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. A.D. Professor of the History of Curator of the Harvard University German Culture and Germanic Museum. Assistant Professor of German.'&ZS. Assistant Editor-in-Chief WILLIAM GUILD HOWARD. Harvard University Ktt (Emeniu. LL. Litt.D. ^ 5tye (Herman Claaatrs OF C&e jOineteentb anD Ctoemietj) Centuries Masterpieces of German Literature TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH Editor-in-Chief KUNO FRANCKE. Ph.D.. IMunxes Mustratri THE GERMAN PUBLICATION SOCIETY NEW YORK .M.

Copyright 1913 by The Gebmax Publication Society .

Tell. I. LL. The Veiled Image at : Sai's. du P. tures.. S. Lord Lytton To the Ideal.CONTRIBUTORS AND TRANSLATORS VOLUME III Special Writers Calvin Thomas. J. War..D. Coleman.M. The Ideal and the Actual Life. Professor of English Literature. Sir Theodore Martin. A.: William Rev. . College of the City of New York: of the Arts. Homage Edward.C.) A. Professor Columbia University: The Life of Schiller. T..B. W. Introduction to William Tell. of Germanic Languages and Literatures. the Use of the Chorus in Tragedy. K. Professor of Germanic Languages and Litera- Kansas: Introduction to Wallenstein's Death. Translators A. etc.D. Carrtjth. University of Ph. Coleridge: The Death of Wallenstein. Lodge : (From "The Thirty Years' On L. Dora Sciimitz: Schiller's Correspondence with Goethe. A. William H. Morrison : Last Campaigns of Gustavus Adolphus.


Dora Schmitz. 241 245 366 Homage of the Arts. Carruth 78 84 The Death William Translated by S.C. 487 Translated by Edward. Translated by Sir Theodore Martin. Tell. Lord Lytton. du P. J. Introduction to Wallenstein's Death. 1 POEMS*. Coleman HISTORY AND LITERATURE. Lodge Schiller's Correspondence with Goethe. Morrison On the Use of the Chorus in Tragedy. Carruth of Wallenstein. Trans378 479 . The Thirty Years' War — Last Campaigns of Gustavus Adolphus. * lated by Rev. Coleridge Introduction to William Tell.B Translated by A. III By Calvin Thomas . PAOE To the Ideal 22 24 Life The Veiled Image at Sai3 The Ideal and The Actual Genius Votive Tablets ( 27 32 Selections ) 35 •-The Glove - 40 42 47 52 „ The Diver The Cranes of Ibycus The Words of Belief The Words of Error The Lay of the Bell The German Art Commencement of the New Century Cassandra 53 55 67 68 69 Rudolph of Hapsburg 73 DRAMAS.CONTENTS OF VOLUME Life of Schiller. K. I. A. . T. W. Translated by A. By William H. Translated by L. By William H.


By Ernst Rietschel Goethe on Schiller. By Wilhelm von Kaulbach The Homage of the Arts. By Eugen Klimsch IS 40 42 56 70 74 By Alexander Wagner. 368 378 418 Gustavus Adolphus By Van Dyck Monument 488 to Goethe and Schiller in Weimar. New York Public Library. By Karl von Piloty Stauffacher and his Wife Gertrude 228 232 256 The Oath on the Tell Riitli Tell takes Leave of his Family 298 300 312 334 and Gessler The Death of Attinghausen. By Ferdinand Keller The Count gives up his Horse to the Priest. III PAGE Weimar.. From the Ford Collection. By Theobald von Oer 500 Schiller Archives in The Goethe and Lengefeld Weimar von 512 516 Facsimile of Leaf from the Album of Schiller's Letters to Charlotte . By Julius Benczur Cassandra. New York Public Library. By Hermann Wislicenus Wallenstein. Jiiger in Frontispiece 2 4 6 8 Schiller's Schiller's Father and Mother Birthplace in Marbach Monument to Schiller in Berlin. From the Ford Collection. Wallenstein and Seni Wallenstein and Terzky Weimar Cunigonde.ILLUSTRATIONS — VOLUME Schiller at Schiller. By Reinhold Begas Military Academy in Stuttgart and the Theatre in Mannheim. 84 86 150 Wallenstein hears of Octavio's Treason Wallenstein warned by his Friends The Death of Wallenstein. 492 Schiller on Goethe. By Wilhelm von Kaulbach By C.. 1782 House Weimar and 12 14 Church in which Schiller was married Schiller at the Court of The Knight scorns The Diver. By Carl Gehrts The Lay of the Bell.. 436 Schiller Reciting from his Works to his Weimar Friends.


where he got * This Sonnet. at Marbach in Swabia. 10. father was an officer in the army I officer. whose maiden name was Dorothea Kodweis. But dwelt on earth in that eternity Where Truth and Beauty shine with blended He Nor bowed to externalities Nor took a guerdon from ray.. the fleeting day. He kept the faith. German dramatic vember . Here little Fritz went to school and was sometimes taken to the gorgeous ducal opera. After the war the family lived a while at the village of Lorch. Henceforth was true as needle to the pole. not much is known. From there they moved.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER LL. Vol. to Ludwigsburg. the knee. She was a devout woman who lived in the cares and duties of a household that sometimes felt the pinch of poverty.* [RIEDRICH SCHILLER. but has not been printed before. Ill — 1 . nor ever knew dismay. the greatest of His which the Duke of Wurttemberg sent tc out to fight the Prussians in the Seven Years' "War. Professor of Germanio Languages and Literatures. Columbia University By Calvin Thomas. where the extravagant duke Karl Eugen had taken up his residence and was bent on creating a sort of Swabian Versailles. was written for the Chicago Schiller Celebration of 1905. Of his mother. where Captain Schiller was employed as recruiting 1 poets. by the author of this sketch of Schiller's life.D. Once thrilled to madness by the fiery gleam Of Freedom glimpsed afar in youthful dream. The vision he had caught remained the goal Of manhood's aspiration and the theme Of those high luminous musings that redeem Our souls from bondage to the general dole Of trivial existence. Editob. was born No1759. The ardent poet-soul. Calm and free faced the Sphinx. in 1766.

with for the study of divinity. where they were subjected There being no provision to a strict military discipline. — — . where it was destined to career under the name of the Karlschule. And so it proved. The it came about is hard to explain in detail. For posterity the salient fact of his long connection with the Karlschule is that he was there converted into a fiery Just how and a banner-bearer of the literary revolution. his first notions of scenic illusion.2 THE GERMAN CLASSICS to The hope of his boybecome a preacher. liberty-loving temperament against a system of rigid disciFrench was the The eleves pline and petty espionage. hood was conceived in a rather liberal spirit as a training-school for public service. evade the rule and enjoy the savor of forbidden fruit. and their rooms were often searched for But they easily found ways to contraband literature. were not supposed to read official language of the school dangerous books. which he thought would be more in harmony with his temperament and literary ambitions. At first the duke had the boys taught under his own eye at Castle Solitude. The result may be ascribed partly. to the natural reaction of an ardent. no doubt. As a student of medicine he made him- self at home in the doctrines and practices of the day. and for several years after he left school he thought now and then of returning to the profession of medicine. in him it bred up a savage and radical relentless critic of that order. In 1775 the institution and transferred a short-lived was augmented by a faculty of medicine to Stuttgart. the result that he floundered badly for two years. Schiller gladly availed himself of the permission to change from law to medicine. to produce docile and contented memschool was designed bers of the social order. but this pious aspiration was brought to naught by the offer of free tuition in an academy which the duke had started at his Castle Solitude near Stuttgart. This academy was Schiller's world from his fourteenth It was an educational experiment to his twenty-first year. Schiller was put into law.



It year in the Karlschule that Schiller wrote The Robbers. was not exactly what he seemed to be. and the characters are extravagantly overdrawn. For a while he believes that he is doing a noble work. Lenz and Wagner or less revolutionary in spirit. The hero. Karl Moor. he becomes the captain of a band of outlaws and attempts by murder. When he learns how he has been deluded he gives himself up to the law.' Deceived by the machinations of his villainous brother Franz. the language tense with turbulent passion. We are left at the end with a heightened feeling for the mysterious tangle of human destiny which makes it possible for a really noble nature such as Karl Moor to go thus disastrously wrong. and all more plays by Klinger.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER So it 3 less. time came it was about 1777 faithfully pursuing his medical course and doing loyal birthday orations in praise of the duke or the duke's misUnderneath tress. But the genius of the born dramatist is there. arson and robbery to right the wrongs of the social order. Lessing's Emilia Galotti. Toward the end of 1780 Schiller left the academy and was made doctor to a regiment of soldiers consisting . the play marks the birth of a new type — the tragedy of fanaticism. Leisewitz. the calm exterior there was a soul on fire with revolu- reading would have made a radical of him he had just then been enjoying the normal freedom this — — tionary passion. was with Schiller: he read Rousseau more or the early works of Goethe. What is more imporin 1780 last ' was mainly — his — tant. The plot is incredible. It is all vividly seen and powerfully bodied forth. when the young Schiller. altogether the loudest explosion of the Storm and Stress. the of a German university student. He also made the acquaintance of Shakespeare and steeped himself in the spirit of antique heroism as he found it in Plutarch. The effect of the play is that of tremendous power unchecked by any of the restraints of art. was conceived asa" sublime criminal. — Perhaps even if Be that as it may.

The book came out in the spring of 1781 with a rampant lion and the motto in Tirannos on the titlelargely of invalids. 1782. who saw its dramatic qualities and requested its author to revise it for the stage. page. notably. This Schiller readily consented to do. To please Dalberg he set the action back from the eighteenth to the sixteenth century and made many minor changes.4 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He dosed them to his light. His Anthology for 1782 contains a large number of short poems. The consequence was a clandesany tine flight from a situation that had become intolerable. assembled from ever-memorable success. he escaped from Stuttgart with his loyal friend Streicher and took his way northward toward He had set his hopes on finding employthe Palatinate. with The audience. — Ere long it came to the attention of Dalberg. he and forbidden more plays. in which the lover's raptures are linked with the law of gravitation and the pre- . director of the theatre at Mannheim. are the poems to Laura. or rather for a repetition of the offense in May. in Mannheim. having come over from StuttFor this breach of discigart without leave of absence. others foreshadowing the imaginative sweep and the warmth of feeling which characterize the best poetic work of the later Schiller. went wild with enthusiasm. In September. some of them evincing a rare talent for dramatic story-telling. The revised play was performed at Mannheim on January 12. with a preface in which he spoke rather slightingly of the theatre. No such triumph had been achieved before on a German stage. pline. with drastic medicines but the service was disagreeable and according To make a stir in the world he borthe pay very small. far and near. spurs as a poet and a critic. ment Before leaving his native Swabia he had virtually comsent to the guardhouse for a fortnight to write was pleted a second play dealing with the conspiracy of Count He had also won his Fiesco at Genoa in the year 1547. The author himself saw the performance. rowed money and published The Robbers as a book for the reader. 1782. Such.

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being led to the subject by his pursuit and arrest. By the summer of 1783. torical tragedy. During the first part of his stay at Bauerbach Schiller went by the name of Dr. dissecting his own child with remorseless impartiality. Relieved of anxiety on this score. occupied mainly with a new play which came to He also sketched a hisbe known as Cabal and Love. Here he remained several months. so Fiesco was rejected and its author came into dire straits. The politic Dalberg was not eager to befriend a youth who had offended the powerful Duke of Wiirttemberg. Dalberg reopened negotiations with Schiller. especially a review of The Robbers in which. Ritter and wrote purposely misleading letters as to his intended movements. He also contributed several papers to the Wiirttemberg Repertorium. Don Carlos. abounding vigor and its picturFiesco lacks artistic finality and is the least its interesting of Schiller's early plays. The former is a quasi-historical tragedy of intriguing ambition. ending with the death of Fiesco at the in the original version hands of the fanatical republican Verrina. During this year at Mannheim Fiesco and Cabal and Love were put on the stage and published. Real's historical novel Bom Carlos. Schiller was technically a deserter and had reason to fear At Mannheim his affairs went badly. however. he anticipated nearly everything that critics were destined to urge against the play during the next hundred years. Much more impor- . and not having had very good success of late with his theatre. Toward the close of the year he found a welcome refuge at Bauerbach.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER established 5 harmony of the world. reading of St. While there — — is much to admire in esque details. Having left his post of duty and being a military officer. who was easily persuaded to emerge from his hiding-place and become theatre-poet at Mannheim under contract for one year. it had become apparent that the Duke of Wiirttemberg was not going to make trouble. where a house was put at his disposal by his friend Frau von Wolzogen.

6 THE GERMAN CLASSICS tant is Cabal and Love. and went to Leipzig. The relation between the two men developed into a warm and mutually inspiring friendship. Schiller was deeply touched. Much is thinly disguised in this drastic Wiirttemberg history comment on the crimes. and in the savage spirit of the Storm and Stress. making creative work In June. Hitherto he had written with his eye on the stage. the higher ambition of the dramatic poet . he followed Korner to Dresden. aristocratic lover are done to death by a miserable court intrigue. after a short sojourn. Notwithstanding his success as a playwright and his receipt of the honorable title of Councilor from the Duke conflict is the tragic element. Thence. a domestic tragedy that has held the stage to this day and is generally regarded as the best of its kind in the eighteenth-century German drama. a quartet of unknown admirers in Leipzig. Far more than in The Robbers Schiller was here writing with his eye on the facts. debt and loneliness oppressed him. So it came about that in the of 1785 Schiller forsook Mannheim. the first of his plays in blank verse. Now. which had spring become as a prison to him. wherein a kiss of love and sympathy is offered to all mankind. of Weimar. Schiller was unhappy at Mannheim. and with the completion of Don Carlos. A feeling of jubilant happiness took possession of Schiller and soon found expression in the Song to Joy. During his two years' sojourn in Dresden Schiller was mainly occupied with the editing of a magazine. the Thalia. he received a heartening letter from looking very black. 1784. Fortunately Korner was a man of some means and was able to help not only with words but with cash. In his hunger for sympathy and friendship he resolved to leave Mannheim and seek out these good people who had shown such a kindly interest in him. Sickness. Class A maid of low degree and her high-minded. when the sky was well-nigh impossible. one of whom was Gottfried Korner. follies and banalities of German court life under the Old Regime. however.



What he most cared for.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER 7 began to assert itself. but only one was ever written. Thus far it had play-writing had its disadvantages. from the lovesick Carlos to the quixotic dreamer Posa. was not the annals of warfare or the growth of institutions. being occupied in the interval chiefly with hisHis dramatic work had interested tory and philosophy. His plan looked forward to six volumes. It was published in 1788 — — . and his brought income was so small that he was dependent on Korner's To escape from this irksome position he generosity. Little ordinary stage-play and. Goethe was just then in Italy Herder and Wieland and presently he settled down to write a history of the Dutch Rebellion. however. he was well received by Weimar. both political and intellectual. evidently. and his nature craved a freer and nobler self-expression than was possible in the " three hours' traffic of the stage. Don Carlos had twice the length of an the centre of his interest shifted scourge the Spanish inquisition. its fine phrasing of large unity. him more of notoriety than of solid fame. After Don Carlos Schiller wrote no more plays for some nine years. Going over to in the summer of 1787. The third act especially is instinct with the best idealism of the eighteenth century. and took keen delight in tracing its progress. ideas. intending to make it a love-tragedy in a royal household and incidentally to by little." He had begun Don Carlos at Bauerbach. withal. a certain lack of artistic But its sonorous verse. and its noble dignity of style settled forever the question of Schiller's power as a dramatic poet. and the result was that the love-tragedy gradually grew into a tragedy of political As finally completed in idealism with Posa for its hero. He was an ardent but the psychology of the great man. His views of life were changing. him more especially in the sixteenth century. On the other hand. At Dresden he began to read history with great avidity and found it very appetizing. decided to try his fortune in Thuringia. lover of freedom. the summer of 1787.

The Gods of Greece and The Artists. 1790. But its author presently began to feel that it was unworthy of him and left it unfinished. of 1790-1791 second illness worse than the first. the latter a philosophic retrospect of human history wherein the evolutionary function of art is glorified. On the 22d of February. suddenly. His letters of this period tell of a quiet such as he had not known before. He bade farewell to . His initial purpose was to describe an elaborate and fine-spun intrigue. in the spring of 1789. for the winning over of a Protestant German prince. He was fascinated by the Odyssey and in a mood of fleeting enthusiasm he resolved to read nothing but the ancients for the next two years.8 THE GERMAN CLASSICS under the title of The Defection of the Netherlands and led to its author's appointment as unsalaried professor of He began to lecture history at the University of Jena. joy his fair prospects were clouded by the disastrous breakthe down An attack of pneumonia in the winter came near to a fatal ending. The story begins in a promising way. with whom he lived most happily the rest of his days. a pot-boiling novel which he had begun at Dresden. It is Schiller's one serious attempt at prose fiction. and hardly had he recovered from that before he was prostrated by a of his health. And then. He translated the Iphigenia in Aulis of Euripides and a part of The Phenician Women. At same time he revived the dormant Thalia and used its columns for the continued publication of The Ghost-seer. devised by mysterious agents of the Church of Rome. and the later portions contain fine passages of narrative and character-drawing. the former an elegy on the decay of Greek polytheism conceived as a loss of beauty to the world. Schiller was married to Lotte von Lengefeld. Meanwhile he had taken up the study of the Greek poets and found them very edifying and sanative just the influence that he needed to clarify his judgment and cor- — rect his earlier vagaries of taste. Out of this newborn ardor grew two important poems.



his freedom for a grapple with Kant's philosophy. And it has done me great damage indeed. and the report went abroad that he was dead. that living fire. And then. I observe the play of inspiration." From these words we understand the nature of Schiller's he wished to fathom the laws of beauty. It was to be a fourteen years' battle between a heroic soul and an ailing body. he was simply to follow his inclination. Now I see myself in the act of creating and fashioning. since it is conscious of being watched. What he chose was to use really free to do as he chose. like education for the well-nurtured man. and my imagination "It works less freely. For a while. It enterprise — . that was mine before I knew a rule. semi-invalid. But if I once reach the point where artistic procedure becomes natural. He wrote to Korner gift : precisely for the sake of artistic creation that I wish to philosophize. doomed to a very cautious mode of living and expectant of an early death. while of noble had brought nothing but herself to the marriage family. Today this seems a strange choice for a sick poet. owing to the forced cessation of the literary work on which his small income depended. help seemed to come from the clouds. for I miss in myself these many years that boldness.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER 9 his friends. After a while he rallied. conditions whatever were attached to the gift. No a pension of a thousand thalers a year for three years. he was in great His wife. ardent admirers quite unknown to him personally. just as in the dark days at Mannheim in 1784. Two Danish noblemen. heard of his painful situation and offered him distress for lack of money. Without hesitation he accepted the and thus found himself. free from all anxiety about a livelihood. Criticism must repair the damage is it has done me. but never again to be strong and From this time forth he must be thought of as a well. but let Schiller himself explain what lay in his mind. partnership. for the first time in his life. then my fancy will get back its old freedom and know no bounds but those of its own making.

that somehow or other it must be grounded in eternal laws either of the external world or of human nature. especially in the parts relating to his hero. It appeared in successive numbers of Goschen's Ladies' Calendar. Over Schiller's merit as a debate. And in this Schiller succeeded. opinion. The aim was to tell the story war in a readable style. But the great fact remains that the historian there has been much Defection of the Netherlands and the Thirty Years' War are the earliest historical classics in the German language. and fashion. and good critics have caviled at his sharp contrasts and his lack of care in matters of detail. nor can we follow him in the details of his esthetic speculation. the most important being On Winsomeness and Dignity (Uber Anmut und Wurde) and On the Sublime. The subject is too Whether he was right abstruse to be dispatched in a few words. Suffice it to say that a number of minor papers. prepared the way for a more popular exposition of his views in the Letters on Esthetic Education and in the memorable essay On Naive and Sentimental Poetry. next to Lessing's Laocoon. which deserves to be called. a fact which in itself indicates that it was not conceived and should not be judged as a of the great monument of research. would be very helpful of these laws. that a knowledge nature. . the Swedish king Gustav Adolf. Along with these philosophic studies Schiller found time for of history. could once become second to him as a dramatic poet. it He felt. in so thinking is a question too large to be discussed here. his History of the Thirty War. in 1793. the weightiest critical essay of the eighteenth century. ings. he much work more closely To say nothing of his related to his professorship minor historical writ- Years' completed.10 THE GERMAN CLASSICS seemed to him that beauty could not be altogether a matter of changing taste. too. The Letters contain a ripe and pleasing statement of Schiller's philosophy in its relation to the culture-problems of his epoch.

To Goethe. for a whole year. clear of politics and try By way of signalizing their community of interest the . of esthetic education. on the other hand. So it came about that. Goethe. It is for this reason that the Germans are wont to call them the Dioscuri. 11 was the first German to make literature out of The year 1794 brought about a closer relation between and Goethe. By this time Schiller had undertaken the editorship of a new literary magazine to be called Die Horen. At last. He spirit. So he readily undertook to write for the Horen. and thus he and Schiller soon became linked together in the public mind as allied champions of a cause. an accidental meeting in Jena led to an interchange of views and prepared the way for the most memorable of literary friendships. an event of prime moment in the lives of both. who also hated the Revolution. the two men lived as neighbors in space but strangers in the circle. In fact. detestable play as a shocking evidence of depraved public taste and was not aware how its author had changed since writing it. he had heard constantly lauded by the Weimar Schiller thought of Goethe as a proud. in the summer of 1788. and this excitement was regarded by Schiller as ominous for the nation. On Goethe's return from Italy. which was by the enterprising publisher Cotta in StuttThe plan was that it should eclipse all previous gart. Schiller was introduced to him. There was need So he proposed to keep the Horen to divert the minds of men into the serener regions of letters and art. self-centred son of fortune. however. But it was to eschew politics. but the meeting had no immediate consequences. to be financed Germany was just then agitated by the fierce passions of the revolutionary epoch. Schiller had quietly made up his mind not to like the man whom. this was a highly acceptable program. for some six years.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER Schiller hi? iory. undertakings of its kind. with whom friendship would be impossible. was not drawn to the author He looked on the popularity of the of The Robbers.

again. It play in ten acts. Once more it came in his way to write for the stage. envy. ambition. Schiller returned After his nine years of fruitful wandering in other fields at last. until it reached nearly a thousand. They wisely came to the conclusion that the best way in to elevate the public taste was not to to assail the bad mordant personal epigrams. preceded by a dramatic prelude. About half the number on hand were published in 1797 in Schiller's Musenalmanach and had the effect of setting all Germany agog with curiSome of those hit replied in osity. keep your seats! for the curs but covet your places. But having discharged their broadside Goethe and Schiller did not further pursue the ignoble warfare. and vindictiveness. both of which had long haunted his thoughts. he occupied him for three years and finally left his hands as a long affair in three Yet it is not a trilogy in the proper sense. one would do the hexameter. The making of these more or less caustic epigrams amused them. to dramatic poetry.12 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Dioscuri presently began to write satirical distichs at the expense of men and tendencies that they did not like. kind or in vicious attacks. Sometimes one would suggest the topic and the other write the distich. The actual Wal- had never exhibited truly heroic qualities of any and his history involved only the cold passions of kind. After some hesitation between Wallenstein and The Knights of Malta. but exemplify the good in creative work. decided in favor of the former. At first Schiller found the material refractory. as they were called. the other the pentameter. Elegant places to hear all the other dogs bark. but a parts. Whether he was really lenstein . in 1796. For example : Gentlemen. rage or solemn glee. and for a little while there was great excitement. since Goethe was now director of the Weimar theatre. They agreed that neither should ever claim separate property in the Xenia. The number grew apace.



probably the best of all Schiller's poems. Perhaps his invalidism had some- any rate the total number of his singable lyrics. but rather one of hopeful endeavor. Its doctrine is that only by taking refuge in the realm of the Ideal can we escape from the tyranny of the flesh. In the Camp we get a picturesque view of the motley soldatesca which was the basis of Wallenstein's power and prestige. loving contemplation of Nature giving rise to reflections on man The Walk. His best ballads also belong Pure song he did not often attempt. as if inner peace were the supreme thing in life. at first called The Realm of Shades.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER guilty of treason was a no partisan treatment. the bondage of Nature's law. Yet it is not a doctrine of quietism that is here preached. gives expression to his feeling for the dignity of labor and for the poetry of man's and his estate. charged with warm emotion and bodied thing to do with it. such as The Maiden's Lament. The first-named of these four. 13 moot question which admitted of But Schiller's genius triumphed splendidly over the difficulties inherent in the subject. During the years 1795-1800 Schiller wrote a large number of short poems in which he gave expression to his matured philosophy of life. The Walk. is a masterpiece of high thinking. is but small. a pensive retrospect of the origins of civilization. is finest elegies in the German language. one of the known The Song of the Bell. . philosophic bent predisposing him to what the Germans call the lyric of thought. of Max and Thekla casts a mellow light of romance over the otherwise austere political action. and in Wallenstein's Death the unheroic hero becomes very impressive in his final disThe love-tragedy comfiture and his pitiable taking-off. and the more popular Song of the Bell. In The Piccolomini he is we see the nature of the dangerous game playing. the misery of struggle and defeat. his to this period. The Eleusinian Festival. at forth in gorgeous imagery. As a poet of reflection he is at his best in The Ideal and Life.

was called a romanza instead of a ballad. and The Battle with the Dragon. but Their great from Greek legend or medieval romance. In 1797 Hermann and Dorothea was just then under way Goethe and Schiller interchanged views by letter on the subject of epic poetry in general and the ballad in As they had both written ballads in their particular. it was but natural that they should be led to fresh experiments with the species. or the There is no mystery in them. forget And to the true faith be What ear never heard and not the law. the True. perhaps. in no small degree. however. of course. but also. We come back now to the province of art in which Schiller himself felt that his strength lay. Schiller contributed five. on the story. style with which the details are set forth. which. for discerning judges could see that something extraordi- . So they both began to make ballads for next year's Musenalmanach. they are real. eye never saw. the gruesome. youth. earlier They are quite unlike ballads. Look not without. It is in thee and ever created anew. as the fool may do. verbal tricks such as Burger had employed in Lenore. THE GERMAN CLASSICS is message Perhaps we may say that the heart of his found in this stanza of The Words of Illusion: And so. a stirring version of the Damon and Pythias story. In after years he wrote several more. no resort to supernatural. and to which he German to the folk-song devoted nearly all his strength during his remaining years. yet always noble. noble soul. on the — — splendid art which the poet displays. among them the famous Diver and The Cranes of Ibycus. owing nothing any and making no use of the uncanny. The very successful performance of the complete Wallenstein in the spring of 1799 added greatly to his prestige.14 social life. merit is the strong and vivid. leal. The Beautiful. of which the best. are The Pledge. The subjects are not derived from German folk-lore. The interest of all these poems turns mainly.

Permission Braeunlich und Tesch. Jena THE CHURCH IN WHICH SCHILLER WAS MARRIED .


the meeting of the two queens.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER 15 nary had been achieved. however. who would use his great influence to bring about a personal interview between her and Elizabeth. and. make a Catholic play. however. a putative love on the part of Mary for Leicester. and took up his abode in what is now called the Schillerstrasse. and Goethe was disposed to lean heavily on his friend's superior knowledge of stage-craft. a pathetic rather than a tragic situation . while theatrically very effective. her ignominious fate as a divinely appointed expiation for . That comes when Mary conquers her rebellious spirit and accepts tions: First. So he decided to omit Mary's trial and to let the curtain rise on her as a prisoner waiting for the verdict of her This meant. and its modest Schiller had made little theatre now took on fresh glory. for the queen's fate would be a foregone conclusion. In order to be nearer to the theatre and its director. Schiller moved over to Weimar in December. is not the true climax of the play. finally. and she could do nothing to avert it. In Mary Stuart. In reality. 1800. or a Protestant play. as in Wallenstein. according to his conception judges. the meeting of the two queens. He was already working at which was finished the following spring and Mary Stuart. Weimar had by this time become the acknowledged centre of German letters. 1799. in which Mary's long pent-up passion would get the better of her discretion and betray her into a mortal insult of her rival. To give her the semblance of a tragic guilt he resorted to three unhistorical inven- an attempt to escape. himself very useful as a translator and adapter. or to have its effect dependent in any way on the spectator's pre-assumed attitude toward the purely political questions involved. first played on June 14. second. of the tragic art. with resulting complicity in the act of the murderous Catholic fanatic Mortimer. Schiller focused his light on a famous personage who was the subject of pasBut of course he did not wish to sionate controversy.

she recovers her divine strength. had to have her tragic guilt. It is a the Maid's character. until her expiation is complete. suffering. sion of patriotism plays an important part. but a glorified heroine invested with divine power and called to be the savior of her counHere. breaks her fetters. before which no Englishman can stand. But the choice of a subject was not easy. brings victory once more to the dis- purified by heartened French soldiers. and with There follow scenes of bit- ter humiliation. with its simple structure. man. its few characters. After the completion of The Maid of Orleans Schiller was minded to try his hand on a tragedy in the strictest Greek form. fills her with remorse and the sense of treason to her high mission. A For it of her supernatural power. as a genuine ambassadress of God. and dies in glory on the field of battle. conceived on the battle-field in the fury of combat. One sees that it is not at all the real Jeanne d' Arc that Schiller depicts. Voltaire as a vulgar fraud. — — fleeting passion for the English general Lionel. a while she is deprived of her self-confidence. too. The play thus becomes a tragedy of moral self-conquest in the presence of an undeserved death. expressly called by " rescue " of author a romantic tragedy. Shakespeare had depicted her as a Schiller conceives her witch. her magic influence on the French troops but he makes her fight in the ranks with men and gives to her a terrible avenging sword.16 THE GERMAN CLASSICS long-past sins. or rather of the Holy Not only does he accept at its face value the Virgin. At last. So Schiller makes her supernatural power depend by the Virgin's command on her renunciation of the love of express its ' ' ' ' . the pastry. and above all its chorus. tradition of her voices. But she. her miraculous clairvoyance." He had been deeply impressed by the art of Sophocles and wished to create something which should produce on the modern mind the effect of a Greek tragedy. Next in order came The Maid of Orleans. and for several months he occupied himself with other ' ' . for the first time in German drama.

and the Greek chorus is represented by two semi-choruses. ignorant One that they have a sister. but has her brought up remote from the A court. Wilberf orce. a it was in November.which is interpreted by an Arab astrologer to mean that a daughter to be born will cause the death of his two sons. thus making an end of his dynasty. and Kosciusko. 1803. As we have medieval prince seen. The Bride of Messina was While he was working at it finished in February. 17 He made a German version of Gozzi's Turandot and took notes for a tragedy about Perkin Warbeck. There is much splendid poetry in these pseudo-choruses.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER matters. 1802 there arrived one day — — patent of nobility from the chancelry of the Holy Roman Empire. the retainers of the quarreling brothers. but has proved least acceptable on the stage. fall in love with the girl. One must remember in reading the play that common sense was not one The dreams take the place of the Delof the nine muses. at another delivering the detached comment of the ideal spectator. so far as the mere fable is cona house of cards which would collapse any cerned. In time the two quarrelsome brothers. it is Indeed. his name having been presented at the same time with those of Washington. phic oracle. called plausible. at one moment taking part in the action. moment at the breath of common sense. It may be noted in passing that several years before he had been made an honorary citizen of the French Republic. and thereby saves the life of her newborn daughter. of Messina has an ominous dream. When the child is born he orders it put But meanwhile his queen has had a dream of to death. who speak their parts by the mouth of a leader. contrary import. it was an artistic experiment. In the summer of 1802 he decided definitely to carry out his plan of vying with the Greeks. Among the later plays of Schiller The Bride of Messina is the one which shows his stately poetic diction at its best. the other comThis invention can hardly be mits suicide in remorse. but it was Vol. Ill —2 . slays the other in a frenzy of jealous rage.

have paid ecstatic homage to 1 ' . and for her reception he wrote The Homage of the Arts a slight affair which served its purpose well. I tender heart ! ! your genius. the exploits spiracy. contribute to the common variety. the hereditary Prince of Weimar brought home a Russian bride. soon more send. and the action idealizes the legendary — uprising of the Forest Cantons against their Austrian govThere are really three separate actions the conernors. Maria Paulovna. In November. of movement. With Tell off his hands Schiller next threw his tireless the story of Dmitri. more Soon. bent my knee and my heart. and. the triumph of the Swiss people over their The exposition is superb. there is rapidity your spirit. however. your Oh. The hero is the Swiss people. 1804. end. for he next set to work on a play which should be popular in the best sense of the word William Tell. oppressors. What a work! power. feeling unequal left him in to creative . he wrote: I have read. and the feelings evoked are such as warm and When the famous keep warm the cockles of the heart. : of William Tell. ! ! God keep you Amen.18 THE GERMAN CLASSICS impossible that such a scheme should produce the effect of the Greek choral dance. my tears. picturesqueness. which is All. the glamor of romance. reon a Russian subject energy son of Ivan the Terrible. my rushing blood. Did Schiller feel that in The Bride of Messina he had wandered a little too far away from the vital concerns of modern life ? Probably. poetic beauty. and there were many interruptions. to Pages. 1804. note-takputed ing and planning proved a long laborious task. The reading. actor Iffland received the manuscript of the first act. and irresistible force and hand ' ' What wealth. the love-affair of Bertha and Rudenz. in February. devoured. — whatever you can scraps to heart. It is his one play with a happy ending and has always been a prime favorite on the stage. — — The reaction from these Russophil festivities a weakened condition.



of the inner life and they . as we say. "We demand. such as he wrote in his later years. he holds his own. "Why is this? It is partly because of a quality of his art that has been called his "monumental fresco-painting". No attempt can here be made at a general estimate of Schiller's dramatic genius. in listening to him one walked as among the changeless This is the stars of heaven and the flowers of earth. Says Karoline von Wolzogen: " High seriousness and the winsome grace of a pure and noble soul were always present in Schiller's conversation. but it describes very well the . Toward the end of April he took a cold which led to a violent fever with delirium. Another important factor in his classicity is the suggestion that goes out from his idealized personality. to age. and notwithstanding the fact that he seems to speak to us from the clouds. but little affected by the changing fashion of the theatre. 1805. These forces are matters of the spirit. 1805. After the lapse of a century. one occupied. But the flame had burnt itself out." tribute of a partial friend. that is. the temper of the time is on the whole hostile to that form of art. his strong and luminous portraiture of the great historic forces that have shaped the destiny of nations. of which enough was written to indicate that it might have become his masterpiece. The serious poetic drama. In Germany.THE LIFE OF SCHILLER effort. German sentiment has set him on a high pedestal and made a hero of him. with living issues. The end came on May 9. Something of this was felt by those about him even in his lifetime. The reader of Schiller soon comes persist from age to feel that he deals with issues that are alive because they are immortal. is no longer in favor any- where. a drama attuned to the life of the present. as in our own land. very properly. great zest to his Russian play Demetrius. so that his word is not exactly as another man's word. 19 he translated Racine's Phedre into German verse. Yet Schiller is very popular on the German stage. Then he returned with finishing it in February.

In our safe harbor he was fain to bide And build for aye. his devotion to the idea of humanity.20 THE GERMAN CLASSICS His love of impression produced by Schiller's writings. are a priceless memento to the spirit of a great and poems memorable epoch. bis confidence in reason. saw his mighty spirit onward stride Hush We To eternal realms of Beauty and of Truth. . freedom and beauty. but no better word has been spoken than the noble tribute of Goethe: For he was ours. Hundreds of writers have said their say about him. seem to exhale from his work and His plays and to invest it with a peculiar distinction. So let the note of pride into silence all the mourner's ruth. While far behind him lay fantasmally The vulgar things that fetter you and me. after the storm of youth.


thy melancholy.. burning thoughts it burn'd. and . And all the fair Ideals banish 'd From that wild heart they whilome Gone the divine and sweet believing In dreams which Heaven itself unfurPd! What godlike shapes have years bereaving this real Swept from work-day world ! As once. faithless. Human May. with tearful passion fired. Till warmth and life in mine it found. Lord Lytton.22 THE GERMAN CLASSICS TO THE IDEAL 'HEN With thy (1795) wilt thou. with thy fancies holy"Wilt thou. Its silence stirr'd to speech divine. Its lips my glowing kiss return 'd Its heart in beating answer 'd mine! my own — — — How fair was then the flower — the tree How silver-sweet the fountain's fall! The soulless life its ! — had a soul to me ! My own life lent to all ! All poems in this section are translations by Edward. to sweet life the marble grown: round So youth's desire for Nature! The Statue so my arms I wreathed. stone. delight-inspired. fill 'd. Fleet One. London. The Cyprian Sculptor clasp 'd the Till the cold cheeks. Ltd. appear by permission of George Routledge & Sons. fly from me? joy. Blush 'd — — And With breath that poets breathe — it breathed. — Can nothing. Must thy sweet river glide away Into the eternal Ocean-Main? thee restrain' The suns serene are lost and vanish 'd That wont the path of youth to gild. Wilt thou thus relentless flee? Golden Time.

Till floods of balm. Ah! midway soon Afar the blithe evermore. Germ'd in the mystic buds. or spread too Though laden with delight. whole creation slumbered mute. And wandering Fancy found a dwelling In every shape. fruit ! through air's dominion. with starbeams for a crown. And Fame. 23 A How scant and blighted sprung the How happy in his dreaming error. whose dwelling lost is the Day. Bore upward to the faintest star — For never aught to that bright pinion far. showering gi. companions stray. Fleet Fortune was the first escaper — The thirst for wisdom linger 'd yet. reposing.POEMS The Universe of things seem'd swelling The panting heart to burst its bound. Of not one care as yet in terror Did Youth upon his journey spring. And Truth. His own gay valor for his wing. they glide away. how lightly The wanderer heavenward still could And aye the ways of life how brightly The airy Pageant danced before! soar. And. with golden garlands gay. In vain their faithless steps explore. but for one short spring-day breathing. the Beautiful Bloom 'd Love no more! — — . Alas. thought. Behold! the mean man's temples wore. and sound. deed. Could dwell too high. As one by one. But doubts with many a gloomy vapor The sun-shape of the Truth beset! The holy crown which Fame was wreathing. when from the buds unclosing. Love. Fortune.fts (life's sweetest) down.

Thine the balm dropping on the wound. Nor could the parch 'd Impatience halt. At least thou strik'st from Time the while Life's debt the minutes. as the exalter of life it contributes to the Building of Eternity.24 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And ever stiller yet. with her uniting. To Sais came. "When Who all her boon companions fled. days and years. for. swept his rapid soul! Still ever sped the glorious Hope along. Fame. the Ideal itself still remains and his companion. toil. To charm Sweet That more it labored. While. unlike the Phantasies of Fortune. from step to step Of upward mystery. Tho' but by grains thou aid'st the pile The vast Eternity uprears.* so pleased. as the occupation of life. the soul-storm into peace. appeased By * the calm answer of the Hierophant — Though the to the Poet. Who. Till scarce from waning Hope could quiver A glance along the gloomy way. it pays off the debt of Time. And soon. And follows to the House of Dread? Thine Friendship thine the hand so tender. and ever The barren path more lonely lay. loving. and Love. stands consoling yet beside me. . in toil itself delighting. Thy task the load more lightly to render 0! earliest sought and soonest found! — — And Thou. lingered yet to guide me. It is his task Ideal images of youth forsake us. less could cease. the Phantasies of the Ideal are imperishable. (1 795) whom wisdom's warm desire had lured To learn the secret lore of Egypt's priests. — THE VEILED IMAGE AT SAIS A youth.

" Answered the Priest. have I for the truth Panted and struggled with a lonely soul. Upon a veil'd and giant Image fell: the temple's silent dome. incurious heart. vast beneath the veil? — "The Truth. Till I this veil mortal-born presume to raise.' says the goddess" — — ' ! "Well?" 1 ' ' Shall see the Truth " "And wond'rous Lifted the veil? " oracle. and revere her hest : still ' Divinity. yonder. A sum that man may smaller or less small still ? subtract or add to Possess and count Is not truth one and indivisible? Take from the Harmony a single tone "And — — A single tint take lo! And from the what once was all. Iris is — nothing — while bow tint or tone! Fails to the lovely whole one " They stood within And. And yon the thin and ceremonial robe That wraps her from mine eyes ? ' ' "And Replied the Priest. and hast thou never " nor desired to raise! strange. " 'd the truth! "No! " What! nor desired? Here the thin barrier — there reveal Mildly return 'd the priestly master: " Son. giv'st thou but the little and the more? Does thy truth dwindle to the gauge of gold. Lift — may no And who with " There shrouds herself the Hear. as the young man paused abrupt. his gaze Amazed he "And what turn'd unto his guide " Towers.POEMS " What have I." he sigh'd. if 25 I have not all. . guilty and unhallow'd hand Too soon profanes the Holy and Forbidden He.

Now halts he where the lifeless Silence sleeps In the embrace of mournful Solitude. In its wan veil the Giant Image stood. Around his couch he roll'd. * ' ! — — ' .26 THE GERMAN CLASSICS of.) No mortal-born to profane? 1 ' ! ' Back from the deed. awful as Dim-gleaming through the hush of that large gloom. What would 'st thou? " Murmur 'd the warning The All-hallow 'd Till I ' (So spake the oracular word ) may lift the veil Yet said it not myself shall raise 'who lifts the veil The same oracular word Shall see the truth? Behind. scales the wall. Till midnight hatch 'd resolve And — 1 ' Unto the shrine ' ' ! Stealthily on. be what there may. Bears him And midway in the inmost. Already touch 'd the violating hand and recoil 'd! a shudder thrill 'd The Holy — His limbs. High from Came with wan "With an unsteady step he onward past. some pale presiding god. And. the sharp fever of the Wish to Know Robb'd night of sleep. fire-hot As if invisible and icy-cold in turns. smile the silver-shining moon. save where the guilty tread Silence unstirr'd Call'd the dull echo from mysterious vaults! — — the opening of the dome above. arms would pluck the soul miserable man (Thus within the inmost heart " Wilt thou dare whisper. turn'd him to his home. More mighty than thou dream 'st Holy Law Spreads interwoven in yon slender web. — Strides with adventurous step the daring man. holiest dome. " lead-heavy to the soul! Air-light to touch — The young man. the involuntary tread he gains the boundary. thoughtful.

While on celestial brows. shrilFd again! He spoke and rais'd the veil! And ask'st thou what Unto the sacrilegious gaze lay bare? I know not pale and senseless. A — The statue of the great Egyptian queen. stretch 'd before lengthen 'd echo. The priests beheld him at the dawn of day. or what did there befall. aloft and sheen. hesitates between The sense's pleasure and the soul's content. " Woe for her face shall charm him never more! Woe woe to him who treads through Guilt to Truth — — ' ' ! THE IDEAL AND THE ACTUAL I LIFE (1795) Life forever calm and bright. And the deep anguish dug the early grave: " Woe — woe to him " — such were his warning words. But what he saw. His lips reveal 'd not. the choice. . Forever fair.POEMS I dare the hazard 27 —I will lift the veil Loud rang his shouting voice — —" I will see ' ' and " ! "See!" mocking. zephyr-light. For those who on the Olympian hill rejoice Moons wane. Answering some curious and impetuous brain. Ever from his heart Was fled the sweet serenity of life. and races wither to the tomb. Timid and anxious. The beams of both are blent. bloom of The rosy days Gods — With Man. flies — And 'mid the universal ruin. on plumage. IT Seek'st thou on earth the life Safe in the Realm of Death? — beware of Gods to share.

to the Stygian river She pluck 'd the fruit of the unholy ground. spring Into the Realm of the Ideal ! IV Here. Earth.28 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the fruits that glitter to thine eye Content thyself with gazing on their glow To pluck — . to nerve — doth Victory Wave " her rich garland from the Ideal clime. High from this cramp 'd and dungeon being. Safe from each change that Time to Matter gives. the Archetype. 'Twas not the ninefold chain of waves that bound daughter. And in Possession sweet Desire will die. the Platonic Archetype. amidst the fields of Day. And so was Hell's forever! Thy — — Ill The Weavers of the Web The matter and the things — the Fates — but sway of clay. Ceres. in thy purest ray. Short are the joys Possession can bestow. bathed. Hovers divine the Archetypal Man ! Dim as those phantom ghosts And wander voiceless by the it — Fair as stands in Elysian. — the end V Not from But more the strife itself to set thee free. free at will to stray With Gods a god. . Ere down to Flesh the Immortal doth descend — Stygian stream. " Die Grestalt — Form. Nature's blest playmate.* serenely lives. Would 'st thou soar heavenward on its joyous wing? Cast from thee. Free from the clogs and taints of clay. fields : of life that gleam If doubtful ever in the Actual life Each contest here a victory crowns Of every nobler strife. The Form. the bitter and the real. Perfection.

the Earth has no repose Life still must drag thee onward as it flows. In life — — He the victory only crowns the strong who is feeble fails. — Bursts the attained goal! VI If worth thy while the glory and the Which fire the lists of Actual Life The ardent rush to fortune or to fame. some great sculptor glows. breathless. With the dull matter to unite The kindling genius.POEMS Whate'er thy wish. In the hot field — strife where Strength and Valor are. . Bright from the hill-tops of the Beautiful. 29 — Whirling thee down the dancing surge of Time. And rolls the whirling thunder of the car. Peace folds her wings above — . — VII But Life. glassing in their silver play. And the world. All curb is but the bondage of the Grace. foams fierce and wild. VIII When. Chafed while confin'd. eyes the glorious game Then dare and strive the prize can but belong To him whose valor o'er his tribe prevails. — Her native dwelling-place. Gain the still Beautiful that Shadow-Land! contest grows but interchange of Love Here. Aurora blent with Hesper's milder ray. by crags around it piPd. through dead stone to breathe a soul of light. But when the courage sinks beneath the dull Sense of its narrow limits on the soul. Glides soft and smooth when once its streams expand. When its waves. whose source. Gone is each foe.

perhaps with some exaggeration. the best. spoke The unwilling Truth from her mysterious wellThe statue only to the chisel's stroke Wakes from its marble cell.30 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Behold him straining every nerve intent Behold how. the Kantian Ideal of Truth and Virtue. e. save to Toil untiring. — By How mean the Ideal of the Good. our efforts and our actions are ! This space between the Ideal of man's soul And man's achievement. IX But onward to the Sphere of Beauty go Child of Art! and. i. Perfection. — ! The stately Thought its march laborious goes For never. who hath ever past? An ocean spreads between us and that goal Where anchor ne'er was cast! * More in the literally translated thus by the Author of the Article on Schiller Foreign and Colonial Review. but as from Nothing sprung the offspring of the soul! Airy and light The pangs. the Kantian doctrine of morality. July." The Law.. Out of the matter which thy pains control The Statue springs! not as with labor wrung From the hard block. t awe Seizes and saddens thee to see how far if we test Beyond thy reach. Onward. This stanza and the next embody. 1843 " Thence all witnesses forever banished — Of poor •j- Human Nakedness. lo. the weary toils it cost Leave not a trace when once the work is done The Artist's human frailty merged and lost In Art's great victory won!* — — — — X If human Sin confronts the rigid law Of perfect Truth and Virtue. o'er the subject element. . the cares.

the gulf shall vanish. XIII Eealm. to Art is given. Hodgson." Rev. lo. by the July. and hearken every shriek Of some despairing lost Laocoon. Let but divinity become thy will! Scorn not the Law permit its iron band The sense (it cannot chain the soul) to thrall. in the Ideal — : * " — Jonah. aloof and far. the peaceful blue Of the sweet Moral Heaven. the livid cheek. p. The human nature would thyself subdue To share Thy To Man's But before thine eye cheek would pale. . Let man no more the will of Jove withstand. no sharp grief the high emotion knows Here. Gleaming through Grief's dark veil. Where the calm Art's pure dwellers are. and the chill Of the soul 's impotent despair be gone . 1843: But in God's sight submission is command.* And Jove the bolt lets fall! And — XII If. in the woes of Actual Human Life If thou could 'st see the serpent strife — in stone Which the Greek Art has made divine — Could 'st see the writhing limbs. suffering's self is made divine. and shows The brave resolve of the firm soul alone Here. ! 31 — with divinity thou sharest the throne. Schiller. lovely as the rainbow on the dew Of the spent thunder-cloud. Note every pang. and all thy soul be true the human woe — great Sympathy. but does not groan. Art. 21. the Laocoon writhes. F.POEMS XI But fly the boundary of the Senses live The Ideal life free Thought can give And. Lo. Quoted in Foreign and Colonial Review. Here.

downward as a dream! Olympian hymns receive the escaping soul. bore. " Poem was Nature and the School. And to restore the friend he loved today. and it (1795) title of this (Free Translation) seems to us the more appropriate. The Schoolman's shibboleth that binds the herd? To the soul's haven is there but one chart? Its peace a problem to be learned by art? On system rest the happy and the good? To base the temple must the props be wood? Must I distrust the gentle law. To guide and warn. And all the torments and the labors sore meek majestic One. And To rent in hallowing flame away The mortal part from the divine — to soar the empyreal air! Behold him spring Blithe in the pride of the unwonted wing. "With patient spirit and unquailing. the Master's word. Until the course was run Wroth Juno sent — the — XV Until the God cast down his garb of clay. bow'd to mortal bonds. And smiling Hebe. by Nature on the breast. in the glorious parable. And the dull matter that confined before Sinks downward. from the ambrosial stream. He went undaunted to the black-brow 'd God. imprest."] Do I believe. thou ask'st. downward. Fills for a God the bowl! GENIUS [The original. . of old The hydra and Life's dreary path divine Alcides trod: the lion were his prey. behold How.32 THE GERMAN CLASSICS XIV So.

but life around Warm Genius shaped what quick Emotion found. the old peaceful Guide. familiar to these depths of gloom. the great law. —3 and honored as a Godhead's voice. Where Then. Ill — our wilful pride whence it flowed. Whose side. — Till the School's signet stamp the eternal scroll. the same). thou know'st the golden time — — — — — — — legends many a poet's page? When heavenlier shapes with Man walked side by And the chaste Feeling was itself a guide live in . who hast trod these weird Egyptian cells Say if Life's comfort with yon mummies dwells! Say and I grope with saddened steps indeed But on. of Earth's age of youth. safe ascended from the dusty tomb. 33 squared to rule the instinct of the Till. for all every bosom glowed. thro' darkness. no more to raise us and rejoice. Feelixg. gone that blessed Age Has lost. ! Yet hid from the fountain But. like light. Say Thou. the Heart felt there Keason found a throne: Not from the dust below. nor Initiate nor Profane were known. Half. half -playmate. . Thou. Is heard Vol. — One rule. Then sense unerring True as the finger on The sportive — because — instinct of Eternal Truth. alike divine amid Suns bright in Heaven. and freshened the free wave. one mold some dogma hath confined The ebb and flow the light waves of the mind? Till in — — thou. Friend. the heart. with Nature. Then — — To that deep sea. — unreproved the dial moved. its movement gave Sway'd the full tide. if to Truth it lead! the age Nay. or germs in darkness hid That silent law (call'd whether by the name Of Nature or Necessity.

e. — — — That doubt tomorrow. must the There. in the chambers of the inmost heart. if so. i. There. on which the music falls? and will In the calm mind is doubt yet hush'd There. And founds to every race a code sublime — ! The source of Trouble to the mind? ! : self . and run >nto — no passionate excess? . e. be still? fWill all these fine sensations in their play. and to reconcile the antithesis between man and nature. a consciousness anterior to everysed de hac re thing which is now known under the name of consciousness — satius est silere quam parvum dicere. her world of Iris-dies? Rings clear the echo which her accent calls Back from the breast. which sought to explain the enigma of the universe. Some more. by carrying both up into the unity of an absolute consciousness. will it always work spontaneously for good. found once Hast thou (0 Sage explore the Magian's art. she gives him Wisdom back! Blest. whate'er betide!) Still kept the Guardian Angel by thy side? Can thy Heart's guileless childhood yet rejoice In the sweet instinct with its warning voice? Does Truth yet limn upon untroubled eyes.. is What pleases Genius gives a Law to Time ! * Schiller seems to allude to the philosophy of Fichte and Schelling then on the ascendant. Pure and serene.. seek the Till. No censor need to regulate and sway? Fear'st thou not in the insidious Heart to find limpid No — then thine Innocence thy Mentor be Science can teach thee naught — she learns from thee! Each law that lends lame succor to the Weak — The cripple's crutch — the vigorous need not seek! From thine own thy rule of action draw That which thou dost — what charms thee — thy Law. long-lost Nature's steps to track. f Will this play of fine sensations (or sensibilities) require no censor to control it i.* Save where the low and mystic whispers thrill — listening spirit more divinely still. disenhallowed in its eldest cell The Human Heart lies mute the Oracle.34 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And. as today.

therefore. To know — in others thyself THE KEY self discern.POEMS The Word Pure if thy 35 — the Deed — lip all and holy if Ages shall command. We. still footsteps thro' the conquered Earth! VOTIVE TABLETS arranged that more dignified and philosophical [Under portion of the small Poems published as Epigrams in the Musen Almanack. are either wholly without interest for the English reader. in far more poetthis title Schiller — ical shapes. nor conscious of diviner birth. THE GOOD AND THE BEAUTIFUL (ZwEIERLEI WiRKUNGSARTEN) The Good's Flower to Earth already given The Beautiful. thy hand ! Thou. or express in almost untranslatable laconism what. bring thy goods a fair return be thine. however. Schiller has elsewhere repeated and developed. Many of these. than a personal satire. on Earth sows flowers from Heaven the — 1 VALUE AND WORTH If thou hast something. If thou art something. Which bows Glide thy Know'st not the magic of the mighty ring the realm of Spirits to their King: But meek. thou alone mark'st not within thy heart The inspiring God whose Minister thou art. Wouldst thou know others? Eead thyself — and learn! . bring thy soul and interchange with — mine.] MOTTO TO THE VOTIVE TABLETS. which rather sought to point a general thought. content ourselves with such a selection as appears to us best suited to convey a fair notion of the object and spirit of the class. What the God taught — what has befriended all Life's ways. I place upon the Votive Wall.

both physical and moral? t Query: — . f WISDOM AND PRUDENCE Wouldst thou the loftiest height of Wisdom gain? On to the rashness." Common Natures. elsewhere not properly moral. but the whole character is moral. Prudence would disdain. can only act as it were by rule and law. The fair soul is — has no other service than the instincts of its own " beauty. Speeads Life's true mystery round us evermore. that's to be! * This idea losophy of Schiller. in the moral world. THE SCIENCE OF POLITICS All And that thou dost be right to that alone confine thy view. the All that's right to do halt within the certain rule — — ! what already is would sound and perfect see False zeal would sound and perfect make the something True zeal the . and humanly beautiful.36 THE GERMAN CLASSICS THE DIVISION OF RANKS . we see Divided grades a Soul's Nobility. it lies all eyes before. Not that to which the bold wave wafts thee o'erl — Thou. somewhat more clearly. in the haughty phi"In a fair soul each single He himself says. The healthy eye can through the world the great Creator track — Truth seek THE UNANIMITY we both life ." observes Hoffmeister. the Noble are of themselves morally good. Yes. alike The healthy heart is but the glass which gives creation back. action is often repeated." The Law of Creation. The purblind see but the receding shore. in the without thee and around in the Heart within — by both can Truth I be found. deeds their titles Commoners create By — — The loftier order are by birthright great. as ours.* TO THE MYSTIC Seen by no eye.

