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jawaban simulasi PA 1.Verrucae 2.leimyoma uteri 3.reactive hiperplasia 4.TBC 5.DCIS 6.Retinoblastoma 7.Keloid 8.Seminoma 9.Fatty change 10.

Hidropic 11.Ca nasopharynx 12.Hiperplasi 13.Veruccae 14.Haschimoto 15.Gout 16.Adenocarninoma 17.Hemangioma 18.Pleumorfik adenoma 19.Melanoma 20.Transisional 21.Lipoma 22.Swanoma 23.Jaringan granulasi 24.Degenerasi hyalin 25.Teratoma immature 26.Jar.granulasi 27.Atrofi 28.Lipoma 29.Pleumorfik adenoma 30.Meningoma 31.Adenocarcinoma prostat 32.Fatty change 33.Papila adeno 34.Infark 35.Osteosarcoma 36.TBC 37.SCC 38.Degenerasi hyalin 39.Folikular lipoma 40.Rhabdomiosarcoma

The current study is the largest and longest clinical trial assessing the efficacy of G. language. 36:297). After analyses were adjusted for age. biloba was modestly effective in the shortterm treatment ofdementia (Pharmacopsychiatry 2003. double-blind. Brigham and Women's Hospital. biloba was ineffective in preventing Alzheimer disease ordementia (JAMA 2008. However. participants underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations and cognitive testing. sex. The results are disappointing. 2010 CITATION(S): Snitz BE et al. for that matter. Every 6 to 12 months. 302:2663. This study teaches us an important lesson: Well-designed trials are critical in determining the potential benefit of supplements in primary and secondary prevention of dementiaand. G. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most heavily marketed herbalsupplements for cognitive enhancement and dementiaprevention. In a small clinical trial. they report the effect ofG. The authors previously reported that G. G. for a total of 6 years. Harvard Medical School. Marshall. Ginkgo biloba for preventing cognitive decline in older adults: A randomized trial. biloba has been assessed in several clinical trials for different indications. education. and Associate Neurologist. and manufacturers are not required to provide compelling clinical trial evidence of their efficacy. Comment: Unlike medications. memory. executive function. biloba was ineffective in preventing cognitive decline in nondemented elders. Boston. G. and for mild cognitive impairment and depression at baseline. biloba on rates of decline in global cognition. biloba Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study was a randomized. demonstrating lack of efficacy on all accounts. race. 79) with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment at baseline to receive 120 mg of G. — Gad A. supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Center for Alzheimer Research andTreatment. The researchers randomized 3069 community-dwelling elders (mean age. the treatment groups did not differ significantly in rates of change in global or specific cognitive domains. attention. biloba in preventing dementia and cognitive decline in elders with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment at baseline. placebo-controlled clinical trial assessing the efficacy of G. JAMA 2009 Dec 23/30. The G. MD Dr. Marshall is Instructor in Neurology. Now. and apolipoprotein E 4 status. but results have been equivocal at best regarding prevention of dementia and slowing of cognitive decline in elders. Published in Journal Watch Neurology April 6. bilobasupplements or placebo twice daily. . in the prevention or treatment of any condition. biloba in the reduction of cognitive decline and prevention of dementia in nondemented elders. and visuospatial function. 300:2253).Ginkgo Biloba for Prevention of Cognitive Decline In a well-conducted clinical trial.

and circadian effects. type. Department of Health Research and Policy Stanford Prevention Research Center. intensity. and by what means (eg. PhD 1. Department of Medicine. age. particularly randomized controlled trials that target subgroups at risk for poor sleep such as older adults and persons with sleep disorders. Physical exercise is one such alternative that is inexpensive and affects numerous health systems simultaneously. time of day). light exposure. Stanford University School of Medicine. which can be obtained through a variety of means such as brisk walking and resistance training. Stanford University School of Medicine. Additional research is warranted in this area. Stanford. The empirical literature is reviewed.edu 1. . duration) exercise optimally affects sleep. and concludes that a number of mechanisms are plausible and likely active in explaining the effects of exercise on sleep. PhD 1. Matthew P. are sufficient to improve sleep quality. restorative functions. California Abstract The prevalence of sleep-related complaints and the limited efficacy of pharmacological treatments make nonpharmacological alternatives essential. King. fitness characteristics).Exercise as a Treatment to Enhance Sleep 1. including exercise’s antidepressant effects. California. This article reviews putative mechanisms that have guided exercise and sleep research. mbuman@stanford. Abby C. The current literature indicates that moderate amounts of exercise. under what conditions (eg. with special emphasis given to randomized controlled trials and experimental studies that help to inform for whom (eg. Stanford. Buman. The review also includes the emerging research using exercise as a treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome.