintheirpointscogentlyin theirterms. Layne. in this "reallyexisting" anthropologyof technoscience.This limitationwould have extensive race.Suchman. Casper.Harawaydoes it by framingtechnoscience problemsin aestheticas well as technicalterms. sociology or history. Garsten. critiqueto offer alternatives unreflective to sketcha vision of technosciencepracticethatis culturally informed.Downey concludeshis book with a chapterdescribinga CAD developed in supportof humanliberationratherthan a national pursuitof productivity.ourdisciplinewill learnto cultivatethe obvious studentinterestin technoscience build stronglyon this and mostimpressivework. other than in the centralityof fieldwork.reinforcedby mechanismslike the AAA's Forsytheand TextorPrizes. 2 * JUNE2001 the attackof people like Gross and the broaderplace of in technoscienceanthropology the science wars indicate.Edwards.Franklin. Forsythe. inevitablepartof technoscience the in practice. representquick examples.Ito. In variousways. possible a reasonablyinformed "scientist"of the anthropological variety. each workunderreviewmoves beyond to technoscience. andWright. moresanitized rhetorics disciplinarity). sivelyanthropological 2.Over the years. Rabinow. Fujimura.or apostatescientists. Tourney. 26 Dec 2012 08:43:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . unit whoseresearch has focused technoscience.develop a thorough for analysisof suchperformances' implications imaginingthe future. Throughoutliningan alternative from withinnaturalscience to the connectionof approach life processandintelligence. If we cannot avoid science wars. theiradvisorssee as an absenceof relevantanthropological work. Grey.Martin.engineers. should be taken they as "best case" a Rather.SiliconSecondNaturepoints to alternative practices scopedwidely enoughto engageall who have a stake in the futureof life. masterysufficientto be takenseriouslywithin technosciencewill not be sufficientlypersuasivefor the (Hakken1999)to the specialist. Hakken.Engage deeplywithwhatthey do. Strathern. Hess. 4. and. Like these authors.advisors'conplaryclearlyachievesintellectual tinuedcautionalongthese lines is vulnerable the charge to of deliberateprofessional pedantry. An important (1979)textwassociologists LaBruno early tourand SteveWoolgar's Historian Sharon Life. 3. have also regularly I in participated the structures practicesof the interdisciplinary of and field STS.Lave.Marcus. howeverit is constructed. Technology.despiteoccasional instances. 103. I reviewtheseworks a cultural as anthropologist teaching at a technological of a stateuniversity. by no means A exhaustive of authors list would include also Dubinskas. Heath.I have met a numberof students who haveencountered technoscience difficultyin pursuing dissertation in partbecauseof what anthropology projects. Any listingof suchworkis idiosyncratic. at suchactivities is perhaps strongest the elementof whattraining anin offerstechnoscience studies. These works draw upon the diverse literature and constructs whichthis scholarlypractice exposedme. Thetextsselected reviewwereproduced ethnografor by whohavebeena professional in phers presence bothanthropoland as or ogy andSTS(Science. includingtheperformances in whichtheyrevealtheirdreamsandhopes." of In Ethics and Anthropology: Facing FutureIssues in Human Traweek's Beamtimesand Lifetimes(1988) moves in a deci- This content downloaded on Wed. Notes 1.Escobar. they compromisebetween editor writer and preferences.I have spenttime legitimating particular studyof technosciencein our discipline-organizing and chairingthe Committee on the Anthroplogyof Science.It remains thatwhatqualifiesfor me. Laboratory direction. and class implicationsregardingthe standpoints fromwhichtechnoscience couldbe interrogated. Fisher. References Cited Hakken. a disciplinaryratherthan philosophical sense.Nyce.One hopes that. the worldof abstraction.538 * AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST VOL.or technologists. Society.(Demonstrating key role of the imagination scienceis a salutary of especially accomplishment Haraway's refuseto remainin separatetheir work from that of the best practitioners whose trainingtook place in.Next. tie practices theirsocial inand to frastructures. New York:Routledge. the alteritystructured the studyof "othered" into peoplesis cover for the technoscienceethnograunavailable largely pher. Eglash.)Perhapsmost importantly. No. thropology The ethicallyengagedpracticethatI see as a necessary attribute technoscience of in ethnography emergesstrongly these works. ScienceandTechnology in Studies the current. say.