Come. indeed. the nebulous matter which puzzles astronomers. only great inasmuch as you can compute her almost incalculable dimensions. the ever-changing one to — come. thou. sun and system to your gaze? Though thro' space your object be the Sublimest to embrace. — MY BELIEF What None! thy religion? Those thou namest Why? Because I have religion! — — none ! FRIEND AND FOE Dear is my friend yet from my foe.. My friend shows what I can do. and my foe shows what I shou'd. beside the changeless God Light began. e. Is Nature. As she renders world on world. Nebelflecke. . . — God spoke and Color. as from my friend. Light. then. and — its Kingdom is where Time and Space are not..POEMS TO ASTRONOMERS Of the What! 37 Nebulae* and planets do not babble so to me is Nature only mighty inasmuch as you can see? Inasmuch as you can measure her immeasurable ways. the sublimest in space. — LIGHT AND COLOR Dwell. i. the Moral Law is the only Sublime. Never the Sublime abideth in where you vainly search — — space ! THE BEST GOVERNED STATE How the best state to Like the best woman — that know? It is found out. least talked about. down Man! Woman — to * FORUM OF WOMEN judge Each separate man rightly — do not scan — pass judgment on the Man! act. or inasmuch as she furnishes almost incalculable subjects for your computations? Your object is. but the Sublime does not dwell in space i. comes good. e.

THE IMITATOR that art is known to all Good out of good But Genius from the bad the good can call. Genius. — EXPECTATION AND FULFILMENT O'er Ocean. bold — sails forth the stripling One boat. Work'st but the matter that's already shaped: The already-shaped a nobler hand awaits — — — All matter asks a Spirit that creates! CORRECTNESS (Free Translation) The calm correctness. aping Nature. Attests Art's loftiest or its least degree. not from leading-strings escaped. draws into port the . tell us. THE MASTER The herd of scribes. In Nature's kingdom Nature to enlarge! the charge. with a thousand masts. as she buildeth build. O'er Nature's base can haughty Reason dare — To pile its lofty castle — in the is air. hard rescued old! from the deep. But only thine.38 THE GERMAN CLASSICS GENIUS Intellect can repeat what's been fulfill 'd. But the True Master we behold. where no fault we see. Then. Alike the smoothness of the surface shows The Pool's dull stagner — the great Sea's repose. And. In what his art leaves just untold. Mimic. by what they Show all in which their wits excel us.

In the pentameter aye falling in melody back. however. English ear and taste in poems of any length." THE MORAL POET " called Pontius Pilatus. receive I'll and THE PROSELYTE MAKER " A little earth from out the Earth will The Earth move: " Out of myself one little Myself to take: succeed. we venture to think. my friend! me that which thou know'st — ETC. in their own language the grandest which the possess. and I — — and I so spake the Sage divine.] &c." and other poems. 'tis true when I chanced on you! We have ventured to borrow these two translations from Coleridge's poems. but because they adhere to the original metre. moment — try am thine! THE CONNECTING MEDIUM What to cement the lofty and the mean What? Place vanity between? Does Nature? — — [This is an Epigram on Lavater's work. that not even Coleridge could have made that more agreeable to the often repealed. spare me. and has been used by Schiller with signal success Walk. THE ELEGIAC METRE (Translated by Coleridge) In the hexameter rises the fountain's silvery column. not only because what Coleridge did well. But thou givest me thyself — prithee. —Hoffmeisteb. nor even in small poems if It is. in his Germans . and show. which Germany has received from Greece. Nothing before and nothing behind but the sky and the Strongly it ocean. no living man could have the presumptuous hope to improve. Mensch in Allen Gestalten. it oder der " How poor a thing I'd half forgot * — is man! " Alas.* OTHER EPIGRAMS.: . Give attend.POEMS 39 THE EPIC HEXAMETER (Translated by Coleridge) bears us along in swelling and limitless billows.

where he sate. — A lion goes Dumbly he gazed around ! The foe-encircled ground. And shook his careless mane. but to calculate — what butter she will KANT AND HIS COMMENTATORS How many When starvelings one rich man can nourish! monarchs build. To see the gruesome sport.40 THE GERMAN CLASSICS THE SUBLIME THEME [Also on Lavater. slow from his repose. (Essai sur Paris) date the reign of Francis Before his lion-court. Beside him group 'd his princely peers. SCIENCE To some she Their care is is the Goddess great. And — laid him down again ! ." etc. And. in circling tiers. the rubbish-carriers flourish. He stretch 'd Ms lordly shape. oder die Evangelien und Apostelgeschichte in Gesangen. Sate the king. to of the field. King Francis. Compassion for the sins of Man! verses ! — What comfort for thy some the milch-cow yield. And dames aloft. And. rehearses — my friend.] How God compassionates Mankind. and alluding to the "Jesus Messias. THE GLOVE A Tale [The original of this well-known story (1797) Foix— I.] is in St. Wreath 'd round their blooming ring. Raised a finger yawn'd the gate. thy muse. with a lazy gape.

Stuttgart EUGEN KLIMSCH THE KNIGHT SCORNS CUNIGONDE .Permission Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt.


Forth. A And. tiger sprung! Wildly the wild one yell'd When the lion he beheld. his tail his sides he strook. To the knight Delorges " If the love you have sworn Were as gallant and leal as you boast it to be. with a rushing spring.POEMS 41 A And finger raised the king nimbly have the guard — A second gate unbarr'd. with a lip of scorn. And many With a rolPd his rabid tongue. Lion and tiger. there it lay. And stood the strife before. fell He swept round And laid and rattling sound. snowy hand let fall a glove Midway between the beasts of prey. Now from the balcony above. And the wild-cats on the spot. then Leap'd two leopards from the den With a bound. him on the ground. I might ask you to bring back that glove tome!" — . . And boldly bounded they Where the crouching tiger lay Terrible ! And he gripped the beasts in his deadly hold In the grim embrace they grappled and roll 'd Rose the lion with a roar! . bristling at the With In look. From the blood-thirst. — Grommelling! The king raised his finger. wroth and Halted still! hot. The winsome lady's glove! A : — Fair Cunigonde said. a wary ring the forest king.

— and on the ocean their eyes. and ennobled all that is commonThe name of the Diver was Nicholas. And he left forever that fair ladye ! He THE DIVER (1797) A Ballad [The original of the story on which Schiller has founded this ballad. the while He bore back the glove with his tranquil smile his fingers ! And — With a tender look in her softening eyes. matchperhaps for the power and grandeur of its descriptions. and the cup from the terrible steep.. rugged and hoary. The lion and tiger he stoop 'd above. And o'er it already the dark waters flow. according to Hoffmeister's probable conjectures." quoth he. The King place. But loud was the joy and the praise." He — the diver so stout — to the deep below?go" I ask ye again And the knights and the squires that gather around. to have been either Frederic I. According to the true principles of imitative art. surnamed the Fish. where As the knight or the squire so bold. to dive to the howling charybdis below ? is — . Swirl 'd into the maelstrom that madden 'd the surge. have closed on the lady's glove! All shuddering and stunn'd. they beheld him there The noble knights and the ladies fair. The knight he has pass'd thro' the fearful gate. to 'd silent fix'd . is to be found in Kircher. That. less appears. I cast in the whirlpool a goblet of gold. spare me the guerdon. Fair Cunigonde rose her knight to grace . at least. Shall have for his guerdon that gift of his king.] " Oh. Stood "And where is spoke. That promised reward to his warmest sighs. of Sicily. Whoever to me may the goblet bring.42 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The knight left the place where the lady sate. or Frederic II. toss'd the glove in the lady's face! " Nay. hung over the verge Of the endless and measureless world of the deep. Date from 1295 to 1377. Schiller has preserved all that is striking in the legend.

Leipsic Cabl Gehets THE DIVER .Permission Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt.


. rest. never-ending. as with the swell of the far thunder-boom. As he ! strode to the marge of the summit. Odyss. nor from travail be free. 43 And the peril chill 'd back every thought of the prize. And thrice spoke the monarch — " The cup to win. As the whirlpool sucks into black smoothness the swell and cleaves thro the ocean Of the white-foaming breakers — ' A Round and round whirl 'd still path that seems winding in darkness to hell. is singularly illustrated in this description. Unbuckling his girdle. and gave One glance on the gulf of that merciless main. of which his personal observation at the Falls of the Rhine enabled him to judge. Goethe was particularly struck with the truthfulness of these lines. all — — and doffing his mantle. ' ! Like a gorge thro the mountainous main thunder-riven * " Und es wallet. the waves deeper and deeper — driven. 12. Yet. und zischt. Is there never a " wight who will venture in? And as before heard in silence the king Till a youth with an aspect unfearing but gentle. had never seen even a Waterfall. Lo the wave that forever devours the wave Casts roaringly up the charybdis again And. Rushes foamingly forth from the heart of the gloom.POEMS They look'd on the dismal and savage Profound." etc. und siedet. The property of the higher order of imagination to reflect truth. 1. . the spray of its wrath to the welkin up-soars. Like a sea that laboring the birth of a sea. Schiller . flood upon is never will flood hurries on. On the stately boy cast their looks of wonder. though not familiar to experience. und brauset. at length. comes a lull o'er the mighty commotion. and it hisses and roars. And the murmuring crowd as they parted asunder. 'Mid the tremulous squires stept out from the ring. And it As when And And And it bubbles and seethes.* fire is with water commix 'd and contending. Schiller modestly owns his obligations to Homer's descriptions of Charybdis.

glancing up from the tomb ! — The same rhyme as the preceding line in the original. to that breast — For never What Oh. And flood upon flood hurries on. — — — — . And. crash'd together the keel and the mast. And. lamenting aloud " Gallant noble heart youth fare-thee-well. fire is with water commix 'd and contending. And as with the swell of the far thunder-boom Rushes roaringly forth from the heart of the gloom. And it As when bubbles and seethes. to the fearful many a bark. and it hisses and roars.44 THE GERMAN CLASSICS his trust to his The youth gave Maker! Before That path through the riven abyss closed again Hark! a shriek from the crowd rang aloft from the shore. God A wot. — If thou should 'st in those waters thy diadem fling. Again. but the crowd Heard the wail from the deep murmur hollow and fell They hearken and shudder. And the giant-mouth closed on the swimmer so bold. Grows the roar of the gulf rising nearer and nearer. And cry. Has gone down grappled fast. ever louder and clearer. though the prize were the crown of a king crown at such hazard were valued too dear. And the spray of its wrath to the welkin up-soars. never ending. .* the darkness so swanlike and white? neck. shall lips of the living reveal the deeps that howl yonder in terror conceal. Like the growth of a storm. and fathomless grave. To be seen. toss'd aloft in the glee of the wave. O'er the surface grim silence lay dark. ' may find it shall win it and wear ' Who ' ' . farethee-well!" More hollow and more wails the deep on the ear More dread and more dread grows suspense in its fear. ! lo! from the heart What gleams on Lo an arm and a * of that far-floating gloom. behold! he is whirl 'd in the grasp of the main! And o'er him the breakers mysteriously roll'd.

He lifts to the king as he sinks on his knee And the king from her maidens has beckon 'd his . and my God heard my prayer In the strength of my need. behold And. it whirl'd me away. he In his behold — as a joy! — shineshand. And thus spake the Diver Long life to the king — — ' ' ! " Happy The air they whom the rose-hues of daylight rejoice. the wild element spun me. the gush of a torrent. I clung to it. — As • — "And I call'd on my God. at play — and strong its wilderness. and he breathed And he greeted the heavenly delight They gaze on each other "He And lives — — long. they shout. in the gasp of my breath And show'd me a crag that rose up from the lair. of the day. And — On the spikes of the coral the goblet of gold ! . the circle had won me. Vain. In the rocks of till it tore me along. — and baffled the death! nimbly safe in the perils around me. with the crowd in their clamor and glee. And the goblet his daring has won from the water. Comes back to the daylight the soul of the brave! And he comes. down. as they throng its — lo the ocean has render 'd free prey! >> safe from the whirlpool and from the grave.POEMS 45 — the Man's with the Element's might. vain was my struggle Round and round in its dance. — daughter She pours to the boy the bright wine which they bring. to mortals are given! never more find a voice and the sky that May the horror below — Nor Man stretch too far the wide mercy of Heaven! Never more never more may he lift from the sight The veil which is woven with Terror and Night! — " Quick-brightening like lightning Down. caught me the wings of an eagle.goblet of gold! As a sign! the They It is he — battle it is ! left ! And he breathed deep.

and venture again To tell what lies hid in the innermost main? " On Then outspake "Ah! The the daughter in tender emotion: father. misshapen and vast Here clung and here bristled the fashionless forms Here the dark-moving bulk of the Hammer-fish pass 'd — — — And with Went the ' ' terrible teeth grinning white. where man's help there was none Alone The One Human Thing. And it seized me. as I gazed through the darkness. and purple. the wave with its wrath and its roar. With the death of the Main and the Monsters around. " It seized me to save King. with alone! a loneness so ghastly Fathom-deep from man's eye in the speechless profound. and the awe gather 'd icily o 'er me. — in the Goblins before — me — ! Methought. So far from the earth. " Bold Diver. the goblet I promised is thine.46 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Below. In the deep " — — — — " Dark-crawl 'd 'd — glided dark the unspeakable swarms. and pathless Obscure! A silence of Horror that slept on the ear. That the eye more appall 'd might the Horror endure! snake vast reptiles that dwell Salamander dragon coil'd about the grim jaws of their hell. and a menacing motion. quoth he. And this ring will I give. . It in the original has been greatly admired. the Polypus of the ancients. Never jewels more precious shone up from the mine. Shark — There I hung. the Hyena of Ocean. Clump together in masses. If thou 'It bring me fresh tidings. that now its prey! It* saw the dread hundred-limbed creature God! from the far flaming-bough And darted Of the coral. at the foot of the precipice drear. what more can there rest? * " da kroch's heran. and marvel 'd. a fresh guerdon to thee. The poet thus vaguely rep- resents the fabulous misshapen monster. the danger is o 'er ' ' — — — — ! the youth gazed the monarch." etc. I swept on the horrible way. my father. Spread the gloomy.

Roaring up to the cliff roaring back.POEMS Enough 47 Let thy knights put to shame the exploit of the squire! " of this sport with the pitiless ocean He has served thee as none would. link'd awhile in holy peace. And I'll hold And thine arms thee the dearest that rides side.: of the King's Daughter. there leapt the wild joy And the hope and the love through his eyes spoke in On that bloom." In his heart. gazed delighted the boy she faints at the feet of her sire The maiden — fire. on that blush. If nothing can slake thy wild thirst of desire. Viz. — The king And 1 ' seized the goblet he swung it on high. Hoffmeister. the strife with the life and the death ! They hear the loud surges sweep back in their swell. as before. . the wild waters. — ! Here the guerdon He resolves ! To divine. Sup. . long to steeds and glorious song. it fell in the roar of the tide: whirling. by shall embrace. Where. there the danger beneath. 301. sweet ever-young Apollo fires The staff supports the wanderer's feet And — The God the Poet's soul inspires! Soon from the mountain-ridges high. my The maiden whose pity now pleadeth for thee. Their coming the thunder-sound heralds along Fond eyes* yet are tracking the spot where he fell: ! They come. The tower-crown 'd Corinth greets his eye. I decree. But no wave ever brings the lost youth to the shore. in tumult and throng. — THE CRANES OF IBYCUS From Rhegium Hallow 'd (1797) to the Isthmus.. as he listen 'd. as thy bride. Meet all the sons of martial Greece Wends Ibycus — whose — lips the . IV. thyself has confest. to — But bring back that goblet again my eye.

! ! ' ' Hail ' ' . here. save a swarm . Burst sudden forth two ruffian foes. in vain! on men and Gods His cries no blest deliverer gain Feebler and fainter grows the sound. that still pursued his way. they wheel and form In ominous groups their wild array. He — — 1 ' Down He to the earth the death-stroke bore him — Hark. Near. Nor ev'n one late avenger near!" calls . his heart more gay. 11 .48 THE GERMAN CLASSICS In Neptune's groves of darksome pine. Sure signs of good ye bode to me lots alike would seem to be . From far. their dirge-like cries. . together borne. Along the mid-wood winds his way. (Since never voice. And still the deaf life slumbers round In the far land I fall forsaken. A shelter now from toil And may the friendly hearts we meet Preserve from every ill the Stranger l" — His step more light. save yours alone. Unwept and unregarded. where the Cranes wheel dismal o'er him! hears. where the path the thickets close. Now strife to strife. When. Lured by the South. He treads with shuddering awe divine Nought lives around him. in hoarse croak. and foot to foot ! Ah! weary sinks the gentle hand. By death from caitiff hands o'ertaken. as darkness veils his eyes. Ye whose wild wings above me hover. And 1 ' My Our beloved Birds he cried comrades on the ocean tide. The gentle hand that wakes the lute Has learn 'd no lore that guides the brand. Of Cranes. we greet and danger .

assembled Greece.POEMS The deed can tell) the hand discover V He spoke. Perchance he treads in careless peace. "And must I meet thee thus once more? — hoped with wreaths of holy pine. or secret foes? if He who sees all on earth — the Sun — Alone the gloomy secret knows. Ill —4 . And — — Throughout all Hellas went the wailing. * The theatre. Amidst your Sons. and life was gone. Wild to the Council Hall they ran In thunder rush'd the threat 'ning Flood " Revenge shall right the murder 'd man. — The last atonement — blood for blood!" throng — Yet 'mid the throng the Isthmus claims. Hears with a smile revenge decreed. with new fame the victory o'er Bright The Singer's temples to entwine!" Who — — loud lamented every guest Who held the Sea-God's solemn feast As in a single heart prevailing. Lured by the Sea-God's glorious games — The mighty many-nation 'd How track the hand that wrought the wrong? — How that dread deed were done. Vol. Avenge Naked and maim'd the corpse was found ' 49 — — — — And. guess By ruffian hands. His steps the avenging gods may mock Within the very Temple's wall. Or mingle with the crowds that flock To yonder solemn scenic* hall. The sad Corinthian Host could trace The loved too well-remember 'd face. still through many a mangling wound. Gloats with fell joy upon the deed.

swarms the crowd Beneath the weight the walls are bow'd Thitherwards streaming far. — . Now to and fro. — Gigantic. That guest-like. who shall name. In long and measured strides. row on row. Cleave to the heart their words of woe. to heaven! The tribes. there assembled came? From Theseus' town. the nations. Thus circling. On. from the Spartans' land Asia's wave-divided clime. Isles that gem the JEgean Sea. with dark red glow No blood that lives the dead cheeks know! — Where flow the locks that woo to love On human temples ghastly dwell — The And serpents. To hearken on that Stage Sublime.50 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Wedg'd close. Pace the vast circle's solemn round. — Broad Hellas A flows in mingled tide tide like that which heaves the deep — When hollow-sounding. wave on wave. the green asps with poison swell. the thousands sweep Till arching. and wide. horrible. They tower above the Sons of Man! Across their loins the dark robe clinging. So this World's women never strode Their race from Mortals ne'er began. In fleshless hands the torches swinging. the sinner as they go. within That space doth their dark hymn And round begin. shoreward driven. The Dark Choir's mournful melody! — — From The True to the awful rites of old. from their grim abode. coil'd the brow above. from Aulis' strand From Phocis. behold The Chorus from the hinder ground. and serried.

They vanish in the hinder ground! — Confused and doubtful half between The solemn truth and phantom scene. We. On. hounding on.POEMS Dismally wails. Life's path he roves. Then. weal to him secure — from crime But woe to him for whom we weave The doom for deeds that shun the light Fast to the murderer's feet we cleave. The hymn And froze the very marrow thrilling As rolPd the gloomy sounds along. we go. Pacing the circle's solemn round. presiding O'er secret deeps. ever And there we grasp him. true to those strange rites of old. ! : " And deems he flight from us can hide him? Still on dark wings We sail beside him The murderer's Or soon or late. In long and measured strides behold. Heavily there lay cold and drear. The crowd revere the Power. still our own! 11 — I — So singing. the Furies' solemn song. the senses chilling. Whose shadows in the deep heart dwell. a wanderer free — We near him not — The Avengers. The fearful Daughters of the Night. 51 — "And — Who keeps his soul as childhood's pure. And stillness. As if the Godhead's self were near. their slow dance they wreathe. to justice guiding — — The Unfathom'd and Inscrutable By whom the web of doom is spun. For blood can no remorse atone to the Shades below. feet the snare enthralls to earth — he falls ! Untiring. like a silent death. Whose form is seen not in the sun ! .

Leaps every heart — — — Your might is The murderer here. Sweep the slow Cranes. Behold the dark unwitness'd Crime. arrest! And him to whom the words were spoken!" — is yields himself eonfest near that voice the token — — — Scarce had the wretch the words let fall. Behold the Cranes of Ibycus!" A sudden darkness wraps the sky. . those whitening lips — — The secret have already told.52 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Just then. Timotheus. BELIEF (1797) From the lip to the lip. full of meaning. hoarse-murmuring. " See there see there. Into their Judgment Court sublime is their doom is seal'd! changed. swarming wings and heavily — . Eumenides! Vengeance Ho! him who yonder spoke. Above the roofless building hover Dusk. From mouth to mouth the murmur flees whom we bewail? The murder 'd one What mean those words ? Who is the man knows he the tale? — — ! Why link that name with those wild birds?" Questions on questions louder press Like lightning flies the inspiring guess " The truth we seize. Struck by the lightning that reveal 'd! The Scene — THE WORDS OF Three Words will I name thee — around and about. Breaks forth a voice that starts the ear. who hear ! " Of Ibycus. over! " Of Ibycus?" — that name so dear Thrills through the hearts of those Like wave on wave in eager seas. they flee. Than fain their sense he would recall behold! In vain. amidst the highest tier.

when he breaks from his chain. To Yet. And though ever he slip on the stony ground. For the Man made a Freeman grows safe in his gain. over Time While the Human Will rocks. — over Space. the science of Good though the Wise may be blind. on the lips of the best. obey. But empty their meaning and hollow their sound And slight is the comfort they bring to the breast. they Yet they take not their birth from the being without — Hold fast the Three W ords T of Belief lip to lip. Though the tyrant may deem him but born for his tool.POEMS But they had not their birth in the being without. THE WORDS OF ERROR Three Errors — . that for ever are found On the lips of the good. And Man may her voice. Changing and shifting the All we inherit. and Lives the Will of the Holy — A Purpose Sublime. a reed. But changeless through all One Immutable A Spirit! — though about From the the of meaning. Yet the practice is plain to the childlike mind. And a God there is . not the Up. in this being. must their oracle be And all worth in the man shall for ever be o'er When in those Three Words he believes no more. full flee . ! 53 And the heart. Whatever the shout of the rabble may be Whatever the ranting misuse of the fool Still fear not the Slave. in those Three Words he believes no more. Man made free! Man. But a voice from within must their oracle be . Thought woven over creation below. never all (1799) there are. ever again to the godlike way. is free. is — — — And Virtue is more than a shade or a sound. like to fro. And Till worth in the Man can be o'er. by birthright.

slain at last. No! Look within thee behold both the fount and the flow! — ! — — * This simile is nobly conceived. the earth's offspring). . so can the soul slay the enemy (the desire. And Where Virtue possesses no title to earth! That Foreigner wanders to regions afar. so the soul conEarth gave her giant offspring new strength in every fall. — And wherever And they lead us. in a dogma. the passion. — ! ! More heavenly belief be it thine to adore Where the Ear never hearkens. the evil. the Son of Earth. when Hercules lifted him from the earth and strangled him — — — while raised aloft. The Truth in her fulness of splendor will shine The veil of the goddess no earth-born may lift. And all we can learn is to guess and divine Dost thou seek. Noble Soul fly from delusions like these. alas! to the mean she will give — . the natural earth-born enemy. . (till from the earth borne. As so long as the Hercules contended in vain against Antaeus. united with Worth For her favors. to prison her form? The spirit flies forth on the wings of the storm! 0. Like a bride with her lover. ! the lands of her birthright immortally are So long as Man dreams that. Meet the rivers of Beauty and Truth evermore . to mortals a gift. and stifled at length) The earth that he touches still gifts him with strength I* So long as Man fancies that Fortune will live. when bearing it from earth itself and stifling it in the higher air. . but expressed somewhat obscurely. Not without thee the streams there the Dull seek them. the Fiend will pursue. the Eye never sees.54 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The fruits of existence escape from the clasp Of the seeker who strives but those shadows to grasp So long as Man dreams of some Age in this life When the Right and the Good will all evil subdue For the Right and the Good lead us ever to strife. while the very contends in vain with evil And as Antaeus was tact of the earth invigorates the enemy for the struggle.

a thunder-cloud. For who would not the fool disdain Who ne'er designs what he fulfils? And well it stamps our Human Race. us ponder nor in vain — — What strength can work when labor wills . comrades."t I Fast in its prison-walls of earth. And hence the gift To Understand. Lord Lytton Sons. ) (Permission George Routledge & " I mourn the Dead I break the Lightning. up. wroth and high. That the gathered flame may break Through the furnace. With the sweat and the pain. — ! ! — ! When So let sweet discourse the labor shares. Awaits the mold of baked clay. and aid the birth The Bell that shall be born today Who would honor obtain. n From the fir the faggot take.POEMS " Vivos voco 55 THE LAY OF THE BELL* (1799) — Mortuos plango — Fulgura frango. Up. That Man within the heart should trace Whate'er he fashions with the hand." These f I call the Living words are inscribed on the Great Bell of the Minster of Schaffhausen also — — — on that of the Church of Art near Lucerne. The praise that Man gives to the Master must buy But the blessing withal must descend from on high And well an earnest word beseems The work the earnest hand prepares^ Its load more light the labor deems. broke the . heap it hard and dry. There was an old caused by the sound of a belief in Switz- Bell. electric fluid of erland that the undulation of air. •Translated by Edward. Keep it.

From the dross and the scum. ! ! I For perfect and pure we That its Pure. the fusion must come. and speed the flow. with merry music rife. Deep hid within this nether cell. The Mother-Love 's untiring care years like And swift the No more with arrows fly — ! girls content to play. Its in See the silvery bubbles spring Good the mass is melting now Let the salts we duly bring Purge the flood. Or choral chiming to Devotion. Whatever weal or woe befall. and pure. Rouse many an ear to rapt emotion. yet in Time 's dark womb unwarning. That metal tongue shall backward ring The warning moral drawn from all. solemn voice with Sorrow wailing. or foul or And watchful o'er that golden morning. that the fluid that feeds the Bell flow in the right course glib and well. the metal must keep. The cherished child shall welcome in. unfailing. fair. and deep. Whatever Fate to Man may bring. Repose the days. in later days. What force with Fire is molding thus In yonder airy tower shall dwell.56 THE GERMAN CLASSICS When the copper within Seethes and simmers the tin — Pour May quick. . What As time the rosy dreams of life In the first slumber's arms begin. voice may be perfect. That voice. And witness wide and far of us ! It shall.

Permission Julius Benczur Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. comrades. Leipzig Fast in its prison-walls of earth. up. Awaits the mold of baked clay. and aid the birth— The Bell that shall be born today! THE LAY OF THE BELL . Up.


If the For * still A piece of clay pipe. the pipes are simmering. as some sweet vision breaks Out from its native morning skies. — — ! When The the heart. the beautiful and brief and verdure. tumultuous pleasures. He wanders all alone. the Father-Home. and see If the fusion flow free . swelling. brisk now. where the strong is betrothed to the weak.POEMS Bounds the proud 57 his way. if the casting may begin. he glides where'er she move. . strange all his . wearied with the wish to roam. With pilgrim staff the wide world measures And. The Virgin stands before his eyes. which becomes vitrified heated. seems to see gates of heaven unfold! ! prime. From till . Then If — (happy and welcome indeed were the sign!) hard and the ductile united combine. lo. With rosy shame on downcast cheeks. And. Brisk. If like glass the wand be glimmering. of life 's summer time Glory. his eyes bedim Tears. A nameless longing seizes him! wild companions flown then. Her greeting can transport him To every mead to deck his love. Love. * Dip this wand of clay within . ! IV Browning o'er. Again seeks. stranger-like. Boy upon life's Storms through loud . Blushing. The happy wild flowers court him and tender Longing Sweet Hope ye The growth of Life 's first Age of Gold. the metal is sufficiently .

Rings the concord harmonious. The mild one. ! Yet love lingers lonely. if Illusion is brief. a diligent hand Employed she employs. With a And bustling command. The thrifty Housewife. Lovely. Must wager and venture And hunt down his fortune ! Then And flows in a current the gear and the gain. way The Husband must enter The hostile life. With that sweetest holyday. sits now a wing to the centre ! Within Another. Must the May of Life depart With the cestus loosed away Flies Illusion from the heart ! Tolls the church-bell far and wide! — . the garners are filled with the gold of the grain. When And the Give Passion is mute. In its circle — she rules. And she cautions the boys. the heart flows in one. Now a yard to the court. To pray and importune. With struggle and strife. the mother Her home is her life. And the daughters she schools. but Repentance is long. With her virgin wreath. love-delighted. To plant or to watch. . thee. thither are they bringing. To snare or to snatch. blossoms may only to the fruit. both tender and strong And : So be it with The heart to forever united.58 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the stern in sweet marriage is blent with the meek. the Bride To the love-feast clearly ringing.

well polished and full. with lavender smelling. the : There. and counts the gain. . the corn-fields like an ocean. To bind the giant form of Fate? Proud the boast — — Swift are the steps of Woe. : — Pull the bung out — See around and about What Ha ! God help us! has risen? vapor. The snow of the linen. And she hoards in the presses. 59 And the much makes the more . Locks the chest and the wardrobe. and speed the pious prayer! Halt . we owe that heaven-descended glow. and from care and endeavor .POEMS Gives order to store. the shine of the wool Blends the sweet with the good. V Now the casting may begin See the breach indented there Ere we run the fusion in. what girth so great. Eyes the And The the granaries bowed beneath blessed golden grain. There. the beams projecting far. in undulating motion. Rests never! Blithe the Master (where the while From his roof he sees them smile) lands. what vapor the flame like a torrent leaps forth from its prison — — — ! What friend When man Still to is like the might of fire can watch and wield the ire? Whate'er we shape or work. And the laden store-house are. My And sees unmoved the stormy shock Of waves that fret below!" What chain so strong. And the hum of the spindle goes quick through the dwelling. Wave " proud lips breathe house is built upon a rock.

Through the populous streets Whirling ghastly the brand For the Element hates What man's labor creates. the revivers of Avengingly out from the cloud ! Come Hark — a wail from the steeple! — aloud The voice the crowd Look — look — red as blood bell shrills its the levin. And the work of his hand! Impartially out from the cloud. and the ball to ! ! All on high ! It is not the daylight that fills with its flood The sky! What a clamor awaking Roars up through the street! a hell-vapor breaking Rolls on through the street ! What higher and higher Aloft moves the Column of Fire Through the vistas and rows Like a whirlwind it goes. Come the dews. Or the curse or the blessing may all fall ! Benignantly out from the cloud. And the air like the steam from a furnace glows. the bolt. wide and wild When. . When from their chain its wild wings go. Sweeps the Free Nature's free-born Child! When the Frantic One fleets. where it listeth. ! And Beams are crackling posts are shrinking windows clinking Walls are sinking Children crying — — — Mothers flying — — — And the beast (the black ruin yet smoldering under) Yells the howl of its pain and its ghastly wonder ! . While no force can withstand.60 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But dread the heaven-descended glow.

Through the barns and the garners it crackles and streams As if they would rend up the earth from its roots. to Flies the bucket Again and again from hand hand . Wearied out and despairing. glance of grief upon the grave — — — — VI Now clasped the bell within the clay The mold the mingled metals fill — — . With a roar on the breast of the element bounds. The face that he loves! not one look is missing from that store! See the melancholy cloud.high . And sits despair. Rush the flames to the sky Giant. And through the ruin. Hurry and skurry The face of the night is as clear as dayl 61 — — As the links in a chain. To the grain and the fruits. and dread For storms the barren bed! In the blank voids that cheerful casements were.POEMS away away. One human Of all that Fortune gave then turns him to depart. Through the rafters and beams. I And at length. Comes to and fro the melancholy air. as a beast on the prey that it hounds. man bows to their strength With an idle gaze sees their wrath consume. High in arches up-rushing The engines are gushing. as it flits. And the flood. blackening in its shroud. ! And submits to his doom! Desolate The place. The loiterer takes And grasps the wanderer's staff and mans his heart: Whatever else the element bereaves it leaves One blessing more than all it reft He counts them o'er. Peers.

while we speak. ev'n now. born Of her. The care lines — the watch — the face — the Mother rhyme — The translator adheres and some others. It is that faithful Whom the dark Prince of Shadows leads benighted. may Alas it. So often looked the Mother-Love . Who was the Mother of that Home rent the sweet — ! How * oft they miss that tender guide. and blooming in their morn On whom. ! Ah! Home's union-band. From that dear arm where oft she hung delighted. Guiding with dirge-note To the last It is — solemn.62 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Oh. to the original. Far from those blithe companions. sparkling into day. when couched her heart above. Where Hope and Sorrow bend ! to pray That suns beyond the realm of day May warm them into bloom From the steeple Tolls the bell. in forsaking the in these . The death-knell. And never. the mishap may be near! To the dark womb of sacred earth This labor of our hands is given. Reward ! the labor and the skill 1 should it fail. and slow. that worshipped wife — mother * ! Deep and heavy. 1 Ah how dearer far than they We bury in the dismal tomb. turn to blessings watched by heaven seeds. never more to come She dwells within the shadowy land. home earth's weary wanderers know. For And still mold may be frail with our hope must be mingled the fear the — — And. sad. As And seeds that wait the second birth.

undreading. Let the labor yield As the bird upon Loose the travail the bough. the greenwood's welcome way Through Wends the wanderer. ! Now. safe on the night the evil man watches in awe. Homeward from To And the cottage loved so dearly the eye and ear are meeting. . Glitters the garland on the sheaves . Lowing the lusty-fronted steer bleating. And young folks dance begun Desert street. with many-colored leaves. For the mower's work ' is done. blithe and cheerily. Reels with the happy harvest grain While. While the gate the town before Heavily swings with sullen roar ! Though darkness is spreading O'er earth the Upright — And Look Which the Honest. . Another Sits with unloving looks 63 — I VII While the mass is cooling now. to leisure. the social taper lighteth Each dear face that Home uniteth. — ! And Silence is in the city's heart. When And the soft stars awaken! ! Each task be forsaken If the the vesper-bell. and quiet mart the .POEMS And where she sate the babes beside. the slow sheep homeward Now. master still toil. lulling the earth into peace. to the pleasure. Creaking now the heavy wain. the wonted shelter near. chimes the workman's release! the tasks of day.

holy Order.64 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the eye of the Night is the Law Bliss-dowered! daughter of the skies. oh distant far. its soft when day doth leave The Limns rose-hues on the veil of Eve — ! From town and hamlet Shall the fierce war-brand. shake the horrent glare VIII Now. The centre of the social band The Instinct of the Fatherland! — United thus each helping each. who of old Called the wild man from waste and wold. its destined task fulfilled. Brisk work the countless hands forever For naught its power to Strength can teach. And while they march in freedom's van. When the rude hordes of trampling War ! Shall scare the silent vale — The where Now the sweet heaven. Roused each familiar household feeling. . For ! — And. whose employ Blends like to like in light and joy Builder of cities. Like Emulation and Endeavor! Thus linked the master with the man. Peace and Concord sweet Distant the day. the happy ties. Each in his rights can each revere. best of all. in his hut thy presence stealing. Asunder break the prison-mold. Scorn the lewd rout that dogs the rear! To freemen labor is renown! Who works gives blessings and commands. — — — Long Your in these walls — long may we greet ! footfalls. . air. tossing in the gale. Kings glory in the orb and crown Be ours the glory of our hands. And. Hail.

There breaks the mold before the season When numbers burst what bound before. as from a hell. without a guide.POEMS Let the goodly Bell we build. palace. with thunder-knell. Woe to the State that thrives no more ! . claim. The latent spark to flame is blown. Of Vol. woe. hall. Becomes the ghastliest voice of war: " Freedom! Equality!" to blood Bush the roused people at the sound — ! Through street. ! 1 ' Yea. . Freedom Equality to blood ' ' ! ! — And To Millions from their silence start. when on its fiery way The metal seeks itself to pour. when in the City's heart. their own! Discordant howls the warning Bell. And banded murder closes round The hyena-shapes (that women were!) ! Jest with the horrors they survey They hound they rend they mangle As panthers with thejr prey burst the ties Naught rests to hallow ! — — — . Frantic and blind. The hammer down heave. roars the flood. there. For not till we shatter the wall of its cell Can we lift from its darkness and bondage the To break the mold the master may. And. Behold the red Destruction come When rages strength that has no reason. 65 Eye and heart alike behold. Proclaiming discord wide and far. And glaring forth. Till the cover it cleave : — Bell. Ill life's —5 sublime and reverent awe. But woe. born but things of peace to tell. If skilled the hand and ripe the hour. Exploding from its shattered home.

And " Concokd " we will name her! To union may her heart-felt call ! In brother-love attune us all May she the destined glory win For which the master sought to frame her> Aloft (all earth's existence under) In blue-pavilioned heaven afar To dwell the Neighbor of the Thunder. their Maker praise. Man fears the tiger's fangs of terror. even the scutcheon.66 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Before the Vice the Virtue flies. Is Man himself in error ! No torch. the dreadliest of the dread. — — The borderer of the Star ! Be hers above a voice to raise Like those bright hosts in yonder sphere. ! The new-born labor christening. illumes it in his hands? Rejoice and laud the prospering skies! The kernel bursts its husks behold From the dull clay the metal rise. as a star of gold! Neck and lip. And still. Who. And To solemn and lead around the wreathed year! eternal things We dedicate her lips sublime. — Pure-shining. shall tell That the art of a master has fashioned the Bell — come My merry men — we'll form a ring Come in in. while they move. but as one beam. And Universal Crime is Law ! Man fears the lion's kingly tread. . clear-graven. And It laughs like a sunbeam. though The Blind! it but consumes It lights not him The City and the Land ! — Why place — IX lit from Heaven.

The changes of the Human State So may she teach us. Therefore. by Monarchs slighted Went unhonored. her. calmly. German Art arose Fostering glory smil'd not on her. while she stirs. may thy first sound be hallowed to — Peace. unrequited. .* 800) kind Augustus reared. Ne'er with kingly smiles to sun her. the fleeting wings of 67 No no heart no feeling hers! pulse She lends the warning voice to Fate still ! — — Time . No! She went. From high Frederick's throne. ( 1 THE GERMAN ART By no . all from loftier mountains.POEMS As Fanned by hourly. on she swings. She has risen ! Fair Bell And our city bode joy and increase. Purer wells and richer Fountains. Did her blooms unclose. oh. Praise and Pride be all the greater. That Man's genius did create From Man's worth alone. ! 'Mid the airs of Heaven we leave her In the Music-Realm to dwell Up — upwards — yet to raise — — she sways. To no Medici endeared. as her tone But now so mighty. ! And companions. melts away That earth no life which earth has known From the last silence can delay — ! Slowly now the cords upheave From her earth-grave soars her! the Bell. * Written in the time of the French war.

So no rule to curb its rushing All the fuller flows it • — From its gushing — The Heart! deep (1801 ) COMMENCEMENT OF THE NEW CENTURY Where can Peace find a refuge f Whither. in vain on earth's wide chart. as the Ocean were his household home. Locks up the chambers of the liberal main. Deeming the world is for their heirloom given Against the freedom of all lands they wield This the Thund'rer's levin Neptune's trident.* hurl'd To dust the forms old Custom deem'd divine. To poise the balance. And undiscover'd leaves but Paradise! — — Alas. Can Freedom turn? Lo. * That is — the settled political question — the balance of power. I ween. that Gold to their scales each region must afford And. Tracks every isle and every coast afar. The Frank casts in the iron of his sword. On to the Pole where shines. And. Safe from War's fury not the watery world. with arms that roam — Outstretch 'd for prey the Briton spreads his reign. Thou seek'st that holy realm beneath the sky Where Freedom dwells in gardens ever green — — And blooms the Youth of fair Humanity! O'er shores where sail ne'er rustled to the wind. unseen. Two mighty — — — . Onward his restless course unbounded flies. friend. may rove thy ken. — — — Safe not the Nile-God nor the antique Rhine. say. O'er the vast universe. red with slaughter. the Star. before our view The Century rends itself in storm away. . dawns on earth the New! The girdle of the lands is loosen 'd. as fierce Brennus in Gaul 's early tale. nations make the world their field. where the right may fail Like some huge Polypus. And.Art.68 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Streams our Poet.

. the fearless guest. is And there. and linking life with none. Crowd after crowd the way divine. Before her towers and temples fell the choral . And only blooms the Beautiful in Song! CASSANDRA [There is (1802) Achilles is to wed peace between the Greeks and Trojans Polyxena.POEMS But in the universe thou canst not find 69 space sufficing for ten happy men! In the heart's holy stillness only beams A The shrine of refuge from life 's stormy throng Freedom is only in the land of Dreams . . Where fanes are deck'd for gods the home — — — Thymbrian's* solemn shrine. On entering the Temple. The wild Bacchantic joy is madd'ning And to the The thoughtless host. High peal'd hymns of joy. — — joyous preparations for the marriage. the unheeded heart sadd'ning One solitary breast! Unjoyous in the joyful throng. scornful. they come.] And mirth was in the halls of Troy. he is shot through his The time of the following Poem is during the only vulnerable part by Paris. from her loosen 'd tresses. Melodious to the golden shell. Apollo's laurel groves among The still Cassandra wander'd on! Into the forest's deep recesses The solemn Prophet-Maiden pass'd. Alone. And. The weary had reposed from slaughter The eye forgot the tear it shed This day Bang Priam's lovely daughter . The sacred fillet cast! * Apollo. Priam's daughter. — Shall great Pelides wed ! Adorn 'd with laurel boughs.

And lonely in the waste. unregarded. Pythian god! oracle. But not from holy offering-shrines Glad hands the banquet are preparing. alone am weeping The sweet delusion mocks not me Around these walls destruction sweeping More near and near I see . dark to me Thou " Thine evil the lot awarded. I hide The tortured heart that would forewarn. hear the steps of Fate. Oh. " And men my prophet-wail deride! The solemn sorrow dies in scorn. our knowledge but death ! . its . in vain to be. flame that to the welkin goes. I trod. And I near. Lone in the City of the Blind! Cursed with the anguish of a power To view the fates I may not thrall.70 THE GERMAN CLASSICS " To all its arms doth Mirth unfold. . oh. and give fates beneath? live. Oh. The bridal-robe my sister wears. Mock'd by their fearful joy. is To sight the frowning For error is the life we And. in Hymen's hand it shines . Amidst the happy. The hovering tempest still must lower The horror must befall ! — " Boots it the veil to lift. — ! ' ' A A But not torch before my vision glows. wherefore am I thus consigned With eyes that every truth must see. I hear the God and near the halls of state that comes unsparing . But I alone. And every heart foregoes And Hope is busy in the old cares .



Fair youth to pleasant thoughts give birth The heart is only sad to me. which exists in Faith and emotion. " real — " Schiller exalts Ideal Belief over Everywhere. my sister.POEMS Take back the clear and awful mirror. against the wisdom of worldly intellect. the barren experience of life. I miss the moment from the chain The happy Present-Hour enchanted! Take back thy gift again — ! ' ' Never for me the nuptial wreath The odor-breathing hair shall twine. My heavy heart is bow'd beneath The service of thy dreary shrine. thine The heart's inebriate rapture-springs. around I see . — — — My a sole familiar is ill my pain. in vain ! How cheer 'ly sports the careless mirth The life that loves." says Hoffmeister truly. When earth her happy feast-day keeps The charm of life who ever knoweth . Each coming my And felt it first — heart foreboded." etc. My youth was but by tears corroded. Longing with bridal arms to twine The bravest of the Grecian kings. Shut from mine eyes the blood-red glare 71 Thy " truth is but a gift of terror When mortal lips declare. — . — The Past's delighted songs are o'er For lips that speak a Prophet's voice. Not for mine eyes the young spring gloweth. this modern Apostle of Christianity advocates wisdom. My blindness give to me once more* The gay dim senses that rejoice. everywhere that Ideal. That looks into the deeps? " Wrapt in thy bliss. To me the future thou hast granted.

— ! . Hangs black on Ilion. seeming Too narrow for its world of love. Foreknowing dumbly stand ' ' ! — round. nightly gliding. dim. to go but. the — Dead the divine Pelides lies Grim Discord rears her snakes devouring The last departing god hath gone And. womb'd in cloud. Stalks between me and him ! — " Forth from the grim funereal shore. Amidst Hell's ghastly People trembles One soul for ever sad ! c i I see the steel of I see the Murder gleam — To right One circling I — Murderer's glowing eyes to left. where love presiding Prepares our hearth. lowering. The Hell-Queen sends her ghastly bands Where'er I turn behind before — Dumb in my path — a Spectre stands! Wherever gayliest. confused. And sweet with him. A Stygian shadow. — . The heaven of gods above ! " I too might know the soft control Of one the longing heart could choose. tumultuous sound! — ! Hark. from the Temple-porch. cries ! To my ghastly being In the far strangers land close in blood ! Hark while the sad sounds murmur A wild. Nor envies. — flight defies all seeing.72 THE GERMAN CLASSICS High swells the joyous bosom. With look which love illumes with soul — The look that supplicates and woos. in its heaven of dreaming. youth assembles — — I see the shades in horror clad. one gory stream fate — my gaze I ' — — ! may not turn my all. the thunder.

At solemn feast King Rudolf sate. judge (ein Richter) substituted in the translation is introduced in order to recall to the reader was the sublime name given. of the Rhine office. The latter was not. at the coro' nation of Rudolf. * . The day that saw the hero crown 'd! Bohemia and thy Palgrave. of the Count Palatine (Grand Sewer of the Empire and one of the Seven Electors) was to bear the Imperial Globe and set the dishes on the board. and Schiller appears to have adhered. that of the King of Bohemia The himself obcup-bearer.POEMS 73 RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG A Ballad ) (1803) ballad (together with the yet [Hinrichs properly classes this striking " " one of the amongst those designed to deFight with the Dragon grander The source of the story is in .' The anointed choice of Heaven. with much fidelity. In galleries raised above the pomp. Gird him whose hand a world has won. In that time-hallow 'd hall renown 'd. Press 'd crowd on crowd their panting way. to the original narrative. "The Living Law. Give this the feast. a Swiss chronicler.] At Aachen. at the coronation feast. Rang out the millions loud hurra ' ! For." . And grind the weak to crown the strong War's carnage-flag is furl'd! — In Rudolf's hand the goblet shines — And * gaily round the board look'd he.Egidius pict and exalt the virtue of Humility. Rhine. in imperial state. "A. viz." The word t Literally. and that the wine The Arch Electoral Seven. And with the joy-resounding tromp. Tschudi. Like choral stars around the sun. aa Schiller served in a note (omitted in the editions of his collected works). however. was again upon the earth. to Rudolf of Hapsburg. closed at last the age of slaughter. When human blood was pour'd as water — Law dawns upon the world f ! Sharp force no more shall right the wrong. not without justice. present..

And loud the music swept the ear: " Forth to the chase a Hero rode. and bright the wines kingly heart feels glad to me! Yet where the Gladness-B ringer blest In the sweet art which moves the breast With lyre and verse divine? Dear from my youth the craft of song. its own wild world to win Amidst the souls of men! " Swift with the fire the minstrel glowM." Lo. As silver white his gleaming hair. So from dark hidden fount within Comes Song. With sweeping robe the Bard appears. Through greensward meads the riders wind — — A small sweet bell they hear.74 1 ' THE GERMAN CLASSICS And proud My the feast. As Kaiser. . As gush the springs from mystic deep. And what as knight I loved so long. With shaft and horn the squire behind. Or lone untrodden glen. still be mine. from the circle bending there. Well known to him the All High thoughts and ardent souls desire What would the Kaiser from the lyre " Amidst the — ! banquet-hall? " Not mine the The Great One smiled swayThe minstrel owns a loftier power — — A mightier king inspires the lay hest — The Impulse of the Hour! " Its — As through wide air the tempests sweep. And music sleeps in golden strings Love's rich reward the minstrel sings. ' ' — Bleach 'd by the many winds of years. — To hunt the bounding chamois-deer.

Stuttgart Alexander Wagner THE COUNT GIVES UP HIS HORSE TO THE PRIEST .Permission Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt.


Now Heaven 1 f orf end ' ! the That e'er to chase or battle Hero cried. — And near'd the swollen thou. " the Count began. I (The soul that seeks will not fear its God. And honor 'd with a Christian's mind The Christ who loves humility! Loud through the pasture. the priest! And when the morrow's sun was The servant of the Savior led Back to its lord the beast. " The noble hunter down-inclined His reverent head and soften 'd eye. with the Host. a holy 75 man — Before him strides the sacristan. His sandal-shoon the priest unbound. I seek a dying man. The bridge that once its safety gave. He reach 'd that priest the lordly reins. Drifts down the tide below. marveling much. ' ' ' red. slight took the horse the squire bestrode . And torrents from the hill. more . Eent by the anger of the wave. brawls and raves A brook the rains had fed the waves. Yet barefoot now. And the bell sounds near and near. On to the sick. As. Sore-hungering for the heavenly fare. And laid the Host upon the ground.POEMS Lo. he halted there. to cheer) " Through the wild wave to go ! ' ' He gave that priest the knightly steed. priest? rill! " What wouldst " Sir Count. the task that heaven ordains. That he might serve the Nor He sick man's need.

And in the purple veil'd from view The gush of holy tears ! A thrill And through that vast audience ran. ' . As thou hast duly honor 'd Him! Far-famed ev'n now through Swisserland Thy generous heart and dauntless hand And fair from thine embrace Six daughters bloom. The royal house of England numbers Rudolf of — to Ludwig of Hapsburg amongst its ancestors. since birth.* six crowns to bring. Ludwig of Bavaria. From whom Life and each living thing! " tribute to the King. . Into the minstrel's heart he gazed. To thee give honor here and ever. Thy Lord and mine its Master be. If not a boon allow 'd to thee. son of Charles of Anjou. and Wenceslaus. My Honor. and Albrecht of His other three daughters married afterward Otto. The mothers of a race ' ' ! The mighty Kaiser heard amazed His heart was in the days of old ! . renown.76 THE GERMAN CLASSICS These limbs the sacred steed bestride That once my Maker's image bore. Blest as the daughters of a king. who faileth never To hear the weak and guide the dim. in the bard the priest he knew. Yes. Otto of Brandenburg. as fiefs. That tale the Kaiser's own had told. Charles Martell. son of Ottocar of Bohemia. every heart the godlike man Revering God *At the coronation his daughters — reveres! Rudolf was celebrated the marriage-feast of three of of Bavaria. " ' So may the God. I hold. nephew of Saxony. the goods of earth.


But he Rebellion was not yet method. the Jena. The first scenes were written in prose. to history. He felt. but soon the poet realized that only the dignified heroic verse was suited to [78] He was . too. Ph. suggested to him the thought of dramatizing the career of Wallenstein.INTRODUCTION TO WALLENSTEIN'S DEATH By William H. lecturing and writing on dramatic theory. Stress dramas that he had attempted to portray humanity before he really knew humanity. durStress activity — Schiller's first of dramatic ing which he wrote in rapid succession The Robbers. he needed to give more care to artistic form and to that the deeper questions of dramatic unity. Carruth. History of the Thirty Years' War. were due to marriage and to serious illness. that he needed more experience He himself said of the greatest of his Storm and of life. It was delays not until 1796 that Schiller felt ready to begin work on the long planned drama of Wallenstein. University of Kansas [ETWEEN — his Storm andperiod period. Fiesco.D. which opens with Wallenstein. Intrigue and Love and the beginning of Don Carlos (finished in 1787) and his last period. which brought him the appointment to the chair of history in the University of The occupation with his next historical work. the poet devoted much time and study to philosophy. clear with himself on questions of artistic studying Homer and dramatizing EuriFurther pides. and Even in writing Don Carlos he had felt to esthetic theory. His own dissatisfaction with the results achieved was one of several reasons why for nearly ten years he dropped dramatic composition. Professor of Germanic Languages and Literatures. In 1788 he published the first part of his History of the of the Netherlands.

his theme.








Constant discussions


with Goethe and Christian Gottfried Koerner helped him to up his doubts and overcome the difficulties of his sub-

He found that history left too little room for sympathy

with Wallenstein, for he conceived him as really guilty of He decided early to lighten the gloom of his treason. theme by introducing the love episode of Max and Thekla. He modified also his view of the nature of Wallenstein 's Gradually the material grew upon him. What he guilt. had planned as a Prologue became the one-act play, Wallenstein' s

Camp, which, when


was produced in October,

1798, at the reopening of the Weimar Theatre, was preceded by 138 lines of Dedication, since printed as the Pro-

Already Schiller had foreseen the development into five acts, and accordingly The Piccolomini appeared separately, January 30, 1799, and the whole series in order about the middle of April, upon the completion of

more than

name rather than in real Wallenstein' s Camp is connection and relation of parts. a picture of masses, introducing only common soldiers and none of the chief personages of the other parts of the composition.

Wallenstein''s Death. Wallenstein is a trilogy, but in


is to

present something of the tre-

mendous background

of the action proper and to give a realizing sense of the influence upon Wallenstein 's career as Schiller of the soldiery with which he operated



in a line of his

explains to us his


" His Prologue: camp alone this he meant that, on the By

one hand, the blind confidence of the troops in the luck and the destiny of their leader made him arrogant and reckless, and, on the other hand, perhaps, that the mercenary character of these soldiers of fortune forced Wallenstein to steps which his calm judgment would have condemned. In a succession of eleven scenes of very unequal length the various arms of the service are introduced, together with camp followers and a Capuchin preacher in reminis;



cences the earlier features of the great war and some feats of the general are recalled; in discussions the character of

Wallenstein and of his leading officers is sketched; finally the report of the recent demand of the Emperor, that Wallenstein detach 8,000 men to escort the Cardinal Infant to the Netherlands, reveals the opposition of the army to such an order and its unconditional loyalty to Wallenstein. The second and third parts of the trilogy, The Piccolomini and Wallenstein' s Death, constitute, in fact, one ten-

which requires two evenings for presentation. So organic division between the two plays that, as first presented, in the fall of 1798 and the spring of 1799, The Piccolomini included the first two acts of Wallenstein' s Death as later printed and here given, while the last three acts were so divided as to constitute five. The Piccolomini, which could not be reprinted in this " anthology, presents essentially what is called the exposition of the entire drama, together with a part of the Questenberg, the imperial comcomplication of the plot.
act play,
slight is the
' '

missioner, visits Wallenstein 's headquarters in Pilsen to present the order of the Emperor for the detachment of
eight regiments of Wallenstein 's best cavalry to serve as escort to the Cardinal Infant on his way to the Nether-

meets distrust and almost incredible defiance officers, excepting Octavio Piccolomini, one of the oldest and most trusted, to whom he brings secret dispatches directing him to supersede Wallenstein in case of the latter 's open rebellion, which the court believes he has already determined upon. Wallenstein himself meets the demands with a reproachful reference


from Wallenstein 's

powers intrusted to him by the Emperor as the condition of his assuming the command, but announces that he will relieve him from embarrassment by resigning. This announcement is received with a storm of protests from his officers. Questenberg and Octavio
to the violation of the plenary

are deeply concerned to make sure of the adherence to their cause of Octavio 's son, Max, a child of the camp and an



Max has just arrived especial favorite with "Wallenstein. Wallenstein 's wife and of his daughter at Pilsen as escort of
Thekla, to


he has lost his heart.

Wallenstein and

his masterful sister, Countess Terzky, are also eager to secure Max to their side in the coming conflict, and the


Countess tries to persuade Thekla to govern her actions Thekla, however, is nobly frank with Max
to trust only his

and warns him




for she realizes

that the threads of a dark plot are drawing close about herself and Max, though she does not clearly understand


it is.

Meanwhile Terzky and


have planned a

meeting of Wallenstein 's officers to protest against his In a splendid banquet scene they present a withdrawal.
written agreement (Revers) to stand by the general so far as loyalty to the Emperor will permit, and then, when all are heated with wine, secure signatures to a substituted

document from which

tins reservation of loyalty to
It is the





hope of


and Terzky,

through the sight of this document, to persuade WallenMax Piccolomini, coming late to stein to open rebellion. from the interview with Thekla, refuses to the banquet
sign the pledge, not because he sees through the deception, but because he is in no mood for business. Before morning his father summons him, thinking Max has refused to sign because he scented the intended treason, and reveals



whole situation

— the





Wallenstein 's dangerous negotiations with enemies of the

Emperor, and his own commission to take command and Max is thundersave whatever he can of loyal troops.

He can believe neither Wallenstein 's purpose of struck. treason nor his father's duplicity in dealing behind the He refuses to follow his back of his great commander. father's orders and leaves him with the avowed intention of going to Wallenstein and calling upon him to clear hin>
calumnious charges of the court. At this point begins the action of Wallenstein' s Death. In all of his later dramas excepting William Tell, Schiller
self of the
Vol. ITT



' '

endeavored to introduce a factor which is called the dramatic guilt," a circumstance, usually in the character of the hero but sometimes in his environment, which makes the tragic outcome inevitable and yet leaves room in the breast of the reader or spectator for sympathy with the hero in In the case of Wallenstein this " guilt " is the his fate. dalliance with the love of power and the possibility of
rebellion, not a deliberate intention to commit treason. In the close of his treatment of Wallenstein in The Thirty " No one of his actions Years' War Schiller says justifies us in considering him convicted of treason. * * * Thus Wallenstein fell, not because he was a rebel, but he rebelled because he fell." The circumstances are urged that Wallenstein was a prince of the Empire, and had as such the right to negotiate with foreign powers that his delegated authority from the


Emperor gave him the right to do so in the Emperor's name; that the Emperor had not kept faith with Wallenstein, and had thus justified him in at least frightening the
court; that self preservation seemed to indicate rebellion as the only recourse; that Wallenstein 's belief in his destiny and the fatuous devotion of his army led him to reckless action; and finally that he did not originally intend to commit actual treason. Thus prepared, the reader can easily sympathize with

Wallenstein in his downfall this sympathy is entirely won by the admirable courage with which Wallenstein bears the successive blows of fate, and it is strengthened by consideration of the mean motives of the men who serve as the

and by the remembrance that the fate of Max and Thekla is bound up in his. Schiller was concerned lest the love episode should detract from the interest due the chief persons of the tragedy; his art has
tools of his execution,

effected the exact opposite. The influence of Shakespeare is

more or

less obvious in

Aside from the splendid rhetoric of the monologues, the character of Countess
of Schiller's later dramas.



Terzky, so similar to that of Lady Macbeth, suggests this. But such influence is not so controlling as to be in any Goethe in his generous respect a reproach to Schiller. admiration considered Wallenstein " so great that nothing could be compared with it. " "In the imaginative power

whereby history
artistic genius



into drama, in the

triumph of

over a vast and refractory mass of material, and in the skill with which the character of the hero is conceived and denoted, Wallenstein is unrivaled. Its chief figure is by far the stateliest and most impressive of German tragic heroes."*



The Life and Works

of Schiller, p. 330.





the Generalissimo of Imperial Forces in the Thirty Years' War. Duchess of Friedland, Wife of Wallenstein. Thekla, her Daughter, Princess of

Butler, an Irishman, Commander of a Regiment of Dragoons. Gordon, Governor of Egra. Major Geraldin. Captain Devereux.


Captain Macdonald. An Adjutant.

The Countess Terzky, Sister of the

Neumann, Captain

of Cavalry, Aide-

to Terzky.

Lady Neubbunn.

Colonel Wbangel, Envoy from the



Piccolomini, his Son, Colonel of a Regiment of Cuirassiers.

Rosenburg, Master Swedish Captain.

of Horse.

Count Terzky,



several Regiments, and Brother-in law of Wallenstein.

Burgomaster of Egra. Anspessade of the Cuirassiers. Groom of the







Belonging to the Duke.


Isolani, General of the Croats.

Cuirassiers, Dragoons, Servants








A Room


up for



and provided with


Telescopes, Quadrants, and other mathematical Instruments Seven Colossal Figures, representing the Planets, each circle in the background, so that Mars and Saturn are nearest the eye.
Charts, with

The remainder of the Scene, and its disposition, is given in the Fourth There must be a Curtain over the Figures, Scene of the Second Act. which may be dropped, and conceal them on occasion. [In the Fifth Scene of this Act it must be dropped; but in the Seventh Scene it must be again drawn up wholly or in part.] Wallenstein at a black Table, on which a Speculum Astrologicum is described with Chalk. Seni is taking Observations through a window.

ended, Seni.

All well

— and


let it


rules the

The dawn commences, and Mars

We must give o'er We know enough.

the operation.


Your Highness must permit me Just to contemplate Venus. She's now rising; Like as a sun, so shines she in the east.

Wallenst. She

And now

at present in her perigee, shoots down her strongest influences.

[Contemplating the figure on the table.] Auspicious aspect fateful in conjunction,

At length

And And

the mighty three corradiate the two stars of blessing, Jupiter


Venus, take between them the malignant Slily-malicious Mars, and thus compel


service that old mischief-founder:

Permission The Macmillan Co.,


York, and G. Bell & Sons, London.


For long he viewed me hostilely, and ever With beam oblique, or perpendicular, Now in the Quartile, now in the Secundan,

Shot his red lightnings at my stars, disturbing Their blessed influences and sweet aspects. Now they have conquer 'd the old enemy, And bring him in the heavens a prisoner to me. Sent (who has come down from the window). And in a corner house, your Highness think

of that


That makes each influence of double strength. Wallenst. And sun and moon, too, in the Sextile aspect, The soft light with the vehement so I love it Sol is the heart, Luna the head of heaven; Bold be the plan, fiery the execution.


both the mighty Lumina by no Maleficus affronted. Lo! Saturnus, Innocuous, powerless, in cadente Domo. Wallenst. The empire of Saturnus is gone by Lord of the secret birth of things is he


"Within the lap of earth, and in the depths Of the imagination dominates;


his are all things that

The time is For Jupiter,

eschew the light. o'er of brooding and contrivance,
the lustrous, lordeth now,

And the dark work, complete of preparation, He draws by force into the realm of light.

Now must we hasten on to action, ere The scheme and most auspicious positure Parts o'er my head, and takes once more



the heavens journey

There 's Tekzky (from without).
Open, and Wallenstein.

still, and sojourn not. [There are knocks at the door.] some one knocking there. See who it is.




Ay —





there of such urgence ?


are busy.








I entreat you.] Scene II Wallenstein. and exit. all aside at present. every Negotiation with the Swede and Saxon. enters Illo Scene III To them Illo (to Terzky). [Seni draws off the black table. lurking for him. had been long in ambush. There must have been found on him packet my whole to Kinsky. : insight Into the whole — our measures and our motives. Has he heard it? Terzky. Count Terzky Terzky (enters). Through whose hands all and everything has pass'd Wallenstein (drawing back).] Wallenstein (to Terzky). who knows Terzky. It suffers no delaying. — — He was plunged down upon by Who Gallas' agent. No! I entreat thee. Hast thou already heard it? He is taken. He has heard it. they have now an To Thur. [While Open.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Terzky (from without). Seni! Seni opens the door for Terzky. to Oxenstiern. Say. Gallas has given him up to the Emperor. Nay. to Arnheim All this is in their hands. 87 Lay Wallenstein. . Wallenstein draws the curtain over the figures. Who has been taken? Who is given up? The man who knows our secrets. not Sesina? All on his road for Regensburg to the Swede Terzky.

at least appear so. speak! us. will not stand on thy reck'ning? His word must pass for thy word with the Swede. yet still they know What thou hast wish'd then forwards thou must : press. not with those that hate thee at Vienna? But bethink In writing thou gavest nothing — thee. Thee WALLENST. Abandon me. — tell What art thou waiting for? . and in hands. They must be satisfied. And That what husband. And Terzky. Retreat is now no longer in thy power. Tebzky. to regain To make thy peace His confidence? E'en were it now thy wish To abandon all thy plans. this thou believest. Lies lost. will he retain them? Thyself dost not conceive it possible. if thou resign 'st it. Thou canst no of rescue longer Keep thy command and beyond hope Thou'rt Wallenstein. sister's man. Which show beyond all power of contradiction no iota. and they must gulpit down And if I give them caution for my fealty. They have documents against us. with the Emperor. lies. by yielding up secret purposes. And since they now have evidence authentic How far thou hast already gone. — .Of my handwriting — — I punish for thy Illo. Whatever they may know. and what thy Did in thy name. How With far thou ventured 'st this Sesina! by word of mouth he be silent? And will If he can save himself Thy Illo. In the army The army will not my security. The power is mine.88 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Thinkest thou still Illo (to Wallenstein).

to decision. Wallenst. moment — Duke. think At thy And if — Their confidence is lost. irreparably! will. they'll undermine that love On which thou now dost feel so firm a footing. cost. cursed accident Yes. How sincerely Soever I return back to my duty. From open violence The attachment of thy soldiery secures thee Today tomorrow: but grant 'st thou them a — respite Unheard. have strength enough Wallenstein (lost in thought). traitor to my country. work on thee as it ought to do. His neck is forfeit. that dastardling. the other — 'Tis a cursed accident ! ! Oh If I will call it a most blessed one. The quiet power of time. is thine now — for 'Tis thine. It will no longer help me — Euin ! thee. Sesina knows too much. Can he save himself you he will scruple it? him to the torture. Hurry thee on to action The Swedish General Wallenstein. will he. 89 this The army. I shall And I may act which way I Be and remain forever in their thought A Illo. He's a Bohemian fugitive and rebel. and won't be silent.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTELN Illo. but think with terror on the slow. they put Will he. With wily theft will draw away from thee One after Wallenstein. unseen. Illo. That it will do Not thy fidelity. He's arrived! Know'st thou it — is — What Illo. A cursed. Thy weakness will be deemed the sole occasion — . Terzky. his commission — To ! thee alone Will he intrust the purpose of his coming. yes.

Because I toy'd too freely with the thought! Accursed he who dallies with a devil I must realize it now And must I while I have the power. And after weigh it. And The Illo. call him door in waiting. Should force me on with it. . The regiments. [Exeunt Terzky and Illo.90 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Wallenstein {pacing up and down in extreme agitation). What I must realize it now in earnest. me . With Illo. its dark lordship.] . openly resist the Imperial orders. first step to revolt's already taken. There needed no such thing 'twixt him and you. He stands without the Wallenstein. thou wilt find it far more easy To lead them over to the enemy Than Wallenstein. Flanders — Have sent me in a paper of remonstrance. to the Spaniard. Wallenst. too. deny to march for ! — ! — — — ' — . Go. What the Swede has to say to me. First hear him only. and blind agency. Stay ! Stay but a little. however. He is quite right there needed no such thing. it must take place 1 Now. Now now ere they can ward and parry it! Illo. It hath taken me All by surprise it came too quick upon 'Tis wholly novel that an accident. Wallenstein (looking at the paper of signatures) a written promise I have the Generals word how's that? Max. Illo (eagerly to Terzky). Illo. Piccolomini stands not here he fancied It was Terzky. Mere self-willedness. Believe me. — — — ! . I will hear.

91 Wallenstein (in soliloquy). I but amused myself with thinking of it. the access open? By the great God of Heaven it was not ! from My serious meaning. no track behind me. I cannot roll off from me .] punishable man I seem. To fill the air with pretty toys of air. . left all time uncertain. The free-will tempted me. that traitor. even my purest acts from purest motives Suspicion poisons with malicious gloss. — A [Pauses and remains in deep thought. Rises obedient to the spells I muttered And meant not my own doings tower behind me. Try what I will. The equivocal demeanor of my life And Bears witness on my prosecutor's party. — And clutch fantastic sceptres moving t'ward me Was not the will kept free? Beheld I not The road of duty close beside me — but One little step. Were I that thing for which I pass. insurmountable. the power to do Or not to do it Was it criminal To make the fancy minister to hope. it was ne'er resolved. because I thought of it? Is't so? And fed this heart here with a dream? Because I did not scowl temptation my presence. Dallied with thoughts of possible fulfilment. A goodly outside I had sure reserved. but a wall Impenetrable. Commenced no movement. I Is it possible? can no longer what I would? No longer draw back at my liking? I Must do the deed. And only kept the road. the guilt.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Scene IV. ! and once more I was in it ! Where am I? Whither have I been transported? No road.

I gave way to my humors. . Now caught in my own net.92 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Had drawn the me. self-preservation. chance event. And all the May-games of a heart o'erflowing. My deed was mine. it belongs Forever to those sly malicious powers Whom never art of man conciliated. My eye ne'er absent from the far-off mark. because my deeds were : not. and weave them all together Into one web of treason all will be plain. my uncorrupted will. can liberate me. its nursery and birth-place.] What is thy enterprise?' thy aim? thy object? Hast honestly confess 'd it to thyself? . which Necessity. orders. to my passion Bold were my words. : Sent forth into the Foreign. the vaunt of joy and triumph. coverings thick and double round Been calm and chary of my utterance But being conscious of the innocence Of my intent. now Not without shudder may a human hand Grasp the mysterious urn of destiny. remaining in my bosom Once suffer 'd to escape from its safe corner Within the heart. every planless measure. and only force. Will they connect. then pauses. each step a politic progress And out of all they'll fabricate a charge So specious that I must myself stand dumb.] How else! since that the heart's unbias'd in- stinct Impell'd me to the daring deed. [Paces in agitation through the chamber. I am [Pauses again. Stern is the on-look of Necessity. . Nought but a sudden rent. The threat of rage. . and after the pause breaks out again into audible soliloquy. Step tracing step.

Be in possession. the dear inheritance Who From his forefathers For time consecrates And what is gray with age becomes religion. This. ! — ! [The Page exit. the quite common. ! . — — — . I brave each combatant. . By Not that. coward fear alone made fearful to me. Strong in possession. let him enter. and thou hast the right. is his And custom nurse ! Woe then to them lay irreverent hands upon his old House furniture. not. Power on an ancient consecrated throne. founded in all custom. for today 'twas sterling! of the wholly common is man made. full himself of courage. can look on.] Yet is it pure as yet the crime has come Not o 'er this threshold yet so slender is The boundary that divideth life 's two paths.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 93 Power seated on a quiet throne thou'dst shake. kindles courage In me too.] The Swedish officer! Well. And sacred will the many guard it for thee [To the Page who here enters. Who. instinct with power. That fear'd I Whom I — Which its in the human heart opposes me. ! For Sterling tomorrow. the perilously formidable. The thing of an eternal yesterday. no it is the common. fixing eye to eye. this will be no strife of strength with strength. Wallenstein fixes his eye in deep thought on the door. Makes known its present being that is not The true. which full of life. and evermore returns. What ever was. 'Tis a foe invisible The which I fear a fearful enemy. Power by a thousand tough and stringy roots Fix'd to the people's pious nursery-faith.

. Who Wrangel. He says the truth. seat. was the cause Of the opposition which that sea-port made. should have command. I come to place a diadem thereon. now in Intelligent master heaven. It was a Wrangel Wallenstein.94 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene V Wallenstein and Weangel Wallenstein (after having fixed a searching look on him). Your name is Wrangel? Gustave Wrangel. that he but fulfils His late departed Sovereign's own idea In helping me to the Bohemian crown.] Wallenstein (makes the motion for him to take a seats himself). it seem'd. Wrangel. — ! An able letter! — Ay — he is a prudent whom you serve. Wrangel. He said. my Lord! and not merit. my The Baltic Neptune did assert his freedom: The sea and land. injured me And by It his brave resistance materially at Stralsund. General Weangel. There are so many scruples yet to solve Wallenstein (having read the credentials). Did ever deem most highly of your Grace's Preeminent sense and military genius. was the doing of the element With which you fought. [Wallenst. Wrangel. were not to serve One and the same. And always the commanding Intellect. and be the King. Our great King. Of the Sudermanian Blues. and And where General? Come you provided with are your credentials ? Sir full powers. Sir General The Chancellor writes me. You pluck 'd the Admiral's hat from off my head.

Yes. I had you often in my power. I see. The Swede is fighting for his good old cause. Has each but only Wallenst. Which drives me to this present step and Our interests so run in one direction. in the other. I confess If I — the game does not lie wholly To my advantage. can play false with the Emperor. Without doubt he thinks. General Wrangel. 'Tis this for which the Court can ne'er forgive ! me. The Emperor hath urged me to the uttermost: I can no longer honorably serve him. this take hard step. I was always — A Swede at heart. Trust me. and that the one too were Sooner to be forgiven me than the other. is my sovereign. in self-defence. and let you Always slip out by some back door or other. which my conscience blames.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 95 Wallenst. too. I can do the like With the enemy. Wallenst. And.] Come. does not quite trust me. Sir General? Wrangel. Who For I my security. [Taking his hand affectionately. no opinion. still. he might say it safely. : since E'en let us have a thorough confidence Confidence will come Each Wrangel. Who was So far would no one go not forced to it. Is not this your opinion. Beseems not us to expound or criticise. . Eh that did you experience Both in Silesia and at Nuremberg. The Chancellor first security. Wrangel. That I believe. fair and open. [After a pause. I have here a duty merely.] What may have impell'd Your princely Highness in this wise to act Toward your Sovereign Lord and Emperor.

ay. beyond all human faith. friend! To break their oaths. Of what then are ye doubting? Of my will? — Or of my power? I pledged me to the Chancellor. no Wallenst. It might yet be an easier thing from nothing How — To call forth sixty thousand men of battle. We take what offers without questioning. And if all have its due and just proportions Wallenst. We've no such . And he thinks so? — He And like a Protestant. is in our favor. and loves . Your Grace is known to be a mighty war-chief. like a creation: But yet But yet? Wallenstein. But still the Chancellor thinks Wrangel. That I would instantly go over to them With eighteen thousand of the Emperor's troops. You Lutherans Fight for your Bible. Great God here in Heaven! Have then the people No house and home. Wrangel. no altar? I will explain that to you. Would he trust me with sixteen thousand men. fireside. whoe'er deserts To the enemy hath broken covenant With two Lords at one time. The Austrian has a country. ' Tis talked of still with fresh astonishment. fancies. Wrangel. To be a second Attila and Pyrrhus. some years past.96 THE GERMAN CLASSICS With his good sword and conscience. This con- currence. Than to persuade one sixtieth part of them Wallenst. What now? Out with it. And all advantages in war are lawful. how it stands : — it. Wallenst. Among you. Wrangel. You call'd an army forth. You are interested About the cause and with your hearts you follow Your banners. judges like a Swede. This opportunity.

THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN And That Here This has good cause to love in it 97 this calls itself the Imperial. The Rhinegrave stands but four days' march from here — 7 . A In the world's history. through. this that Bohemia. my Lord Duke. such a felony. glowing and avenging mem'ry lives Of cruel deeds committed on these plains. at the oppression of their con- And power hath only awed but not appeased them. It is without example.] lags it on the table. and. Unclaim'd by town or tribe. your own eyes you must trust. hath given to it. Mine unconditionally — mine They are' all mine all — writ- on terms.] Wrangel. this an outcast of all foreign lands. to whom belongs is — but army. — Nothing except the universal sun. choice or will. [He gives him the paper containing the ten oath. Ill — Comprehend who can! Lord Duke. Whether they suffer or avenge their wrongs. Wrangel reads it. And this Bohemian land for which we fight [Loves not the master whom the chance of war. Not me. I will let the mask drop My yes! I've full powers for a final settlement. Wallenstein. houses has none — no country. it having read ing silent. you? Vol. Not its own Men murmur science. But then the Nobles and the Officers? Such a desertion. remain- So then? Now comprehend Wrangel. How can the son forget that here his father Was hunted by the blood-hound to the mass? A people thus oppress 'd must still be feared.

* Irrevocably break with the Emperor. But 'tis not the protection that is now Our sole concern. Wallenstein. immediately We're compromised. that he do formally. Wallenstein. every man a Swede my head and all might prove at last The warranty Sir Swede! — Wrangel therefore forced {calmly proceeding). asks the Chancellor? Wrangel {considerately) — Only false play — Wallenstein (starting). Wrangel. — — — I can myself protect. Wrangel. And 'Tis but reasonable. T' insist thereon. that he seize on Prague. That is much indeed! Wallenstein. Sir General. Wallenst. brief. We doubt it not. That he forthwith disarm the Spanish regiments Attached to the Emp'ror. and open! What is the demand? Wrangel. till we are indemnified. What . Then trust you us so little ? . with The strong pass Egra. Those orders I give out. And to the Swedes give up that city. Am Else not a Swede is trusted to Duke Friedland. Prague Egra 's granted 'T won't do. Twelve regiments. and only waits For orders to proceed and join your army. so long Stays Prague in pledge. We want security That we shall not expend our men and money All to no purpose. Come. — ! — — but — but Prague ! I give you every security Which you may ask of me in common reason Bohemia But Prague these.98 THE GERMAN CLASSICS With fifteen thousand men. Wallenstein.

THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Wrangel (rising). the body of their great king having been found at the foot of it. it never was No. the which Our Monarch conquer 'd for himself. fain send us. look askance with evil eye upon us. with empty laurels for our payment. if he would treat well with the German. home again to our old forests. 99 The Swede. not for gold and silver have there bled So many of our Swedish Nobles neither And would — — Will we. Help Who Secret negotiations with the Saxons. that you carry on Wallenst. with some paltry sum Of money. the load alone is felt. That we did leave our King by the Great Stone* No. after the battle in which he lost his life. to keep down the common enemy. we have saved the empire From ruin with our best blood have we sealed The liberty of faith and gospel truth. Citizens Will we remain upon the soil. But when the common enemy lies vanquish 'd. since called the Swede's Stone. that we are not The sacrifices in those articles Which 'tis thought needful to conceal from us? great stone near Liitzen. is our warranty. foreigners. Wrangel. and died. * A . But now already is the benefaction — No Ye As longer felt. Must keep a sharp look-out. intruders in the empire. Who knits together our new friendship then? We know. for chinking gold and silver. We have been call 'd Over the Baltic. Hoist sail for our own country. Duke Friedland! though perhaps the Swede Ought not to have known it. no! my Lord Duke! no! For Judas' pay. And the fair border land must needs be yours.

will the Chancellor as broken off for ever. Wallenst. at any hour. But Egra above all must open to Ere we can think of any junction. my Lord Duke. ! ! — No longer since Sesina's been a prisoner. Think you of something better. I must I trust. We believe that you My At present do mean honorably by Since yesterday we're sure of that — and now us. no longer. and step Back to my Emperor. hear me and silenced. Surrender up to you my capital Far liever would I face about. Today. —struck. to your Grace gives up Ratschin and the narrow side. Here my commission ends. Wallenstein. there's nothing Stands in the way of our full confidence. Crept on into the second year Consider it ! If nothing Is settled this time. That lies with me. . and not you me f I will consider of your proposition. You. perhaps. us. measure such as this. [Wallenstein is Lord Duke. Hear! The Chancellor He Contents himself with Altstadt. Wallenst. Already Has this negotiation.] This paper warrants for the troops. Gustave Wrangel Of Prague no more.100 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Wallenstein (rises). If time yet permits Wrangel. Wrangel. Ought to be thought A of. Wrangel. therefore You Wrangle. Some days ago. Ye press me hard. Prague shall not part us. must entreat that your consideration Occupy not too long a time. Wallenst. even now.

To live upon the mercy of these Swedes Of these proud-hearted Swedes! I could not — ! Illo. as mendicant? Bringest thou not more to them than thou ceivest? re- Wallenst. but bethink you. Terzky. Terzky. That sudden action only can procure it think first of this. The enmity of sects. promised. Long cherish 'd envy. True faith. the rage of parties. Curses were his reward. jealousy. Come on me what The doing evil to avoid an evil Cannot be good! will come. Wallenst. 101 Ay! but think of this too. Goest thou as fugitive. Duke. Must ever be the dearest friend of man: His nature prompts him to assert its rights. your Highness. pierced the bosom of his father-land? Avenged Illo.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Wrangel.] — Scene VI Wallenstein. How Who And fared it with the brave and royal Bourbon sold himself unto his country's foes. unite. bear it. and Illo (re-enter) Illo. I tell thee. Success [Exit Wrangel. Nay. And all the struggling elements of evil . How? What is that? Went Wallenstein. Illo. Is that thy case? Wallenstein. As yet is nothing settled: and (well weighed) I feel myself inclined to leave it so. Terzky. Are you compromised? This Swede Yes! you're comsmiling from you. and men's abhorrence th' unnatural and revolting deed. It's all right? Terzky. Wallenst.

Terzky. He will not what he must! Countess. Less scrupulous far was the Imperial Charles. Countess. For still by policy the world is ruled. I There no business here you joy. I entreat you . am come to bid : You know I it is routed. Wallenst. The powerful head of this illustrious house. the back. Countess. but attack me in the trade of words the weapon a woman : With Countess. For vain were man's own prudence to protect him.102 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Suspend their conflict. I cannot traffic am if that destroys me. Terzky bid her go. Wallenst. Wallenstein Countess {sarcastically). — 'Tis only in the forehead nature plants Terzky. that unreasoning sex. Where men repose in confidence and peace. With open arms he gave the Bourbon welcome. They have one. Who sent for you? For women. who stretch their hands with joy to — greet thee. Set not this tongue upon me. Ha what new ! scruple The Duke will not. ? In consequence. Come I perhaps too early? I hope not. (to the others). no doubt. Think not more meanly of thyself than do Thy foes. Scene VII To these enter the Countess Terzky is Wallenst. without defence. The watchful eye Must find its shield in man's fidelity. Use thy authority. and together league In one alliance 'gainst their common foe The savage beast that breaks into the fold. I had already Given the Bohemians a king. .

Another time. Then hadst thou courage and resolve and now. determine to commence A new one. Countess (hastily). For all event is God's arbitrament. were yet a choice if yet some milder of escape were possible I still Way Will choose it. Servant (enters). Try. an immortal undertaking: And with success comes pardon hand in hand. I cannot see him now. Dost thou begin to play the dastard now? . Now Plann'd merely. To Vienna — . 'tis a common felony. to talk to me of conscience How? then.] Wallenst. Desirest thou nothing further? Such a way Lies still before thee.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Illo. Wallenst. Servant. Thou shalt be inform 'd hereafter. What is it? Countess. Countess (laughs). Who knows what he may bring us I will hear ! him. If there ! — Forget thou thy old hopes. and avoid the last extreme. For I am When folks begin And of fidelity. [Exit Servant. Must wait. First let the Swede and thee be compromised. no doubt? but thou may'st wait. Countess. As well as fame and fortune. Wallenst. when all in the far-off distance. Virtue hath her heroes too. that the dream is being realized. Wallenst. Countess. But for two minutes he entreats an audience: Of the most urgent nature is his business. The purpose ripe. Urgent for him. the issue ascertain 'd. The Colonel Piccolomini. cast far away All thy past life. Send this Wrangel off. It lies 103 silenced with you now. Accomplish 'd. when the road Lay Stretch 'd out before thine eyes interminably.

and so all returns To the old position. the Emperor the Thou didst but wish to prove thy fealty Thy whole intention but to dupe the Swede. and build. There will not want a formal declaration The young King will administer the oath To the whole army. The King of Hungary Makes his appearance. mighty Prince to his what then? last dying hour? is Duke Friedland the as others. . They have not evidence To attaint him legally. Illo. For that too 'tis too late. . On some morrow morning The Duke departs and now 'tis stir and bustle . An over-night creation of court-favor. gives golden keys. whom war hath raised To price and currency. They know too much. fire-new Noble. And superintend his horses' pedigrees. and nice etiquette Keeps open table with high cheer: in brief. They '11 let the Duke resign without disturbance. And gives himself no actual importance. He would but bear his own head to the block. Countess. I see how all will end. proportions. He will be let appear whate'er he likes: And who dares doubt that Friedland will appear A A "Well now. . Which with an undistinguishable ease Makes Baron or makes Prince. fine — And while he prudently demeans himself. And In introduces strictest ceremony . Commences mighty King in miniature. Creates himself a court.104 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Hence Take a — to full throne — kneel before coffer with thee — say aloud. and 'twill of itself Be understood that then the Duke retires. Within his castles. a Jonah's gourd. I fear not that. He will hunt. and they avoid The avowal of an arbitrary power.

Help me to perceive it! not Superstition's nightly goblins Subdue thy clear bright spirit Art thou bid To murder? with abhorr'd.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Waixenstein 105 Take her away. I ! no tongue-hero. I am annihilated. let What is there here. having been Waulenstein (starts up in violent agitation). Dangers nor sacrifices will I shun. then. a light evil But to become a nothing. So against nature? — ! have hazarded such a Germanism as the use of the word after" Es spreche Welt und Nachwelt meinen Namen" have heen rendered with more literal fidelity: Let world and aftermight world speak out my name. Countess. Let in the young Count Piccoloniini. cannot say To the good luck that turns her back upon me. little. Countess. Could I * world. Am But ere I sink Leave off so Ere that the world confuses me with those Poor wretches whom a dav creates and crumbles." Cease I to work. that arrogated such an height To end in such a nothing! To be nothing. tion For each accursed deed. is an evil That asks no stretch of patience. I need thee not. down into nothingness. If so I may avoid the last extreme I . Ye powers of Aidance Show me such a way As I am capable of going. Art thou in earnest! I entreat thee! Canst thou Consent to bear thyself to thy own grave. one was always nothing. who began so great. Show me a way out of this stifling crowd. This age and after ages* speak my name With hate and dread and Friedland be redemp. no fine virtue-prattler. cannot warm by thinking. accursed poinard. for posterity — — . etc. When — . " Magnanimously: Go. (in extreme agitation). So ignominiously to be dried up? Thy life.

— And hast no memory for contumelies? Must I remind thee. which necessity lives that thing so meek not all his living faculties and tame. that might aptly Make thy flesh shudder. to make him great. So faithfully preserves thou each small favor. the curse of the whole world. Once was this Ferdinand so gracious to me loved me. both at one table. Wallenst. Have ventured even this. the hate. and thy whole heart sicken. werth Die Eingeweide schaudernd aufzureger.106 THE GERMAN CLASSICS To violate the breasts that nourish 'd thee? That were against our nature. hadst loaded on thee. — * I have not ventured to affront the fastidious delicacy of our age with a literal translation of this line. and perform 'd it. I was placed The nearest to his heart. . On thee. Full many a time We like familiar friends. And He desperation will not sanctify? .* Yet not a few. What is there in thy case so black and monstrous 1 Thou art accused of treason whether with — Or without justice is not now the question Thou art lost if thou dost not avail thee quickly FriedOf the power which thou possessest land! Duke! — — Tell me where That doth Put forth in preservation of his life? What deed so daring. and for a meaner object. He and I — And the young kings themselves held me the basin and is't come to this? Wherewith to wash me Countess. he esteem 'd me. how at Regensburg This man repaid thy faithful services? All ranks and all conditions in the empire Thou hadst wronged. Have banqueted together. ay.

The law of hard necessity replaced thee. remonstrant! Necessity. Say not the restoration of thy honor Has made atonement for that first injustice. who'll have the thing and not the the best. it was that placed thee was she that gave thee Thy letters patent of inauguration. with puppets! still proach . This race With help themselves at cheapest rate At the apslavish souls.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN No friend And why? existed for thee in all 107 Germany. For. I shall therein abuse — Is served. to that insolent Deposed. this Necessity. amid the taunting of thy foes. Affection! confidence! they needed thee. or shows of proxy. Ever seeks out the greatest and And at the rudder places him. it In this high office . symbol. To the Emperor alone Clung Friedland in that storm which gather 'd round him At Regensburg thee! in the Diet — and ! he dropp'd He let thee fall ! he let thee fall a victim To the Bavarian. impetuous Who not with empty names. Thou wert let drop into obscurity. that : is certain. Not to their good wishes. Nor For yet to his affection I'm indebted this high office and if I abuse it. because thou hadst existed only For the Emperor. — Wallenst. stript bare of all thy dignity And power. Which they had fain opposed. Countess. e'en though She had been forced to take him from the rabble — She. to the uttermost moment that they can. No honest good-will was it that replaced thee. no confidence. but that they could not.

the universal scourge. not thou Who hast still remained consistent with thyself. For. who fearing thee. of the spirit giant-born. when a hollow image found a hollow image and no more. The fearful rights of strength alone exertedst. duties. knows nothing Of stipulations. reverences. to earth each rank. And. Always I never held it worth my pains to hide ! — ! my Countess. no. But they are in the wrong. by the laws of Spirit. which had been Once granted to thee.108 THE GEBMAN CLASSICS Of extreme Is peril. And sword. 'Tis true they saw me always as I am I did not cheat them in the bargain. Didst mock all ordinances of the empire. fire. in the right Is every individual character That acts in strict consistence with itself. The bold all-grasping habit A formidable man. . then. Self-contradiction is the only wrong. Wallenst. and desolation. Who listens only to himself. Nay rather — thou hast ever shown thyself of soul. without restraint . Therefore. Duke. ere it reaches them. Hast exercised the full prerogatives Of thy impetuous nature. to teach thee ordinance. through the Circles Of Germany. each magistracy. their artificial policy. Wert thou another when thou Eight years ago pursuedst thy march with being. Unmaster'd scorches. the Emperor felt no touch of conscience . Their fine-spun webs. Trampledst All to extend thy Sultan's domination? Then was the time to break thee in. to curb But Thy haughty will. Then falls the power into the mighty hands Of Nature. like the emancipated force of fire. Intrusted such a power in hand they fear'd.

I never saw it in this light before . Then betwixt thee and him (confess it Friedland!) The point can be no more of right and Only of power and the opportunity. The moment comes It is . and himself make conquest Of the now empty seat. The planets shoot good fortune in fair junctions. today once become because it is directed Opprobrious. " Now's the time! " The starry courses Hast thou thy life long measured to no purpose? The quadrant and the circle. ere thy opponent Anticipate thee. deeds most unorderly.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 109 What served him pleased him. owe to what were services to him. But most high misdemeanors 'gainst the empire. because thou didst it For him. That opportunity. foul. is all at — ! Wallenstein (rising). Hast pictured on these walls. which I wear. Seize with firm hand the reins. duty. Countess. and without a murmur He stamp 'd his broad seal on these lawless deeds. already here. lo! it comes yonder Approaching with swift steeds. And tell thee. when thou must write The absolute total of thy life's vast sum. What at that time was right. 'Tis even so. and all around thee . even this prince's mantle. most flimsy superstition Against him. The Emperor perpetrated Deeds through And I my arm. were they playthings? [Pointing to the different objects in the room. The constellations stand victorious o'er thee.] The zodiacs. the rolling orbs of heaven. then with a swing Throw thyself up into the chariot-seat.