but also accessiblein memoryfor moreleiforming surelyreflection. and tellingus whatshiftingmeaningsit has had for Argentina. The Mystery of Samba: Popular Music and National Identity in Brazil. 65). sambabethe came the favoritemusic of elites as well.In its development. are also democraticin that what limits a thanaccessto formal is person'sperformance talent.Globalism. wroteTangoand the PoliticalEconomyof Passion (1995) as an embodiedanalysisof an embodiedform. Perhaps was experiences as this one thatprompted elite intellectuals engagein the to "fashionable rehabilitation everything of fromthe musicof rice Pixinguinhato traditional puddingdesserts"(Vianna p. hadhumblebeby ginningsandarestill performed peopleof all social stations. Friedlander. Both the tangoandthe samba.class fact. Sherry and 1984 The SecondSelf:Computers the Human Spirit.170-186. Cambridge. and Luciano Galle-all from "good white families"-with blackand mixed race sambistasPatrfcio. Meaningreallyis in the eye of the beholderand in the body of the performer.ChapelHill: Universityof North CarolinaPress.Choreographies musicalscoreshave multiplemeaningsthatarecommunicated through multiple channels. It took place in Rio de Janeiroandbroughttogether the educated elites Gilberto de Freyre. embodiedand wordless. Anotherdance from Latin America. Beverly Sharon Traweek.and otherstatusmarkers. new territories.the rumba. 1999.ed. Cantwell. providesthe subjectof YvonneDaniel's (1995) studythat documents bothits severalforms. SteveWoolgar Life: of 1979 Laboratory TheSocialConstruction Scientific CA:Sage. Hills. 1998. Pp. exile and appropriation. Knowledge. class ideologies.Savigliano(1995) told us whatmeaningsthe tango acquiredabroadin Franceand in Japan.SergioBuarque HoPedro Dantas Prudentede Moraes Neto. Dancing the Nation ANYA PETERSON ROYCE Indiana University Paper Tangos.NC: Duke University Press. Donga.and the thornyrealitiesof mestizaje(race mixing).intellectuals.BOOKREVIEW ESSAYS 539 and Anne-Marie Property.especiallybut not exclusivelyin their popularforms. tellingus whatit meansto danceit andbe dancedby it. Both the tangoandthe sambahave been the subjectsof otherrecentanthropological MartaSavigliano treatments.its social history.and the articulation tity. tango and the samba each providea subtle and multivocalic pointof entryto examinations identity-in the perof itself. linkingit to musicianswho werelower-classurban blacksor inhabitantsoffavelas (slums).as well as withthe dance. Harvard Turkle. and music are and polysemousas well as multivocalic. Biology. John Charles Chasteen. Barbara Browning(1995) chose the samba as a way of articulatingBrazilian gender relationships.thatare at once the most and the least resistantto distortionand misappropriation. Bruno. Madeleine Tramm. 26 Dec 2012 08:43:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Taylor and Viannaboth choose forms. 147 pp.sometimes they contest the various This content downloaded on Wed. andPixinguinha. In her work. of us andthem-these aresome of the definingconceptsof present-dayanthropology.rather education. and The of 1988 Beamtimes Lifetimes: World HighEnergy Press MA: University Physicists. These features make themradically on opento interpretation the partof boththe audiencesandperformers. Heitor landa.Sometimesthese voices agreeto agreeupon a common identity. arts As the whose most immediatepresencelies in performance.Taylor speaks eloquentlyto the polysemousnatureof the tango.literacy. Viannabehis book with the story of just such an encounterin gins 1926. The democratic natureof artssuch as dance and music meansthata greater rangeof peoplehas accessto themand therefore therearemoreanddifferentvoices delineatthat ing identities. Cultural Eva and L. Hermano Vianna. artists. They went out for an eveningof it such guitarmusicanddrinking. New of NewYork: York Academy Sciences. The important point was that poor and elite could come togetheron a common groundof musicalaccomplishment. idenBordersand boundaries. eds. and Latour. Viannadevotes much attentionto the development of the sambaas Brazil'snationalpopularmusic. Villa-Lobos. Julie Taylor. Whatis it aboutperforming suchas danceandmusic arts thatmakesthemespeciallypowerfulmeansof articulating for or identitywhether an individual for a people?And following on that. and NewYork: Simon Schuster. 121 pp.and they are well served in these two books.andits for implications Cubanidentities. tellingus of herown relationship Music anddance. andtrans. nationalism.documentof tangoandits ing the overseaswanderings the Argentine of with alteredin the recombination old stereotypes whatways has the explosionof performand ance-basedstudies changedanthropology our underof standings the peopleswho areits focus? Beginningwith the first question.