Can I retreat Still destiny preserves its due relations. Myself will speak to The couriers.] conduct you Gustave Wrangel Go. And dispatch immediately servant for Octavio Piccolomim. Every crime Has. triumph not! For jealous are the Powers of Destiny. let him not hope To reap a joyous harvest. in heaven be praised! and mine. Its own avenging angel at the inmost heart. foreboding symbols hast thou placed These seven presiding Lords of Destiny — For toys? Is there no That even to thyself it doth avail Nothing. [To the Countess. Wallenst.110 THE GERMAN CLASSICS In dumb. in the moment of its perpetration. stops suddenly. dark misgiving. An ominous sinking He can no longer trust me. To my state-cabinet. And I expect no less than that Revenge E'en now is whetting for my breast the poinard. stands still. who cannot conceal her — — triumph. It is his evil Our evil Through me. me Illo (hurrying out). is its absolute A [To Terzky. In the great moment of decision? Wallenstein (during this last speech walks up and down with inward struggles. genius It chastises him genius ! God the instrument of his ambition . Who sows the serpent's teeth. then interrupting — — I will instantly — Dispatch three couriers Send Wrangel to the Countess). — — The heart within us Vicegerent. and has no influence over thee Is all this preparation nothing? marrow in this hollow art. exultation! .] No woman. Then no longer so come that which must come. laboring with passion.

if fortune thou wilt know side. and stand as thou wert fetter 'd. What is to do. Encroach upon their rights and privileges. [While he is making his exit the curtain drops. Octavio (to his son). thou takest on thee the command Of those same Spanish regiments. and shouts ere victory. know that it is doing thee a service To keep thee out of action in this business.] ACT Scene II I Scene. we all shall meet again In joy and thriving fortunes. Secretes himself at Frauenberg with Gallas. Thou wilt this time be of most service to me By thy inertness. Thou lovest to linger on in fair appearances I . off. . and they the growth determine. and be never ready. Octavio. This night must thou be Him here I keep with well — me my — make take own horses : short fare- Trust me. And Still if answer they urge thee to draw out against me. He sends me word from Linz that he But I have sure intelligence that he lies sick. Secure them both. Therefore have I sought out this part for thee. We sow the seed. Enter Max Piccolomini Now go. and send them to me hither.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 111 Joy premature. Declare itself on The mean my time. Eemember. Octavio Piccolomini Wallenstein (coming forward in conversation). as in the preceding Act Wallenstein. I shall see you Yet ere I go. I think. constantly — Make preparation. yes. Steps of extremity are not thy province.

where the heart not wholly Brings itself back from out the strife of duties. Therefore I will be beforehand with them. — This — thee. and a joy it is till To exercise the single apprehension Where the sums square in proof. (advances to him). I have renounced the service of the Emperor. My Wallenstein. Max Piccolomini Max. yea. Then thou wilt leave the army. Max.] it to thee. But where it happens that of two sure evils One must be taken. There 'tis a blessing to have no election. answer. And thou wilt leave the army? Max. General? That I am no longer. And blank necessity is grace and favor. . expecting Piccolomini 's I have ta'en thee by surprise. Wallenst. To bind it nearer still and faster to me.] [He stops himself. I have delay 'd to open himself. General? Max.112 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene II Wallenstein. Even the hour of acting 'gins to strike. And our good friends. [He seats Yes. Youth's fortunate feeling doth seize easily The absolute right. Eather hope I Wallenstein. It is now present: do not look behind can no more avail thee. Look thou forwards Think not judge not prepare thyself to act The Court it hath determined on my ruin. if Thou stylest thyself the Emperor's officer. We'll join the Swedes right gallant fellows ! ! — ! ! — are they. Answer me not.

dost thou refer Me to myself. [He rises. Like enemies. It Which is now kindling 'twixt thy friend and him Who Max. this day thou makest Max. is thy Emperor. for the first time. and places himself before him. Today. Yet it is good. Ill —8 To thee.] General. Indulge all lovely instincts. Wallenst. duties thou couldst exercise in sport. Thee have I follow 'd With most implicit unconditional faith. act forever Thy With undivided can remain No longer thus. which against the Emperor is Thou wagest with the Emperor's own army? God of heaven what a change is this ! ! Beseems it me to offer such persuasion Vol. For till this day I have been spared the trouble To find out my own road. War War! is that the name? as frightful as heaven's pestilence. Duties strive with duties. At his first motion Wallenstein returns. Sure of the right path if I follow 'd thee. Thou must needs choose thy party in the war heart. the roads Start from each other. Max remains for a long time motionless. Soft cradled thee thy Fortune till today. Must I pluck live asunder from thy name! ! ! .THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN I 113 grant thee time to recollect thyself. The holy habit of obediency. and forcest me to make Election between thee and my own heart. retires at the back of the stage. Is it heaven's will as that is? Is that a good war. who like the fix'd star of the pole Wert all I gazed at on life's trackless ocean? what a rent thou makest in my heart The ingrain 'd instinct of old reverence. My me Of age to speak in my own right and person. in a trance of excessive anguish.

Thou art rich And glorious. chaste. suffer violence — — so stands the case . 'Tis the last desperate resource of those their honor. having staked and lost. do not turn thy countenance upon me It always was as a god looking upon me Duke Wallenstein. can he by going round avoid it? I must use But here there is no choice. and innocence — It will not let itself be driven away From Thou All human creatures that world-awing aspect. The senses Wallenstein. 'Twill justify the vulgar misbelief Which holdeth nothing noble in free will And trusts itself to impotence alone Made powerful only in an unknown power. The world will judge me sternly. Which. I pray thee. although. It would reduce to disloyalty Against the nobleness of their own nature. it is thy fancy only Which hath polluted thee. Thou wilt not. Bleeding. hear me. their Cheap souls to whom good name poor saving. Max. end in this. they stake themIs their selves In the mad rage of gaming. the soul hath freed itself. unlucky doing.114 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Nay. Yes Or Max. do it not There is a pure and noble soul within thee ! ! Knows not Thy will is of this tmblest. ! — still are in thy bonds. Already have I said to my own self All thou canst say to me. I expect it. its power has not departed. Wallenst. Max. Who but avoids The extreme. their last worthless keep. do it not. canst not. with an unpolluted heart Thou canst make conquest of whate'er seems highest ! . There remains nothing possible but that is never possible for thee ! that.

Max. who once hath acted infamy. But never yet was man enrich 'd by them: In their eternal realm no property Is to be struggled for all there is general The jewel. be. force with force repel I will not praise it. So be then maintain thee in thy post : Resist the Emperor. the all-valued gold we win — From the deceiving Powers. Wallenstein {grasps his hand). if it must — — — — Not to the traitor can I yield a pardon. my General. to the human being Do I allow and to the vehement And striving spirit readily I pardon The excess of action but to thee. and there lives no soul on earth That e'er retired unsullied from their service. Above all others make I large concession. Max. Believe me. Their light rejoices us. Calmly. And. by what road we ascended. That dwell beneath the day and blessed sun-light. Does nothing more in this world. master — He By kills it thee who condemns ! thee to inaction.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 115 But he. depraved in nature. yet I can forgive it. Max! Much that is great and excellent will we Perform together yet. To the evil spirit doth the earth belong. and be the — . Whate'er is human. For thou must move a world. . their air refreshes. many a crown shines spotless now That yet was deeply sullied in the winning. All that the powers divine Send from above are universal blessings. Not to the good. But not not to the traitor the word yes! Is spoken out violence. 'tis soon Forgotten. And if we only Stand on the height with dignity. Not without sacrifices are they render 'd Propitious.

Go from the stage of war. Even now. and wilt thou do it? 0. is too late! Thou knowest not what has far. [Max stands as convulsed. other are the mile- My ! stones Left fast behind by my post couriers Who bear the order on to Prague and Egra. black as the pit of hell ! [Wallenstein betrays a sudden agitation. / cannot give assent to my own shame And ruin.] Yield thyself to it. turn back to thy duty 1 hold it certain. happen 'd. even as thou stood 'st! Lose the command. He And Wallenst. with my unclouded eye. Duke. Max. and were things gone so That a crime only could prevent thy fall. with a gesture and countenance expressing the most intense anguish.116 THE GERMAN CLASSICS That is no mere excess that is no error that is wholly different. Then — fall! fall honorably. do it too Thou canst with splendor do it — With innocence. We act as we are forced. He knows thee not. I bring back his confidence to thee. It Shall see thee.] Thou canst not hear it named. It is too late Thy words. Were it too late. while thou art losing Wallenst. Of human nature — ! that is black. At length thee. I follow destiny I never part from thine. Thou no thou canst not forsake — — me! . But I do know thee. thou for thy own self. one after the. live Thou hast lived much for others. I'll ! Send me to That thou canst Vienna : make thy peace for thee with the Emperor.

continues lookis still ing after him and in this posture when Terzky enters. with dignity.] Scene III Wallenstein. How. that other thing I'll bear. and will lead hither The Spanish and Italian regiments. I half believe it A human Illo (enters). [Max him abruptly. I trace out something in me of this spirit . I wish 'd some words with him but he was gone. He had scarce left thee when I went to seek him. With a firm step. when. When he the legions led against his country. He is already gone. The which his country had delivered to him? Had he thrown down the sword he had been lost. Illo. He goes to Frauenburg. Terzky. Octavio ? was the devil himself. creature could not so at once Is it true that thou wilt send Have vanish 'd. could no one tell me. Terzky Terzky. and where. Where is Wrangel? Terzky. Piccolomini just left you? Wallenstein. It is as if the earth had swallow 'd him. And why should Heaven forbid f . Wallenstein quits startled and overpowered. Wallenstein. How. In such a hurry? Terzky. Heaven forbid! ! Wallenstein. No Nay. Give me his luck. What am I doing worse Than did famed Caesar at the Rubicon.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 117 So let us do what must be done. Octavio! Whither send him? Wallenst. As I were if I but disarm 'd mvself. Max — Nay.

Illo. Who have always trusted him? What. gave him. be he — whom I well fitted for the business. blights. he only? Send another. Because he's an Italian Therefore is he well fitted for the business! nor sire nor son Wallenst. It must be he is today. It happen 'd with my knowledge and permission. today too will I trust him. . forsooth. love them more than you and — — — — others. But your jealousies. Wallenst. Yield to our warning Wallenst. Therefore are they eye- Illo. Wallenst. no Thou wilt not do this him The soldiery? Him — — ! ! Wallenst. visibly Esteem them. it myself have chosen Therefore . I must. Let him not depart. Duke. I leave to each man his own moods and likings Yet know the worth of each of you to me. then. wilt thou let slip from thee. but for this time. Now in the very instant that decides us No I pray thee. Think not I am a woman. till Must it Terzky. In what affect they me or my concerns ? Are they the worse to me because you hate them? Love or hate one another as you will. Von Questenberg. THE GERMAN CLASSICS Him! — that deceiver! Wouldst thou trust to Terzky. I know you love them not love them Because that I esteem them. Lurking about with this Octavio. Thorns in your foot-path. has ! happen 'd That I should good opinion of him? In complaisance to your whims. give up a rooted judgment. while he was here. not my own. Ye are whimsical. Having trusted him lose my E 'en He I Illo. And why should I not trust him only this time.118 Illo. was always . E'en as they merit.

That he is the most faithful of my friends. My Did knit the most removed futurity. when in the night Before the action in the plains of Liitzen. When he is nearer the great Soul of the world Than is man's custom. itself. and possesses freely The power of questioning his destiny: And such a moment 'twas. Illo. Great Destiny. ! Wallenstein. in this moment Before my mind's eye glided in procession. which founds If 'tis false. itself the profoundest science. and only man more : of thy fortune. Gallas — came to him That's not true. There exist moments in the life of man. I look'd out far upon the ominous plain. Hast thou a pledge. Then the whole science of the stars is For know. past and future.' I yearn 'd to know which one was faithfullest Of all. this camp included. Yet a day scatter : when Destiny shall once many a several direction Few be who will stand out faithful to thee.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Illo. they Give me a sign ! And he shall be the man. thoughts crowding thoughts. . that this pledge is not false! Illo. Then said I also to myself: " So many Dost thou command. I 119 know that secret messengers From Wallenstein. Leaning against a tree. thou art blind. I have a pledge from Fate false . fill 'cl with anxious presentiment. whole life. And as on some Upon thy single The vessel Will come All these in They follow all thy stars great number set their All head. Wallenst. With thy deep-seeing eyes Thou faith for My On me — my wilt not shake faith. And to the destiny of the next morning The spirit.

] In brief. Wallenstein (stops and turns himself round). And he shall never stir from here alive. " My brother. I led ! Then midmost spirit. all unconcernedly. my is retiring. A strong dream warn'd me so. Are ye not like the women who forever Only recur to their first word. I awoke at once. although One had been talking reason by the hour! . There 's no such thing as chance. on first the approaching morning. Terzky. cousin rode the dapple on that day. and Octavio stood before me." said he. That was a chance.120 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Who. as you're wont. the hot pursuit of Bannier's dragoons. Drove horse and rider and thus trod to pieces I lay. in the battle was Great the pressure and the tumult Then was my horse kil'd under me. a token of his love.] Illo. Wallenstein {significantly). I fell into a slumber. This is — [He comfort — Max remains our hostage. and panted like a dying man. And over me away. 'tis sign'd and seal'd that this Octavio Is my good angel and now no word more. Do it. " do not ride today The dapple. but mount the horse Which I have chosen for thee." It was the swiftness of his horse that snatch 'd me From My And Illo. [And what to us seems merest accident Springs from the deepest source of destiny. — Then seized me suddenly a savior arm. It was Octavio 's — 'Twas broad day. I sank. never more saw I of horse or rider. comes the To meet me with And In thinking this. brother! In love to me.

They grow by certain laws. like the tree's fruit — No Have Then juggling chance can metamorphose them. [Exeunt. [Exit Adjutant.] Scene IV Chamber in the residence of Piccolomini Octavto Piccolomini (attired for traveling). and when the signal peals Then close the doors. from what regiment hast thou chosen them? Adjut. It awaits below.] I . entering Here am I Well! who comes yet of the others? — Octavio (with an air of mystery). Unseen by all. the future will and action. The inner world.] indeed I shall not need their service. an Adjutant [Octavio. And all ye meet be instantly arrested. . Adjutant? Tiefenbach's. keep watch upon the house. is The deep shaft out of which they spring eternally. hope So certain feel I of my well laid plans But when an empire 's safety is at stake 'Twere better too much caution than too little. too. Is the detachment here? Adjut. But. Count Isolani. Say. From Keep them That regiment is loyal in silence in the inner court. I the human kernel first examined? I know. first. Octavio.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Know that the 121 human being's thoughts and needs Are not like ocean billows. Scene V A Isolani. Octavio. blindly moved. Chamber in Piccolomini's Dwelling-House. Isolani. And are the soldiers trusty. a word with you. Octavio Piccolomini. his microcosmus. .

put me to the proof. ha ! To make the attempt? In me. Is the Duke about Will it explode. In very serious earnest. Insist upon obedience to the Court. and I owe him all in men who words are — He may Octavio.] I am rejoiced to hear it. you may- — place Full confidence — Nay. I assure you. Nay.122 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Isolani (assuming the same air of mystery). then. — That those stolen signatures bind them to nothing. Isolani. Octavio. Isolani. And loving friends! Octavio. rely on my fidelity. Noble brother. I entreat you. jeer not. I Octavio. too. That may happen. Isolani. [Octavio. what means this f — — Are you not. Esterhazy. That the Emperor has yet such gallant servants. then — For what. They are God forbid I am assured already. Indeed! so. and they . God knows it is so. friend. You rejoice Octavio. Pray name to me the the chiefs that think Isolani. Plague upon them! all Germans think so. And when it comes to action skulk away. Isolani. Kaunitz. Be on your guard. That will be seen hereafter. Isolani. no such worthless fellows. That I should jest! I am rejoiced to see an honest cause So strong. am Not one of those valiant. Deodati. what! The Devil! Why. The Duke has acted toward me as a friend. All think not as I think Who say still and there are many hold with the Court yes. am I here? — .

Throughout Of the Lieutenant-General Piccolomini. Count.] the officers collectively our army will obey the orders — ! ! — — so! — I give Octavio. Isolani And you joy.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Octavio. Lieutenant-General submit you to the order? you ! But you have taken me so by surprise Time for reflection one must have Octavio. whether you determine To act a treason 'gainst your Lord and Sovereign. that question to me. friend. Treason! — My treason? Or whether you God! — But will serve him faithfully. Count! and full Say. 123 That you may make full declaration. who talks then of Octavio. will you? is the case. paper may instruct you. That The Prince-duke is a traitor Means to lead over to the enemy brief The Emperor's army. him in whom a right is placed Whether. — — — — — . whether You Of will be call'd the friend or enemy the Emperor. this Isolani (stammering). Why. But then the case — is I — Octavio. — why — what! this seal! Emperor's hand and "Whereas. is That right mine. Hem! Yes! As from ourselves. My God! — — Two minutes. Isolani. Isolani. I'll make to That declaration. will you break your oath to the Emperor? Sell yourself to the enemy? Say." Yes yes I [Reads. Plain and simple You must declare you. is the To put Octavio. Now. Isolani (with an air of defiance).

And you renounce the Duke then? Treason — why. the — But you'll remember me Emperor — how well-disposed you mention ! found me. What. be done. Octavio. then. ISOLANI. There will Count Gallas give you further orders. too. With Octavio. At Frauenburg's Isolani. d'ye say. OCTAVIO. ISOLANI. [Exit Isolani. old father ! Lord God! how should Person I had before me. he 's a villain. — Show him up. Count. Colonel Butler Isolani (returning). If he 's planning treason breaks all bonds asunder. rejoiced that you are so well disposed. I will not fail to it honorably. It shall the place of rendezvous.124 Isolani. This instant I wait to hear. that you yourself Bear witness for me that I never said so. break off in the utmost secrecy With all the light-arm 'd troops it must appear I am As came the order from the Duke himself.] . To his Imperial Majesty? Did I say so! When. what a No I excuses! am A a merry lad. He has done me service Perdition seize him ! — All scores are rubb — — but to fight against if him? 'd off. know. — — OCTAVIO. Ay! that delights me now. OCTAVIO. ISOLANI. when have I said that? You have not said it yet not yet. I A Servant enters. whether you will say it. OCTAVIO. THE GERMAN CLASSICS What mean you f I — I break my oath. This night. And are determined. and if at time rash word might escape me 'gainst the Court Amidst meant. my wine — You know no harm was [Exit.] Forgive great me too my bearish ways. Isolani.

! Impels him. Octavio. You came through Frauenburg. Yourself the trouble me th' embarrassment. — — — Spare . (after both have seated themselves). Say nothing to you? Tell me. True and I name all honest men like-minded. 125 You need not be uneasy on that score That has succeeded. my friend. Lieutenant-General. for alas! the violence Of blind misunderstandings often thrusts The very best of us from the right track. Welcome. Octavio Octavio Piccolomini. Fortune favor us With all the others only but as much! Scene VI Butler. I never charge a man but with those acts To which his character deliberately — — Butler. The time is precious let us talk openly. His words were lost on me. 'Tis only the like-minded can unite. had myself the Butler. To have deserved so ill your good opinion. as honor 'd friend and visitor. You do me too much honor. Butler. Octavio.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Octavio. You know how matters stand here. Octavio. Wallenstein Meditates treason I can tell you further. for his counsel was most wise. like to offer. You have not Return 'd the advances which I made you yester- dayMisunderstood them as mere empty forms. Octavio. Butleb At your command. Gallas Did the Count He's Butler. To hear I it : It grieves me sorely. That wish proceeded from my heart I was In earnest with you for 'tis now a time In which the honest should unite most closely.

His lot is mine. The Emperor has still For Prudence wakes and faithful friends here. Tomorrow he intends to lead us over To the enemy. of Austria ! [He is going. mighty though unseen. The messengers are now . for me. your last resolve? Butler. Nay. Any : other Octavio.126 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He has committed treason but few hours Have past since he a covenant concluded With the enemy. join and recognize in me their leader. — Octavio. Butler choose a better party ! : You have not chosen Butler (going). all the honest. Lieutenant-General? white hairs recall that word See your ! Commands Butler. Colonel Butler! As yet you have time. and they stand Many In closest union. will you share with us an honest cause? Choose Or with the evil share an evil lot? Butlek (rises). — — And summons To all the loyal. This manifesto sentences the Duke Recalls the obedience of the army from him. Farewell ! What! sword Would you draw this good and gallant Into a curse would you Transform the gratitude which you have earn'd By forty years' fidelity from Austria? In such a cause? Butler (laughing with bitterness) Gratitude from the House . Octavio. but bethink you. Within my faithful breast That rashly utter 'd word remains interr'd. Is that It is. Octavio. Full on their way to Egra and to Prague. the right one. But he deceives himself. Recall it.] .

would fain not be meaner than So in an evil hour I let myself my equal. Calmly. Butler! Be the whole world acquainted with the weakness For which I never can forgive myself. I mean. calmly. Count? what? Octavio (coldly). the faithful veteran? Why to the baseness of his parentage Refer him with such cruel roughness. scorn The gray-hair 'd man. I will not refuse you Your satisfaction afterward. What wish you? How was't with the Count? Octavio. ! might have been refused but wherefore barb And venom the refusal with contempt? Why dash to earth and crush with heaviest . Be tempted But yet It to that measure. ! . all that happen 'd. Ne 'er was I able to endure contempt. Hell and damnation Octavio (coldly). tell sheath! and me How Butler. Butler (starts in sudden passion). Octavio. then after him). only Because he had a weak hour and forgot himself? . that birth and title Should have more weight than merit has in the I army. It stung me to the quick. Lieutenant-General Yes I have ambition. Butler. The title that you wish'd. It was folly so hard a penance it deserved not.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Octavio (permits him Butler! to 127 calls go as far as the door. Butler. You petition 'd for it ! And your Butler. Your Draw! Nay! your sword petition was repelled insolent scoff shall not go to 'ts — Was — it so ? by unpunish'd.

The Duke. in this letter. Octavio. no There's no one wishes ill persecutor. Stung to his soul by my fair self -earn 'd honors! But tell me. Octavio. he seizes a chair. For [Butler reads through the letter. did the Duke approve that measure ? Himself impell'd me to it. In whose light I may stand some envious knave. . Ascribe to you. talks he in contempt Concerning you counsels the minister . Ay? are you sure of that? so did I Butler. to your conceit. Octavio.128 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But nature gives a sting e'en to the worm Which wanton Power treads on in sport and insult. some — ! Spaniard. Colonel Butler. Butler. Some young Octavio. The insult you received to the Duke only. . impell'd you to this measure? Now. different. Butler. — [He gives him Butler. used his interest In my behalf with all the warmth of friendship. his knees tremble.] You have no enemy. you say. To give sound chastisement so he calls it. Octavio. An infamous game have they been playing with you. and sinks down in it. the letter.] chance I'm in possession of that letter Can leave it to your own eyes to convince you. Guess you The enemy who did you this ill service? Be 't who it will a most low-hearted scoundrel Some vile court-minion must it be. You must have been calumniated. By [Butler suddenly struck. squire of some ancient family.] Ha! what is this? I fear me. And — but the contents were is I read the letter.

Too well has he succeeded In luring you away from that good path On which you had been journeying forty years! Butler Octavio. is yours. Octavio. yourself. what purpose? Calm Butler. which you now command. take it! Butler. Ill Duke! Break off from him! —9 . He labors inwardly with violent emotions. Octavio. sinks down again. and cannot. Octavio. and most unmerited grievance Sustain 'd by a deserving gallant veteran. as means of most abandoned ends. in contempt Use you. What wish you? But to Butler. [Butler attempts to rise. : He wish'd To tear you from your Emperor he hoped To gain from your revenge what he well knew (What your long-tried fidelity convinced him) He ne'er could dare expect from your calm tool reason. and offers it tries to speak. Take it. The regiment. I am no longer worthy of this sword. Which the Duke made you for a wicked purpose. He would fain compensate For that affront. From his free impulse he confirms the present. to Piccolominl] Kecollect yourself. Vol.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN His aim is clear 129 and palpable. Can e'er the Emperor's Majesty forgive me? More than forgive you. from my hands Wear it with honor for the right cause ever. Perjure myself to such a gracious Sovereign You'll make amends. A blind He would he make you. and Eeceive it then anew. Quick! break off from the — ! Butler. Octavio. At length he takes his sword from the belt. friend. (his voice trembling). has gained his point.

Then leave me here upon What's your design? Leave me and I my my word Butler. Come after me to Frauenburg. and is gone. who repents so deeply of it. [Exit Servant. (no longer governing his emotion). The Prince Duke's horses wait for you below. Many others I've brought to a remembrance of their duty: This night be sure that you escape from Pilsen. By the living God Ye give him over. regiment. THE GERMAN CLASSICS What now? Bethink thyself. ' ' To split Away! For me ! town behind me. then steps up to Octavio with resolved countenance). Trust to me. Servant (enters with a A stranger left it. But tell me you. ! Octavio. What Butler. not to his good angel! Farewell.] billet). of honor ! Butler. Octavio. his walk is . Octavio. are you brooding? tell That the deed will Ask me no more at present. Ye may trust safely. Butler (strides up and down in excessive agitation.130 Octavio. He. Only break off from him? He dies! he dies! Butler Octavio. [Exit Butler. Count Piecolomini dare that man speak Of honor to you. near the haven upon a rock so This is no longer a safe place Where can my son be tarrying had but left this ! — ! Scene VII Octavio and Max Piccolowini [Max enters almost in a state of derangement. 1 * — Be sure make that I haste ! Your faithful Isolan. his eyes roll wildly. have full confidence in you.] Octavio (reads). where now All who are loyal are assembling under Counts Altringer and Gallas. from extreme agitation. who once broke his troth. dares.

ah I forgive thy agony Max. (rises and contemplates his father with looks of suspicion).] 0. and starts back. Thou wilt soon follow me? Max. it is not my way. my father. Was't possible? hadst thou the heart. staring vacantly at the object directly before him. at a distance. Farewell. . retain 'd their influence o'er The virtuous had him: He had not fallen into the snares of villains. and )he appears not to observe his father. my son. I am going off. farewell. ! — Octavio. He had not done that foul and horrible deed. He paces with long strides through the chamber. 0. it is thou That sink'st us in perdition. Hadst thou the heart to drive it to such lengths. Ne'er had it come to this all had stood other- Thy way is crooked — I follow thee? — wise. I cannot excuse thee ! Wallenstein has deceived me 0. lurking for thy prey ! Mother of all evil Thou misery-making demon. Wherefore so like a thief. and gazes at him with a countenance expressive of compassion. Simple truth. he takes his hand. have saved us all Father. then stands still again. [Receiving no answer. hadst thou been but simple and sincere. Octavio. unblest falsehood ! ! Sustainer of the world. and at last throws himself into a chair. [Octavio drops his hand. ! ! Son ! My son.] Octavio (advances to him).] My Max. son. most foullv! But thou hast acted not much better.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN who stands 131 unsteady. and thief's accomplice Didst creep behind him. I will not.

With She stealthy coward shall behold my forsake her? No! suffering. for all Lied to me. perjury The single holy spot is our love. The only unprofaned in human nature. Octavio. woe is How comes suspicion here in the free soul? ! me — Hope. last The very The pang — no. 'Twill be — better. no not all And she is true. and wouldst thou wish to rob me Of the sole blessing which my fate has left me. thy father. Octavio. No ! Come. are gone. : Murder. No Emperor has power to prescribe Laws to the heart. Max. treason. and poisoning. Max. . What? ere I've taken a last parting leave. confidence. 'twill not please me. no ! Octavio (more urgently). Octavio. Octavio. hypocrisy. all that I e'er loved or honored. flight Hear the complaints of the disparted soul. — Octavio. my sore anguish. and open as the heavens ! ! — ! Deceit is everywhere. my son [Attempts to take him with him. she yet lives for me. never! ! Spare thyself of necessary separation. sure I have changed my nature.] as sure as God lives. Her sympathy? Must then a cruel deed Be done with cruelty? The unalterable Shall I perform ignobly — steal away. Come with me. belief. I command is thee ! I. She No.132 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS With cold premeditated purpose? Thou Hadst thou the heart to wish to see him guilty Rather than saved? Thou risest by his fall. God in heaven ! Max. Command me what human. I stay here. 0. Max! in the Emperor's name I bid thee come. ! Come with me Max. Max. Max! we will go together.

steely souls the black deadly madness of despair — Ok! the human race Will she redeem my soul. Tiefenbach They love thee. Will Wallenstein be able to o'erpower 0. Curst suspicion. firm. and losing command). Max! I see thee never more again! Max. Do stamp this brand upon our noble house. and are faithful to their oath. the Lothrings too And And Tsokans remain here to protect thee. be always in thy power to follow it? The heart's voice thou hast not o'erpowered Will as it — little it. loose this pang of death! wilt not tear thyself away thou canst not.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN And weep Have tears o'er me. come. Thou plaining. and their honor. And if I trust thy heart. ! son I follow. Octavio. Unholy. Then shall the And Max. miserable doubt! To him Nothing on earth remains unwrench'd and Who has no faith. my Max. Octavio (trembling. in unnatural world behold the horrible deed combat shall the steel with the father's blood. for I dare trust to all self if it. Octavio. not thou thy words in vain. Of the son trickle Thou hadst then acted hadst thou always better thought of men better. Max Max ! If thou — my ! that most eon — damned thing could be. . 133 From but she is as an angel. 0. I go to Frauenburg the Pappenheimers — I leave thee here. Squander The heart I bid thee save thy virtue. and in soft words Of comfort. Max. will far rather fall in gallant contest Than leave their rightful leader. . Octavio. the infamous. my own blood dare I — think it? Do sell thyself to him. Octavio. Unworthy of thee wilt thou never see me. .

Thekla: have you seen him? Thekla. Countess. am And other ways Thekla. I either leave my life Max. And not heard from him. . So you have nothing to ask me nothing? I have been waiting for a word from you. my son Farewell ! ! How Of filial ! not one look at parting? love? No grasp to of the hand which we are going. Today and yesterday I have not seen him. Max. And could you then endure in all this time lat- — Not once to speak his name? [Thekla remaining silent. No syllable. either? Come.134 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Rely on this. In the struggle. still you are so calm? Thekla.] rises Why. And I am. So used we not to part it was not so Is it then true? I have a son no longer? It is a bloody war — ! [Max arms. besides through me? Confess it to me. exist. then falls into his go away at different sides. they hold each other for a long time in a speechless embrace. how comes Perhaps I this ! already grown superfluous. the Countess and advances to her. Octavio.] [The Curtain drops. Countess.] ACT A Chamber in the III Scene I House of the Duchess of Friedland Countess Terzky. Octavio. Lady Neubeunn (the two ter sit at the same table at work) Countess (watching them from the opposite side). or conduct them out of Pilsen. be open. Farewell. And the event uncertain and in darkness. Thekla.

and briefly! A Thekla.] Scene II The Countess. Countess. I entreat you. Thekla. It does not please me. Thekla. If I'm to understand you. Indissolubly to your father. Therefore may you Thekla. I? What need Countess. [Exit Lady Neubbunn. It is not possible that it should torture me More than this introduction. Hear. Princess. Name it. Countess. Thekla Countess. Countess. At once. You can link him Thekla.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Countess. And boldness dwells with love that you have — proved Your nature molds itself upon your father's More than your mother's spirit. 135 May 't please you. you are no more a child. You'll not be frighten 'd — the whole. I entreat you. Enough: no further preface. within your power to do your father weighty service — Max Lies within my power? Piccolomini loves you. out with it! Be it what it may. what were too much for her fortitude. What have you To say Thekla. Lady Neubrunn. It lies to me? Tell me Countess. 'Twas for that purpose that I bade her leave : us. leave us. . that he holds Himself so still. Countess. exactly at this time. Thekla. Your heart Is now no more in nonage for you love. of me to for that? And is he not Already link'd him? He was. speak less darkly. Exactly at this time ! He now knows all : 'Twere now the moment to declare himself.

my mother! Countess. and wherever They lead the way none hesitate to follow. now — not too. he wish'd to lay aside the sword. interpret them for him his love Should be the sole definer of his honor. will not : Thekla. From himself you heard. You should Thekla. hear then Your father has fallen off from the Emperor. we mean. And is about to join the enemy With the whole soldiery Thekla. And wherefore be so always? He cleaves to the Emperor Thekla. He must unsheath it in your father's cause. They govern all opinions. We ask Proofs of his love. Countess. Countess. — Ah ! miserable mother! what a death-stroke No she never will survive it. He will accompany my father gladly In his retirement. and not proofs of his honor. How much Countess. Alas. understand me. his heart's blood in my father's cause. Well. He must not lay the sword aside. : How? The Emperor or you must he renounce. Duty and honor! Those are ambiguous words with many meanings. You — — The Piccolomini after him. There needs a great example to draw on Countess. If shame or injury be intended him. Not more than duty And honor may demand Countess. of him. His He'll spend with gladness and alacrity life. Possess the love and reverence of the troops The army . Thekla. Awaits thee My ! — ! . The son secures the father to our interests You 've much in your hands at this moment. Thekla.136 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Should he not be so Thekla.

all will yet Prove good! Must we not part? part ne'er to meet again? Countess. ! It will rend If indeed he loves you. Countess. that icy hand of horror And my young hope lies shuddering in its grasp ! ! foreboding bosom Even now. mother coming. I enter 'd. I do know your mother The far-off future weighs upon her heart "With torture of anxiety but is it . for yourself the lover. : Unalterably. and bears it calmly. An heavy ominous Reveal 'd to ering presentiment me that spirits of death were hov- Over my happy ! But why think I First of myself? My mother! my mother! Countess. Alas for his sore anguish His heart asunder. my E 'en now 'tis here. I knew it well — no sooner had fortune. . Prove good and fortunate. He parts not from you! He cannot part from you. . Thekla. Thekla. His resolution will be speedily taken. Calm yourself Break not out in vain lamenting! Preserve you for your father the firm friend. Collect yourself. — What good? Thekla. Countess. actually present. Thekla.THE DEATH OP WALLENSTEIN 137 Countess. She soon resigns herself. She will accommodate her soul to that Which is and must be. I hear your Collect yourself! How shall I bear to see her? Hush. And Thekla. His resolution will be speedily taken O do not doubt of that A resolution Does there remain one to be taken? ! • — ! Countess.

I have pass'd a life of frights and horrors with And him. The accursed business Will all of the Regensburg ! diet be acted o'er again! Countess. sister. me. Duchess. what the event Will he agree to do the Emperor's pleasure. in extreme agitation. and enfolds her in her arms. The worst that can come Yes. not endured? For even as if I had been link'd on to some wheel of fire That restless. Alas then all is lost I see it coming. sister. throws herself upon her mother. Nay! there was no one. my poor child Thou too hast lost a most affectionate godmother In the Empress. sister? some one talking. And send the horse-regiments to the Cardinal? Tell me. Duchess. . ! [Thekla. weeping. Who was here. that stern unbending man In this unhappy marriage what have I Not suffer 'd. has he dismiss 'd Von Questenberg With a favorable answer? Countess. I passionately too. as to that. he has not. And Countess. No. they will depose ! ! ! him. and of tell every trifling noise announces to me is? The footstep And you can some messenger of evil. am grown so timorous.138 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene III To them Duchess enter the Duchess I heard (to the Countess). Yes. No never Make your heart easy. ceaseless. ever to the brink of some abyss With dizzy headlong violence he bears me. Scatters my spirits. whirls impetuous on! ! ward.] Duchess.

His quiet mind forsook him. An I easier. Let not my suffer- Nor blacken with thee. let us supplicate him. Not that consuming flame which now it is. which never Have yet made happy him who follow 'd them. and no longer Did he yield up himself in joy and faith To his old luck and individual power. affrightful monster. A gloomy uncompanionable spirit. Some new Duchess. Still When When his ambition was a genial fire. But since that ill-starr'd day at Regensburg.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Nay. Which plunged him headlong from his dignity. do not weep. my Hast not to fear thy mother's destiny. this condition? Would you have him Find her in . calmer lot. sister. as your eyes permit you. But thenceforth turn'd his heart and best affections All to those cloudy sciences. You know he will be soon here. There lives no second Friedland thou. Presignify unhappiness to thee. Thekla. dearest mother Quick! quick! here's no abiding place for Here every coming hour broods into life : ! us. Countess. Unsteady and suspicious. The Emperor loved him. witnessed happy days. You see it. Thou wilt share too. think I with delight of those first years. my child ! We and thy father. has possess 'd him. their shade the fate that waits child. ings 139 my child. But surely this is not the conversation To pass the time in which we are waiting for him. he was making progress "ftith glad effort. trusted him and : all He undertook could not but be successful.

See.140 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Come. [Is going. Thy gentle eye. Example does the whole. Thekla. Thekla Wallenst. Countess. Duchess. Well now what was I saying? Yes. my child! Come wipe away thy tears. Believe me. will ask after you.] Scene IV Wallenstein. and show thy father Duchess. In such cases Whoever is foremost imitative creature leads the herd. and to the troops Assembled in this town make known the measure And Still its result together. Duchess. sister! Thekla (to the Countess. In a few hours may couriers come from Prague With tidings that this capital is ours. But whither? See. Countess. Then we may drop the mask. you will excuse me? Countess. Duchess (anxiously). your father comes. Nay. They deform Come. I cannot see him now. this Piccolomini Is a most noble and deserving gentleman. An . Countess. Countess. What ails then my beloved child? [Both follow the Princess. in good truth. That is he. But he will miss you. detain her. I cannot sustain his presence. engaged in conversation with Illo. A cheerful Is off countenance. Wallenst. the tie-knot here must not hang so dishevell'd. — this hair ! — — Countess. Illo. Thekla.AII quiet in the camp? Illo. but bethink you. It is all quiet. During this and endeavor to Wallenstein ap- pears. dearest dry thy tears up. with marks of great oppression of spirits).] Aunt. What now? Why is she going? She's not well.

! . Butler. unsolicited. to He is under recent obligations will I me : With him commence the trial. Wallenstein. there the mother with the darling daughter For once we'll have an interval of rest — Come my heart yearns to live a cloudless hour In the beloved circle of my family. Go and send his Isolani hither. who reaches to me The Illo. of the which I am not master {fear I would not call it). Lo.] Wallenstein (turns himself round to the females). doubt not That example will win over to you The best men in the army. you tell me. Send him immediately. This honest man is he. Scattering false oracles. against whom I am warn'd. Go. And thus have I To entreat forgiveness. And this same man. Creeps o'er me instantly. The troops at Prague conceive no other Than that the Pilsen army has gone through The forms of homage to us and in Pilsen They shall swear fealty to us. first pledge of my And fortune. Illo.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Is 141 man. because The example has been given them by Prague. find we must not give implicit credence To every warning voice that makes itself Be listen 'd to in the heart. . gallant man. [Exit Illo. with sense of shud- At dering his approach. has declared himself? At his own He came Wallenst. This Butler: for a feeling. I to offer bidding. and stops love's joyous motion. for that secretly I've wrong 'd this honorable. Oft does the lying Spirit counterfeit The voice of Truth and inward Revelation. you himself and regiment. To hold us back.

Hear some small Thekla. Where is voice his black lute. Countess. my mother headlong Into her grave. and at in her gestures moment that she should begin to sing. brother. my mother! I — I cannot. Thekla! Humorsome! What! shall thy father have express'd a wish In vain? — — — — Countess. ! . Can she sustain the news? Is she prepared? Countess. even now. sing spare me to sing to him. now in this sore anxiety. Which doth enchant the soul. thy wings close above my head. Now such a Will drive away from me the evil demon That beats Duchess.'] she is child! ill — . Thy mother praised to me thy ready skill She says a voice of melody dwells in thee. Trembling? collect thyself. How. Not yet. throws the instrument down. Duchess. For there is a good spirit on thy lips. How. my daughter ! Let thy father thy skill. contracts herself together. cheer Duchess. Here is the lute. Wallenst. My mother! Go. my sweet girl Seat thee by me. Wallenstein (to the Countess aside). My God how can ! I — ritornello [The orchestra plays. what is that. I trial of — Come. father. My abruptly. as one shuddering. and retires Duchess.142 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Countess. Thekla. Thekla. Come here. Of the o'erburthen'd soul Who is thrusting. During the Thekla expresses the and countenance the struggle of her feelings. niece? Thekla (to the Countess). 'Tis long since we 've been thus together.

Countess. yea. To thine own 'twere not thy aim. — hear off it Wallenst. he therefore be my daughter's husIs it only children daughters only? That we must show our favor by? Duchess. His noble disposition and his manners — . honor him. Loves him Whom ? Countess. Thou shouldst have chosen another To have attended her. spirit. And true it is. The young man has no groveling Countess. And does he know Countess. This journey. Was it this that lay so heavy on her heart? God's blessing on thee. is 143 What she often so ? ails the maiden! Countess. Is the Hopes boy mad? Well thinks ! to win her ! Countess.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Wallenstein. I too must no longer Wallenstein. He to carry from themselves. Yes. and he hopes to win her ! it? Wallenstein. What? ! She loves him! Wallenstein. Say. Duke Friedland's Ay? — The thought pleases me. my sweet child! Thou need'st Never take shame upon thee for thy Countess. He chooses finally to be my heir. ascribe it self. daughter Since Such and such constant favor you have shown him — Wallenst. it. Hast thou ne'er noticed it? Nor yet my sister? Duchess. But must band? Is it I love the youth . Wallenstein. Since then herself Has now betray 'd Conceal it. if choice. Max does she love! Max Piccolomini.

in this moment. in the — speaking I which we are [He recollects himself. Win him my heart. Still building higher. Or die in the attempt to place I hazard all — it there. Which I have treasured long. my — — ! noblest.] She is the only thing That will remain behind of me on earth And I will see a crown around her head. Ancestors! What? He is a subject. building to the clouds. Then Duchess. even now. Yea. Only mighty part I play Have I for this — In Life's great drama. all! and for To lift her into greatness — this alone.] And must now. repressing himself. Couple together in good peasant-fashion The pair. with a common kinsman? [Stops suddenly. His rank. And For Duchess. Climb we not too high Lest we should fall too low. Wallenstein. like a soft-hearted father. my last. my husband! You're ever building. when I Am stretching out the wreath that is to twine My full accomplish 'd work no she is the jewel. . . 'tis my less purpose not to let her from me than a king's sceptre. common herd. that chance to suit each other's liking And I must do it now. and my son-in-law — I will seek out upon ! Duchess. his ancestors Wallenstein.144 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Wallenst. but not my daughter. What! have I paid A And price so heavy to ascend jut out high above the to close the this eminence. dearest Albrecht the thrones of Europe. and still higher building.

it then true ? It Deposed from the Countess (aside to the Duke). Friedland's wife longer to hope that. The Emperor's enemies are mine no longer. Wallenst. You would not be secure there. it even to this In Holland You'll find protection. . Duke Franz of Lauenburg? The ally of Sweden. Wallenstein. residence Have you announced the place of Which I have destined for her? Countess. Not secure In the Emperor's realms. In a Lutheran country? What ? And you send us into Lutheran countries ? Wallenst. Duchess.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN And Wallenstein 145 ne'er reflect that the poor narrow basis Cannot sustain the giddy tottering column. ! — ! Thou seest she cannot — 10 Support the real truth. (to the Countess). Leave her in this belief. Vol. Duchess. beneath the Emperor's Protection ? not yet. God heaven ! ! And have you brought Wallenstein. Duchess. How? Do we not return to Carinthia then? ! No Wallenstein. 'Twere better you yourself disclosed it to her. may in be permitted No Duchess. the Emperor's enemy. Duchess (casting a look of terror on the Duke and the Is Countess). Duchess. And to no other of your lands or seats? Wallenst. Duchess. No. Duke Franz of Lauenburg conducts you thither. Ill You are degraded command God in heaven is.

And likewise That Esterhatzy. enter Count Terzky. To them enter Has Terzky told thee? Illo. Countess (who has been watching them anxiously from the distance and now advances to them). Kaunitz. . They are off! This night all the villages The Jagers likewise the whole round are empty. Terzky. — ! ! They are vanish 'd both Scene VI of them. — Terzky — 1 What ails him? What an image He looks as he had seen a ghost. it is let ! Theresa. He knows all. Kolalto. ! his emotions). We are betray Terzky. Heaven! What is it? What has Terzky! ! happen 'd? Wallenstein (scarcely suppressing us be gone Nothing Terzky (following him). Illo. Wallenstein. Yes.146 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene V To them Countess. Terzky. What! Wallenstein. No Hast thou not sent him off? Nor Deodati? Terzky. surely. Him thou hast sent away. Hush! Wallenstein (winks at them). Terzky. Goetz. Damnation Terzky. Maradas. 1? Wallenstein. that all the Croats Mine. nothing. Illo. In Isolani Wallenstein. Terzky (leading Wallenstein Is it of affright! thy command aside). have forsaken thee. 'd. Palfi.

retire! Countess. and this is nought unusual Here storm and sunshine follow one another ! ! ! . Duchess (clinging to him). From this window must we see it. [Illo exit. Terzky returns. So unsuspected Who was on guard at the gates? Illo. The plaints of women 111 suit the scene where men must act.] This could not have happen 'd without mutiny. Nothing? Do I not see that all the life-blood Has left your cheeks look you not like a ghost? That even my brother but affects a calmness? Page (enters).THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 147 Countess (holding him bach). [Terzky follows the Page.] Wajllenst. Butler remains unshaken. sister dearest wife We are in camp. sister following him. No — never. Him He will be here himself immediately. and never yet Did quiet bless the temples of the leader. These fierce spirits Champ the curb angrily. go you. Sister. Gracious Heaven! What is it? Wallenst. If I am to stay. [Illo is going. Wallenstein Countess. With rapid interchanges. 'Twas Tiefenbach. Wallenstein (to the Countess).] go. [To Illo. Terzky.] Eemain here. Wallenst. Be tranquil leave me.] Stop! Hast thou heard aught of Butler? Illo. An Aide-de-camp inquires for the Count — Terzky. Let Tiefenbach leave guard without delay. detain him ! There's some misfortune. Let him not leave thee. [He is going. . hear his business. is ! I met. Go. And Terzky 's grenadiers relieve him.

tion to the Duchess). and eager. Sister. Mysteriously. Wallenst. all What now. and wait The shout for onset. once for it is all. troops. .148 THE GERMAN CLASSICS 'Tis Wallenstein. Does Piccolomini appear among them? Terzky. my will. all prepared. Terzky (leads the Countess aside. My regiments had dispatch 'd him. Octavio. Wallenst. that thou hadst believed me Yester evening Did we conjure thee not to let that skulker. That fox. Terzky. Thou gavest him thy own horses to flee from ! thee. The old tune still Of this suspicion — ! Now. What did the Aide-de-camp deliver to you ? Terzky. Terzky. Wallenst. only The Pappenheimers still remain aloof In their own quarters. and let no one enter. no more doting folly. the several corps Marshal themselves. yet once more They swear fidelity to thee. each under its own banners. Terzky Wallenstein (stepping to the window). We are seeking him: he is nowhere to be met with. Scene VII Wallenstein. pass the gates of Pilsen. come ! since he commands it. With gloomy silentness. Till fortune had decided for us at Prague. Wallenst. then? the There are strange movements among one knows the cause. But whence arose this larum in the camp? It should have been kept secret from the army. Tiefenbach's corps make threat 'ning move- And no ments. and drawing her atten- Theresa? Duchess.

Treason and mutiny Terzky. Terzky. He traversed the open sea now he beholds it . 149 Thou didst confide in Isolani too lo ! . he flies off from me: No human tie is snapp 'd betwixt us two. Terzky. Let that go by. In eminent jeopardy among the coast-rocks. guard — Mutinous villains! . made the bond. fortune.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Terzky. Illo. „ Trust the smooth brow Yet. With From My He I am but the ship in which his hopes were stow'd And with the which. Quick sensibility of pain and pleasure Moves the light fluids lightly but no soul Warmeth the inner frame. And Wallenst. was but yesterday I rescued him abject wretchedness. It he was the first that did desert thee. when I gave the orders. As light As the free bird from the hospitable twig Where it had nested. Illo Illo (who enters agitated with rage). Nought sinks into the bosom's silent depth. ! And what To go off further now? Tiefenbach's soldiers. . And wherein doth he wrong in going from me? He follows still the god whom all his life He has worship 'd at the gaming-table. the forms of life Impress their characters on the smooth forehead. he deserves to find himself deceived Who seeks a heart in the unthinking man. one. would I rather than that deep furrow 'd Scene VIII Wallenstein. Like shadows on a stream. well-pleased and confident. and my seeming destiny. and broke it not with me. Yea. And hurries to preserve his wares. I never reckon 'd yet on gratitude.




Wallenst. What followed?

They refused obedience to them. Fire on them instantly! Give out the order. Wallenst. Gently! what cause did they assign?




had right

to issue orders


Lieutenant-General Piccolomini. Wallenstein (in a convulsion of agony).

What? How




takes that



Under sign-manual of From the Emperor

— hear'st thou, Duke? At his incitement — The Generals made that stealthy

on him by commission, the Emperor.


Duke! hear'st thou?
Caraffa too, and Montecuculi, Are missing, with six other generals, All whom he had induced to follow him.

This plot he has long had in writing by him From the Emperor; but 'twas finally concluded,


Some days ago with

the detail of the operation, the Envoy Questenberg. sinks down into a chair and [Wallenstein


covers his face.] hadst thou but believed me

Scene IX

To them

enter the Countess

This suspense, I can no longer bear it. This horrid fear For heaven's sake tell me what has taken place?


The regiments are

all falling off



Countess. Terzky.

Octavio Piccolomini


a traitor.

[Rushes out of the room.] my foreboding! Hadst thou but believed me Now seest thou how the stars have lied to thee.



Wallenst. The stars


lie not but we have here a work counter to the stars and destiny. Wrought The science is still honest: this false heart Forces a lie on the truth-telling heaven. On a divine law divination rests Where nature deviates from that law, and stumbles

Out of her limits, there all science errs. True I did not suspect Were it superstition Never by such suspicion t' have affronted The human form, may that time ne 'er come In which I shame me of the infirmity.

The wildest savage drinks not with the victim, means to plunge the sword. This, this, Octavio, was no hero's deed: 'Twas not thy prudence that did conquer mine
Into whose breast he


bad heart triumph 'd o'er an honest one.
shield received the


assassin stroke; thou


Thy weapon on an unprotected
Against such weapons I



but a child.


Here we've


these enter

Terzky {meeting him).
look there! Butler!
a friend!

Wallenstein {meets him with outspread arms, and embraces him with warmth). Come to my heart, old comrade Not the sun Looks out upon us more revivingly In the earliest month of spring, Than a friend's countenance in such an hour. Butler. My General: I come Wallenstein {leaning on Butler's shoulder). Know'st thou already? That old man has betray 'd me to the Emperor.


say'st thou?

Thirty years have we



Lived out, and held out, sharing joy and hardship.


have slept in one camp-bed, drunk from one


One morsel shared! I lean'd myself on him, As now I lean me on thy faithful shoulder. And now in the very moment, when, all love, All confidence, my bosom beat to his, He sees and takes the advantage, stabs the knife
Slowly into

my heart.
his face

[He hides

on Butler's breast.]



Forget the false one. your present purpose? Well remember 'd!








rich in friends,

loved by Destiny; for in the



It sends

unmasks the plotting hypocrite, and proves to me one faithful heart. Of the hypocrite no more! Think not his loss
that which struck the pang:


no! his

Is that



which strikes this pang! No more of him my heart and honor 'd were they both,


And He

— he — has not deceived me. But enough, — swift counsel now beseems Enough of


young man

— yes — he did truly love me,

The Courier, whom Count Kinsky sent from
I expect

him every moment and whatever He may bring with him, we must take good care To keep it from the mutineers. Quick then! Dispatch some messenger you can rely on To meet him and conduct him to me.




Butler (detaining him).





expect you then?

The Courier


me word

of the event at Prague.



And what now?

Butler. You do not know it? Wallenstein. Well ? Butler. From what that larum in the camp arose? Wallenst. From what? Butler. That Courier

Wallenstein (with eager expectation).
Is already here.

Terzky and Illo (at the same Already here?


Wallenstein. My Courier? Butler. For some hours. Wallenst. And I not know it? Butler. The sentinels detained him
In custody. Illo (stamping with his foot).




his letter

broken open, and is circulated Through the whole camp. You know what it contains ? Wallenstein. Butler. Question me not Terzky. Illo, alas for us! I can hear the worst. Wallenst. Hide nothing from me Prague then is lost? It is! Confess it freely. Yes! Prague is lost. And all the several regiButler. ments


At Budweiss, Tabor, Braunau, Konigingratz, At Brunn and Zanaym, have forsaken you, And ta'en oaths of fealty anew



Emperor. Yourself, with Kinsky, Terzky, have been sentenced. [Terzky and Illo express alarm and fury. Wallenstein remains firm and collected.] Wallenstein. 'Tis decided! I have received a sudden cure 'Tis well From all the pangs of doubt with steady stream Once more my life-blood flows! My soul's





secure In the night only Friedland's stars can beam. Lingering irresolute, with fitful fears I drew the sword 'twas with an inward strife, While yet the choice was mine. The murderous

Is lifted for

I fight

my heart now for my head

Doubt disappears and for my life.


[Exit Wallenstein; the others follow him.]

Scene XI
Countess Terzky (enters from a side room). I can endure no longer. No

[Looks around her.]


are they!



is here.


Alone in

this sore


must wear

me all alone, of suspense. anguish the outward show of calmness

my sister, and shut in within me The pangs and agonies of my crowded bosom.
It is not to be borne.


If all should fail



he must go over to the Swedes, empty-handed fugitive, and not

As an

ally, a

covenanted equal,


proud commander with his army following, we must wander on from land to land,

Like the Count Palatine, of fallen greatness An ignominious monument! But no!

That day I will not see And could himself Endure to sink so low, I would not bear To see him so low sunken.


Scene XII
Countess, Duchess, Thekla Thekla (endeavoring to hold back the Duchess). Dear mother, do stay here


frightful mystery that





hidden from me. Why does my sister shun me? Don't I see her Full of suspense and anguish roam about

From room to room? Art thou not full of terror? And what import these silent nods and gestures

stealthwise thou exchangest with her?



Nothing, dear mother Sister, I will know. (to the Countess). What boots it now to hide it from her? Sooner Countess. Or later she must learn to hear and bear it.
'Tis not the time


to indulge infirmity;


Courage beseems us now, a heart collect, exercise and previous discipline Of fortitude. One word, and over with it


you are deluded. You The Duke has been deposed

Deposed — he
to the

— the Duke





Thekla (going


What? do you wish
Countess. The Duke

to kill her?

Thekla (throwing her arms round her mother).
stand firm, my mother Countess. Revolted is the Duke; he is preparing To join the enemy; the army leave him, And all has fail'd.
stand firm



Scene XIII




in the


of Friedland's Palace.

Wallenstein (in armor). Thou hast gain 'd thy

point, Octavio


Once more



Almost as friendless as at Regensburg. There I had nothing left me, but myself But what one man can do, you have now experi;


The twigs have you hew'd off, and here I stand A leafless trunk. But in the sap within Lives the creating power, and a new world May sprout forth from it. Once already have I Proved myself worth an army to you I alone! Before the Swedish strength your troops had

melted Beside the Lech sank Tilly your last hope Into Bavaria like a winter torrent, Did that Gustavus pour, and at Vienna In his own palace did the Emperor tremble. Soldiers were scarce, for still the multitude Follow the luck: all eyes were turn'd on me, Their helper in distress: the Emperor's pride
; ;

Bow 'd itself down before

the man he had injured. 'Twas I must rise, and with creative word Assemble forces in the desolate camps.
I did

Like a god of war,
the world.

Went through

my name The drum was beat;

The plough,




Swarm And as

to the old familiar long-loved banners; the wood-choir rich in melody

Assemble quick around the bird of wonder, When first his throat swells with his magic song, So did the warlike youth of Germany Crowd in around the image of my eagle.

I feel myself the being that I was. It is the soul that builds itself a body,


And Friedland 's camp will not remain unfill 'd. Lead then your thousands out to meet me true They are accustom 'd under me to conquer, But not against me. If the head and limbs Separate from each other, 'twill be soon


Made manifest


which the soul abode.

(Illo and Terzky enter) Courage, friends! courage! we


I feel






footing firm five regiments, Terzky, our own, and Butler's gallant troops; an host of sixteen thousand Swedes to;


morrow. was not stronger when, nine years ago, marched forth, with glad heart and high
for the Emperor.


To conquer Germany


Wallenstein, Illo, Terzky
(To them enter Neumann, who leads Terzky aside and
talks with him.)


What do

they want?

Wallenstein. Terzky.

What now?
Ten Cuirassiers
request leave to address you

From Pappenheim
In the


of the regiment.


(hastily to


Let them enter.



end in something. Mark you. Doubtful, and may be won.

They are




Wallenstein, Terzky, Illo, ten Cuirassiers (led by an Anspessade,* march up and arrange themselves, after the word of command, in one front before the Duke, and make their obeisance. He takes his hat off, and immediately covers himself again). Anspess. Halt! Front! Present! Wallenstein (after he has run through them with his eye,
to the

thee well.




art out of Briiggen in


Thy name



Wallenst. Thou wert cut

Henry Mercy. on the march, surrounded by the Hessians, and didst fight thy way with an hundred and eighty men through their

'Twas even so, General! Wallenst. What reward hadst thou for this gallant exploit? Anspess. That which I asked for: the honor to serve in
this corps.

Wallenstein (turning to a second). Thou wert among the volunteers that seized and made booty of the Swedish battery at Altenburg.

2dCuiras. Yes, General. Wallenst. I forget no one with whom I have exchanged words. (A pause.) Who sends you? Anspess. Your noble regiment, the Cuirassiers of Piccolomini.

Wallenst. Why does not your colonel deliver in your request, according to the custom of service? Anspess. Because we would first know whom we serve. Wallenst. Begin your address.
* Anspessade, in German Gefreiter, a soldier inferior to a corporal, but above the sentinels. The German name implies that he is exempt from mount-

ing guard.

Anspessade (giving the word of command). Shoulder your arms!


Wallenstein (turning


is thy birth-place. 3d Cuiras. Risbeck of Cologne. Wallenst. It was thou that broughtest in the Swedish col;

Thy name


a third). Risbeck Cologne

onel, Diibald, prisoner, in the





3dCuiras. It was not


! :

Wallenst. Perfectly right It was thy elder brother thou hadst a younger brother too "Where did he

3d Cuiras.


stay? is stationed at Olmiitz, with the Imperial
(to the



Anspessade). — begin. There came hand a us — Commanding








Wallenstein (interrupting him).


chose you?

Every company


own man by


Wallenstein. Anspess. There came

hand a

to the business.

Commanding us collectively, All duties of obedience to withdraw,
Because thou wert an enemy and Wallenst. And what did you determine ?

from the Emperor from thee

All our comrades

At Braunau, Budweiss, Prague and Olmiitz, have
Obey'd already; and the regiments here, Tiefenbach and Toscano, instantly Did follow their example. But but we Do not believe that thou art an enemy


traitor to thy country, hold it merely lie and trick and a trumped-up Spanish


[With warmth.']

examine for yourselves. it chance that all the other regi- ments Turn from thee. Yield attention. Wallenst.160 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Thyself shalt tell us what thy purpose is. Yes. by ourselves will we stand forth Thy faithful soldiers. and obey That letter— Hear me. Which which the Emperor by a covenant! Is it thy purpose merely to remain Supreme commander of the Austrian armies? We will stand by thee. as is our duty. and my orders Were but the echoes of your prior suffrage. or no ! There needs no other answer. children Wallenstein. suffer 'd you to reason. That thou in traitorous wise wilt lead us over To the enemy. Far rather let ourselves be cut to pieces Than suffer thee to fall. General! and guarantee becomes thee. You're men of sense. For we have found thee still sincere and true: No mouth shall interpose itself betwixt The gallant General and the gallant troops. Anspess. But if it be the Emperor's letter says. if it be true. — . And this proposal makes thy regiment to thee. Therein I recognize my Pappenheimers. ! ! As Anspessade. Wallenstein. and do not follow with the herd: And therefore have I always shown you honor Above all others. which God in heaven forbid Then we too will forsake thee. Ye think. Is it thy purpose merely to preserve so In thine own hands this military sceptre. Made over to thee — Thy honest And should rights against all opposition. Have treated you as free men. and.

my stronghold! At this The aim This is is taken. Behold! this boy of the Emperor's bears away The honors of the peace. and the hard stone our pillow! never stream Too rapid for us. With cheerful spirit we pursued that Mansfeldt Through all the turns and windings of his flight Yea. my gallant Will rescue me. an easy prize ! Vol. we travel M : : war-wasted earth. unless ! my enemies. the hill. Speak but one shall satisfy us. me are they betraying. as the stirring wind. nor e 'er betray the country. my General With thy confidence Thou hast honor 'd us. our whole life was but one restless march And homeless. The Emperor troops Hath sacrificed me to And I must fall. your Spanish gratitude. Me.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Anspess. that it is not word — that treason which thou meditatest Thou meanest not to lead the army over To the enemy. and shown us grace and ! favor Beyond We other regiments. — Wallenst. 'er the The unthankful. 161 Most fair and noble has thy conduct been To us. and thou seest follow not the common herd. the curse-laden toil With faithful indefatigable arm Have roll'd the heavy war-load up of weapons. See And be your hearts breast I confide in you. nor wood too impervious. made for this the frozen earth bed. That we have well-nigh finish 'd the hard toil. And now. even now. this is our Requital for that murderous fight at Lutzen! For this we threw the naked breast against The Our halbert. at this hoary head. We will all Stand by thee A Thy word faithfully. Ill — 11 .

ye warriors Oh that my spirit might possess you now Daring as once it led you to the battle Ye would stand by me with your veteran arms. and therefore. this frightful war. no never. What — — ! To enjoy the fruits of toil? Believe it not. who hast conducted it one. ! ! ! [The Cuirassiers express agitation by their gestures. Rejoicing. Never. into his flaxen locks The olive branch. No ! let us tread securely. "With fame.] Ye 're moved — I see ! A noble rage flash from your eyes. That we can hinder it but thou. Is Austria's wish. shall end this war. ! Protect me in my rights and this is noble But think not that you can accomplish it. For what cares Austria how long the war Wears out the armies and lays waste the world She will but wax and grow amid the ruin And still win new domains. while No home. the hard-earn 'd ornament Of Anspess. This war will swallow up War. thou and no other shalt conduct us shall he not. to the lovely plains of peace Shalt share with us the fruits of the long toil Think you then at length in late old age Wallenst. Thou leddest us out to the bloody field Of death. ] . forsooth. [ Confidentially. .162 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He'll weave. will you see the end Of the contest you and me. because I Endeavor 'd after peace. not peace. therefore I fall. this gray head. ! Your scanty number! to no purpose will you Have sacrificed you for your General. grown gray beneath the ! helmet. seek for friends . and all of us. war.

it. let us for a while the appearance of good will. ever tangling more and more. fellow Germans. Swede and Ger- man. with your assistance. Anspess. every hand's against the other. The war-torch has continued burning. for your profit. I feel that I am the man of destiny. It must be cut asunder. but yet ye think With minds not common ye appear to me Worthy before all others that I whisper ye A little word or two in confidence ! See now! already for full fifteen years. Ye are but common men. yet No rest. Each one is party and no one a judge. And trust. What them as care I for the Swedes? I hate I hate the pit of hell. our camp to the glad jubilant world Lead Peace forth with the garland on her head 'Tis then but mere appearances which thou Dost put on with the Swede Thou 'It not betray The Emperor? "Wilt not turn us into Swedes? This is the only thing which we desire 1 ! And from To Wallenstein. My A cares are only for the whole I have heart it bleeds within me for the miseries — And piteous groaning of my . learn from thee. no pause of ! conflict. Where shall this end? Where's he that will unravel This tangle. till we both Carry the fate of Europe in our hands. to their And under Providence I trust right soon To chase them homes across : their Baltic. to accomplish .THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN The Swedes have proffer 'd us 163 Wear And use them assistance. Papist and Lutheran neither will give way To the other.

who are retiring.164 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene XVI Butleb 1 To Butler General! these enter (passionately).) Stop ! Go after them. Wallenst. Cursed be this counsel. to the Cuirassiers). And bring them back to me. . Wherefore must you ? It was all They were half won! those madmen With their improvident over-readiness — A cruel game is The zeal of friends Fortune playing with me. [Illo hurries out. — severely Illo. halt! this. Well. ! Hark I will punish it They do not hear. and accursed who gave it 1 ! [To the Cuirassiers. Of insurrection. ! Anspessade (abruptly March Right about Wallenst. children. cost what it may. Butler. But what? It is an open proclamation Butler.] Butler! Butler! ! You are my it evil genius Announce in their presence In a fair way. And not the hate of enemies. It must needs injure us with all honest men. This is not right What is not right? Wallenstein. it is that razes me. but what is it? Wallenstein. Count Terzky's regiments tear the Imperial Eagle From off the banners. [To assure them. well Butler. This hurls us headlong.] There's some mistake in Halt. and instead of it — Have rear'd aloft their arms.

Forgive me.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Scene XVII 165 To these enter the Duchess. Countess Terzky. [To Illo. who Thou hast not brought them back? Illo. [All stand amazed.] in her arms). returns. The soldiery have ta'en their oaths anew.] . {to all. Where can he be? He's Gone over to the Emperor with his father. Their colonel. hast thou done? And now comes ! Countess. will find means to free him with the sword. Is there no hast thou done? hope? All lost. who rushes into the Thekla and the Countess folloiv her Chamber ! Duchess. if thou dost not instantly deliver him. [Thekla rushes out into the arms of her Duchess {enfolding her mother. and we follow. brother It was not in my power — this beside. they require for they affirm : out is That he And They in the palace here. Prague in the Emperor's hands. No Is all lost utterly? hope. . a prisoner. What Terzky). . Octavio ! Count Terzky. hiding her face in her bosom. They know Duchess. Scherfenberg Be their attendant he is faithful to us To Egra he'll conduct them. Max is off too. Let a carriage stand in readiness Quick In the court behind the palace. That lurking hypocrite. Countess. child ! Unhappy Wallenstein {aside ! and more unhappy mother ! to Terzky). AlbrecM What Wallenstein.] Hear'st thou the uproar? The whole corps of the Pappenheimers : is Drawn the younger Piccolomini.

to conceal it? Needeth no It Beneath a thousand suns veil dares act openly. is gone over son could not have ven- tured stay behind.] not. It can't be. this suspense exceeds my powers. and lurk In ambush for a favorable moment ! ! : This loitering. hopeless misery. [He observes the Countess looking on Thekla with expressions of triumph. Lady I am not come ! ! To stay: to bid farewell.] look upon me Turn not thine eyes away. Confess it freely before all. he could not betray me. not betray 'd me 1 never doubted of it. [Advancing to Thekla. then all goes well for I know what my He has — .] Will keep him here forever. . who has thrown herself into her mother's arms. Fear no one. No No.166 THE GERMAN CLASSICS shall What Terzky. Still here. There he is ! Scene XVIII Max. Terzky. Wallenstein. ! Wherefore continue Is for the happy ! Secrecy — misery. To these enter Max Piccolomini Yes here he is I can endure no longer To creep on tiptoe round this house. [Embracing Thekla. If he be Countess. (her eyes fixed on the door). Let who will hear that we both love each other. Expect hope it not. we make of this? Said I not so? prophetic heart! he is still here. His father has betray 'd To To Thekla the Emperor — the us. farewell forever.

grant it me One Say look of sympathy. Hate and ven- now — 'tis now their turn All feelings of the Myself as much a monster as thy father man aside — I too can throw — can prove ! Max. [Grasps her hand.] Thou here t It was not thou whom here I sought. [Thekla. Thou know 'st. I shall let thee go. as thou hast power. Wallenst. avoiding his look. I neither brave nor fear thy rage. only one look. Thekla Cannot let go this hand. whom he had not till then per! — ceived. (calmly). points with her hand to her father.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN For this I 167 Thekla. Think 'st thou that. art convinced That I cannot act otherwise. and nothing more Nor to no purpose shalt thou have been given : Into my power. which so remorselessly are He mangled. fool-like. Say Thekla! me. . Max turns round to the Duke. That thou dost suffer with me. They geance Succeed past by. I come must ! — must 'Tis over ! I leave thee! I must leave thee Yet thy ! pray thee. hatred Let me not take with me. Here will I Receive a full acquittal from this heart For any other I am no more concern 'd. And act the mock-magnanimous with thee? Thy father is become a villain to me — . those hours Of friendship and forgiveness. thee. that thou dost not hate me.] to I cannot! God! I cannot leave this spot tell me. That ancient Think not that I will honor love. Thou wilt proceed with me. 1 trusted never more to have beheld My business is with her alone. I hold thee for his son.

die auf Dich vertraun. I fear that is. with a literal translation. incapable of compact. und stellt' ihn Als Freund an meiner Seite. irreconcilable. so Der Abgrund den verflecktesten der Geister. etc. ladet Sich aus mit tobender Gewalt. It to give the original. Ich hatte nimmer Arges gegen ihn. unex- . Sohnell unverhofft. incumbent on me taken this liberty more frequently. er sog Sich schwelgend voll an meiner Liebe Briisten. Thy heart's wild impulse only dost thou follow. Duke ! All [Taking — would I haveby owed all Thekla the hand. Und warf die Schliissel weiser Vorsicht weg. Mit meinem Herzblut nahrt ich ihn.168 THE GERMAN CLASSICS What has know'st. Am Sternenhimmel. allured by thy hospitable form. Weit offen liess ich des Gedankens Thore. Suddenly.* * I I have here ventured to omit a considerable I number of lines. Wer vermag Der Holle Macht zu widerstehn! Ich zog Den Basilisken auf an meinem Busen. an Dich Die sichre Hiitte ihres Gluckes lehnen. Den Liigenkundigsten herauf. The god Whom thou dost serve is no benignant deity — Like as the blind. und weg Weh Treibt tiber alle Pflanzungen der Menschen Der Wilde Strom in grausender Zerstorung. denen. should not have done amiss. WALLENSTEIN. that too thou See. "Would have received from thy paternal hand The lot of blessed spirits. mich hat Hollenkunst getauscht! schilderst deines Vaters Herz. bei nachtlich stiller Weile Gahrts in dem tuckschen Feuerschlunde. against thee lean the secure hut of their happiness. Wie Du's seinem Eingeweide. Mir sandte O. Gelockt von deiner geistlichen Gestalt. ist's in Du Beschreibst. In dieser schwarzen Heuchlers Brust gestaltet. This hast thou that concerns not thee. bad however. Fierce element. Laid waste forever Indifferent thou tramplest in the dust Their happiness who most are thine. LITERAL TRANSLATION Alas! for those who place their confidence on thee.] to thee. detain 'd me here.

it ous gulf of plantations of men stein. The Emperor was My austere master only. I cannot! luckless have ta'en place. he murders . The adder! 0. Schiller. there is a fermentation in the treacherdischarges itself with raging force. I will not Defend crime my father. Who may lies. even so is it shaped in his entrails. But we are innocent how have we fallen Into this circle of mishap and guilt? : pectedly. —We I threw away the key of wise foresight. withstand the power of hell? I took the basilisk to my bosom. I never harbored evil toward him. whom I In my heart's heart had folded! Had I been To Ferdinand what Octavio was to me. wallen- — has deceived me! the most skilful in The Abyss sent up to me the most spotted of the spirits. not my friend. etc. Who poisons confidence. wide open did I leave the door of my thoughts. Max.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 169 Wallenst. one is Woe Drags after it the other in close link. Unceasing war 'twixt cunning and suspicion Peace exists only betwixt confidence And faith. for there's a natural. He dwelt within me. in this black hypocrite's breast. There was already war 'twixt him and me When he deliver 'd the Commander's Staff Into my hands. Hard deeds and me. 0. as thou describest. in a moment fire. the art of hell still as night. to my inmost soul Still to and fro he pass'd. heaven. War had I ne'er denounced against him. in the starry heaven Did mine eyes seek the enemy. The future generations. I never could have done it. Thou art describing thy own father's heart. with my heart's blood I nourished him. Thou art portraying thy father's heart. the charms of hell o'erpowered me. No. suspected never On the wide ocean. and placed him as a friend by my side. he sucked himself glutfull at the breasts of my love. In the starry find a difficulty in believing this to have been written by . and away over all the drives the wild stream in frightful devastation.

Du warst si sic Indeed the whole speech is in the best style of Massinger. Thee have I loved: ! To thee They Our child and inmate. omnia! .* leave * heart. — At And my arms. no woman could have been A kinder to thee. Thou wouldst not let them go. This is a poor and inadequate translation of the affectionate simplicity of the original — Sie alle waren Fremdlinge. I tended thee that time did I take thee in with Till life return 'd. Max! thee — Max. Since then. our winter quarters. . my self. Hark! I will tell How when Wert at Prague. brought into my Not yet accustom 'd to the German winters.170 THE GERMAN CLASSICS faithless? Wherefore must The evil deeds and guilt reciprocal Of our two fathers twine like serpents round us? Why must our fathers' hate rend us asunder. love each other? Go you not from me. Thy hand was frozen to the heavy colors. mantle did I cover thee. However strange to me. thou tent a tender boy. when have thou- Alter 'd my feelings toward thee? Many sands Have I made rich. Unconquerable To whom have we been Who Wallenstein. and when thine eyes first open'd. I had thee in my arms. my I was thy nurse. I gave all were aliens thou wert my : Max! Thou cans't not me. I was not ashamed To do for thee all little offices. presented them with lands Eewarded them with dignities and honors . remain with me. Das Kind des Hauses.

I love thee. Max ! Which I too have not done. this a law And And It is am thy Emperor. that the holiest feeling of humanity. that the friend. thee. not thine. . Was Do nothing worth to thee. my God I have Wallenstein. I to ! . God how can ! I otherwise? My Wallenstein. duties It is my crime. on hast thy dwelling. What holy bond is there of natural love. That in thy actions thou shouldst plead free agency? On me To obey me. forsake me. from its orbit starts. ! Max.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN It 171 cannot be I may not. a freeman in the world. to the height of duty! Go hence. the father of thy youth. 'd thee from thy tottering Held and sustain childhood . serve thy Emperor. to belong Thy honor. me. that does not knit thee to me! What did thy father for thee. with his ram's fleece will he reward will For For Max. not in thy choice whether or no thou'rt planted. Dost thou belong To mander? thine own self? Art thou thine own com- Stand 'st thou. will not think That Max can leave me. What human tie. like me. He reward thee with a pretty chain Of gold. this is of nature to thee the which thou livest if the planet. oath to — my duty — my honor — whom? Who art thou? Am I not forced to do it! How ? Thy duty ? Max! bethink Duty thee What A mayst thou have? If / am acting criminal part toward the Emperor.

Neumann. Scene XIX To these enter Neumann Wallenst. it will praise thee. Let him go. For that thou held'st thy friend more worth to thee Than names and influences more removed. Not every one doth it beseem to question The far-off high Arcturus.] let Countess. will the world not censure. [Exit Terzky. Neu- mann. Wallenstein.172 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Thou 'It With Thee follow it. Have the cannon planted. and free The Count. Affection and fidelity the subject's. the roof's uncov- ered.] Prescribe to me with sword in hand! Go. And in their ranks in silence wait my pleasure. Hell and perdition ! him go. What is it? They They scale the council-house. determined With sword in hand to storm the house. Illo (at the window). level at this house the cannon — . I entreat thee. Wallenstein (to Terzky). and moons. Illo steps to the window. 'Tis [Neumann exit. Unfelt it whirls thee all his onward Together with his ring. What now? The Pappenheimers are dismounted. I will receive them with chain-shot. little guilt stepp'st thou into this contest. Illo. my command that they retreat this moment. their colonel. Most securely Wilt thou pursue the nearest duty : let The pilot fix his eye upon the pole-star. For justice is the virtue of the ruler. And are advancing now on foot.

Illo. The soldiery Of Butler's corps stand by us faithfully. Thou art free to go. only for butchery. and lead them to the battle . Merciful heaven Wallenstein). Front against Oppose thyself to me.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Max. And finish here in Pilsen the revolt. Their ardor faithful regiin. and with ease O'erpower them in the narrow streets. how is it with thee I Wilt thou attempt a heat with me? Away! . front. Terzky? Terzky. Into the city wedge them. Be let loose through its streets to roam and rage ? Shall the decision be deliver 'd over To deaf remorseless Rage. fire-eyed. Wallenst. may no longer be curb'd Illo. now to fire on us. What ? shall this town become a field of slaughter. ! ! Max (pointing to Thekla and ! But Wallenstein. come Let not their ardor cool. ! We are the greater number. And brother-killing Discord. Wallenstein.] it ! Well. Well. (to Max Let me go to them! Not a step the Duchess). Let us charge them. . their life Thine What tidings bring 'st thou. They could now charge the enemy in rear. 173 Madmen are making preparations ! ! They Duchess and Countess. let So let it be I have long thought of it. Scene XX To these Tekzky returning Message and greeting from our ments. burst them! [Turns to Max. that hears no leader? Here is not room for battle. They entreat permission to commence the attack And if thou wouldst but give the word of onset.

Ha Terzky. thou hast learn 'd some- what under me. Wallenstein. Upon whom? On Neumann. have come to this? ! — What! my Is it then. Wallenstein (starting up). for though an enemy. of my opponent. Thy head is holy to me still. [Two reports of cannon. What 's that? Terzky. cousin Max. Illo. For God's sake. Illo. Wallenstein. I need not be ashamed And Countess. never hadst thou fairer opportunity To pay me Can it for thy schooling. Falls ! Who ? Tiefenbach's corps Discharged the ordnance. Unless compell'd. no! Not yet.] Wallenst.174 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Thou'rt skill 'd in war. ! ! ! I . Cousin. Illo and Tekzky hurry to the window. hold him hold him Leave me. and this promise will I Make good. Wallenstein. More than this no duty to the Requires of me. ! Death and hell ! I will — Expose thyself to their blind frenzy? No Duchess and Countess. Have you the heart? The regiments that are I have pledged trusted to care my troth to bring away from Pilsen True Emperor. or perish. He falls. my General Illo. Your messenger. I will not fight against thee.

[Exit Wallenstein Illo. Let them but see him I have none Hope ! — there ! is hope still. in a visible struggle of feelings. my bosom. Tebzky. — — my face.] ! From . which was their sun in battle the balcony (mark!) I show myself To these rebellious forces. . And their long-fear 'd commander? Let me see Whether indeed they do no longer know Beholding not My — Am That countenance. They shall behold countenance. Scene Countess. and the high-swoln current Shrinks back into the old bed of obedience. a hard inhuman being: Yea. My purposed action seem'd unblamable To my own conscience and I must stand here — Like one abhorr'd. This rash and bloody deed has thrown Into a frenzy-fit allow them time Wallenst. Away too long already have I loiter 'd. shall hear my voice Are they not my troops ? I not their General. Duchess. This can I not endure.THE DEATH OP WALLENSTEIN Max. They are emboldened to these outrages. Max (who during the last scene has been standing at a distance. {to the Duchess). sister. and Butler follow. XXI Max and Thekla Countess Duchess. and two voices Make themselves audible within Must see all whom I love in this sore anguish. "With most determined soul did I come hither . 175 it Do Not yet them ! ! not. loaded with the curse of all I love ! Whom I with one word can make happy — 0! My heart revolts within me. and at once Revolt is mounded. advances).

I relied too much On my own I heart. Against our General's life. : And scoop for me the right. My mind moves to to do.176 THE GERMAN CLASSICS My soul's benighted. and truly and fro Didst thou say. well Distinguish the right track. Your father A frightful traitor to us — he has plotted a traitor. I did not question thee. as Friedland's daughter. Thekla! Max. To the posterity of Wallenstein.] other angel seek I? ! What To To this heart. Think upon your father. if I stay? Say that thou canst. Max. tell — know not what Countess. And I am the Duke 's The happy man From — Countess. Think. has plunged us all In misery and you're his son! 'Tis yours To make the amends Make you the son's — — fidelity Outweigh the father's treason. . heart. We all But utter what our passionate wishes dictate that an angel would descend from heaven. nothing. feelest. will I submit it. that the name Of Piccolomini be not a proverb Of infamy. a common form of cursing Max. averted ever canst thou the disquieted and guilty Still love me. With a pure hand from the pure fount of Light [His eyes glance on Thekla. unerring Will ask thy love. father. What! you know not? Does not your own heart Will tell it you? is ! then I you. Where is that voice of truth which It I dare follow 1 speaks no longer in my heart. Speak what thou Countess. which has the power to bless this alone. I no longer can 0. the uncorrupted. niece Think.

and heavily The shudderings of nature do avenge Themselves on the barbarian that insults them. Lay all upon the balance.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 177 Thee. no longer a dead instrument ! It lives. these. The human. Think what the Duke has done for me. and his soul's quiet. What's at stake? Not whether diadem of royalty Be to be won or not that mightst thou think on. will all follow me shall I forswear oath and duty to the Emperor? My Say. how loved me And think. Ill Follow thou — 12 Thy heart's first feeling . sure malice guide it the worst way. To thy noble heart The hardest duty might appear the highest. thy Hath long ago Vol. 0. all — then speak. the beloved and the unerring god Within thy heart. The avenging Thekla. — Who The Has parricidal ball? left its It is For when the ball and is on its flight. let it. Max (interrupting her). likewise the free lovely impulses Of hospitality. how my father has repaid him. thv heart decide decided. not precipitately I understand thee. would I act Even from my childhood to this present hour. are a holy Religion to the heart. And with Max ! furies seize possession of it. too. not the great part. Thekla. own And Thekla. the pious friend's Faithful attachment. too. either. Nay. shall I send into Octavio's camp . Thy friend. cannon. are at stake: The fortune of a thousand gallant men. a spirit passes into it. I question.

to me If our fates part.] There ! is Scene XXII To the above enter Terzky it? Countess (meeting him). The which thy tender heart did not at first Detect and seize with instant impulse? Go. our hearts remain united. Thekla. [Max clasps her in his arms in extreme tion. Max. Is it possible that that can be the right. ill-fated woman. A bloody hatred will divide forever The houses Piccolomini and Friedland But we belong not to our houses. emoheard from behind the scenes a loud. wild. All is lost! . Go Quick! quick! and separate thy righteous cause From our unholy and unblessed one! To thine own . thou art faithful. Max and Thekla remain without motion in each other's embraces. I Thekla. I should ever love thee Fulfil thy duty ! What'er thou hadst chosen. What meant that cry? What was Terzky. Then Must leave thee. must part from thee Being ! faithful . too. long continued cry. self. ! The curse of Heaven 'Tis dedicate to ruin.178 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Oh ! Countess. thou wouldst have acted but repentance Nobly and worthy of thee still — Shall ne'er disturb thy soul's fair peace. lies upon our head: it Even me to perdition. My father's Mourn not guilt drags with for me : My destiny will quickly be decided. Vivat Ferdinandus accompanied by warlike instruments.

and assemble in the background. It shall be done. which seem to address Max.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 179 Countess. To the Emperor. [Exit Terzky. Duchess. That we are with him early on the morrow. Wallenst. accompanied by Illo and Butler Wallenstein (as he enters). But here he comes. The Governor of Egra is your friend And countryman. who have remained during arms). He must be advised.] ! . follow us yourself. Pilsen ere evening. They shouted Vivat Terzky. Write to him instantly By a post-courier. At the same time there are heard from below some spirited passages out of the Pappenheim March. time in each other's Part! Max. ! Scene XXIII To these enter Wallenstein. You Butler.] Butler! Butler. Soon as he began. Countess. Let our regiments hold themselves In readiness to march for we shall leave ! . The traitors ! — ! Terzky. Yes. [Cuirassiers enter with God drawn swords. Terzky! Terzky. my General. With deafening noise of warlike instruments They drown 'd his words. my General this ! Wallenstein (steps between Max and Thekla. What! they regarded not his countenance? Terzky. Nay he was not permitted Even to address them. 'Twas all in vain. My General Wallenstein. your regiment with you.

his princely head Fair booty for each slave that trades in murder. You me wholly to despair. ! ! not Mine That a certain misery. a good angel give at the throne Of the Emperor. then remain more faithful To your new lord than you have proved yourself — ! To the Emperor. do not turn Leaving my all behind me. Come. me hope you would No no . The stage Max fills more and more with armed men. but is re[Max attempts pelled. Butler! promise me.] My Duchess. Haply The time may come. Colonel Butler and will you Not follow me ? Well. [He turns away. Give me your hand upon of his that you'll be The guardian life. He and .] Is there no eye that has a look of pity for me ? [ The Countess turns away from him. Max. its watchman. it. he turns to the Duchess. sees Butler and addresses him. he is at liberty : keep him No longer.180 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I Wallenstein (to the Cuirassiers). is attainted.] And you here. Here he is.] Thou know 'st that I have not yet learnt to live "Without thee! I go forth into a desert.. and stands so that Max cannot pass by him nor approach the Princess. when you may prove to us friend. Thine eyes away from me ! once more show me Thy ever dear and honor 'd to countenance! take his hand. Thanks to offers me a means of ending it. he turns to the Countess. mother! A true Max. is Heaven ! [The military music begins again. its shield. Suffer Go where duty calls you.

Mark! For your own ruin you have chosen me Who goes with me. and the horns sound from below louder and louder. Do it not Ye may repent it! ! The stage is entirely filled with armed men. Well. Away away and free us ! ! From his detested sight ! Away ! more to approach [Max attempts Thekla. Thekla sinks into her mother's arms. they surround him.] blow! were all it but the Swedish trumpets. The curtain falls. into my breast! What purpose ! You come to tear me from this place Beware. Here Is only one. I dedicate your souls to vengeance. and carry him of in wild tumult. and each time after a once Max. and [ ! : ! . 181 of friendship. Wallenstein prevents him. And Were plunged you? the naked swords. Wallenstein remains immovable. [He turns to the background. [Casting suspicious looks on Illo and Butler. then. You tear me from my happiness. Blow! shorter interval. Max stands irresolute. and in apparent anguish.] Yet more weight upon weight to drag me down Think what ye 're doing. there ensues a sudden and violent movement among the Cuirassiers. in your father's quarters. Ye drive me not to desperation.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTELN Now he doth need the faithful eye And those whom here I see — Illo. In the mean time the stage fills more and more. must be prepared to perish. The music becomes loud and overpowering. It is not well done To choose a man despairing for your leader.] Go seek for traitors — In Gallas'. which I see here.

the ancient colors. yet Profaner of the altar and the hearth. traversed the sky awhile. beware — The evil spirit of revenge impels thee Beware thou. is. tell me [Tell me. Friedland! and no farther! From Bohemia Thy meteor rose. by his destiny conducted. of all these sad events at Pilsen. Thou hast foresworn ! Blind man Against thy Emperor and fellow citizens Thou mean'st to wage the war. Gordon. Is it — you? How my traitor ! heart sinks! The Duke a ! fugitive Butler. In full. trustest to thy ancient fortunes.] You have received the letter which I sent you ! By a post-courier? : Yes and in obedience to it Open'd the stronghold to him without scruple. For an imperial letter orders me To follow your commands implicitly. And Must here upon the borders of Bohemia sink. . Here then he Here.182 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the passes into a complete war march orchestra joins it and continues during the interval between the second and third Act. His princely head attainted my God I implore thee.] — ACT IV Scene I The Burgomaster's House at Egra Butler (just arrived). Friedland. that revenge destroy thee not! Scene II Butler and Gordon Gordon. General.

The five excepted that belong to Terzky. Friedland Has sold the army to the enemy. this can't end happily. But sparing and with dignity the Duke Weigh 'd every syllable of approbation. are all necessary To keep him in the road of faith and duty. the deep trod footmarks Of ancient custom. as thou hast seen The sentence of attainder is pass'd on him. For truly. and his obscure Are but a cover 'd pit-fall. pledged himself to give up Prague and Egra. Did he receive from me the accounts of office. 'Tis all precisely As I related in my letter. talents A traitor to the dead or living. It placed him on a level with his Emperor. power The human being May not be trusted to self-government. On this report the regiments all forsook him. . not like an attainted man. Emperor Such a noble ! ! ! Of such high What is human greatness I I often said. give him in to justice. his greatness. And which have follow 'd him. As masters praise a servant who has done His duty and no more. . Into this town did Friedland make his entrance His wonted majesty beam'd from his brow. as in the days when all was right. 'Tis said that fallen pride learns condescension . His might. And calm.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN ! 183 But yet forgive me when even now I saw The Duke himself my scruples recommenced. Butleb. The clear and written law. And every loyal subject is required And To Gordon. The authority intrusted to this man Was unexampled and unnatural.

power error ! Is circumscribed. And all He has built then have deserted him you say? up the luck of many thousands. The Swedes advance to Egra by forced marches. Woe me! I mourn for him for where he fell. Butler. and still formidable. cannot calculate. Alas dear General.184 THE GEKMAN CLASSICS proud soul unlearn 'd submission. He is still quickly will the junction be accomplish 'd. 1 Hath he selected. What dangerous wishes such a height may breed In the heart of such a man. the mighty man alone may listen To the fair impulse of his human nature. I deem Might none stand firm. This must not be The Duke must never leave This stronghold on free footing. Nay ! let it not afflict you. Till the is ! ! We in our lucky mediocrity Have ne'er experienced. subalterns have no will of our own The free. Till Spare your laments he need sympathy. Obedience the sole virtue we dare aim at : We ! Butler. that your liberty. Ah! we are but the poor tools of the law. his spirit ! : For kingly was his full hand Was ever open Many a one from dust [With a sly glance on Butler. for at this present mighty. And your assistance 'tis on which I calculate. from the very dust Hath raised him into dignity and honor. of duty is securest. . for I have Pledged life and honor here to hold him prisoner. He did himself intrust this stronghold to me. ! And Gordon. that I had not lived to see this day ! From his hand I received this dignity. Much much The narrow path Gordon. Which I am now required to make his dungeon.

If I preserve my fealty in that I duty. Gordon (pauses. and when first No He to this citadel appointed me. If then as in deep dejection). Here's one. will you [And lend your aid it fulfil th' attainder on him. have purposed to deliver The strongholds of ! Butler.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN And 185 yet no friend. when he and I were friends Yet even then he had a daring soul : Was His frame of mind was serious and severe Beyond his years: his dreams were of great objects. I could almost doubt If ever in his greatness he once thought on An old friend of his youth. Communing with himself. — the country to the enemy there is no redemption for him — . Have sold the troops. Gordon. . Say. I see. A youth who 'Tis full thirty years since then. Yea. yet I have known him Transported on a sudden into utterance Of strange conceptions. Gordon. I have heard so . to my fealty was first delivered. Which Butler. then. his master. He walk'd amidst us of a silent spirit. Butler. For still my office Kept me at a distance from him. not one friend hath he pur- chased. He was sincere and serious in his do not then abuse his confidence. reflecting be so if all be as you say — — to take him in arrest?] — If he've betray 'd the Emperor. scarce had seen his twentieth year : Wallenstein. Whose heart beats true to him in the evil hour. truly Yet it is hard that me the lot should destine To be the instrument of his perdition For we were pages at the court of Bergau At the same period but I was the senior. I have enjoy'd from him grace or favor. kindling into splendor.

in conversation with the Burgomaster of Egra Wallenst. And from injury? Prom this day he betrayed clear marks reported) Of a distemper 'd fancy. and he spake so That we look'd round perplex 'd upon each other. You were at one time a free town. I see. Scene III . He made himself a Catholic* Marvelously His marvelous preservation had transform 'd him. He became Doubtless more self-enwrapt and melancholy. Dictator — and Prince. . But was it where he fell two-story-high From a window-ledge. No more. But now our destinies drove us asunder. Not knowing whether it were craziness. all this too little for him He stretches forth his hands for a king's And plunges in unfathomable ruin. crown. And Thenceforth he held himself for an exempted privileged being. and. on which he had fallen Butler. He ran along the unsteady rope of life. To these enter Wallenstein. And now is all. and Butler. He paced with rapid step the way of greatness. Was Count. Ye bear Why * the half eagle in your city arms.186 THE GERMAN CLASSICS His soul reveal'd itself. as if he were Incapable of dizziness or fall. asleep rose up free (It is Gordon. Or whether it were a god that spoke in him. the half eagle only? and other It appears that the account of his conversion being caused by such a fall. are not well authenticated. stories of his juvenile character. Duke-regent. he comes.

The Burgomaster alarmed. Wallenstein. Trust me Mass-book or bible. Ye merit freedom.] Draw near to their fulfilment. Lend your ears To no designing whispering court-minions. they had Been long ago expelFd the empire. Could my will have determined it. I built a church for the Reform 'd in Glogau At my own instance. Tell me. We totter under them. Therefore we bear the half eagle. two hundred years has Egra in pledge to the Bohemian crown.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Burgomaster. Within these walls self — Many — confess lie conceal 'd now — you your [Fixes his eye on him. Harkye. 187 But Remain 'd for these last We were free. Burgomaster! What is your name ? — Burgomaster. The times Burgomaster ! . Of that the world has had sufficient proof. So heavy that The garrison Lives at our costs.] Yes. But let it go no further. the other half Being cancell'd till the empire ransom us. ! may it please you. [Laying his hand on the Burgomaster's shoulder with a certain solemnity. 'tis all one to me. I hate the Jesuits. Wallenstein. yes. I will relieve you. I know it. Only be firm and dauntless. Harkye Pachhalbel. If ever that should be. What may your imposts be? Burgomaster. Wallenst. what I now Disclose to you in confidence.] Be not alarm 'd. There are some Protestants among you still? [The Burgomaster hesitates.

as we journeyed hitherward. the middle moon. in the East and in the West. taking. Harkye But keep it to yourself The end Approaches of the Spanish double monarchy A new arrangement is at hand.] P faith. I tell you. that two Wallenst. strong the garrison? Competent men. 'Twas a smart cannonading that we heard This evening. 'Twas on our left hand. to come from Weiden or from That's the route the Swedes are is Wallenst. hundred Wallenst. The Turks! That all? And — empires Will set in blood. 'Tis likely. How Gordon. I commend your foresight.188 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The high will fall. the low will be exalted. You saw The three moons that appear 'd at once in the ! ! — Heaven. Burgom. With wonder and Wallenstein. The wind brought it from the south. Two hundred harquebusiers have I sent thither To Wallenst. And Luth'ranism alone remain. It seem'd Neustadt. Butler. Good too fortify the posts against the Swedes. Burgomaster. At the ! works You have done somewhat? . Good And how many in the vale of Jochim 1 Gordon. Did you hear it here? Gordon. affright ! Whereof did two themselves to transform bloody only one. the ! Not quite two rest are invalids. remained Steady and clear. We applied it to the Turks. Strangely daggers. [Observing Gordon and Butler. Distinctly.

THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Gordon. Wallenst. together with their Colonel . I Shall make no stay here. this he did not know. Scene IV To Terzky. Further than Wallenstein. and wait but the arrival Of letters to take leave of you. [To Gordon. Joy. [To BUTLEB.] Release the outposts in the vale of Jochim With all the stations in the enemy's route. . stood Count Altringer. You have been watchful in your Emperor's service. the Swedes gain'd the victory. General joy Imperialists. The Rhinegrave presses hard upon us. 189 Two additional batteries They were needless. From whence did you receive the intelligence? Terzky. together With all the regiments. ! I am content with you. sixty miles from there. ! Count Terzky I bring you welcome tidings. . my daughter. Gallas' force collects at Frauenberg. There has been an engagement At Neustadt. How came Imperial troops at Neustadt? But yesterday. Wallenst. I caused to be run up. Lieutenant-Colonel. and my sister. And what may they be? Terzky. in your faithful hands I leave My wife. these enter . Soon after sunrise did the fight begin! A troop of the Imperialists from Tachau Had forced their way into the Swedish camp The cannonade continued full two hours There were left dead upon the field a thousand . A countryman from Tirschenreut convey 'd it.] Governor. General Wallenst.

Help ! Help ! Illo and Terzky (at the same time). Is it That Suys onward ? It perchance had ventured possible so far cannot be. murderous fight took place! o'erpower'd by numbers The Pappenheimers all. What does he bring? Whence comes he ? From the Rhinegrave Illo. Terzky (eagerly).190 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And have not the full complement. Seven leagues distant are the Swedes . We For here comes shall soon know the whole. Terzky. Some servants follow her and run across the stage. Illo. Duke he wishes ! to speak with thee.] A Neubr. full of haste.] Were left dead on the field. when Lady Neubrunn rushes into the room. Does he bring confirmation of the victory? Wallenstein (at the same time). [Wallenstein shudders and turns pale. Where is the messenger? Conduct me to him. and joyous. A courier. [Wallenstein is going. Wallenstein and Terzky. At Neustadt did Max Piccolomini Throw himself on them with the cavalry . What now? Neubrunn. And what he brings I can announce to you Beforehand. Wallenstein (after a pause in a low voice). Scene V To these enter Illo Illo {to Wallenstein). with Max their leader. The Princess! Does she know it? .

You have heard what Swedes are conquerors. It is not possible with such small force To hold in custody a man like him. Butler. Butler. Gordon.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Neubrunn (at the 191 same time with them). even so. my single regiment. Why death makes all things certain! Butler! What? Do I understand you? Gracious God! You — could — . We have and the garrison 'Tis Is not two hundred strong. Gordon. With my head have I pledged myself for his. And Butler liberate him. hitherward. and there strong. Butler. that the lost the fell in man she loved — Young Piccolomini who the battle. And if alive we cannot hold him prisoner. when Wallenstein and Terzky follow her. Butler. I grant it. Close by us to protect the Duke. Gordon. Gordon. They are twelve regiments are five heard it. Soon the numbers would disarm us. Only Gordon. What's this? She has Unfortunate Lady! Reporteth. Know. (after a pause). She dying! [Hurries off the stage. Must make my word good. It were to be fear'd.] is Scene VI Butler and Gordon Gordon. Butler. Too well I Illo And marching Gordon. cost it what it will. I am warranty for the event.

not the Emperor's army been defeated.192 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He must not live. And we Gordon. Not justice. Gordon. be recall 'd. Butler. and hold him prisoner Gordon. Gordon. but not his conscience. a life can never be. would assassinate him! I. And no brave man loses His color at a daring enterprise. — him. His guilt is clear. Hurry word may to realize a bloody sentence. Butler. Gordon. Butler. The most guilty should be heard. Butler. Butler. This were murder. Dispatch in service pleases sovereigns. Butler. His destiny and not the place destroys him. What then? Shall he go forth anew to kindle The unextinguishable flame of war? do not kill Seize him. without judgment pass'd? And The execution Is here instead of judgment. 'Tis my purpose. Butler. wherefore open'd I the stronghold to him? 0. upon you! ! Who Such leans with his whole confidence is his evil destiny ! Your General The sacred person of your General! My General he has been. Either you or You And you can do the deed This morning was his last. No honest man's ambitious to press forward To the hangman's service. ! Butler. I might have done so. Gordon. Butler. Gordon. Butler. the Emperor has pass'd judgment. Gordon. That 'tis only " has been " washes out no villiany. A Butler. "We should not A Butler. Gordon. but execute his will. Gordon. Gordon. Had — . But 'tis now past by. A brave man hazards life.

Ill — 13 . Butler (brings out a paper). Vol. Can you advise aught else Wherewith to execute the Emperor's purpose? Say if you can. our fault he escape to the enemy? through I? Gracious God! Take it on yourself If Are you content — Gordon. Illo. 'Twas they who strew 'd the seeds of evil passions In his calm breast. See It is — addressed to you as well as me. defending the Emperor's citadel! Yes. Gordon. Come of it what may on you God in heaven! . and with officious villiany Water 'd and nursed the pois'nous plants. For I desire his fall. Butler. ! Butler. May they Receive their earnests to the uttermost mite And their death shall precede his! We meant to have taken them alive this evening Amid the merry-making of a feast. Butler. these. Not his destruction. Gordon. had fallen. Merciful heaven! what must be I see as clear as you. not the influence of the stars. Here is the manifesto which commands us To gain possession of his person. I feel no pang for likewise. I lay it. And this And Terzky Gordon. they must not survive him. Butler. Their own bad hearts Impell'd them. and nature curses — it. Gordon. Butler. as beseem 'd a soldier. Yet still the heart Within my bosom beats with other feelings! Mine is of harder stuff! Necessity In her rough school hath steel 'd me. 193 Upon I these ramparts.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Gordon. that adorns the man! Doing their duty But murder's a black deed. to take the consequences. and a thousand gallant men have perish 'd.

And now must seek a grave for his only son. friend What meet such news with such a moody face ? ! ! Illo. and take vengeance on those worthless traitors. Tomorrow come twelve thousand gallant warriors. Hark ye. 'Twas pity. at this very moment. old friend! That is the very point That never pleased me in our General ! And — ! Terzky. The Swedes — Illo. The Piccolomini: be his the fate This flies sure Of all who wish us evil To the old man 's heart he has his whole life long ! . Could he thereby recall his friend to life. Cheerily. He ever gave the preference to the Italians. It lies with us at present to prescribe Laws. Yea. But this makes shorter work. gentle temperament 'Twas easily seen. and 'mid full glasses Will we expect the Swedish avant-garde. Fretted and toil'd to raise his ancient house From a Count's title to the name of prince. Hush. Illo gives the entertainment.194 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And To keep them prisoners in the citadel. One has already done his bitter penance. ! — — . Butler. Our luck is on the turn. how near it went to his heart. Then straightwise for Vienna. by my soul He'd gladly see us all dead ten times over. hush! Let the dead rest! This evening's business Is. Scene VII To these enter Illo and Terzky Terzky. Come! we will keep a merry carnival The night for once be day. though! A youth of such heroic Illo. Those skulking cowards that deserted us. who can fairly drink the other down Your regiment. The Duke himself. I go this instant give the necessary orders.

I behold Old times come back again he will become Once more the mighty Lord which he has been. this first victory. And like a King and Emperor reward True services. but we've the nearest claims. sirs How rapidly the wheel of Fortune turns The Emperor still is formidably strong. Be conqueror. Look then? I can't but laugh to think of them. my friends. friends! For there's hot work before sword Shall have no rest. For this King Ferdinand of Hungary Is but a tyro. this Octavio. we know. it cannot but succeed Fortune. lands will he present to all his friends. In Austrian blood. dedicate by destiny To fame and prosperous fortune. shame! what talk is this My Lord Field-Marshal ? Wherefore foam you so Against your Emperor? Butlee.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Illo. You will not be forgotten. streaming To banners. The Emperor has soldiers. Hope not too much ! Illo. Bethink you. can ne'er forsake the Duke! And only under Wallenstein can Austria . 195 Yes. mighty army: all ! How For will the fools. who 've now deserted him. [To Gordon. And then this viper. no commander. us. Terzky. . Trust me. Gallas? He's no luck. till it This be bathed to the hilt Gordon. From And was of old the miner of armies. let us be of good cheer for today. Shame.] Governor ! . The Duke will soon assemble A comes crowding. Illo. Is excellent at stabbing in the back. But ne'er meets Friedland in the open field.

. it will not please the Duke ! ! — What! we are masters here. and then you've quit for ! . shall we have the town illuminated In honor of the Swede? And who refuses To do it is a Spaniard and a traitor. Send out patroles To make secure. to Butler). Terzky. Here you have no more business. (as he is going. and for the last time. to the castle? At the right time. for on tomorrow The Swedes will take possession of the citadel. and bid you shine Goedon. Gordon good night. no soul shall dare Avow A himself Imperial where we've the rule. the watch-word may be alter 'd At the stroke of ten deliver in the keys To the Duke himself." Terzky. it is supper-time. You come. The Illo. though. is. Terzky and Illo. for tomorrow The Swedes will take possession of the citadel.] [Exeunt Scene VIII Gordon and Butler Gordon (looking after them). Illo. Unhappy men They rush into ! How free from all foreboding ! the outspread net of murder In the blind drunkenness of victory. Nay nay not that. In higher station: your fidelity Well merits it. take fair leave of the place. Come. fall must needs be great. great depth. ever Your wardship of the gates. " Great height.196 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He'll take you from this nest. Terzky Butler. What think you? Nay. I am content already And wish to climb no higher where great height .

Did he shift like pawns. A fateful evening doth descend And brings on their long night ! The sun has set. His fellow-men were figures on his chess-board. the whole game is lost. Do as he order 'd yon. His own . Their evil stars Deliver them And from tunes into our hands. be found among the forfeits. as his game required. Well. Still calculating. their drunken dream of golden for- unarm 'd The dagger at their heart shall rouse them. think on all The lovely features of his character. dignity. 197 This Illo. upon us. And yet at last his calculation proves Erroneous. Other men's honor. promise me! Butler. They make good expedition. and make no conscience of. Take measures for the When Send round patroles. — Butleb. think not of his errors now remember His greatness. citadel's security. That would fain bathe himself in his Emperor's blood. and lo! life will ! Gordon. they are within I close the castle-gate Oh! haste not so! That nothing may transpire. calculating still .THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN I have no pity for their fate. This night Alone is ours. To move and station. On all the noble exploits of his life. Swedes belongs. The Duke was ever a great calculator. I pray you. Nay. This overflowing and foolhardy villain. But we will make still greater. to the Tomorrow Butler. Fare you well. his munificence. stop. first tell me You have heard already. Butler Gordon. Gordon (with earnest anxiety). Ah! your looks tell me nothing good. good name. Nay.

] Gordon! 'tis not my hatred (I pretend not To love the Duke. duty now: [Grasping Gordon's hand. It is too late. . like an angel's arm. dishonor' d if the Duke escape us. Yet 'tis not now my hatred that impels me To be his murderer.198 THE GERMAN CLASSICS them. 'Tis the voice of God. which out of its own choice Creates for him a dread necessity. I suffer not myself to feel compassion. Think you your fortunes will grow prosperous Bedew 'd with blood his blood ? Believe it not Wherefore should it You know not. In vain the human being meditates Free action. if there were something pleading for him in my heart Still I must kill him. unseen. Arrest the lifted sword. or — But I must ransom — pledge — it lies in I * am [Passionately grasping Gordon's hand. and have no cause to love him). He is but the wire-work 'd* puppet Of the blind Power. and hasten With such forced marches hitherward? Fain would I Have given him to the Emperor's mercy. Follow its impulse. % avail him. Hostile concurrences of many events Control and subjugate me to the office. too would it — Butler. 'Tis his evil fate. and know. let And Butler. —T. Gordon! I do not wish his blood The honor of my word And he must die. Ask not — ! ! happen That the Swedes gain'd the victory. Dark thoughts and bloody are my What A Gordon.] Listen then. If your heart speak to you. We doubt the propriety of putting so blasphemous a statement in the of mouth any character.

am endeavoring to move a rock. He prizes above all his fealty. Butler. Gordon. 199 0! to save such a man — What ! It is worth Come. we Man Gordon. This Duke and I am but of mean importance. yet no human feelings. compared with him. This is what you would say "Wherein concerns it The world at large. He is a great Lord. constituted the whole of Scene IX. Whether the man of low extraction keeps Or blemishes his honor So that the man of princely rank be saved? We all do stamp our value on ourselves — ! — : The price challenge for ourselves is given us. Because I am true to mine. I cannot hinder you. in a Me weaker moment passion warp'd. and concluded the Fourth Act. He * In opposition to his own soft heart subjugates himself to an iron duty.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Gordon.] treasured my good name all my life long. is omitted in all the printed German editions.] . There does not live on earth the man so station 'd That I despise myself. I is made great or little by his own will. therefore he dies. A Butler (with a cold and haughty air). [This soliloquy. His conscious soul accuses him of nothing. Thou hadst a mother. The Duke has cheated me of life's best jewel. you mean to hint to me. Coleridge translated. and not other men's opinions. but may some God Rescue him from you! [Exit Gordon. So that I blush before this poor weak Gordon! I Butler* (alone). which.. according to the former arrangement. It seems probable that it existed in the original manuscript from which Mr. friend! Be noble-minded! Our own heart. sacrifice. —Ed. Forms our true honor.

200 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I stand beside him. What. The Duchess and Lady Neubeunn seat. it Wallenst. all pale And Wallenstein. The Swedish courier. and can prove it too High-minded Piccolomini There lives the man who can dishonor me — ! This ignominy blood alone can cleanse Into my own hands Duke Friedland. busied about her. Where am I? . Wallenstein and the Countess in conversation. thou or I The dearest thing a man Fortune delivers me has is himself. and with sudden questioning Soon wrested from him the disastrous secret. We found her lying in his arms. though the world Is ignorant of my purposed treason. She lives! Thekla {looking around her). her eyes closed. so soon? She seems to have Foreboded some misfortune. in the which had fallen A colonel of the Imperial army.] coming to herself? Duchess. How knew she Countess. — — ! Scene IX A on a Thekla Gothic and gloomy Apartment at the Duchess Friedland's. and must feel myself The worse man of the two. She flew to meet I saw it instantly. frighten 'd her. Too late we missed her. hasten 'd after her. heavy blow! she so unprepared! Poor child! how A is it? [Turning Is she to the Duchess. Countess. And heavy. The report Of an engagement. Her eyes are opening. pale. in a swoon. yet ! One man does know it.

— Dearest daughter! I'm not weak — Shortly I shall be quite myself again. grant me leave that by myself I Hear his report and question him. there's thy loving mother. my daughter. Thekla. My Thekla ! Wallenstein. Thekla. For she hath suffer 'd a deep anguish. my He That word of misery. Thy father's arms. raising her up in his arms). Where daughter? is he? Is he gone? 'd Who gone. You see I have strength enough: now I will hear him. as seek- — — ing some one. You'll grant me one request? Wallenstein.] Duchess. Why does my mother weep? Have I alarm 'd — ! her? It is I recollect myself gone by [She casts her eyes round the room. to be called to me. Thekla. but She'll rise superior to it. I have power to stand. Give her sorrow leave to talk Let her complain mingle your tears with hers.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIK 201 Wallenstein (steps to her. Permit the stranger Name it. And may No. Thelka. I am not ill. Thou art in Thekla (standing Duchess. Thekla! is . he? Please you. do not hide him from me. Where Thekla. think not of it. See. My father Wallenstein. No never shall this messenger of evil Enter again into thy presence. for my Thekla Hath all her father's unsubdued heart. . Come. Thekla! be my own brave girl! See. cheer 'ly. up). never ! Duchess. — the man who utter ! Duchess.

I sank into his I : arms . I will not be deceived. to me.202 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Countess.] 'Twere More pleasing Collectedly. I see she is in the right. My heart betray 'd me in the stranger 's presence He was a witness of my weakness. and am inclined And To grant her Duchess. that he. must replace myself in his esteem. I shall behave myself the more Wallenstein. Go. and that has shamed me. The horror overpower 'd me by surprise. if alone I saw him. daughter? the whole.] Countess (detaining him). The stranger. to spare me. this request of hers. Where That art thou going? I heard Terzky say thy purpose to depart from hence Tomorrow early. In her own bosom. may not think ungently of me. yea. Leave her alone with him for there are sorrows : Where of necessity the soul must be A strong heart will rely Its own support. I. Thekla. Trust me. but the heroine. Wallenst. Permit her her own will. Knowing Only more collected . Not as a woman. [Lady Neubrunn goes thy mother. 'Tis not advisable — assent not My to it. 'tis . But Thekla. I shall be my Thekla. [Going. On its own strength alone. mother wishes The I will not be spared worst is said already: I can hear — Nothing of deeper anguish! Countess and Duchess. must she collect The strength to rise superior to this blow. will be present — to call him. Wallenst. call him. I must speak with him. Not in her mother's arms. I'll have her treated It is mine own brave girl. Do it not. but to leave us here. Hush ! Wherefore wouldst thou speak with him. perforce.

Come. leave us not behind you in a place That forces us to such sad omens.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 203 Wallenst. Follow thy — mother. Countess.] Scene X Thekla. Princess — I must entreat your gentle pardon — My inconsiderate rash speech. 'tis impossible pale as death! That thou shouldst speak with him. brother. Heavy And sick within me is my heart These walls breathe on me. Leave her alone with him. We all entreat you. Wallenst. sister. Making it that which shields and shelters for me ! My best beloved. Use words of better omen. speaks of evil? I entreat you. Lady Neubrunn Captain (respectfully approaching her). Thekla. The Lady Neubrunn then may stay with me. [Exeunt Duchess and Countess. placed under the protection Of gallant men. There Child. 1 cannot tell you. take us with you. . how this place Doth go against my nature. Yes. sister. The place 's evil omens will I change. Leave us not in this gloomy solitude To brood o'er anxious thoughts. take us with you Wallenst. ye stay here. who starts and shivers). Duchess (to Thekla. How could I — me in Thekla (with dignity). The Swedish officer. like a church-yard Magnify Who — vault. brother. join you your entreaty! Niece. Countess. Then take us with you. The mists of doubt Wallenst. the Swedish Captain. evils to a shape of horror. Yours too. You have beheld my agony. Lady Neubrunn (returning). Take us with you.

I will be firm. The horror which came o 'er me interrupted Your tale at its commencement. The officer pauses till she makes a sign to him to proceed. it to the end. Stretch 'd out a solid ridge of pikes to meet them. 'twill Renew your Thekla. only The Pappenheimers follow 'd daringly Their daring leader — Captain. anguish. . Myself did wrest it from you. nor yet retreat . and sounded the alarm.204 THE GERMAN CLASSICS A Captain. broke through the . at Neustadt. We lay. Princess. Their horses at full speed. but their heedless courage borne them onward far before the others — The infantry were still at distance. They neither could advance. May it please My Thekla. When toward evening rose a cloud of dust From the wood thitherward our vanguard fled Into the camp. And Had leapt the trenches. For my tongue spake a melancholy word. I fear you hate my presence.] Both in van and flanks With our whole cavalry we now received them Back to the trenches drove them. expecting no attack. Continue Captain. lines. most distressful accident occasion 'd You from a stranger to become at once confidant. [Thekla betrays agitation in her gestures. Well — how began I am firm — the engage- ment? Captain. you. Scarce had we mounted ere the Pappenheimers. where the foot . Intrench 'd but insecurely in our camp. The fault is mine.

trembles through her whole frame. His charger. And his long hair. Proceed Captain. Wild despair Inspired the troops with frenzy when they saw Their leader perish. and is falling. 'Tis over. . as giddy. The sword of the deceased was placed upon it. every thought of rescue Was spurned . My I retire. rear'd up. man fell. Thekla. This morning We buried him. now no longer to be curbed last speech with all the marks of increasing agony.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN And The 205 as they stood on every side wedged in. Where is — You have not told me . they fought like wounded tigers . Young Piccolomini [Thekla.] Known by his plume. murderous fight took place. grasps a chair. nor was the contest Finish 'd before their last (faltering). but their leader. Flung him with violence off. after. and receives her in her arms. gave signal for the trenches Himself leapt first: the regiment all plunged . Captain (after a pause). Captain. and over him The horses. their A Thekla Frantic resistance roused our soldiery. The Lady Neubrunn runs to her.] dearest lady [Thekla. Rhinegrave to their leader call'd aloud. Twelve youths of noblest birth Did bear him to interment the whole army Follow 'd the bier. And where all. to the conclusion. who has accompanied the Neubr. A laurel deck'cl his coffin. Inviting a surrender. by a halbert gored.

The Captain lingers. Princess [Thekla silently makes signs to him to go.206 THE GERMAN CLASSICS In mark of honor.] small memorial of this hour. Captain. Is their through our advanced posts Who commander? Colonel Seckendorf. Captain. Look up.] You have beheld me in my agony. A [Giving him the ring. can receive directions from his father. accept Captain. ivJio has hidden her countenance). Thekla. Now go ! Captain (confusedly). and takes a ring from a casket. Captain. And shown a feeling heart. Captain. — die. in a cloister church Are his remains deposited. and turns from him. Nor tears were wanting.] . [Thekla steps to the table. until We Thekla. who had themselves experienced The greatness of his mind and gentle manners All were affected at his fate. And how far is it thither ? Near twelve leagues. my dearest lady Where is his grave ? At Neustadt. And which the way ? You go by Tirschenreut And Falkenberg Thelka. and he retires. is the cloister's What name? Saint Catherine's. for there are among us Many. 1 Thekla. but himself Made vain the attempt 'tis said he wish'd to . by the Rhinegrave's self. (to Thekla. lady. and is about to speak. The Rhinegrave Would willingly have saved him. Neubrunn Thekla. Please you. Thekla. Lady Neubrunn repeats the signal.

Whither There is but one place in the world. Thekla. Away! and whither? ! — affection Thekla. Of means to fly is from hence. To his coffin Thither. There. That time Your past father's rage And now Neubr. Thekla. Thekla. where he lies buried What would you do there? What do there? That wouldst thou not have ask'd. there is all that still Neubr. Neubr. In the dark night-time ? Darkness This rough tempestuous night will conceal us. show me the 207 Which thou hast ever promised prove thyself My own true friend and faithful fellow-pilgrim. And we alone. two helpless feeble women? We will take weapons: my arm shall protect thee. Thekla. Thekla. Lady Neubrunn Thekla (falls on Lady Neubrunn 's neck). hadst thou ! ! ! e'er loved. I fear no human the being's rage. That single spot is the whole earth That place of death : remains of him to me. Thekla. Now.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Scene XI Thekla. This night we must away Neubrunn. Whom am I seeking? Him who no more? Am Neubr. Neubr. The sentence calumny ! of world! The tongue is of Thekla. gentle Neubrunn. I then hastening to the arms God ! I haste but to the grave of the beloved. Had Under the hoofs of his war-horses? he a soft bed . ! Is now the only place Where life yet dwells for me detain me not Come and make preparations let us think ! . Neubr. Neubrunn.

is disquieted! ! And Thekla. dear lady. Go. There a Divinity will prompt my soul. this last anguish! Woe Go instantly. a poor fugitive.] But think what you are doing Neubrunn. do but go. The pilgrim. quiet. Thekla. traveling to a distant shrine Of hope and healing. this is not the way that leads to quiet. Will no one seek the daughter of Duke Friedland. Delay no longer. Your heart. make no further questioning! To a deep . There will my heart be eased. Thekla. Dear lady! and your mother? Oh my mother So much as she has suffer 'd too already. already has been thought. Neubr. And Thekla. Should we be recognized In a despairing woman. Dares he. Your tender mother Ah how ill prepared ! ! — ! For Thekla. Go. How can we pass the gates ? Gold opens them. Thekla. hasten. Neubr. Go and fetch him. Neubr. such as he has found. Thekla. Neubr. Misery travels free the whole earth. What can be thought. without the knowledge of his lord? He will. doth not count the leagues. And where procure we horses for our flight? My equerry procures them.208 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Heaven then the are ! Neubrunn. I know not what to name it. is me my mother ! ! [Pauses. what purpose you to do? Neubr. only go. Neubr. They Through many posts of the enemy. my tears will flow. Thekla. The journey's weary length Neubrunn. Eesistless does it draw me to his grave. Neubrunn. Thekla. And being there. Thekla. Neubr. Thekla. It draws me on. human beings.

twenty of which are in rhymes of irregular recurrence. perhaps.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 209 There is no rest for me till I have left a dim power These walls they fall in on me Oh mercy! What a Drives me from hence — — — feeling ! What fill. have been omitted without injury to the play. I thought it prudent to abridge it. ! Scene XII Thekla. Indeed the whole scene between Thekla and Lady Neubrunn might. lady. I go and call [Exit Lady Neubrunn. they chase me from these walls — Neubr. Those hollow. His Of spirit 'tis that calls me 'tis the troop his true followers.] ! — The soliloquy of Thekla consists in the original of six-and-twenty lines. who offer 'd up : Themselves to avenge his death and they accuse : me Of an ignoble loitering — they would not Forsake their leader even in his death died for him. C. Life is an empty casket. pale and hollow forms are those! the place! I They They crowd here! have no longer room Mercy! Still more! More still! The hideous swarm.] Rosenberg instantly. that no longer I dare stay here myself. Ill — 14 . And shall /live? — they — ! For me too was that laurel-garland twined That decks his bier.*] [The Curtain drops. They press on me. my only hope To die beneath the hoofs of trampling steeds That is the lot of heroes upon earth [Exit Thekla. * — Vol. bodiless forms of living men You frighten me so. I throw it from me.

mother. Good night. the Duke. I leave thee now consoled. But Thou never canst return unto Rosenb.] Neubr. Duchess. beloved mother! (Falling on her neck and embracing her with deep emotion). since I can calm ! Thy Thekla. I want repose. Thekla. Canst thou unseen conduct us from the castle? will commend I can. Rosenberg? Rosenb. my daughter. Thekla. Lady Neubrunn. and he will procure them. . Lady? To Tell him. Thekla. So I leave you to get ready. Thekla. Thekla. your mother comes. and Rosenberg Neubr. Wilt thou provide us horses. with us as well? consider. Duchess. my lady. I will remain with thee. I will. He 's gone I find thee more composed. To Neustadt. Indeed! Heav'n! Scene XIV Thekla. When can I go? This very hour. Rosenberg. thee to another master. But wither would you.210 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene XIII Thekla. And go To the world's end. let me only now Retire to rest. Rosenb. I am so. see. Neubr. I will reward thee. — [Exit. the Duchess Duchess. Rosenberg. — . and Neubrunn here be with me. my child. Thekla. my lady. Thekla. My Thekla. Neubrunn. He is here lady. And Rosenb. Lady Neubrunn. thou shalt have it. Thou scarcely art composed e'en now. father's heart.

served up. good night. Go . and a hundred citizens Have volunteered themselves to stand on guard.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Thou tremblest Thekla. the its way Have you yet instantly sent for Captain Devereux to the Duke. That no intelligence of this proceeding May make And Geraldin. rush all in — and Terzky and dispatch them both. be the word. ACT V Scene Butler's I Chamber. now good Sleep will appease night. Butler and Major Geraldin Find me twelve strong dragoons. Its beating: 211 strongly. [Exit Geraldin. Macdonald? They'll be here anon. for enemies Threaten us from without and from within. Butler. . The citizens Declare for him.] Butler. dear mother. Here's no room for delay.] (As she withdraws from her mother's arms the curtain falls). a founder of new ages And golden times. Dispatch! then. and I feel thy heart Beat audibly on mine. a dizzy drunken spirit Possesses the whole town. The castle-palace is well barr'd and guarded. They see in the Duke A Prince of peace. Arms too have been given out By the town-council. For there must be no firing Conceal them somewhere near And And Illo soon as the dessert " Who is cry loyal to the Emperor!" I will overturn the table while vou attack — is the banquet-room. arm them with pikes.

If you could prove a villain. Good then we know each other. why not we? Macdon. An alter 'd case! Butler (to Devereux). Butler. yes! in his name you administer 'd Our oath. Live the House of Austria. Butler. and his country's enemy? Devereux. Have we not march 'd him? to this place to protect Protect a traitor. has us. Butler. Why. Devereux. Ye must remain honest and We wish no other. Macdonald. 'Tis e 'en so ! Well. Captain Devereux. Ay. ! . . Macdonald. And follow 'd him yourself to Egra. Devereux. Have we not sworn fidelity to Friedland? Macdon. So easily leavest thou thy oath and colors? Devereux. You We are our General. I should so. We've nought to do with thinking that's your — — business. Devereux.212 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene II Butler. Soldiers of fortune are we hope — who bids most. I did it the more surely to destroy him. are. General. Butler. and Macdonald Macdon. Devereux. Butler. So then! Macdonald. and give out the orders follow you. How? Butler. for the present faithful soldiers. The devil! I but follow 'd your example. What's to be the watchword? Long live the Emperor ! Both (recoiling). Thou wretched man. Butler (appeased). Here we Devereux. though the track lead to hell. He Macdonald. and make your fortunes.

Forever ! With He is as poor as we. that. Yes. Alive or dead these were the very words. Butler. Ay that sounds well. Alive or dead. And he shall be rewarded from the State In land and gold. His lucky stars are set. As poor as we? Devereux. ! . must kill him. Devereux. — — .THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Macdon. or a parchment patent. The words sound always Deveretjx. Macdonald. Listen It is the ! We Emperor's will attend. — ! well That travel hither from the Court. And such like The Prince-Duke pays better. Kill him! Both {starting back) Butler. 213 That is still better. Yes yes We know already what Court-words import. Butler. Macdonald. You have my word for it. ! ! golden chain perhaps in sign of favor. Butler. It runs so in the letter. and ordinance To seize the person of the Prince-Duke Fried- land. Us . Macdon. old charger. Both. A Or an — Macdonald. my countrymen! In short We we must kill him. Both. And is that certain? Butler. Butler. we'll desert him. Yes All over The Duke's a splendid paymaster. who proffers aid thereto. His lucky fortunes all past by? Butler. Devereux. We'll desert him? Full twenty thousand have done that already We must do more. And for that purpose have I chosen you. my friends Macdon.

If Has were not our Chieftain. us. might be done perhaps And to assassinate our Chief Commander — — That Butler. But we are soldiers. with full thirty lives to art dastardly? answer for Thou conscientious of a sudden? Devereux. Were it my own And It the Emperor's service should demand father. The Pestalutz What may you want with him? Macdonald. ! Macdon. off then! and — send Pestalutz 'Twont do! to me. a foul abomination. if he must fall. What think you. Butler. by my soul a conscience too ! — Devereux. we can find enough Butler. it of me. Brother Macdonald? . One has Yes. 'Twill not do. Determine quickly! Devereux. Butler. Devereux {hesitates). it is too bad ! It is too bad. Macdonald. No. we may earn the bounty — As well as any other. Captain Devereux. Devereux {after a pause). Devereux. — Nay To assassinate our Lord and General To whom we've sworn a soldier's oath The oath Is null. other. From which no monk or confessor absolves I am your Pope. What! Thou. Butler.214 THE GERMAN CLASSICS You. no Macdonald. Choose you some Butler. and give you absolution. Devereux. Macdonald. and thee. who so long issued the commands. If you reject it. Nay. for Friedland is a traitor. Devereux. is a sin. Well. and claim 'd our duty it — Is that the objection? Butler.

and yet hang the murderer. Danger! The Devil! What do you think me. " alive or dead. Butler.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Macdonald. Macdon. that folks may like murder. 215 Why. Hear. Devereux. Tomorrow will the Swedes be at our gates. Soon as that is finish 'd It will be all one to you Devereux. 'Twill be the lesser danger with the Duke. dead then! dead! 'tis Alive at — — — you see it is not. You take upon you all the consequences? I take the whole upon me. Butler. Devereux. if he must fall. Well. Hear. and there's a feast there we shall surprise Given at the castle — . and not his sword. Devereux. They the first. would not give place to this Pestalutz. and Illo With these you shall begin you understand — me? Devereux. Devereux! A bloody evening this. can't be otherwise. . Devereux. Macdon. — them. his express absolute will? we have instances. The Pestalutz and Lesley Have that commission. I fear. down." manifesto says not possible Devereux. General? ! And hew them — — 'Tis the Duke 's eye. General Hark ye. The For The The Emperor's will. How! And must they too perish? Butler. will fall. Butler. Ay! and then Terzky still remains. Have you a man for that? Commission me Butler. let me exchange with Geraldin. But how can we come him? The town is filled with Terzky's soldiery. it . and (after some reflection) When do you purpose he should fall? This night. And One Devereux Butler. And it is Butler. 'Tis given in trust to Major Geraldin This is a carnival night.

Devereux. thou hast nought to do but . Butler. his murderer. The devil take Such thinkers! I'll dispatch him. Macdonald? sword or dagger against him? And not to be wounded shot. And would 'st quiet Thy conscience. That did not strike me. Butler. Macdon. and flash! What? Hard . the Prince's How And Devereux. light You are right. With revolt. hast pangs of conscience To run him through A coat that is mantle. Safe against frozen. doth he thank the Emperor? treason. General! But 'tis not eight days since the Duke did send me Twenty gold pieces for this good warm coat Which I have on and then for him to see me Standing before him with the pike. The Duke presented thee this good warm coat. and stab. And thou. I'll pull off the coat Pull off the coat With — So there 's an end of Macdonald. Devereux. a needy wight. body in return? far better and far warmer the to Did the Emperor give him. That is true. ! Why — why — milksop ! That eye of his looking upon this coat the devil fetch me! — I'm no Butler. simply so canst thou do the deed heart and good spirits.216 THE GERMAN CLASSICS What can his eye do to thee? Butler. Yes. Death and hell ! Thou know'st that I'm no milksop. Macdon. — he — is Butler (starting up). Point to be thought it. but there's another of. What He is avails what's that.

In the cloister here There 's a Dominican. without his alarming The servants of the Court? For he has here A numerous company of followers. that. . conduct them silently as may be the house I will myself be not far off. Macdon. I lead you through a back door that's defended By one man only. Devereux. I have made myself acquainted with the place. That stand on guard there in the inner chamber? Butler. Macdonald. I tell you. I'll go before you with one poniard-stroke Hartschier 's windpipe. Me my rank and office Give access to the Duke at every hour. and make way for Cut — you. Devereux. Hear what I'll do.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN 217 Secured and warranted by the black art! His body is impenetrable. Then when it strikes eleven. In Ingolstadt there was just such another: His whole skin was the same as steel. at last We were obliged to beat him down with gunstocks. And when we gain are there. But how do we get through Hartschier and Gordon. I'll make him dip my sword and pike for me In holy water. Well. when the first rounds pass'd. But now go and select So do. That's pro- Nothing can stand 'gainst Butler. Are To — Devereux. by what means shall we The Duke 's bed-chamber. Macdonald! from out the regiment And Twenty or thirty able-bodied fellows. Devereux. let them take the oaths to the Emperor. and say over them One of his strongest batum ! blessings. my countryman.

at the people's babble. I sympathize and if you have seen me . Devereux. And 'tis his purpose Butler. In plenty. Deficient in the expressions of that joy. Squares with one's honor certain — — If the business if that be quite Butler. Macdonald? I — Macdon. splendor you may safely — Laugh Devereux. Well Well Come then. Macdonald. Were it well over hey. he shall not Lie long in pain. Butler.218 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The attendants bustle. Devereux. fill Butler. the right wing: he hates And lodges in the left wing quite alone. The reward can be No small one. Feel queerly on the occasion. terminated by a Gallery which extends far into the background Wallenstein sitting at a table. Devereux. Ye save for Ferdinand His crown and empire. to rob him of his crown and And by Should we deliver him up Alive? he must fall the executioner's hands. honor. Devereux. Yes! — Yes! — to dethrone the Emperor? life. ! ! [Exeunt Butler through one door. The Swedish Captain standing before him to Wallenst. ! People will hold us for a brace of villains. to the Emperor It were his certain destiny. Set your hearts quite at ease. Macdonald and Devereux through the other. devil knows And I too. .] Scene III A Saloon. 'Tis too great a personage. Butler. Commend me In his good fortune your lord.

Wallenstein. you On your [The Swedish Captain Wallenstein sits lost in thought. Be quiet. his eyes fixed vacantly. . Our Wallenstein. The wind doth chase the flag upon the tower. The Countess Terzky enters. sees her and recollects himself. unobserved by him. uphold us! brother! had expected art. And for your trouble take my thanks. she was more collected After her conversation with the Swede.] Wallenst. She has now retired to rest.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Which such a Attribute it 219 victory might well demand. Betake thee chamber. I ail nothing. For henceforth are our fortunes Farewell. remain thou firm! For our light thou Sustain. and his head sustained by his hand. to no lack of good will. at length he starts. Bid to thy me not go. My She Countess. retires. Countess. will shed tears. Countess. stands before him for awhile. Thy husband? At a banquet — he and Wallenstein (rises and strides across the saloon). My I After such a victory to have found in thee A cheerful spirit. Tomorrow The citadel shall be surrendered to arrival. The pang will soften. The night's far spent. one. sun. Countess. Comest thou from her? is Is she restored? How she? sister tells me. There is a busy motion in the Heaven. let me stay with thee ! Wallenstein (moves to the window). Where's Illo. I find thee alter 'd too.

that single glimmering yonder. and looks vacantly into the distance. Und durch die Nacht zuckt ungewisse Helle. See him again? never. If I but Methinks. . Is from Cassiopeia. * How? felicity These four lines are expressed in the original with exquisite Am H'immel ist geschaftige Bewegung. die Mondessichel tcankt. are either vulgar or pedantic." " " " The words " wanken and schweben are not easily translated. and therein Is Jupiter. never again! Countess. aspect see He is the star of my nativity. or from the new moon to the full: but from full to a new again. Wallenstein (remains for a while with absent mind. then grasps his hand).220 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Fast sweep the clouds." reminds me of a passage in Harris. the sickle* of the moon. But now The blackness of the troubled element hides him ! into profound melancholy . Thou 'It him again. as quoted by " " The enlightened part of the moon falcated. the enlightened part appears gibbous. Struggling. then assumes a livelier manner. And often marvelously hath his Shot strength into Countess. which is while she is moving from the conjunction to the opposition. So ally." Johnson. (A pause). saw him. by which we attempt to render them. the Procession of clouds. and the The word " dark falcated. or not of sufficiently general application.] Countess (looks on him mournfully. freely " —The der Wolken Zug " — liter- Masses of the Clouds sweep onward in swift stream. under the word appears in the form of a sickle or reaping-hook. and turning suddenly to the Countess). The English words. darts snatches of uncertain light That one of star is visible ! . 'twould be well with me. — Des Thurmes Fahne jagt der Wind. sohnell geht Der Wolken Zug. my heart. The Draft. What art thou brooding on? [He sinks Wallenstein. No form White stain of light. moon-sickle.

What was his death? The courier had just left thee as I came. The bloom is vanish 'd from my life he stood beside me. No ominous hour Knocks at his door with tidings of mishap Far off is he. the more fortunate! yea. he hath finish 'd! For him there is no longer any future.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTELN Wallenstein. This anguish will be wearied down. * A very inadequate translation of the original Verschmerzen werd' ich diesen Schlag. Veil'd in thick darkness brings for us? Countess. Let us look forward into sunny days. Turn not Welcome with joyous heart the victory. 'tis well With him! but who knows what the coming hour Whom — . like my youth. Countess. I shall grieve down this blow.] thine eyes upon the backward view. ! . No more submitted to the change and chance Of the unsteady planets. And cannot cease to be. For Transform 'd for me the real to a dream. Denn was verschmerzte nicht der Mensch! LITEBALLY. Thou speakest Of Piccolomini. His life is bright bright without spot it was. [Wallenstein by a motion of his hand makes signs to her to be silent. then? Wallenst. For the first time. Yet I feel what I have lost In him. He learns to wean himself for the strong hours As from : Conquer him. when first he parted from the. To thee he died. of that I'm conscious: What does not man grieve down? . the vilest thing of every day. 221 He is gone — is dust. thy friend was to thee dead. above desire and fear. highest. He. meanest thou. Wallenst. Not today. Forget what it has cost thee.* I know What pang is permanent with man? From the . das weiss — ich.


Clothing the palpable and the familiar

With golden exhalations of the dawn. Whatever fortunes wait my future toils, The beautiful is vanish 'd and returns Countess. be not treacherous to thy own power.






in him, The which thyself didst plant, thyself unfold. Wallenstein (stepping to the door).



enough to vivify and prizest virtues


interrupts us


at this late


It is the



brings the keys

Of the


so hard boding fear possesses me Wallenstein. Fear! Wherefore? Countess. Shouldst thou depart this night, and we at


'Tis midnight. Leave me, sister to me this night to leave thee


waking Never more Wallenstein.

find thee




Has long been weigh 'd down by


these dark fore-




They saw

will crush

combat and repel them waking, down upon my heart in dreams.

thee yesternight with thy



Sit at a banquet, gorgeously attired. This was a dream of favorable omen,

That marriage being the founder of my fortunes. Countess. Today I dreamt that I was seeking thee
In thy own chamber. As I enter 'd, lo! was no more a chamber: the Chartreuse At Gitschin 'twas, which thou thyself hast


And where

it is

thy will that thou should 'st be




soul is busy with these thoughts. dost thou not believe that oft in dreams


A voice


warning speaks prophetic

to us?



Wallenst. There is no doubt that there exist such voices Yet I would not call them Voices of warning that announce to us Only the inevitable. As the sun, Ere it is risen, sometimes paints its image


In the atmosphere, so often do the spirits Of great events stride on before the events, And in today already walks tomorrow. That which we read of the fourth Henry's death Did ever vex and haunt me like a tale

Of my own future destiny. The king Felt in his breast the phantom of the knife, Long ere Ravaillac arm'd himself therewith.
His quiet mind forsook him the phantasma Started him in his Louvre, chased him forth Into the open air: like funeral knells

Sounded that coronation




with boding sense he heard the tread Of those feet that even then were seeking him

Throughout the

streets of Paris.

The voice within thy

to thee

soul bodes nothing ?



Be wholly

I hasten 'd after thee,

another time

and thou ran'st from me

Through a long



a spacious

There seem'd no end of

doors creak 'd and

I follow 'd panting, but could not o'ertake thee; When on a sudden did I feel myself

the hand was cold that Grasp 'd from behind me grasped 'Twas thou, and thou didst kiss me, and there seem'd


crimson covering to envelop




Wallenst. That is the crimson tapestry of my chamber. Countess {gazing on him). If it should come to that if I should see thee,

Wallenst. The






in the fulness





on his breast and weeps.] proclamation weighs upon

and he finds no hands Alphabets wound not Countess. If he should find them, mv resolve is taken I bear about me my support and refuge.

[Exit Countess.]

Scene IV Wallenstein, Gordon Wallenst. All quiet in the town ? Gordon. The town is quiet. Wallenst. I hear a boisterous music and the Castle

Is lighted up.


are the revellers?




a banquet given at the Castle

the Count Terzky and Field Marshal Wallenst. In honor of the victory This tribe


Can show

their joy in nothing else but feasting.

The Groom of the Chamber enters.] Unrobe me. I will lay me down to sleep. [Wallenstein takes the keys from Gordon.] So we are guarded from all enemies,


shut in with sure friends; all must cheat me, or a face like this


[Fixing his eye on Gordon.] ne'er a hypocrite's mask. [The Groom of the Chamber takes off his
mantle, collar, and scarf.] Take care what

Wallenstein. Groom of the Chamber.



The golden chain
Wallenst. Well,


snapped in two.

has lasted long enough.


— give


[He takes and looks at the 'Twas the first present of the Emperor.


He hung it round me in the war of Friule, He being then Archduke; and I have worn


now from




superstition, if





be a talisman to




while I wore

was to chain to The volatile fortune, whose first pledge it was Henceforward a new fortune Well, be it so Must spring up for me for the potency Of this charm is dissolved. [Geoom of the Chamber retires with the vestments. Wallenstein rises, takes a stride across the room, and stands at last before Gordon in a posture of meditation.]

my neck in faith, me all my life long



the old time returns

upon me



Behold myself once more at Burgau, where We two were Pages of the Court together.
oftentimes disputed: thy intention Was ever good but thou wert wont to play


The Moralist and Preacher, and wouldst
at me —



I strove after things too



high for me, faith to bold unlawful dreams,



extol to


the golden


Thy wisdom hath been proved a thriftless friend To thy own self. See, it has made thee early


superannuated man, and (but That my munificent stars will intervene)

Would Go out

thee in


some miserable corner an untended lamp.




Vol. Ill

light heart the poor fisher moors his boat, watches from the shore the lofty ship

Stranded amid the storm.

— 15


Art thou already In harbor then, old man 1 Well I am not. The unconquer'd spirit drives me o'er life's billows; My planks still firm, my canvas swelling proudly. Hope is my goddess still, and Youth my inmate And while we stand thus front to front almost



might presume to say that the swift years Have passed by powerless o'er my unblanched

[He moves with long and remains on
against Gordon.]

strides across the Saloon, the opposite side over

Who now persists in


Fortune false 1

To me she has proved faithful; with fond love Took me from out the common ranks of men, And like a mother goddess, with strong arm

me swiftly up the steps of Nothing is common in my destiny,



in the furrows of





Interpret then




as 'twere

of the undistinguishable many? True, in this present moment I appear

Fallen low indeed; but I shall rise again. The high flood will soon follow on this ebb; The fountain of my fortune, which now stops

Repress 'd and bound by some malicious star, Will soon in joy play forth from all its pipes.

' '

yet remember I the good old proverb, Let the night come before we praise the day. I would be slow from long-continued fortune

' '

To gather hope:




the companion

Given to the unfortunate by pitying Heaven. Fear hovers round the head of prosperous men;

For still unsteady are the scales of fate. Wallenstein (smiling). I hear the very Gordon that of old Was wont to preach, now once more preaching;

I know well that all sublunary things Are still the vassals of vicissitude. The unpropitious gods demand their tribute



This long ago the ancient Pagans knew: And therefore of their own accord they offer 'd To themselves injuries, so to atone

The jealousy

of their divinities:

And human

sacrifices bled to


[After a pause, serious, and in a more subdued manner.]
I too have sacrificed to


— For me



the dearest friend,

and through





joy from favorable fortune

Can overweight the anguish of this The envy of my destiny is glutted
Life pays for



pure head the



Was drawn
ter 'd me.


which would

have shat-



If one

these enter Seni

Is not that Seni

and beside himself,


trust his looks?


brings thee



this late hour, Baptista?

Terror, Duke


On thy


What now?
Flee ere the day break
to the

Trust not thy person Wallenstein.
Is in thy thoughts?



What now



louder voice). Trust not thy person to the Swedes.



is it,





more urgently).


wait not the arrival of these Swedes evil near at hand is threatening thee From false friends. All the signs stand full of
! !

horror Near, near at hand the net-work of perdition Yea, even now 'tis being cast around thee Fear befools Wallenst. Baptista, thou art dreaming!




Believe not that an empty fear deludes me. Come, read it in the planetary aspects Read it thyself that ruin threatens thee


false friends.


the falseness of




risen the whole of




The warning should have come before!


need no revelation from the stars

To know

see! trust thine own eyes! stands in the house of life sign An enemy; a fiend lurks close behind The radiance of thy planet. O be warn'd!

Come and

A fearful

Deliver not up thyself to these heathens, To wage a war against our holy church.

Wallenstein (laughing gently). The oracle rails that way
I recollect.

Now Yes, yes This junction with the Swedes
! !

Did never please thee

— lay thyself

to sleep,


like these I

Gordon (who during the whole of this marks of extreme agitation, and now turns

do not fear. dialogue has shown

My Duke and General
Wallenst. Speak


May I dare presume ?











What if 'twere no mere creation Of fear, if God's high providence vouchsafed To interpose its aid for your deliverance, And made that mouth its organ? Ye 're both feverish Wallenstein. How can mishap come to me from the Swedes! They sought this junction with me 'tis their


Gordon (with difficulty suppressing his emotion). But what if the arrival of these Swedes What if this were the very thing that wing'd The ruin that is flying to your temples'?



[Flings himself at his feet.] yet time, my Prince.

hear him hear him




The Rhinegrave's




Give but the

This citadel shall close its gates upon him. If then he will besiege us, let him try it.

But this I say; he'll find his own destruction With his whole force before these ramparts,

Than weary down


shall experience

the valor of our spirit. what a band of heroes,

Inspirited by an heroic leader, Is able to perform. And if indeed

be thv serious wish to make amend For that which thou hast done amiss this,


Will touch and reconcile the Emperor, Who gladly turns his heart to thoughts of mercy And Friedland, who returns repentant to him, Will stand yet higher in his Emperor's favor Than e'er he stood when he had never fallen.

Wallenstein (contemplates him with surprise, remains


awhile, betraying strong emotion). your zeal and fervor lead you far.


Well, well

— an

old friend has a privilege.

Never, never if he could, I ne'er could let myself be pardon 'd. Yet I Had I foreknown what now has taken place, That he, my dearest friend, would fall for me

Blood, Gordon, has been flowing.



Emperor pardon me; and





death-offering; and had the heart me, as now it has done Gordon,

may be, I might have bethought myself; may be too, I might not. Might or might not

now an idle question. All too seriously Has it begun to end in nothing, Gordon!



then have


to the

All dark and silent

—[Stepping too at the castle now hush'd — Light me, Chamberlain!


[The Groom of the Chamber, who had entered during the last dialogue, and had been standing at a distance and listening to it with
visible expressions of the deepest interest,

advances in extreme agitation, and throws


himself at the Duke's feet.] thou too But I know why thou dost wish


reconcilement with the Emperor.
estate in Carinthia,

Poor man! he hath a small
it will

be forfeited because

He's in my service. Am I then so poor That I no longer can indemnify My servants f Well to no one I employ


of compulsion.



thy belief

from me, go forsake me. This night for the last time mayst thou unThat fortune has
robe me, And then go over to thy Emperor.

Gordon, good night!


a long Sleep of it for the struggle and the turmoil Of this last day or two was great. May't please

I think to



Take care that they awake me not too early. [Exit Wallenstein, the Groom of the Chamber lighting him. Seni follows, Gordon remains on the darkened stage, following the
with his eye, till he disappears at the farther end of the gallery: then by his gestures the old man expresses the depth of his anguish and stands leaning against a


Scene VI Butler {at first behind the scenes) Gordon, Butler (not yet come into view of the stage). Here stand in silence till I give the signal. Gordon (starts up).
Butler. Gordon.


he has already brought the murderers. All lies in profound sleep. lights are out. What shall I do? Shall I attempt to save him?

'Tis he

Shall I call up the house? alarm the guards? Butler (appears, but scarcely on the stage). A light gleams hither from the corridor.
It leads directly to the


But then

I break


Duke's bed-chamber. oath to the Emperor;

If he escape and strengthen the Do I not hereby call down on


enemy, head
speaks there ?

All the dread consequences?

Butler (stepping forward).



'Tis better, I resign it to the


Of Providence. For what am I, that / Should take upon myself so great a deed? / have not murdered him, if he be murder 'd; But all his rescue were my act and deed Mine and whatever be the consequences, I must sustain them.


Gordon. ruin all. [Is going. Butler. Gordon (holds him).232 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I should Butler (advances). Is he in bed? Gordon. Is he? speak. Gordon (shuddering). Butler! Butler. Grant him but Butler (hurrying off). and enough is given to justice. Butler. fought as he were frantic. He No sleeps ! commanding silence. my — — The most guilty Have perish 'd. God's merciful! this night's respite. What do you want when the here? Was Gordon. Gordon. — Unhold me ! What Can that short respite profit him? .] His heart cleaves things: he's not prepared to step Into the presence of his God ! To earthly Butler (going). The next moment One hour! May Butler. Both dead? Butler. 'Tis Gordon. He shall not perish! Not through you! The Heaven Butler. Butler. Butler ! know that voice.] murder not ! the holy sleep still he shall die awake. Gordon (holds him still). it so late then. Ah. till At last we threw him on the ground. [The Groom of the Chamber advances from the Gallery with his finger on his mouth ! Gordon. Gordon. There is no need of See 'tis wounded! arm. Gordon. Refuses your arm. Duke dismiss 'd you? Your hand bound up and That Illo in a scarf? 'Tis wounded.

w H in w 1-1 o a < W P .


Hark the Swedish trumpets Let us hasten The Swedes before the ramparts Gordon (rushes out). God of mercy Butler (calling after him). Murder ! . Weak-hearted dotard! [Trumpets are heard in the distance. now to make larum. Governor. some fortunate event. fall How come. Devereux (with loud harsh Friend. it is time voice). 233 — Time Works miracles. In one hour many thousands Of grains of sand run out. with berdiers the Hal- Gordon (throwing himself between him and them). Your heart may change its purOnly one hour ! pose. 0. Thought follows thought within the human soul. I will not live to see the accursed deed! Butler (forcing him out of the wag).] Devereux and Macdonald. Help! Groom of the Chamber. what from Heaven and rescue him. to your post! Groom of the Chamber (hurries in). No. decisive. His heart tidings may change its purpose — some new May May May Butler.] ! ! Scene VII To these enter Macdonald and Deveretjx. Who dares make larum here ? Hush The Duke ! ! ! ! ! ! sleeps. monster! First over my dead body thou shalt tread. precious every minute is [He stamps on the floor. not one hour achieve You but remind me. and quick as they.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Gordon.

[They rush over the body into the Gallery two doors are heard to crash one after the other. Hark! what is that? 'Tis hastening up the steps! ! ! Scene IX Countess. Who watch 'd by her. If she should Be flown but whither flown? We must call up Every soul in the house. How will the Duke Bear up against these worst bad tidings? If that my husband now were but return 'd Home from the banquet! Hark! I wonder — whether The Duke is still awake I thought I heard Voices and tread of feet here I will go And listen at the door. is missing. Voices. the Countess). Gordon Gordon (rushes 'Tis not the Swedes — Ye must proceed no further — Butler! — God! where he? is in out of breath).234 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Down with him ! Butler. she herself Is nowhere to be found! The Neubrunn too. Butler. Countess! the castle? You are come then from Say Where's my husband ? . 'Tis a mistake ! Gordon (observing Countess. falls at the entrance of the Gallery). deadened by the distance clash of arms then all at once a profound — — — — silence. Burst the doors open.] Scene VIII Countess Terzky (with a light). Groom of the Chameer (run through the body by DevJesus Maria! ereux. Her bed-chamber is empty.

me hither — will be here himself — You must not proceed. he is at For God's sake! to the Butler! the castle with [Calling loudly. Has sent [Butler comes from the Gallery.] it is 'Tis not the Swedes 'Twas a mistake The Imperialists' Lieutenant-General — — Butler. Instantly. Duke. The whole Scene must be spoken entirely without pauses.THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Gordon (in 235 an agony of affright). Seni. Duke Not till You have Gordon. bloody. He comes Too late.] What too late? Who will be here himself? Octavio In Egra? Treason! Treason! — Where's the to the Gallery. What is it? [Other servants hasten in with torches. Gordon. [The Countess stands motionless. Why. discover 'd to me On this moment Does the world hang. [Gordon dashes himself against the God of mercy ! wall. Seni? Page (from piteous sight ! Countess. Gordon. Countess. A Countess. it. Ask not! Your husband! — — To the Countess.] . the Duke murder 'd — and your hus- band Assassinated at the Castle. While we are speaking Countess.] Butler! God! my husband. frightful deed! What is the Gallery).] Duke? Scene [She rushes X Servants run across the Stage.] For God's sake! And do you ask? lies Within. Seni (from the Gallery). full of terror.

Keep back the people ! Guard the door ! Scene XI To these enter Octavto Piccolomini with all his train. — dead body is carried over the back part of the stage. and retires sud- Voice (from behind the Scene). crimson tapestry Octavto (entering abruptly). and stands overpoivered with horror.] Devereux (to Butler).236 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the stage). Fly fly they murder us all Second Servant (carrying silver plate). Octavto that way. Help! help! the Duchess! What mean these confused Loud cries that wake Your house is cursed the sleepers of this house ? to all eternity. Female Servant (rushing across Burgomaster Gordon. the the At same time Devereux and Macdonald enter from out Wallenstein 's Corridor with the Halberdiers. Say no! without answering. In your house doth the Duke lie murder 'd! Burgomaster (rushing out). collects herself. Make room [At these denly. Voice (from behind the Scene).] for the Lieutenant-General ! words the Countess starts from her stupor. Heaven forbid! 1st Serv. It is not possible It must not be Butler Gordon I'll not believe it. points with his [Gordon. (enters). is Here the golden fleece — the Duke's sword — . That way the lower ! ! ! ! Passages are block 'd up. wrapped in a piece of ! ! ! ! hand looks to the body of Wallenstein as it is carried over the back of the stage.

Infusing a dread life into their words. most accursed assassination to Thus — with ! Butler Octavio. power [Devereux and Macdonald retire with marks of obeisance. Butler. only. 237 — Here stands he who now to issue orders. And the fulfilment of it. The single difference betwixt you and me Is this you placed the arrow in the bow : : . I've but fulfilled the Emperor's own sentence. Octavio. and Gordon remain on the stage. ! ! when we parted? not guilty pure. curse of Kings. One drops away after the other. Is it your order Butler (pointing to Octavio).THE DEATH OF WALLENSTELN Macdon. Hath the sole Was that my purpose. With bloody. (calmly). doth beseem time for mercy? To God Butler. Merciless abuse the orders of thy Lord And stain thy Emperor's holy name murder. till only Butler. Was there necessity for such an eager Dispatch? Couldst thou not grant the merciful A Time is man's good Angel. God of Justice To thee I lift my hand Of Butler. the immutable! For what Rail you against me? What is my offense? The Empire from a fearful enemy Have I deliver 'd. You have man! Octavio. leave no interval between the sentence. And linking to the sudden transient thought The unchanging irrevocable deed. this foul deed. I am is Your hand AvaiPd yourself of mine.] Octavio (turning to Butler). and expect reward.

. My bleeding sword before my Emperor's throne. too. and yet stand Astonish 'd that blood Knew what I did. Octavio (with a deep anguish). I always is come up. Countess Terzky! These are the results Of Countess. husband too is dead. all its doors. 0. I am the last I shut it up. And hope to gain the applause which undelaying And punctual obedience may demand From a just judge. Her utterance is slow and feeble. let not their fidelity Be imputed to the faithful as a crime The evil destiny surprised my brother Too suddenly: he could not think on them. and here deliver The keys. ! — . and unimpassioned Octavio (meeting her). pale and disordered. You sow'd blood. They are the fruits The Duke is dead. The Emperor's vengeance may be pacified! Spare the old servants. Doth now stand desolated: the affrighted servants Rush forth through Therein . luckless unblest deeds. Countess my house. My Of your contrivances.] Scene XII To these enter the Countess Teezky. [Exit Butler. and of princely glory. is desolate. Who To be maltreated? Lo! the Duke is dead.238 I THE GERMAN CLASSICS pulPd the string. my niece has disappear 'd. next is to be murder 'd? Who is next Countess. the Duchess struggles In the pangs of death. and therefore no result Hath power to frighten or surprise my spirit. Have you aught else to order for this instant I make my best speed to Vienna place . This house of splendor.

no farther fears Yield yourself up in hope and confidence — ! .THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN Octavio. he was indebted For his first fortunes. — I have taken poison. Where shall the body Of the Duke have its place of final rest? In the Chartreuse. Takes part in your afflictions. the heavy fault Hath heavily been expiated nothing Descended from the father to the daughter. you turn pale Countess {re-assembles all her powers. To the Imperial Grace Countess {with her eye raised to heaven). I ask the like grace. opens to you Her motherly arms Therefore. Except his glory and his services. To the grace and mercy of a greater Master Do I yield up myself. of me than to believe I would survive the downfall of my house. gratefully he wish'd let him He might sometime repose in death! Be buried there. . ! 239 Speak not of vengeance Speak not of maltreatment! The Emperor is appeased. which he himself did found ! At Gitschin. This sure may well be granted us one sepulchre Beside the sepulchres of our forefathers Octavio. rests the Countess Wallenstein . to whom — ! ! You think energy and dignity). for my husband 's Remains. The Emperor Is now the proprietor of all our castles. but not the feeling — That We deem a death more worthy of our free Courageous to the crown belong ! station Than a dishonor 'd life. The Empress honors your adversity. And likewise. More worthily We * did not hold ourselves too mean to grasp After a monarch's crown the crown did fate and the spirit Deny. you tremble. Countess. and speaks with And by her side.

THE GERMAN CLASSICS Help ! Help ! Support her is ! Countess. Gordon steps forward and meets him. and brings a letter with ! the great seal. [Exit Countess.240 OCTAVIO.] house of death and horrors [An Officer enters. and delivers the letter Octavio with a look of reproach.] What It is the Imperial Seal. is this? [He reads to the address.] To the Prince Piccolomini. Gordon.] . with his whole frame expressive of sudden anguish. raises his eyes [The Curtain drops. my fate accomplish 'd. Nay.] to heaven. In a few moments it is too late. and with an emphasis on the word. [Octavio.

Ph. In addition he studied the Swiss historian Johannes von Vol. Literature. Carruth. University of German Language and Kansas ILHELM TELL is the last complete drama written by Schiller. but for none in such detail as for Tell. along with his ballads and many other " third poems. The Homage of the Arts. His chief source was the Swiss chronicler Tschudi. Wilhelm Tell. written within nine years. notably Homer and Shakespeare. in the author's forty-fifth year and something over a year before his death. a series beginning with Wallenstein. constituting. The Maid of Orleans.D. the last of Schiller's five great dramas. The Bride of Messina.INTRODUCTION TO WILHELM TELL By Professor of WiT." This is Wilhelm Tell period was preceded by Schiller's chief prose works and the historical and philosophical studies preparatory thereto. founded on the career of the Russian pretender of this name. but also a land and customs which he had never seen and which nevertheless he wished to present with great fidelity. finished February 18. of his historical and critical studies and of this reading is evident in the dramas: Wallenstein. After this he completed only a pageant. Maria Stuart. 1804. of which he left the first act. the work of what is called his period. He had not only a remote historical material to deal with. Ill — 16 [241] . together with considerable reading of Greek and English The influence classics. Wilhelm Tell stands apart in several ways. although he was occupied with many plans for other plays. But of these. For all of them Schiller made careful preliminary studies.TiTAivf H. but many touches of scenery and much actual phraseology. from whom he took not only the main features of his action. of the sixteenth century. including Demetrius.

see. while with his last breath he prophesies the triumph of liberty. We ing homage to the Austrian hat. These three threads are woven into a single pattern through the element of the common critics cause. There is no snare of circumstances laid which forces a hero. the successful meeting of this test. whose uncle Attinghausen. and in turn Tell 's' ven- geance through the exercise of this same prowess in shooting Gessler as he rides home through the Hohle Gasse. The theme of Wilhelm Tell had been used as early as the sixteenth century in one of the early popular pageants with . Mingled with these elements we see the patriotic support of the common people by a native noblewoman. after vain attempts to elude or unloose the cost of more or less innocent sentatives of it. We see the repre- three small. as a single instance of these oppresthe arrogant caprice of the bailiff Gessler in demandsions. pledging mutual support in resisting these encroachments upon their liberties. the effort to win to this cause. and received also some oral notes from Goethe. if not by deliberate foresight. Wilhelm Tell has no plot in the technical dramatic sense. maps and natural histories of Switzerland. and carrying out a successful resistance. Unlike the other dramas of Schiller's last period. in fact. his jealousy of the freeman Tell expressed in imposing as a penalty for neglected obeisance the shooting of an apple from his little son's head. aided by the wholly fortuitous assassination of the tyrannical emperor. he owed the original suggestion of dramatizing the story of Wilhelm Tell. Moreover these three plans of action cooperate. hears in dying the news of his nephew's conversion. Bertha von Brunneck. always loyal to his people. yet by coincidence of time and purpose. to whom. and her successful love for her. freedom-loving democracies pushed beyond endurance by the outrages of tyranny. This is the unity of the action. and in some measure by common personages. which many have found wanting in the play. through his young Baron von Rudenz.242 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Mueller. to tear his way out at lives.

He uses masses of populace in Wilhelm Tell as in no other of his plays except the Camp of the Wallenstein trilogy. partly in order to give a better color to Tell's own act.INTRODUCTION TO WILHELM TELL 243 which the modern German drama begins. epigrammatic sentences in Act I. as high as three hundred people. and the expression of tragic guilt. The Parricide episode was introduced. The last the poet in the legend of Tell. W. Schiller knew the old Tell Play and imbibed something of its spirit. considering the poet's unfamiliarity with the country. and. the plot. and further. neither is it likely that Prince Hamlet talked to himself in pentameters. or Ins long monologue in Act IV. it is . to the alleged unnaturalness of Tell's long speeches and to the ignoble was given nature of his assault upon Gessler from ambush. with a treatment true to nature and genuine. whether his pithy. It may be that the influence of the old popular play together with the nature of his material led him to dispense here with the unity of action. and elsewhere. True. to the supposed superfluousness of the Parricide episode in the Fifth Act. Schlegel's comment: "Imbued with the poetry of history. which in general he took over with pious reverence as authentic history. These pageants occupied the whole of several days in presentation and employed. partly because it was actually there in history and helped to complete the victory of the peasants' cause. astonishingly correct in local color. as being less prompted by selfish considerations. including all supernumeraries. which Along with keen appreciation. may be found in all his other later plays. Scene 3. Scenes 1 and 3. such as A. applies to the whole constitution of the conventional stage with just as much validity against Shakespeare's Julius Ccesar and Hamlet as against Wilhelm TelL not plausible that Tell recited 100 lines of beautiful poetry while lying in wait for Gessler. This applied first of all to the looseness of connection already cited between the various elements of the action. The criticism of Tell's speeches." Wilhelm Tell met from the first much adverse criticism.

Despite the technical criticisms. pieces The play has remained one of the most popular on the German stage and has had an incalculable effect in the cultivation of national feeling. and the total effect with the majority of the people is a high esthetic and ethical gratification. These beauties are quite suffi- On cient to hide the lack of unity.244 THE GERMAN CLASSICS In general this play is more objective than Schiller's other plays. we find that the play is filled with beautiful descriptions and noble sentiments nobly exthe stage most of the scenes are exceedingly pressed. fascinating and effective. and this was a quality which he admired in Goethe's work and strove for in his own. .

Gebtbude. Governor of Seppi. Fbiesshabdt. The Mayob of Ubi. Leuthold. Jenni. Stauffacher's wife. Stbuth von Winkelbied. Fisherman's son. Herdsman. conbad hunn. Wilhelm Tell. Mechthild. Huntsman. his Nephew. Monks Hobsemen of the Oedeb of Chaeity. the Priest. master of the horse. Fisherman. Jost von Wexleb. Hedwig. Schwytz. and wobkmen. [245] . Overseer. a Abmgabt. daughter of Fiirst. OF Gebsau. Jobg in Hofe. Ulbich von Rudenz. Baron of Attinghausen. of Suabia. Gessler's Habeas. bubkhabt am buhel. Webneb. Many Peasants. free noble of Switzerland.WILHELM TELL DRAMATIS PERSONS Hermann Gessleb. Walteb. and of Gessleb Kunz Pfeiffeb of Lucebne. Herdsman's son. Men and Women fbom the Waldstetten. Kuoni. conbad baumgabten. Schwytz and Uri. Rosselmann. Hans Auf deb Maueb. Rudolph } deb Soldiers. " People of Peasant women. Hildegabd. "1 TeWs sons- Walter Fubst. rich heiress. Ulbictt deb Schmidt. Masteb Stonemason. Meyeb von Sabnen. of Uri. Stussi. A of Unter- Coubieb. wife of Tell. Bebtha of Bbuneck. Companion wald. Wilhelm. Ruodi. Abnold VON Sewa. Abnou) of Melchthal. Itel Reding. Petebmann. Klaus von deb Flue. Elsbeth. Taskmasteb. Duke Johannes Pabbicida. Webni. Landenbebg. A Ceier. Sacristan. Webneb Stauffacheb.

. its A boy on sleep .. and the tinkling of continue for some time after the rising of the curtain. stands at a short distance from the makes a bend into the land. ' ' Air — Variation Herdsman (on the mountains) of the Ranz des Vaches Farewell. The waters are rippling over his breast. appear bells. its green shore had laid him to Then heard he a melody Floating along. the hamlets and farms of Schwytz.WILHELM TELL* TRANSLATED BY SIR THEODORE MARTIN. a hut the lake are shore. Farewell. and G.C. sunny shore. ye green meadows. the fisher boy is rowing about in his boat. Beyond seen the green meadows. The herdsman must leave you. K. New [246] York. lying in On the left are observed the peaks of the Hacken. cattle Fisher Boy {sings in his boat) Melody of the Ranz des Vaches [HE smile-dimpled lake woo'd to bathe in deep. " With me thou must go. Bell & Sons. The Ranz dee Vaches. London. and in the remote distance. to the right. the Glaciers.B. And as thrilling with pleasure he wakes from his rest. the clear stmshine. And a voice from the deep cries. I charm the young shepherd. LLi. ACT Scene I I A The lake high rocky shore of the lake of Lucerne opposite Schwytz. * is o'er.. The summer Permission The Macmillan Co. I lure him below. Sweet as the notes Of an angel's song. surrounded with clouds.D. Ltd.

Through the parting clouds only The earth can be seen Far down 'neath the vapor The meadows of green. where No longer the dwellings of man can espy . and the merry birds sing. And the brooks sparkle bright in the sunshine of Spring. When the cuckoo calls. Ruodi. Nor Spring ever smiled. the Shadows shepherd. . Where leaf never budded. Thalvogt. fA steep rock.] the fisherman. [A change comes over the landscape. The herdsman must leave you. comes out of his cottage. descends from the rocks. Jenni. When the flowers bloom afresh in glade and in glen. enters. Chamois Hunter (appearing on the top of a cliff) Second Variation of the Ranz des Vaches On The huntsman bounds on by Undaunted he 'er the heights peals the thunder. Ruler of the Valley gray mist which the south wind sweeps into the valleys from the mountain tops. And beneath him an ocean of mist. It is well known as the precursor of stormy weather. The summer is o'er. with a milkpail on his shoulders. hies him ice-covered wild. cracking noise is heard among the mountains. the Glaciers moan. his eye . sunny shore. the dizzying ridge. Kuoni. and nearly opposite to The German — tively to a dense B rumen. standing on the north of Riitli.WILHELM TELL We go to the hills. and trembles the bridge. get the boat*on shore. A rumbling. bustle. The Mytensteinf * is drawing on his hood. Werni. 247 but you'll see us again.] Gome. Farewell. the huntsman. [Ruodi. his assistant. followed by Seppi. of clouds sweep across the scene. Farewell. ye green meadows. the name given figurais. The grizzly Vale-King* comes.

my friend! like The same to you! Men come not always back from tracks yours. . Ruodi. we chamois-hunters. And Kuoni. Kuoni. . — — But beasts have reason. 'Twill rain ere long. my sheep browse eagerly. master herds- There goes brown man. too Easily And that we know. And. How ! You're joking now. And Watcher there is scraping up the earth. Werni. Ay. before wind . too. Konrad Baumgarten (rushing in breathless) For God's sake. But who comes I here. The storm Kuoni. shepherd) A Are you for home? The Alp safe return. what. gracefully yon heifer bears her ribbon well she knows she's leader of the herd. Ruodi. ( to the have placed a sentinel ahead. and the water-hen Keeps diving up and down. Werni. A storm is brewing. ferryman. and told off to my care. Liesel. Ruodi. if the beasts be Kuoni. . Then all are safe. Ruodi. ! Till they Who And Ruodi Kuoni. You've a fine chime of bells there. Look. (to his boy).248 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And from the Stormclef t chilly blows the will burst. she 'd refuse to feed. They never turn to feed — sagacious creatures A beast devoid of reason well. Werni. Seppi. know the man 'tis Baumgart of Alzellen. Kuoni. Kuoni Seppi. take it from her. said. running at topmost speed? . we know what's Werni. she ever ranges farthest. is grazed quite bare. likely cattle. Are they your own? I'm not so rich. They are the noble lord's Of Attinghaus. The fish are leaping. pricks his ears whenever we approach. your boat! Werni. all in sight. I can hear her bells. gives alarm with clear and piercing pipe.

Is due to God and to my trusty axe. 249 How now? Why Baum. are the troopers in pursuit of you? Baum. (to the fisherman). what's the matter. Werni Baum. Baum. himself to the House of Austria.WILHELM TELL Ruodi. quick. Kuoni. mentioned in the text. Werni. man again. and more. and a German. Werni. Baum. While he is getting out the boat there from the beach. Who "Why. who attached . what you've done ! Baum. God forgive you. Set all this haste? Cast off! My life's at stake ! me across ! Kuoni. did he so? That he did not fulfil his foul desire. Quick. Ruodi. and for the cause. Mine own good household right I have enforced 'Gainst him that would have wrong 'd my wife — my Kuoni. And you have cleft his skull then. who dwelt at Rossberg How! What! The Wolf shot?* Is it he pursues you? He'll ne'er hurt — Baum. honor. Wolfenschiessen — native of Unterwalden. I am lost. is this ? The Imperial Seneschal. tell us all! You've time enough. a young man of noble family. with your axe ? 0. * When I was in the forest felling timber. of the Castle of Rossberg. is this All {starting back). How! Wronged you in your honor. Why If they should overtake me. In My wife came running out in mortal fear. First make me There 's you blood upon your garments — how I'll tell safe and then all. friend? are pursuing you? First tell us that. Now. I've settled him. quick! they're close upon heels ! my It is the Viceroy's men are after me. Baum. What every free man in my place had done. He was killed by Baumgarten in the manner. man. Kuoni. and was appointed Burvogt. or Seneschal.

then. Heavens whilst we speak. Kuoni.] I not. Such is its vehemence that the laws of the country require that the fires shall be extinguished in the houses while it lasts. I sought him.] The south wind's up!* ! See how the lake is Baum. * rising I cannot steer against both (clasping him by the knees). the least delay is death. to prevent their being blown away. a life to lose. Ruodt. and the night watches are doubled. Impossible a storm is close at hand. And you did well no man can blame the deed." says Miiller. Ruodi.] Kuoni. ! Wait Baum. The tyrant Now he has his just reward "We men of Unterwald have owed it long. What and have ! A wife Literally. The inhabitants lay heavy stones upon the roofs of their houses." Arm 'd as Has axe I was. wind and wave. and flew to me. neighbors like misfortune may betide us [Thunder and the roaring of the wind. Kuoni. Baum.250 THE GERMAN CLASSICS n The Seneschal." . — God with you . Almighty heavens! I cannot wait . " was in my house. . and now they're in pursuit. and set the good man over. the time is flying fast. From which she rid herself. child at home as well as he ? "When. and is [Repeated peals of thunder. man ! He is a father has a wife and children. The deed got wind. till it pass ! You must. And thereupon had ta'en unseemly freedoms. ! We should help our all. and given his bath a bloody benison. (to the fisherman). : now you pity me Have pity on him. the navigation of the lake Switzerland. my Ween i. Werni. Had order 'd her to get a bath prepared. Quick. ferryman. " The Fohn the wind loose! called the becomes exteremely dangerous. Kuoni Push out The Ruodi. ! ! ! [It begins to thunder. in his History of Fohn is high. ! God His life 's so help you as at stake." she said.

ay. . the birthplace and residence of Tell. eyes can see it clear. there is Tell can steer as well as He'll be my judge. And Baum. There is the boat to carry me across. And with the shore of safety close in sight! Then must Kuoni. Euodi. if it be possible. Look! who comes here? it lies ! Yonder My 'Tis Tell.] plunge into the jaws of hell? mad to dare the desperate act. I should be Am I to Tell. remains on the spot formerly occupied by his house. ! the lake eddies up from all its depths Right gladly would I save the worthy man. 'tis easy to advise. of Biirglen.WILHELM TELL See how the breakers foam. The brave man thinks upon himself the last. Ruodi. Biirglen. Tell. He begs the ferryman to take him over. Ruodi. and to guard his honor From touch of foulest shame. risk * man ! A chapel. as you must see. My very voice can echo to its shores. But frightened at the storm he says he won't. Tell. — the lake becomes more tempestuous. The Viceroy's troopers are upon his heels.* [Enter Tell with a crossbow. [Violent peals of thunder I. Tell. may pity. who dwelt at Rossberg. has slain the Wolfshot. What man is he that here implores for aid? He is from Alzellen.] Kuoni. The Imperial Seneschal. it. I fall into the tyrant's hands. There is ! ! The lake the boat. Well. (still kneeling). and toss. erected in 1522. Put trust in God. 251 and whirl. ! Come. and there the lake Try you but the Viceroy never. and help him in his need Safe in the port. Yet must I lie here helpless and forlorn. But 'tis impossible.

Yet better 'tis you fall into God's hands. boatman. Than into those of men.] I could not choose but do as I [He leaps Kuoni (to the fisherman). Nought's to be done with idle talking here. Though I 'twere go. into the boat. the man must be help'd. pretty to ! ! A man Werni (who has ascended a rock). God help thee. Now he is off. my preserver. gallant Tell ! That 's like a huntsman true. my brother. Far better men would never cope with Tell. Tell. God 's name. Ruodi. Baum. No In . With my poor strength. Ruodi.} Console my wife if Herdsman. again! Stoutly he stems the breakers. There they have swept clean over it. not ! I. truly What Tell could risk. Tell. have done. Tell. You are my angel. would not 'Tis Simon and Jude 's day Tell. give me the boat I will. then. Say. There's no two such as he 'mong all our hills. The Each moment's precious. gallant sailor Look how the little boat reels on the waves Kuoni (on the shore). will you venture? Ruodi. Ha. and calling for its victim. [To the herdsman. Yet stay. I may preserve you from the Viceroy's power. see what is to be done ! Kuoni. lake is up. keep a ferry. Werni. there 'tis ! . . or my darling child. you dared not venture on.252 THE GERMAN CLASSICS save him! save him! save him! Shepherd and Huntsman. And now ! ! Seppi. noble fellow Here come the troopers hard as they can ride ! 'Tis out of sight. do thou I should come to grief. But from the tempest's rage another must.

enter into conversation Ay. of Lucerne. You ! help'd him ! off. friend Stauffacher. he in yonder boat ye seek? Ride on. ! Unhappy me. 1st H. the public road. ! ! Oh. was help.] You have him here Give up the murderer 'Tis useless to conceal him This way he came ! ! ! ! Ruodi and Kuoni. 253 that Heavens! so they do! indeed. The tyrants! Ruodi (wringing his hands). Hold by the Empire stoutly as of yore. Why. and Pfeiff.] ! Seppi (hurrying after them). ay. The Is't devil ! What do I see? above). Swear not to Austria. my herds Werni. you may o'ertake him yet. Pfeiffer. 2d H. If you lay to. And God preserve you in your ancient freedom! [Presses his hand warmly and is going. when will come Righteous Heaven Deliverance to this doom-devoted land? [Exeunt severally. if you can help it. Oh my poor lambs Kuoni (following him). Curse on you. Whom Werni (from do you mean? First Horseman (discovering the boat).WILHELM TELL Kuoni. ! And you shall pay for it Fall Down with the cottage burn it ! on their herds beat it down [They rush off. he's escaped! First Horseman (to the shepherd and fisherman). near a bridge. Werner Stauffacher. [Enter a troop of horsemen. in Schwytz.] . as I have said. 2d H.] Scene II A upon lime tree in front of Stauffacher's house at Steinen.

guest in Scliwytz Thanks thanks But I must reach Gersau today. I am demand half of thee — Our barns are full cattle. . She places herself near him. Brought from the mountain pastures safely home. 'Tis quarter 'd o'er with scutcheons of all hues. and you are hers forever. Whatever grievances your rulers' pride And grasping avarice may yet inflict. which passing travelers Linger to read and ponder o'er their meaning. — — our To winter fair! in their comfortable stalls. and finds him in this posture. Gertrude. And proverbs sage.254 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Wait till Stauff.] Gert. and looks at him for some time in silence. it to And thy faithful wife. his wife. [Exit] [Stauffacher sits down sorrowfully upon a bench under the lime tree. many a score. my [Stauffacher gives her his hand and is silent. Some silent grief is weighing on thy heart. too. in silence I have mark'd moody sorrow furrowing thy brow. There stands thy house 'Tis — no nobleman's more newly built with timber of the best. Now do ! You are ! Bear them come. All grooved and fitted with the nicest skill Its many glistening windows tell of comfort! . So sad. My — comes. in patience — soon a change may Another Emperor may mount the throne. all thy cares. my mistress ! I in Lucerne am yours. my love ! A For many a day I scarcely know thee now. enters. Pfeiff. But Austria 's once.] Tell me what can oppress thy spirits thus? Thy toil is blest the world goes well with I Trust me. Our handsome team of well-fed horses.

this house?" he asked. With mischief in his thoughts. 255 The house But. built it quakes. the ground on which we Tell me. ah ! is strongly built. thinking with delight. sat spinning in the winter nights. of wide experience. A My own dear lord and husband Wilt thou take word of honest counsel from thy wife? ! A man As we I boast to be the noble Iberg's child. and. Gert. dear Werner. Before this house he halted in surprise At once I rose. the people's chiefs Were wont to gather round our father's hearth. " I am the Emperor s vice-regent here. as beseemed his rank. the wise man thought. he. and To hold sage converse on the country's weal. On this he answered. Stauff. — ' ' ? And will not that each peasant churl should build At his own pleasure. And held by me in fief. what you mean No later gone than yesterday. I shall make bold to put a stop to this!" So saying. To read the old imperial charters. when from Kiiss- nacht The Viceroy and his men came riding by. bearing him as freely As though he were the master in the land. I sat by that? Beneath this linden. with menaces. marking well What now wished. for well he knew. Then needfully I listened. thus I answered him: " The Emperor. Gert. the good man . My sisters and myself. As judge supreme " Who is the owner of within our Canton here. and handsomely. With prompt decision. rode off. And left me musing with a heavy heart On the fell purpose that his words betray 'd. your grace my lord and yours. Many a time. How fairly all was finished.WILHELM TELL Stauff. : Advanced respectfully to greet the lord To whom the Emperor delegates his power.

in my heart. Werner? 'Tis even so. In true allegiance to the Empire. Tell me. His only wealth the knightly cloak he wears He therefore views an honest man's good fortune With a malignant and a jealous eye. he the mightiest of all Christian kings. As yet thou art uninjured. The Viceroy hates thee. For thou hast over thee no lord but And Statjff. and mark me well for thou wilt see. Gebt.256 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And garner 'd up Hear their wisdom . too. Gessler. grinding tyranny. Doubt not the men of Unterwald as well. like their good sires of old. He burns with envy. too. I long have known the grief that weighs thee down. Long has he sworn to compass thy destruction. to see thee living Happy and free on thine ancestral soil. Statjff. There's not a prince i' the Empire that can show one. then. And kept them staunch. For this doth Gessler hate me. Thou knowest well. What's to be done? Now hear what I advise. A All worthy men are groaning underneath This Gessler 's grasping. For he is landless. we know. fain would injure thee. . this oppressive and heart-wearying yoke. is but a younger son. Gert. For thou hast cross 'd his wish to bend the Swiss In homage to this upstart house of princes. are chafing like ourselves. Say. And At Uri. how here with us in Schwytz . am I wrong? Is't not so. A better title to his heritage. From the Emperor's self Thou hold'st in fief the lands thy fathers left thee. Wilt thou wait Till he may safely give his malice vent? wise man would anticipate the blow.



Thou speakest plainly out with fearless tongue. Vol. 'neath the show of lawful chastisement. Ev'n now they only wait some fair pretext For setting loose their savage warrior hordes. And. Ill You. Some Then ment. a feeble shepherd race. And what To scare this valley's long unbroken peace. Full sure I am that God would not desert you. But lend His favor to the righteous cause. Hast thou no friend in Uri. And nobles.WILHELM TELL For "Wields the there. across the lake. fresh outrage. one to whom Stauff. the tidings of some new encroachlast. God ne'er deserts the brave. and placed them full before me. are men. can wield a battle axe — As ] well as they. To scourge and ravage this devoted land. 7 . too. shall dare Him to the fight that lords it o'er the world. repose unbounded trust. — — Thou frankly may'st unbosom all thy thoughts? I know full many a gallant fellow there.] What a storm of wild and perilous thoughts Hast thou stirr'd up within my tranquil breast! The darkest musings of my bosom thou Hast dragg'd to light. To lord Gert. I scarce dared harbor e 'en in thought. it o'er us with the victor's rights. [Rising. too In whom I can Wife! — great men. should secretly devise. If we. more grievous than the it were well that some of you true men Men sound at heart. But has thou weigh 'dwell what thou urgest thus? Discord will come. the Landenberg same iron rule as Gessler here 257 — No But brings fishing-boat comes over to our side. of high repute. How best to shake this hateful thraldom off. Despoil us of our chartered liberties. and the fierce clang of arms.

Well may he fight for hearth and home. wife but war . Stauff. to the things of earth. bear thou ! A watchful And To at home. Werner die like men.258 THE GERMAN CLASSICS wife! a horrid. Gert. (embracing her). may be thine? — Stauff. Farewell and while I am away. too. He loves the people. . Send your gaze forward. That smites at once the shepherd and his Stauff. collecting for his cloister. With both of these I will take counsel how To rid us bravely of our country's foe. And Enslaved and fettered did I think this heart Stauff. Gert. Spares not the tender infant in its cradle. With my own hand Thou hast faith in human kindness. farewell Uri straight. unrelenting war thy pride — — Will burn it down. that clasps A heart so rare as thine What are the host of ! against his to own him? ! Emperors I will to Gertrude. so weak. what fate. We men may None are . Gert. Oh flock. A spring from yonder bridge and lam free ! Stauff. we must endure But wrong is what no noble heart will bear. with sword in hand But oh. not behind. This house war. ruthless fiend is war. house of God. my Gertrude. Walter Furst His thoughts and mine upon these times are one. resides the noble Banneret Of Attinghaus. Whate 'er great Heaven inflicts. honors their old customs. Stauffacher's house would not be hid. The pilgrim journeying to the eye in management holy friar. Gert. High though of blood he be. There lives my worthy comrade. Right out . I'd hurl the kindling torch. these give liberally from purse and garner. There is a Friend to innocence in heaven. . There. but one last choice is left.

Task. and To all that pass a hospitable roof. And saunter idly up and down the hills. Scene changes. Up. Enter yon house. himself! Come. there he a father to distress. with loads. double it. [They retire up. slater is seen upon the highest part of the roof.] Now. old man. you have no further need of me. Up. To work The stones here Now the mortar. then. The back part is finished: men are working at the front. All is bustle and activity. What! call ! Old Man (sinks I can down exhausted). on which the workmen are going up and down. laggards? 'Tis very hard that we must bear the stones. Mason. 1st to work ! W. Scaffolding. Is this the way ye earn your wages. and so far advanced that the outline of the whole may be distinguished. Task. no more. On an eminence in the background a Castle in progress of erection. Have you no bowels of compassion. (shaking him). Taskmaster. up. he comes. offers 259 Tell. follow me. up You 've rested long enough. urging on the workmen). Tell enters with Baumgarten. thus To press so hard upon a poor old man That scarce can drag his feeble limbs along? . These fellows crawl like 1st. For nothing fit but just to milk their cows. To make a keep and dungeon for ourselves What's that you mutter? 'Tis a worthless race.] ye that a load? Go.] Scene III A common A near Altdorf. [While they are retiring. (with a stick. [To two laborers. 'Tis Werner Stauffacher's. "Workman and Laborers Task.WILHELM TELL Upon the public way it stands. is. A man that is See. and the lime ! ! ! ! And let his When next snails ! lordship see the work advanced. W.

Sir. Tell. Mind your own Same Task. [Enter Tell and Stauffacher. Stauff. freedom's home? — Mas. in subjection. Master. business. ere you make mountain equal to the least in Uri? ! A [Taskmaster Mas. 0.260 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Master Mason and Workmen. my friend. of Uri . What means the drum? Give heed! .] That home of freedom God hath built for us. Mason. Look ramparts That seem as they were built to last forever. M. drown the mallet in the deepest lake. What hands have built. Work. that Here 'tis not good to be. 2d W. them. I'll retires up the stage. shame upon you heaven. Tell. Uri. The man that tenants them Will ne'er hear cock crow more.] Stauff. Stauff. That served my hand on this accursed pile.] 1st W. if you could only see the vaults Beneath these towers. Women upon and children thronging tumultuously after is heard. — shame! It cries to Task. hands can at these destroy. God! God! and these buttresses. why laugh at that? with this paltry place Keep How many molehills such as that must first Be piled up each on each. 1st W. Am I in Uri Uri. Task.] I had not lived to see this sight! 0. M. 1st W. castle. followed by a crier. what's to be the name of this Pray. [Pointing to the mountains. I but do my duty. Shame. Let us proceed. when 'tis built? The Keep For by it we shall keep you The Keep of Uri? Well. will you. [A drum People enter bearing a cap a pole.

ye do see this cap It will be set upon a lofty pole In Altdorf in the market place and this . my friend ! Stauff. — what can theymumming!that? mean by Hush ! In the Emperor's name. His life and goods are forfeit to the crown Who That shall refuse obedience to the order. head uncovered. Words will not make ! Yet words may Endure in silence a heart that's heavy light.WILHELM TELL Mason. drum beats and the procession passes on. and has so much to tell you. here's a 261 And look. A cap Nay. 1st fall upon indeed reverence to a cap Do pretty farce Heard ever mortal anything like this? Down to a cap on bended knee. You see how matters stand ! retire up. and advise with them — ! [They Stauffacher). They look for me at home. an it were the imperial crown Merely the cap of Austria! I've seen it Hanging above the throne in Gessler's hall. Tell (to No freeborn man will stoop to such disgrace. by Heaven ! ! ! Work. Mas. Tell. 1st W. Stauff. Tell. M. possibly conduct to deeds. The cap shall have like honor as himself. We can do no more. Come to our comrades. : Lord Governor's good will and pleasure. M. Whither away? Oh. The cap of Austria? Mark that! A snare To get us into Austria 's po^er. Is the All do And reverence with bended knee. Crier. Crier. the cap Why. . thus the King will it know are his true and loyal subjects here. Tell.] : ! Mas. forsooth Rare jesting this with men of sober sense ! A ! ! W. My heart's so full. A strange device to The [The people burst out into laughter. Stauff. hush ! Ye men of Uri.] Farewell. leave us not so soon. give ear! silence ! ! Work. So fare ye# well. Mason.

even the weak grow strong by union. Stauff.] call : Mason (running First in). Yet. Tell. cover up their hind. then. Stauff. Let them alone. Tell. If in despair she rise against her foes. And you desert the A man can common cause so coldly? count but on himself safely ! Nay. Much might be done did we stand fast to- — When gether. . What's wrong? Workman (running forward). Let every man live quietly at home Peace to the peaceful rarely is denied. he will best escape Who seeks no other's safetv but his own. then. and leaves no trace befires. Tell. whatsoe 'er you do. But when your course of action is resolved. your country cannot count on you. Tell rescues the lost sheep from yawning gulfs Is he a man. chasms. they'll weary of themselves. But the strong man is strongest when alone. Stauff. And is it thus you view our grievances'? . and the mighty spirit Sweeps o'er the earth. Tell. spare me from council I was not born to ponder and select. The serpent stings not till it is provoked. ! Then on Tell you shall not find him fail. his Men the ships in haste Make for the harbor. A sudden tumult is heard around the scaffolding.262 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But shall we bear what is not to be borne f Impetuous rulers have the shortest reigns. The slater's fallen from the roof. When they shall see we are not to be roused. Tell. to desert his friends'? : Stauff. When the fierce south wind rises from Stauff. the ship founders. [Exeunt severally. Stauff. Tell. So.

We are beset with spies. we were happy men Hence With you came misery and dark despair. all. with curses built. her trinkets among the people. when before my eyes. And scattered woe and You ! wail throughout the land. By order of the governor. Good Walter Furst If we should be surprised! where you are. Walter Furst and Arnold Von Melch- thal enter simultaneously at different sides.] [Throws Mason. save him! Here is gold. 263 Heavens! help! Is he dashed to pieces? Save him. If help be possible. he tried Furst. Melch. Bertha (to the Taskmaster. Stay Have you no news for me from Unterwald? What Thus of my I father? 'Tis not to be borne like a felon ! What have here pent up done so heinous that I must Skulk here in hiding. Furst. And remedy for ill When you have torn Fathers from children. . Hence with your gold your universal charm. Lives he? [Taskmaster shakes his head. . husbands from their ! — wives. Melch. think with gold to compensate for Till we saw you. who has returned).] And Ill-omened towers.WILHELM TELL Bertha (rushing in).] Scene IV The house of Wai/ter Furst. To drive away my handsome team of oxen. You are too rash by far. like a murderer? to be I only laid my staff across the fists Of the pert varlet. doomed with curses to be tenanted ! [Exit. He did no more Than what the governor had ordered him.

whene'er occasion served. brook the fellow's saucy gibe " That if the peasant must have bread to eat. they lowed and butted with horns. Therefore they'll bear him hard — the poor old man! And there is none to shield him from their grip. in 1315. and wait in patience till We get some tidings o'er from Unterwald. Compose yourself. He was slain at the battle of Morgarten. Away away ! A Melch. Because. and therefore should in silence. when the knave My oxen. man of noble family in Berenger von Landenberg. I must go home again. however hard. and particularly to the venerable Henry of the Halden. myself no longer. * I hear a knock Perhaps from the Viceroy! Get thee in! message You are not safe from Landenberger's* arm ! ! In Uri. Melch. a Thurgau. " let him go and draw the plough himself? Why. we old men can scarce command ourselves And can we wonder youth breaks out of bounds ? I'm only sorry for my father's sake this I could contain ! ! On To be away from him. And. I to to the very soul to see noble creatures. Come what come may. infamous for his cruelties to the Swiss. . Melch. he has Stood stoutly up for right and liberty. for these tyrants pull together. As though It cut Was — me they felt The wrong. their Furst. They teach us Switzers what we ought to do. overcome by passion. struck him down. that needs so much My fostering care ! The governor detests him. 0.264 THE GERMAN CLASSICS You had transgress 'd. have paid The penalty. Unyoked them from the plough. Fuest. and Governor of Unterwald.

more esteem 'd. as I came along. You bring them with you. but I look Away ! I '11 call ! For tidings of mishap. by Heaven A valued guest. by Meinrad's Cell. See how glad I am. my door? I saw A * in progress. And Before you halted at Stauffacher (sits down). indeed. to ? seek you here in What brings you here my Uri? Stauffacher (shakes Furst by the hand). Werner. [Melchthal retires. that likes me ill. Count of Hohenzollern. Not a man clever as her father. That wends from Germany. My heart leaps at the very sight of you.] What do I see? You. sit down. the founder of the Convent of Einsiedeln. fair Gertrude? Iberg's — child. These myrmidons of power. The olden times and olden Switzerland. And have you noticed nothing on your way. [He opens the door. Furst. . Werner? Now.WILHELM TELL Furst. 265 you when the coast is clear. I little thought to see work — A cell built in the 9th century. by Meinrad. Suspicion lurks With darkling treachery in every nook.] I dare not tell him all Unhappy youth The evil that my boding heart predicts! Who's there? The door ne'er opens. but praises far and wide Your house's hospitality. Have you come here direct from Fliielen.* To Italy. and soon we'll need To fasten bolts and bars upon our doors. No man e'er set ! His foot across Welcome! What this threshold. and steps back in surprise as Werner Stauffacher enters. roof! thrice welcome. Even to our inmost rooms they force their way. But say. subsequently alluded to in the text. and tell me how you left Sit down Your charming wife.

Stauff. himself declares to be tamely borne. Friend. Who lived in olden times. Our wrongs. In Unterwalden yonder 'tis the same. A Furst thing to make the very heart run blood! (attentively). long'd for forbidden fruit Baumgarten's wife. It is the grave of freedom. Furst. even our own good lord of Attinghaus. lake. Since herdsman first drove cattle to the hills. the Wolfshot. ! Furst. I left Thraldom at home. — He tried to make a victim to his lust. Walter Furst. And he lies hidden in my house at Steinen. Such things in Uri ne'er were known before. You name it well. On which the husband slew him with his Furst. that lives at Alzellen. our oppressions are unparallel'd! Why. worse than all. He brought the tidings with him of a thing That has been done at Sarnen.266 THE GERMAN CLASSICS friend you 've lighted on my thought at once. What is it? . No idle curiosity it is That brings me here. Nor ever any stronghold but the grave. Furst. Say on. ! Heaven is just in all its judgments still Stauff. The imperial Seneschal. who At Rossberg dwelt. And bloody has the retribution been. I will be plain with you. Accustom 'd only to the mildest rule. They are no longer Stauff. axe. 0. And who shall tell us where they are to end? From eldest time the Switzer has been free. Baumgarten. and thraldom meets me here. but heavy cares. say you? Has he escaped. Such things as now we suffer ne'er were known. Yes. Never was prison here in man's remembrance. Stauff. are more than we can bear. e'en now. and is he safely hid? Your son-in-law conveyed him o'er the A most worthy man.

and thou shalt feel my ven1 * ' ' ' ' ' ' geance. and required The Landenberg Stauff. — Hush. Furst. then. his eyes? Stauffacher (addresses himself ter Furst). in astonishment to Wal- Who Furst. Just as you enter by the road from Kerns. to punish some offense Committed by the old man's son. on which the lad Struck down the messenger and took to flight. it seems. Stauff. has 'scaped me now. tell me. and with truth. And when the old man protested. Merciful Heaven! out). That he knew nothing of the fugitive. Who knows him not! But what of him? Proceed? The Landenberg. no more! Stauffacher {with increasing warmth). With that they flung the old man to the ground. I have thee fast. Into his eyes? Speak. Furst. tell me? to him. Who is it.] ! [Stauffacher makes a sign It is his son ! All-righteous Heaven . he cried. Furst (springs up and tries to lead him to the other side). A man of weight and influence in the Diet. what of him? But the old father sent for him. And plunged the pointed steel into his eyes. An upright man. named Henry of the Halden.WILHELM TELL Stauff. Had given command to take the youth's best pair Of oxen from his plough. Stauff. He should produce his son upon the spot. 267 Furst. is this youth? Melchthal (grasping him convulsively). Melchthal (rushing Into his eyes. And though thy son. There dwells in Melchthal. The tyrant call'd his torturers. speak! miserable hour! 0.

grief. spare his anguish! Never. But to have life. and in rags. And he he must drag on through ail his days In endless darkness Never more for him The sunny meads shall glow. Blind. of all the gifts of Heaven. Ah.] the eye's light. alas They've stripp 'd him of his all left . Furst. so. Naught have they him. ! Oh. save his staff. be calm and bear it ! ! Melch. — for my mad wilful folly! Blind. ne'er will see the blessed sunshine more. not one gleam of that great sea of light. that ! — do you look So piteously at me? I have two eyes. The fountain of his sight is quench 'd. on which. and not have sight oh. I must swell the measure of your Instead of soothing it. The worst. Yet to my poor blind father can give neither No. That with its dazzling splendor floods my gaze. he moves from door to door. ! Remains to tell. the flow 'rets — — — ! bloom. Furst.268 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And Must be from thence What Be calm. Ev'n He Melch. . The dearest. . never more [Presses his hands upon his eyes and is silent for some moments: then turning from one to the other speaks in a subdued tone. did you say? Quite blind — and both his And all a man ! for me eyes? Stauff. ! Is misery indeed Why ! Stauff. broken by sobs. Nor shall he more behold the roseate tints Of the iced mountain top To die is nothing. I into both his eyes ? like Melch. best! From light all beings live Each fair created thing the very plants Turn with a joyful transport to the light.

Where men still feel as Proclaim aloud this foul men. craven-hearted prudence. battlemented walls.] Furst. . this is madness. And though he sat within the icy domes Of yon far Schreckhorn ay. And. safe within its Melch. and the despot's My thoughts ! ! And blood! I'll seek him straight now — — no power shall stay me And hands demand my father's eyes. hence be vengeance. or higher. Bow in submission to the tyrant's yoke. Eound me I'll call the herdsmen on the hills. I'll beard him 'mid a thousand myrmidons! What's life to me.WILHELM TELL Melch. the Jungfrau soars. Stay. — Still to the tyrant would I make my way With twenty comrades minded like myself. of concealment! Oh. and hearts are enormity! true. man ! The common blessing of the meanest wretch? Tell me no more of patience. Melchthal! What avails sits Your single arm against his power? He At Sarnen high within his lordly keep. 269 Naught but his staff to the old eyeless Stripp'd of his all — even of the light of day. where. That on mine own security I thought took no care of thine Thy precious head Left as a pledge within the tyrant's grasp! And all Hence. what a base and coward thing am I. [He is going. I'd lay his fastness level with the earth! And if none follow me. . In terror for your homesteads and your herds. And there beneath heaven's free and boundless roof. if in his heart's best blood at his I cool the fever of this mighty anguish. Veil'd since eternity. May laugh to scorn your unavailing rage. and if you all.

when Unterwald replies.* The League. if he's provoked. THE BOND. is dated in August. and with the show Of his dread antlers hold the hounds at bay. Be it known of Schwytz. possibly. Finds for itself a weapon of defence? The baited stag will turn. a translation The original. and is the whole of the men of Schwytz. be done. the Community men of the mountains of Unterwald. horn. which is subjoined of the oldest known document relating to it. the commonalty of the vale of Uri under the seals of and the whole of the men of the upper and lower vales of Stanz. Springs up. in consideration have full confidently bound themselves. and are we then to wait The measure's full Till some extremity Peace What extremity Melch. for the first time.270 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Stauffachee {to Fuest). that the men of the Dale of Uri. that meekly bends The strength of his huge neck beneath the yoke. Remains for us to dread? What. became Emperor. when our eyes — — ! No longer in their sockets are secure? Heavens! Are we helpless! Wherefore did the battle-axe? we learn To bend the cross-bow — wield What living creature but in its despair. of Austria. Cantons thought as we three do. tosses his tormentor to the clouds. As it is important to the understanding of many passages of the play. especially when their liberties were threatened with danger. and when. when Albert. with good effect. whets his strong And Fuest. A remarkable instance of this occurred in the end of the 13th century. then. the partner of man's toil. to every one. as also the of the evil times. 1291. the huntsman down th' The very ox. and sworn to help . The chamois drags abyss . They met and renewed it from time to time. the Bond was reduced to writing. Something might. When Uri calls. Schwytz will be mindful of her ancient league. is in * Latin and German. of the Three Cantons was of very ancient origin. The sharer of his roof. or Bond. If the three Stauff.

shall be executed. friends in Unterwald. Every controversy amongst the sworn confederates shall be determined by some of the sagest of their number. but a pang so deep That e'en the flinty rocks must pity me. Here do I stand before your riper years. We are agreed to receive into these dales no Judge. all will take satisfaction for all the injury occasioned by his con- And if in any internal division the one party the rest shall help the other party. who in the Diet must Into respectful silence hush his voice. property and people.WILHELM TELL Melch. federates. let him obey according to the conditions of his shall service. eyes With pious and each other with affectionate regard. shall. who is not a countryman and indweller. then shall he be constrained to obey it by the rest. or who hath bought his place. That is our Ancient Bond. These decrees God willing. against all do violence to them. or robs him. the sworn conwill not accept justice. No who is not his Every one tumacy. nor any one debtor. and whoever shelters him shall be banished. for that I am young. one shall distrain a debtor without a judge. all in these dales shall submit to the judge. endure eternally for our general advantage. And you must wish to have a virtuous son. or any of them. shall make satisfaction out of the same. . too. An unskill'd youth. If fairly back'd heads of families. and none That would not gladly venture life and limb. I've 271 many and aided by the rest. and want Experience. To reverence your gray hairs. who all their power and might. or the surety for such debtor. Yet do not. Whoever injures another. and shield your You. Whoever hath a Seignior. and hath property in our country. or we. are fathers. Oh! sage and reverend fathers of this land. Whoever intentionally or deceitfully kills another. and whoever shelters him shall make good the damage done. slight my counsel and my words. and if any one shall challenge their judgment. 'Tis not the wantonness of youthful blood That fires my spirit. Whoever burns the property of another shall no longer be regarded as a countryman.

because in limb and fortune You still are unassail'd. Do thou resolve I am prepared to follow. From Austria. Rich was your heritage of manly worth. though we have to stand alone. and still your eyes Revolve — spheres undimm'd and sparkling in their Oh. Yes. : Statjffacher {to Furst). Furst. Furst. then. What need of nobles? Let us do the work Ourselves. therefore. God must help us. do not. And judge supreme. disregard our wrongs also. have striven to alienate the land You. there an umpire 'twixt ourselves and Austria. I pray. Sillinen and Attinghaus propose. Justice and law might then decide our quarrel. But let them see the country once in arms. ! Above you. and may his punishment. Is there a name within the Forest Mountains and That carries more respect than yours — yours ? On names like these the In time of need — suchpeople names build their trust are household words. And richly have you added to its stores. that lays waste the lower grounds. First let us learn what steps the noble lords ! Von Melch. Their names would rally thousands to the cause. But our oppressor is our Emperor 'Tis too. This was all my father's crime You share his guilt. hangs the tyrant's sword. We shall be able to maintain our rights. Were They'll not refuse to lend a helping hand. . Hath not ascended to the uplands yet. Stauff* The nobles' wrongs are not so great as ours.272 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Do not. too. The torrent.

and I Must answer for your safety. Ill — 18 Consult together for the general weal. no. can there be found to work her will. As we sail hence to Brunnen. with God's guidance. Stauff. And. fix what next to do. you are my guest. . But how shall we communicate. But whom are we to send to Unterwald? Thither send me. deep-hidden in the wood We A meadow lies. too. and deliberate o'er our plans. Friends too. I'll rally friends in Uri. by shepherds called the Booth. the Alzeller Will gain confederates. No.WILHELM TELL And ! 273 Melch. I'll find. right against The Mytenstein. Whom should it more concern? Melch. All one at heart with us . 'Tis where our Canton bound 'ries verge on yours . Let each bring with him there ten trusty men. In the low valleys.] let Thither by lonely by-paths us wend At midnight. Furst. Melchthal. Let me go. Be yours the task to rouse our own arm The men of Schwytz. is so abhorred in Unterwald. Furst. him go. — Your boat will carry [To Melchthal. Because the wood has been uprooted there. no willing shelter from the foe. on every hand. and not For tyranny tools No Awaken the suspicion of the tyrants? Might we not meet at Brunnen or at Treib. On the lake 's left bank. To Stauff. give let me Nay. and rouse the country. be sure.] you across from Schwytz. Hear my opinion. Where merchant vessels with their cargoes come ? must not go so openly to work. and then we may Vol. [To Stauffacher. traitors harbor there: Melch. I know each forest track and mountain path.

a gray-headed man. But thou shalt hear it. my old blind father The day of freedom. with these my is faithful [He drinks from a cup. Uncle. ! And the proud castles of the tyrants fall. which round. THE GERMAN CLASSICS So let it be. Ulrich op Rudenz enters in the costume of a Knight. Attinghausen.] Melch. Rudenz. [They hold their hands clasped together for some moments in silence. I'm here! Your will? First let me share. tall and of a commanding mien. eightyfive years old. together stand all sincerity In victory and defeat. Fubst and Melchthal. In life and death.274 Stauff. I stood myself in field and wood. that thou canst not see. too. Even as my banner led them in the fight . Alas. Into thy cottage shall the Switzer burst. and leaning on a staf tipped with chamois horn. and o 'er Thy darken 'd way shall Freedom's radiance pour. ACT II Scene I The Mansion of the Baron of Attinghausen.] then passed Time was. After the ancient custom of our house. young And now your true right hand man and as we now three men ! ! Among In ourselves thus knit our hands together and truth. clad in a furred pelisse. With mine own eyes directing all their toil. Bear the glad tidings to thine ear. A Gothic Hall. too. The morning servants ! cup. in life and death. e'en so Shall we three Cantons. Yours. Kuoni and six hinds standing round him with rakes and scythes. decorated with escutcheons and helmets. when from Alp to Alp The beacon fires throw up their flaming signs. The Baron. Now I am only fit to play the steward : .

purple Thou look'st upon the peasant with disdain.] Belted and plumed. Sir % cup. I move on to the narrowest and the last. that thou Be chary of them to thy aged uncle? must presence is not needed here but as a stranger in this house. one heart and at eve. children. And tak'st his honest greeting with a blush. no longer seek it on the hills. ! One [Exeunt Servants. thus deck'd in silks. my am time). that home To thee has I scarce do grown so strange! Oh. uncle. Thus slowly. I now am but The shadow of my former self. drink it off. "We'll meet and talk the country's business over. when work is done. are thy youthful hours Doled in such niggard measure. pledge.WILHELM TELL And. Yes. I can — Kuoni (offering A Rudenz the cup). boy? — ! Rudenz. young master! [Rudenz hesitates to take the cup.] Sir. All honor due to him I gladly pay. The peacock's feather* And The Austrian knights were feathers in their helmets. — Why in such haste Rudenz. I see I ? Say. You know our proverb. if 275 the genial sun come not to me. Ay. Where all life's pulses cease. . Uly! Uly! know thee now. pity 'tis thou art! Alas. Longer may I not delay Attinghausen {sitting down). Atting. * flaunting in thy cap. Attinghausen {gazes fixedly at him for a considerable . and that Is fading fast 'twill soon be but a name. Rudenz. in an ever narrowing sphere. mantle round thy shoulders flung. Go. Nay. it was made highly penal to wear the peacock's feather at any public assembly there. and all thy bravery on Thou art for Altdorf for the castle. in the habit of wearing a plum of peacocks' After the overthrow of the Austrian dominion in Switzerland.

What. thou tak'st thy stand all Rudenz. to It fits their humor well. I know it. The land is sore oppress 'd. and from thy lips. The Landamman was an officer chosen by the Swiss Gemeinde. The Banneret was an officer intrusted with the keeping of the State Banner and such others as were taken in battle. Hear me out. and. they'll have no lord at all. to preside over them. ! Must Rudenz. And win the good will of the Emperor. is the character you've stoop 'd contentedly through life? Have you higher pride than in these lonely wilds To be the Landamman or Banneret. You To I hear this. uncle. sooth — for- That Atting. as in scorn Of our distress. Abandoning thy friends. Courting the smiles of princes all the while Thy country bleeds beneath their cruel scourge. and every true man's heart Is full of sadness for the grievous wrongs "We suffer from our tyrants. might buy Instant deliverance from all our ills.276 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But must deny the right he would usurp. But why? Who plunged it into this distress? A word. Woe unto those who seal the people's And make them adverse to their good The men.* They'll have the Kaiser for their lord. The sore displeasure of its monarch rests Upon our land. is to say. eyes. who. t * . pursuest giddy joys. or Diet. fill uncle. one little easy word. to take their seats Amid the nobles on the Herrenbank. Thou alone Atting. for their own — country's vile selfish ends. rash boy urged me to this answer. Art unmoved amid the general grief. Beside thy country's foes. Are seeking prevent the Forest States From swearing fealty to Austria's House.! No The bench reserved for the nobility. As all the countries round about have done.

And. I conceal My inmost soul. A world of fair renown Beyond these mountains stirs in martial pomp. too well I see. Than Atting. all the young nobility around Are reaping honor under Habsburg's banner. to hear the stranger's gibes. in the dull routine of vulgar toil. and for thy native hills. Uly . And that dear melody of tuneful herds. poison It doth offend ' ' The tempter's voice has caught thy And pour'd RuDENZ. While That I should loiter. sit at home. The herald's call. seduced by empty show Ashamed Despise the land that gave thee birth Of the good ancient customs of thy sires The day will come. Yes. in proud disgust. in thy heart. Which now. Lose all life's glorious spring? In other lands Great deeds are done. Uly. Deluded boy.WILHELM TELL The petty chieftain of a shepherd race? 277 How! Were it not a far more glorious choice. In one unvarying dull monotony. with burning! ! ! tears. Here on the heritage my fathers left. ! . thou dost despise A day when wistful pangs shall shake thy heart. The martial trumpet's spirit-stirring blast. And swell the princely splendors of his court. the peer of all your own vassals. when thou. My helm and shield are rusting in the hall. in inglorious ease. inviting to the lists. To bend in homage to our royal lord. its subtle it not. where naught Save cowherd's horn and cattle bell is heard. Atting. Wilt long for home. That taunt us with the name of Peasant Nobles!" Think you the heart that's stirring here can brook. willing ear. Eouse not the echoes of these vales. And share the judgment-seat with vulgar clowns 1 Ah.

the cold.278 THE GERMAN CLASSICS music in a foreign land. the spell that binds to home ! potent No. But go go thither Take land in fief. We are inclosed. — That traffics on the Gotthardt. mad presumptuous obstinacy. when yielding up my breath. helmet. his sword. am the last of all my race. the very carrier's horse. and girded round about — •According to the custom by which. with thy true heart. The world asks virtues of far other stamp Than thou hast learned within these simple vales. Free and unfetter 'd as the mountain air! Rudenz. which he To break that mighty chain of Hath drawn around us with his giant grasp 1 the markets. barter thy free soul. which I from God received. — — Where thou might 'st be prince lord paramount. Uly. and Of all thine 0. pays him toll. his the courts His are his. thou wilt Hearing their is Oh ! Forever feel a stranger among strangers. . The world pertains In 'Tis vain for us to strive against the king. too. And take in vassalage from Austria's hands The noble lands.* And must I think. My name Ends with me. were buried with him. Shall we alone. as within a net. to him. Go not to Altdorf. To stoop thy knee to this new feudal court. Yonder hang my helm and shield They will be buried with me in the grave. At the proud court. Uly. strive lands. I own unburden M heritage! stay among thy people ! Oh. no. The highways. and shield. be minion to a prince. false world is not for thee. That thou but wait'st the closing of mine eyes. By his dominions. abandon not The sacred cause of thy wrong 'd native land! . nay. when the last male descendent of a noble family died.

and even flee ! necessities. to swell her lust of sway. when faction's all abroad. and was considered as put out of the realm. if our blood must flow. and not to emperors must we look! What store can on their promises be placed.WILHELM TELL And will the 279 Say. our cattle. Art so wise? Wilt thou see clearer than thy noble sires. The imperial crown's transferred from line line. No. to meet their own Can pawn. To set her tolls on every bridge and gate. Who battled for fair freedom's priceless gem to secure the But With life. fAn allusion to the circumstance of the Imperial Crown not being hereditary. and heroic arm? Sail down the lake to Lucern. there inquire How Austria's thraldom weighs the Cantons will down. And in our own free woods to hinder us From striking down the eagle or the stag. To vow attachment to some mighty chief. drain our dearest blood to feed her wars. ! This frequently occurred. alienate the towns * for shelter 'neath the Eagle's wings? uncle It is wise and wholesome prudence. To portion out the Alps. But in the event of an imperial city being mortgaged for the purpose of raising money. In times like these. Attinghausen. but conferred by election on one of the Counts of the Empire. were to sow Seed for a future harvest. e'en to their peaks. * . No. When That they. let it be shed In our own cause We purchase liberty More cheaply far than bondage. Soon she come to count our sheep. it lost its freedom. Impoverish And us. can it Empire shield us? Protect itself 'gainst Austria's growing power ? To God.f to It has no memory for faithful service : favor of these great Hereditary masters. and fortune.

to know this shepherd race I know them. The precious jewel of thy worth away. What Austria try. But not by word or oath. A Atting. Bound to thee only by their unbought love.] hide thee. to fight to die with thee. But A yon stranger world thou 'It stand alone.] I am bound. be that thy noblest boast Knit to thy heart the ties of kindred home — — — — ! ! Cling to the land. 'Tis 'Tis Thou she that chains thee to the Emperor's service. Only today ! Go not to Altdorf. To be the chieftain of a free born race. unhappy boy. can we. Bound. draws thee to the court. forsooth. as thou wilt. to force on us yoke we are determined not to bear — ! ! ! Oh. A shepherd race. Cast not. against great Albert's hosts? Learn. Ay. Bertha of Bruneck. Ready to stand Be that thy pride. Grapple to that with thy whole heart and soul Thy power is rooted deep and strongly here. by the silken mesh of love thou'rt bound. Uly in ! ! Tarry but this one day. I know. Unhand me [Takes his hand. trembling reed beat down by every blast. I have led them on in fight I saw them in the battle of Favenz. didst thou say? Oh yes. 'Tis she. the dear land of thy sires. I gave my word. foolish boy. for tinsel trash and idle show. [Rudenz turns away. Oh come 'tis long since we have seen thee. learn to feel from what a stock thou'rt sprung. ! Atting. bestow thee on thy friends.280 THE GERMAN CLASSICS What Eudenz. Wilt thou? Not today! For this one day. Rudbnz. art indeed. . (drops his hand and says sternly).

nor save him from destruc! ! tion. The stage is dark. and held converse All. the simple. with rails and ladders. 281 Thou maid But never meant for innocence Rudenz. all fleet fast away. I've heard enough. all . sweeping o 'er our hills. [Exit. Winkelried. Meyer von Saren. Be not deceived. Into these calm when men and manners strange and happy valleys came. The good. On the rods are tracks. he 's gone I can Stay. will follow his luckless hour. Uly Stay Nor hold him back. like thine.] Rash boy. Atting. but the lake and glaciers glisten in the moonlight. The mountain pass is open. To warp our primitive and guileless ways! The new is pressing on with might. BURKHART AM BuHEL. with glaciers rising behind them. Melchthal (behind the scenes). The old. New times come on. No more. The prospect is closed by lofty mountains. ARNOLD VON SeWA. Tears with its potent spell our youth away. and four other peasants. She is held out before thee as a lure . A race is springing up That think not as their fathers thought before ! What do I hear? With whom are in the grave erewhile I moved. Melchthal. So fare you ! well. Baumgakten. Follow me ! . This foreign witchery.- Others example soon. age has long been laid beneath the sod: Happy the man. In the background the lake is observed. by which the peasants are afterward seen descending.WILHELM TELL think 'st to win the noble knightly By thy apostacy. And so the Wolf shot has deserted us. who may not live to see What shall be done by those that follow me My ! Scene II A meadow surrounded by high rocks and wooded ground. and over it a moon rainbow in the early part of the scene. KlAUS VON DER Flue. all armed.

! 'Tis doubled. rainbow Formed by the bright reflection of the moon ! Von F. night? Melch. The Uri men are like to be the last. Sewa. (pointing to the lake). A boat is gliding yonder right beneath it. Buhel. The coast Sewa. [A bell is heard at a distance. Buhel. and . see nothing? ! A Melch. That must be Werner Stauffacher I knew The worthy patriot would not tarry long. for the Viceroy's spies are out. Meyer. Beneath its beams The lake reposes.] .] ! Meyer. Let's bid them welcome with a cheerful blaze. and light some broken boughs. Go.] The moon shines fair tonight. They're forced to take a winding circuit through The mountains. [They enter with torches. Ay.] Hark! is clear. you and you. the Selisberg has just called two. How far Baumgarten. Melch. indeed Many there be who ne 'er have seen the like. WlNKELRIED. None of our comrades come? we Unterwaldeners. We are the first. Do you Meyer. little cross upon it: This is the spot here is the Rootli. Melch. A sign most strange and wonderful. Sewa. see. [In the meanwhile the two peasants have kindled a fire in the centre of the stage. Buhel. I do in the middle of the night. They'll have an easy passage. The Von F.282 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I see the rock. is't i' the The beacon watch Upon Meyer. [Goes with Baumgarten toward the shore. Ha! look there! Wink. bright as burnish 'd steel. a paler one above! Baum. [Two peasants exeunt. indeed.] Hush! Hark! forest chapel's matin bell Chimes clearly o'er the lake from Switzerland. The air is clear and bears the sound so far.

I've look'd but now On him who could not look on me again I've laid my hands upon his rayless eyes. Conrad Hunn. Stauff. Still And * turned to rest me in the herdsmen's cots. Jost von Weeler. toward the party [All landing from the boat. 283 Who 's there ? The word ? Friends of the country. erected by the herdsmen for shelter while pasturing their herds on the mountains during the summer. stand the peasantry disposed. How Melch. Jorg im Hofe. We are here. To aid the common cause in Unterwald. remain behind exchanging [While Melchthal comes forward with greetings.] Oh worthy Stauffacher. Speak not of vengeance.] All. Now tell me what you've done. or shealings. retire up the stage. Hans auf der Mauer. and three other peasants. where the herds From Uri and from Engelberg resort. Itel Reding. only to be cool'd in blood. And on their vacant orbits sworn a vow .* These are the cots. Stauffacher. And turn their cattle forth to graze in common. Enter Stauffacher. These are left deserted in winter. Of vengeance. armed. to meet The threatened evil. the rest Welcome J Melch.WILHELM TELL Melchthal (on the shore). Stauffacher (from below). Where dreary ice-fields stretch And sound is on every side. and how Yourself escaped the wiles of treachery? Through the Surenen's fearful mountain chain. Ulrich der Schmidt. and what secured. With as I went along. . not to avenge the past. during which period MelchthaPs journey was taken. none save the hoarse vulture's cry. I reach 'd the Alpine pasture. I slaked my thirst the coarse oozings of the glacier heights That thro' the crevices come foaming down.

I reached at last the valley of my home. fed by the alms Of charity Great heavens ! . the stranger's straw. — Should dictate as the right. they swore to do And you they swore to follow e 'en to death. Where dwell my kinsmen. I Where And wheresoe'er I went. So sped I on from house to house. Already through these distant vales had spread The rumor of this last atrocity. as I spoke those names. So have old customs there. I found my father. Kind words saluted me and gentle looks. secure and when In the guest's sacred privilege. Nor will they brook to swerve or turn aside From the fixed even tenor of their life.284 THE GERMAN CLASSICS was host and guest. from sire to son. Been handed down. stript and blind. For Yield the same roots as their Alps through each succeeding year their streams flow ever on the clouds and In the same winds The selfsame course unalterably pursue. Fiirst's. until I gain'd The cheerful homes and social haunts of men. Whate'er your . — channels — nay. scatter 'd far and — near — And when Upon Stauffacher. — Your own and Walter voice Sacred to every peasant in the mountains. unchanging and unchanged . With grasp me — of their hard hands they welcomed Took from the walls their rusty falchions down And from their eyes the soul of valor flash 'd With joyful lustre. I found these simple spirits all in arms Against our rulers' tyrannous encroachments. at every door.

valley so remote but I explored it. For even there. where'er my wandering footsteps turn 'd. So went to Sarnen. Through every winding of the hills I crept — . I sought and found the homes of living men No And still.WILHELM TELL Melchthal. more than this.] . With my own eyes I wish'd to weigh its strength. I lock'd it fast. 235 Yet wept I not not in weak and unavailing tears ! No Spent I the force of my fierce burning anguish Deep in my bosom. safe himself. like some precious treasure. are the country's dread. The fortresses. to a man. spreads havoc o'er the land. Melch. Their grasping hands had been for plunder thrust. Into the hearts of all this honest race The story Stauff. and I slew him not! Fortune. indeed. upon your boldness smiled. and now They. Rossberg For from behind their adamantine walls The foe. like eagle from his eyrie swoops. into the tiger's den? in pilgrim's weeds I entered it. are ours both heart and hand. I did still little Melch. Disguised I saw the Viceroy feasting at his board How! Venture even — Stauff. at vegetation's verge. And. my wrongs struck deep. and explored the castle. Judge if I'm master of myself or no! I saw the tyrant. you've wrought in time. Stauff. The selfsame hatred of these tyrants met me. Nay. . Where the numb'd earth is barren of all fruits. [Meanwhile the others have arrived and join Melchthal and Stauffacher. at the very glacier's ice-clad base. Great things. and thought on deeds alone. of . indeed. and Sarnen.

like us. is A worthy priest And descending the rocks with torches. In the three Cantons. . Meyer. . I pray. Herr Reding. because they're And They Stauffacher sit love the land. we are enemies in court Here we are one. Wink. That. sir. and bear a good repute. who. lost Ms life in the encounter. You'll not think serfs. A Winkelried was Who And slew the dragon in the fen at Weiler. our old Landamman. it Stauff. ill of them. Give me your hands. knows not you? MeyeT of Sarnen is my name and this Yet Meyer. my sister's son. not free upon the soil. too. sir. and live behind the forest. I know him well.286 THE GERMAN CLASSICS tell me now. Listen They come. who are the friends. That is Herr Reding. Wink.] not that the holy man of God? ! A The terrors of the night. Melchthal (pointing to two peasants). and heart to heart. Master Stauffacher. Is Struth of Winkelried. No unknown name. Hunn. no matter where 'tis found. These two are men who till the cloister lands Of Engelberg. thanks He has good cause for That to no man his body's service owes. the way's pains and perils scare not him. faithful shepherd caring for his flock. who came along with you? Make me acquainted with them. man to man. I am at law with him About a piece of ancient heritage. was my grandfather. Look. Stauffacher.] That's well and bravely said. But worth is worth. [Shakes his hand. The horn of Uri Hark the right and left armed men are seen [On — ! ! ! Mauer. The worthy men. that we may Speak frankly. (to them).

thirty-three in all. Kuoni the Shepherd. Werni the Huntsman. then. And as we're wont in peaceful times The time's necessity be our excuse. Confederates Listen to the words which God ! Here we are met. Still. Thus must we. [Walter Furst. Yet are they graven in our inmost hearts. Few though our numbers be. In us Are all the people of the land convened. the hearts are here Of the whole people here the best are met. . on the soil our fathers left us. Rossel. And now. there's sunshine in our cause. 'Tis well. But where is Tell! I do not see him there. Assert our own good rights which yet are clear As is t0e radiance of the noonday sun. Let us. and other countrymen. So be it. If there be — — . Then let us hold the Diet. the And * plant ground. there Is God. What is hatch 'd in gloom of night Shall free and boldly meet the morning light. hold the Diet. And in the night. According to Though it be night. Stauff. Melch. wheresoe'er men strike for justice. to do. 'Tis well advised. and now beneath His heav'n we stand. swords of power within the set It was the custom at the meetings of the Landes Gemeinde. To represent the general weal. Rossel. The ancient books may not be near at hand. Petermann the Sacrist.] Furst. as of old.* then. aught informal in this meeting.WILHELM TELL Baum. and Walter Fiirst. our ancient usages. let a ring be formed. Melch. Inspires my heart withal. advance and take their places round the fire. 287 The Sacrist follows him. Rosselmann the Pastor. that should her mantle lend Only to crime and black conspiracy. Hunn. Rtjodi the Fisherman. or Diet. to swords upright in the ground as emblems of authority. Creep forth by stealth to meet like murderers.

Never to swerve from justice and the cannot lay right. Furst. must share the honor of the sword .288 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Let the Mauer.] Reding (resting on his battle sword). A worthy man. There are three Cantons here. Stauff. Hofe. the precedence of our own. hold up your hands! — . Invoking aid from our more potent friends. Unterwald'ners enter not the field. We We give the head to the united Council? Schwytz may contest that dignity with Uri. In battle. Uri shall lead in battle Schwytz in Council. my hands upon the books But by yon everlasting stars I swear. Not I. Schwytz. our old Landamman? Stauff. Is not Herr Reding here. For Rossel. ! ! [All hold up their right hands. We are but suppliants here. then. . [The two sivords are placed before him. the Smith.] Reding (stepping I into the centre). Uri on his right. Why. Mauer. Furst (gives Stauffacher his hand). Let me arrange — Then take your place. she's the honored ancestor of this all. Which hath the To Melch. . Let Uri have the sword. his side his secretaries stand. is the most aged here. Landamman And by right step into his place. generous controversy. stand aside. Some older man. Ulrich. Stauffacher. Schwytz in the centre. Where can we find a worthier man than he ? Let him be Amman and the Diet's chief Furst. You that agree with me. at the hour when spirits walk the earth. Sacrist. Unterwald on his left. Her banner takes. but not a freeman no No bondman can be judge in Switzerland. and a circle formed.

Hear. on whom the lot might fall. trace of a lonely Where dwelt Vol. The scourge of famine came . With loud lamentings. then. There dwelt A mighty people in the land that lies Back to the north. the lake's inhospitable shore? Upon What may the purport be of this new league here contract beneath the starry heaven? Stauffacher (entering the circle). Nor stopp'd they ever on their forward course. We purpose to renew! For know.WILHELM TELL Meet the three Cantons 289 We of the mountains here. us what you know. And all are children of one common home. A mighty host and to the south moved on. Until they gained these pine-clad hills of ours. human creature met their eye. born of one blood. Ill — 19 man. in ancient times. They obey'd — forth. And in this strait 'twas publicly resolved That each tenth man. each Canton by its own laws is ruled. Cutting their way through Germany by the . That we came hither from a distant land? Oh. that our new league reap fresh vigor from the leagues of old. 'Tis no new league that here we now contract But one our fathers framed. Till at the shaggy dell they halted where The Miita No flows through its luxuriant meads. sword. Yet are we but one race. Save one poor hut upon the desert shore. . Is then the Wink. And bounds. men and women went. and kept the ferry. burden of our legends true. what aged herdsmen tell. and Should leave the country. tell May Stauff. confederates. Though mountain ridge and lake divide our .

the soil became Unequal to sustain them. to princes . Discover 'd goodly springs. Freely freely it was given. ever mindful of their parent stem. Ay. we For they have to the conqueror succumbed. Have the genuine race of ancient Swiss. Nay. have settled in the land. Their hearts still know. village Altdorf .290 THE GERMAN CLASSICS A tempest raged — the lake And rose mountains high barr'd their further progress. kept our freedom from the first till now. And many a day of toil had they to clear The tangled brake and forest's spreading roots. e'en within our frontiers may be found Some. We are one people. A race of bonded serfs from sire to son. — Then they resolved to settle on the spot. . that owe villein service to a lord. Thereupon They view'd the country found it rich in wood. The nations round us bear a foreign yoke Stauff.] ! are all one heart. Another people speak another tongue. [Extends his hand right and left. and they cross 'd To the black mountain. 'Tis so set down Never — . and will act as one. Erected there the ancient town of Schwytz . Rossel. in the vale of Reuss Yet. The men of Schwytz. beside the Kern- wald. They The built the village of Stanz. where. one race Matjer. Aix. Meanwhile their numbers grew. Each other recognize. from all the stranger race . one blood. and felt as they Were in their own dear native land once more. Freely we sought it in Emperor Frederick's charter. But we. Conceal 'd behind eternal walls of ice. have we bow'd the knee we sought protection of the Empire. far as Weissland. {joining hands). That since that time And beat fraternally to kindred blood.

Stauff. battles ! To Italy they march 'd in arms. This honor to the Emperor. If there be any can gainsay my words No You have spoken but the simple truth We never stoop 'd beneath a tyrant's yoke. Clear and distinctly. To guard the Empire that keeps guard for him. Engaged to aid him with their swords in war The free man's duty this alone should be. Melch. like the other free men of his realm. allow 'd. . the lord Of all the German and Italian soil. The Emperor's only right was to adjudge The penalty of death he therefore named Some mighty noble as his delegate. To whom appeal may lie. The imperial standard. when doom was to be pass'd. Hofe. call'd in. when the Heribann* went forth.WILHELM TELL Stauff. * The Heribann was a muster of warriors similar to the arri&re ban of France. He's but a slave that would acknowledge more. When he gave judgment 'gainst us for the church For when the Abbey of Einsiedlen claimed The Alp our fathers and ourselves had grazed. . ! ! . a judge supreme. Who was And. Stauff. And. in the face of day. They followed. that we are bondsmen? Speak. and they fought its . fearing no man's hate. to place The CaBsars' crown upon the Emperor's head. 291 For the most free have still some feudal lord. But still at home they ruled themselves in peace By their own laws and ancient usages. That had no stake or interest in the land. . There must be still a chief. pronounced decree. in case of And therefore was it that our sires strife. For what they had recover 'd from the waste. Even to the Emperor we did not submit. What traces here.

into a home for man Extirpated the dragon's brood. And do us shame on our own proper soil? Is there no help against such wrong as this? — [Great sensation among the people. — — is No Emperor can bestow what And if the Empire shall deny is our own our rights. Insult us by our own hearth fires attempt To forge the chains of bondage for our hands. Blasted the solid rock . Rent the thick misty canopy that hung . in his plenitude of power. When his sore burden may no more be borne. across the chasm the firm bridge for the wayfaring man. that wont To rise. dare to venture here.292 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And showed an ancient charter which bestowed The land on them as being ownerless For our existence there had been concealed What was our answer? This: " The grant void. that was erst the haunt Of savage bears.] Yes! there's a limit to the despot's power! When the oppress 'd for justice looks in vain. right And from the vassal brook ourselves !" Thus spake our fathers! And shall we endure The shame and infamy of this new yoke. With fearless heart he makes appeal to Heaven. from the swamps. Thrown Himself a vassal. attempt? This soil we have created for ourselves. there abide. what never king Dared. inalienably his. And Which And thence brings down his everlasting rights. within our mountains. distent with venom. And shall an alien lord. Its blighting vapors on the dreary waste . By the possession of a thousand years The soil is ours. . indestructible as are the stars. we've changed The giant forest. By the hard labor of our hands. : We can.

last resource remains his own good sword. for children here (clashing their swords). before ye draw the sword. Even so! Whoe'er Shall talk of bearing Austria 's yoke. No man thenceforth receive him at his hearth ! I stand on this. ! ! 'Tis a traitor's counsel. and ! For country. Buhel. And One Our other means shall fail his need. His country's foe! Reding. Rosselmann (stepping into the circle). for wives. home. Mauer. Then should we all be slaves. The men who now oppress you. stands hostile to his fellow man if all 293 . let him Of all his rights and honors be despoiled. ! Axl (raising their right hands).WILHELM TELL Where man Nature's primeval state returns again. Winkelried. Who talks of yielding thus to Austria's yoke! Lanclamman. and to Austria swear allegiance What says the priest? To Austria allegiance? Hearken not to him . Flue. deservedly. our wives. Some peaceful compromise may yet be made Speak but one word. we stand Aij. peace. .. dearest treasures call to us for aid — Against the oppressor's violence. Sewa. confederates wrongs like these Shall Austria extort from us by force What we denied to kindness and entreaty? to Austria. Yes Let him forfeit all a Switzer 's rights. and at your feet you'll see . Mauer. Take the terms That have been often tendered you renounce The Empire. Bethink ye well. Homage Peace. after ! ! ! Meyer. children. The law it is. Let this be The foremost of our laws Melchthal. Here stand we for our homes. Agreed Be this the law ! ! Reding (after a pause).

Who beckon 'd me. at the Emperor's Court. With heavy heart. What she has fail'd to gain by friendly suit. Deputed by the Cantons to complain Of the oppressions of these governors. THE GERMAN CLASSICS Now you are Never free — this law hath made you free. On with the order of the day Proceed Confederates! tried? Have all gentler means been Perchance the It Emp 'ror knows not of our wrongs : . and by his side The noble lords of Wart and Tegerfeld. straight went home again with merry But me. God only helps. I found the envoys there of many a town.294 Rossel. they to the council sent. and said. A STAUFFACHER {to KONRAD HuNN). Ere we unsheath the sword f Force is at best fearful thing e'en in a righteous cause. your envoy. shall Austria obtain by force ! ! Weil. in a recess I saw The Grand Duke John* in tears. Here you can give us information. * . " The Emperor at present was engaged. I was at Rheinfeld. Reding. "Redress yourselves. when man can help no more. Who And all received their parchments as they heart. Where I with empty cheer was soon dismiss 'd. may not be his will we suffer thus Were it not well to make one last attempt. And of our liberties the charter claim till Which each new king now has ratified. And lay our grievances before the throne. Speak! Hunn. who soon afterward withholding his patrimony from him. and passing through the hall. From Suabia and the valley of the Rhine. Some other time he would attend to us !" I turn'd away. wish'd. assassinated his uncle for The Duke of Suabia.

if possible. then. raze We'll drive these tyrants and their minions And their towering strongholds to the ground. no drop of blood. And when he finds we keep within our bounds. . Stauff. Furst. Urging he 's now of age.WILHELM TELL 295 Mauer." he cries. land of Austria in fief. advise What plan most likely to insure success. As we received them from our fathers Not lawless innovation. needs must be. — this. may yield to policy. hence. Of Zurich's Abbess humble vassal I. Meyer. then. let him pay The service he is sworn to faithfully. Furst. Rossel. . Expect not justice from the Emperor. I hold Well. and 'tis full time That he should rule his people and estates What is the answer made to him? The king Places a chaplet on his head. Does he not plunder his own brother's child. Expect not from the Emperor : Or right or justice ! Then redress yourselves ! No other course is left us. to pay your feudal dues. I'm tenant of the lords of Eappersweil. is our aim. but nothing more. Give to the cloister what the cloister claims. " of youth!" You hear. Yet shed. Furst. belike. His wrath. Continue. Reding. What The Empire only is my feudal lord. To keep our ancient rights inviolate. Furst. And keep from him his just inheritance?" The Duke claims his maternal property. Furst. Now. To shake a thraldom off that we abhor. to pay them rent and tithe. my Continue. Let Caesar still retain what is his due And he that is a vassal. we'll do. " Behold The fitting ornament. Let the Emperor see that we were driven to cast The sacred duties of respect away.

the foe would soon be warned. Thus may some ten or twelve selected men Assemble unobserved. Meyer. arms in hand. And. and the keep at Altdorf the governor secure. And let me tell you. You think but of yourselves. Before a sword is drawn in either Canton. in the Diet's name. Your hasty spirit much disturbs the peace. we must perforce be dumb. Delay it no longer. Sacristan. prepared To sally forth upon a trumpet's blast. Will be complete — Stauff. . We shall surprise him. but not so easily done. Should we delay. if till Christmas we delay? 'Tis then The custom for the serfs to throng the castle. then. . Bearing about their persons pikes of steel Which may be quickly mounted upon staves For arms are not admitted to the fort. — Meyer. Reding. But prithee tell us how may this be done? The enemy is arm'd as well as we. Wink. Two strongholds dominate the country they Protect the foe. Staufp. within its walls. He will. Our task would then be dangerous indeed. Furst. is temperate in its wrath. Reding. Sacristan. Why. Easily said. Stand we not all for the same common cause? What. indeed. Rossel.296 THE GERMAN CLASSICS For truly is that nation to be fear'd That. Peace. The rest can fill the neighb'ring wood. There is no traitor in the Forest States. ! You're unjust! Unjust said you ? Dares Uri taunt us so ? Reding. rest assured. ere he is prepared. Rossberg and Sarnen both must be secured. Meyeb. whene'er he sees us up in arms. Meyer. Bringing the governor their annual gifts. But even zeal may heedlessly betray. on your oath! If Schwytz be leagued with Uri. We are too numerous for secrecy. and should the king invade us. he will not yield in peace.

WILHELM TELL Soon as 297 And Melch. Not so with Gessler.] to twelve is the majority. Are all my friends will not be long behind. Blood will be shed before he quits the field. Reding. Believe me. . see. and my heart is now at rest. Yet. when these tyrants see our martial front. * A sort of national militia. And Baum. to [The majority Stauffacher (counting them). 'Tis hard.* Then. patient ! Something must still be to the moment left. I have clear 'd My honor. Surrounded with his dread array of horse. be lost. Be Counsel will come with circumstance. even expell'd he'd still be terrible. resolved in favor of delay? raise their hands. thev will never make so bold As Stauff. risk the conflict. Let us part. but will gladly take Safe conduct forth beyond our boundaries. and cheerfully Reding. to spare his life. has on the mountain tops Kindled her glowing beacon. Will pledge it for my country. shall speed The fiery signal in the capital Of every Canton quickly rouse the Landsturm. If on the appointed From mountain on : day the castles mountain we fall. Ere the broad sun surprise us. The morning. their comrades have secured the gate thus the castle will with ease be ours. while by night we hold our Diet here. The Rossberg I have a sweetheart in the garrison. Whom Once up. He will make a stand. I will undertake to scale. Twenty Furst. dangerous. Place I me where'er a life is to owe my life to Teli. with some tender words I could persuade To lower me at night a hempen ladder. . nay.

great day arrive when they shall pay The general and particular debt at once. Swear we the oath of our confederacy A band of brothers true we swear to be. draw painful breath. In noisome cities pent. and his home. and embrace one another. Rossel. as were our sires.] will be free. reckoning of the tyrants grow. By silence. And nurse his vengeance for the public wrongs For he whom selfish interests now engage Till the to his friends. And not to quail before the might of man [All repeat as before. The night wanes slowly from these vales [All have involuntarily taken off their caps. The empty scene remains open for some time.] We swear we And ! Stauff. and contemplate the breaking of day. before absorbed in Those other nations. his kindred. the herd winter up his flock.298 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Do not fear. Furst. endure. sooner die than live in slavery! [All repeat as before. that. of ours. beneath us far.] .] We swear. and gain And let the : Defrauds the general weal of what to it belongs. to put our trust in God Most High. Let every man control his own just rage.] this fair light which greeteth us. the orchestra plays a solemn air. Now Back every man pursue his several way Let In secret friends for this great league of ours! What for a time must be endured. showing the rays of the sun rising over the Glaciers. [As they are going off in profound silence. in three different directions. Never to part in danger or in death! [They repeat his words with three ! fingers raised.



My restless spirit ever yearns for change . (runs forward). Wilhelm Tell. and river.] Hedwig Tell. Soaring bird and beast of chase. alas and they will never rest ! Contentedly at home. Tell. father. Ah Would to heaven they never learnt the art ! Hedwig. it. must learn to ward or plant a blow. Wilhelm axe. With his cross-bow. and The huntsman speeds Over mountain. So the hunter claims dominion Over crag and forest lair. At the dawning of the day. in all its points. 299 III Scene I Tell with an Walter and domestic duties. Heedless the while of all your wife's alarms. do! [Boys retire. playing (Walter sings). Whoe'er would carve an independent way Through life. As she sits watching through long hours at home. . dale. Hedwig Tell. his way. mend Not I a true-born archer helps himself. If I can start fresh . All he sees he makes his quarry. with a little cross-bow. My string has snapt! Oh. Is the king in realms of air. quarry every day. wife. The boys begin ! to use the bow betimes. Thro' the trackless airy space. As the eagle. But they shall learn it. Far as ever bow can carry. his quiver. Hedwig engaged in her in the background. 'Tis early practice only makes the master.WILHELM TELL ACT Court before Tell's house. on wild pinion. I only feel the flush and joy of life Hedwig. Alas. No more can I! I was not framed by nature for a shepherd.

I'm sure. Tell. Some scheme's on foot Against the governors. will you be placed. I was not there. now. The man And trusts in God. You have some dangerous enterprise in view ? 1 Confess ! Why think you so? Hedwig. the door will hold awhile in the house oft saves the carpenter. That way of life can surely ne'er be blessed. Hedwig. I see the avalanche close o'er your head. [Having finished his work he lays aside his tools. that bears a quick and steady eye. To Altdorf. Tell. with a wild rebound. Tell. and his own lusty thews. I see the chamois. Where life and limb are perill'd every hour. Ah! in a hundred varying forms does death Pursue the Alpine huntsman on his course. with scarce a scar.] Whither away? Hedwig. I see Drag you down with him o'er the precipice. Missing. Whene'er we part. The treacherous ice give way.] And Axe Hedwig. — [Takes his cap. you on the frozen mountain steeps. Are one of the confederacy. Yet will I not hold back. methinks. Wherever danger is. The mountain cannot awe the mountain child. through every danger. Passes. and you sink down Entombed alive within its hideous gulf. to your father. my trembling heart forebodes That you will ne'er come back to me again. perchance.300 THE GERMAN CLASSICS For my soul sinks with terror at the tales The servants tell about the risks you run. There was a Diet Held on the Rootli that I know and you — — Tell. . your leap from crag to crag. Whene'er my country calls me to her aid.



will the burden fall. Hedwig. its ! To brave the lake in all To put your trust in God wrath! 'Twas not 'Twas tempting Him. Then let him first be gone. [The boys return. grudge. 'Tis those who do what's right. Hedwig. Go not to Altdorf He leaves today. Each man shall have the post that fits his powers. And Hedwig. : Little will he that's over cautious do. therefore saved the father for his children. Tell. and care for no man's hate. I ween. Yes. Why take your cross-bow with you ? leave it here. boy To Altdorf. 'mid the thickest of the storm The man of Unterwald across the lake. I want my right hand. I do what's right. Hedwig. Ay. then? Dear wife. the wild ravines Of Shechenthal. — ! Will you go? Walter. untrod by mortal foot — . as ever. Tell. Tell. Tell. Tell. Tell. when I want my bow. are you going? To grand-dad. Tell. 301 Hedwig. father. Had you no thought Of wife and children. His knightship will be glad to leave in peace.] Walter.'] Hedwig. You know he bears us Cross not his path. You took ay. Because he cannot reach them. Tell. and who will lend you aid? God grant I ne'er may stand in need of it! [Takes up his cross-boiv and arrows. you. I had — — . Me. Hedwig. whom most he — hates. Hedwig. His ill-will cannot greatly injure me. Where. that I will! The Viceroy's there just now. you've a kind and helping hand for all But be in straits. Ay! — Are you sure of that? was hunting through As I Not long ago. 'Tis marvel you escaped.WILHELM TELL On Tell. Tell.

his cheek grew pale. Hedwig. Walter! will you leave your mother then? I'll bring you pretty things from grandpa. He You saw I in silence to proceed. The precipice's side. my lord. But stay away today. as I took my solitary way Along a shelving ledge of rocks. then go.302 THE GERMAN CLASSICS There. [Exit with his father. Tell. face to face." Respectfully. I advanced. and he'll not seek me. and far below . and sent his train to seek him. and I thought He would have sunk against the mountain side. looking upon him with excited curiosity. Walter. not long before. touch 'd with pity for him. Tell. I. How. and said But ne'er a sound could he compel his lips Then. Stay thus distress yourself without a cause? Why Because there is no cause. striding toward him.] . Must you ! ! ! I — No. therefore. Tell stay here Dear wife. — — And when his lordship had perused my face. Tell. then. that he'll ne'er forgive. with my sturdy bow in hand. Tell. And knew the man he had severely fined On some most trivial ground. Hedwig. shun him. and near us the abyss. Tell. To frame in answer. Only with his hand He So Hedwig. like a giant wall. His knees refused their office. mother dear. But leave the boys with me. I met the Viceroy. Hedwig. Hedwig. — [The boys press toward him. I gave my promise I would go. He and I myself alone Alone with me Mere man to man. And saw me. The Shechen thunder 'd o'er its rifted bed. Waltek. trembled. I go with father. where 'twas Impossible to step on either side For high above rose. Come " 'Tis I. his weakness. Go hunt instead What do you fear? I am uneasy.] There. before you? Woe the while beckoned me Hedwig. I pass'd on.

of truth? dare you speak to me of love that are faithless to your nearest ties You. 303 you ! Yes. my mind ! Rudenz (entering hastily). woo thy smiles.WILHELM TELL Wilhelm. crown 'd with glory's lustre. — Brooks dashing in spray over the rocks. And — ! . Though it should part me from thy side forever. dell. as unto thee? Fame hath not stamp 'd me yet. length. with rocks on every side. I'll stay Hedwig (embracing him). But are you sure they will not follow us 1 Now. or never See. do not arm ! — am I. jealous eye Now let my heart throw off this weary silence. That dare aspire so high. in a hunting dress. then. yes! thou art My own dear child. yonder goes the chase I must avail me of this precious chance In this wild No ! — ! Must hear my doom decided by thy lips. [She goes to the gate of the court and looks anxiously after Tell and her son for a considerable time. Rudenz. That. can watch our interview.] Scene II A retired part of the Forest. Immediately afterward then. that gentle face of thine Who who "With looks so stern and harsh Oh. we have met alone Bertha. Thou'rt all that's left to me. nor may I take My place amid the courtly throng of knights. Now. Mother. dear lady. thee. to speak Rudenz He At follows me. Enter Bertha Bertha. Nothing have I to offer but a heart That overflows with truth and love for Bertha (sternly and with severity). with.

Austria's side. Is not my country's welfare all my wish? What seek I for her but to purchase peace — Rudenz. that are Austria's slave sold — bartered and Eudenz. Bertha. all despot though he be. and your country's tyrant! How! This reproach from thee! Whom do seek.304 THE GERMAN CLASSICS You. whom nature and your knightly vow Have given them as their natural protector. 'Neath Austria's potent sceptre? Bertha. for I needs must love them . but thee? in the traitor's ranks? Now. The people know their own true int 'rests better: . I suffer with them. Every day I look upon them with increased esteem. — I On Bertha. yet so full of power. Eudenz. And stoops to be a tyrant's servile Oh heaven. It tries me to the utmost not to hate you. Yet who desert them and abet their foes In forging shackles for your native land. Than to the Switzer who forgets his birth. to find my own Think you me beloved. the rights of the oppress 'd? very soul bleeds for your countrymen. They draw my whole heart to them. I'd rather give my hand To Gessler's self. rather ! You would hold drive freedom from the last strong- That yet remains for her upon the earth. as I live. You you incense and wound me to the core. But you. what words are these? ! tool. To her an alien. Say what can lie Nearer the good man's heart than friends and What Than kindred? dearer duty to a noble soul to protect And vindicate My weak suffering innocence. They are so gentle. Bondage.

To crush self. The selfsame lust of conquest. But round your head a tangling net is wound. It but slumbers I will rouse It must have cost you many a fiery struggle — it. Rudenz. — And Rudenz. 'twere better for my peace. heaven be praised. . no the noble is not all extinct ! Show me Bertha. Bertha. Within you. mightier than your! And you Rudenz. hast thou shown me not to win . But to see him despised and despicable The man whom one might love — — You RuDENZ. that would rob You of your liberty. endangers mine. the pinnacle of heavenly bliss. You are noble in your own despite trust me. . Bertha. then? Oh. the virtues of your race within you. And I am free. Bertha. Bertha. All my ! estates lie in the Forest Cantons. Bertha. Bertha. in a moment. hurl me to despair! No. with thy love What might I not become ! Be only that For which your own high nature destin'd you. hi — 20 Hope my hand by Austria 's grace Fain would they lay their grasp on my estates To swell the vast domains which now they hold. ! Vol. Fill the position you were born to fill Stand by your people and your native land. Alas ! arms against the Emperor? Will not your potent kinsmen interpose To dictate the disposal of your hand? Bertha. when Switzerland is free. Then. battle for your sacred rights ! How can If I take I win you — how can you be mine.WILHELM TELL 305 Rudenz. Bertha. you hate me you despise me! — Nay ! And if I did. Oh. Oh what a prospect. 'tis But. Their simple natures are not warp 'd by show.

Teems with remembrances of happy hours. and tree. That hateful haunt of falsehood and intrigue. If not in this dear land of innocence Ah. But if in this calm vale thou canst abide With me. perchance They'll drag me hence to the Imperial court. Bertha. your love can rescue me. to live here ? In my own native land to be my own ? 1 Oh. love alone ! — — Eudenz. I'm mark'd for sacrifice. And thou couldst be content. but a yearning after thee f In glory's path I sought for thee alone. And all my thirst of fame was only love. I How Bertha. In mine own native land thou wilt be mine. extend Bertha. The guerdon of some parasite. love. where the gladsome boy to manhood grew. Here. this sequestered happy vale alone Look up to heaven. And ! ! Rudenz. And marriage bonds I loathe await me there. Then may these rocks. all For this great the yearnings of my soul world and its tumultuous strife — they. I feel poor without it were all earthly joys. What were Forth to the busy scene that stirs beyond. and mountain peak. friend. .306 THE GERMAN CLASSICS to be Oh. have ever loved it well. and be my paradise Now art thou all my fancy dream 'd of thee My trust has not been given to thee in vain. Their giant walls impenetrably round. Where ev'ry brook. Love. Where should we look for happiness on earth. that girdle us. ye idle phantoms of my folly In mine own home I'll find my happiness. — . and bid earth's pomps and pride adieu. Then is the goal of my ambition won And the rough tide of the tempestuous world May dash and rave around these firm-set hills! No wandering wishes more have I to send . Away.

envy ne'er Shall And the sparkling fountain of our bliss. And. To see thee blast this life's supremest bliss With thine own hand. ever bright the hours shall o'er us glide. Yet. Farewell — ! 'tis — ! . Fight One foe fills all our souls with dread. as the spring-time scatters forth her flowers. Eevered with homage pure and unconstrain'd. I ! Had Rudenz. Some ruthless despot. And Wielding a power that kings might envy thee. And spreading joy and sunshine all around. emancipates us all. where old truth hath its familiar home f Where fraud and guile are strangers. dear friend. [Exeunt severally. the blow That makes one free. to loose the coils Which I have madly twined around my head? Tear them asunder with a man's resolve.WILHELM TELL 307 Here. Bertha. Whate'er ensue.] The chase But hark needful we should part away I for thy land thou tightest for thy love. Building a heaven for me within my home.} . how to free myself. to his gloomy keep Here are no keeps. that caused my my grief. here are no bastion 'd walls To part me from a people I can bless. Ah! what had been fate. thy sex's crowning gem. firm by thy people stand! It is thy post by birth. Rudenz. [Hunting horns are heard in the distance. dim There do I see thee. thee I see. Adorning with thy charms my path of life. And this it was. With thy sweet woman's grace and wakeful love. Bertha. in true manly worth. The foremost of the free and of thy peers. been forced to follow some proud lord.

quite. All honest citizens would sooner make A weary circuit over half the town. the old green looks like a desert. a trooper should Stand sentinel before an empty cap. Since yonder scarecrow hung upon the pole. was even with me Coming just then from some sick man. I'm sure. to an empty cap? You've duck'd.308 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Scene III Trees in the foreground. to many an empty It is a ! ! sconce. Hark ye. I've a shrewd suspicion. Our post's no better than the pillory. But yesterday the place swarm 'd like a fair. To do obeisance to a cap. . At the bach of the The prospect is bounded by the Bannberg. stage a cap upon a pole. companion. And wave their tattered caps in mockery at us. Friesshardt and Letjthole on guard Friess. surmounted by a snow-capped mountain. he takes lifts up the Host His stand before the pole The Sacrist. too. Than bend their backs before our master's cap. Friess. an't please you. the priest. too Faith. But Rosselmann. ! Now Leuth. but not the cap. Zounds not a soul Will pass and do obeisance to the cap. Friess. in reverence to the Host. As they were coming from the Council House. And every honest fellow must despise us. A meadow which is near Altdorf. burning shame. We keep our watch in vain. For no one thought of bowing to the cap. I never heard an order so absurd Why not. They were obliged to pass this way at noon. vilest rabble Only the show themselves. I counted then upon a famous catch. must tinkle with his bell When down they dropp'd on knee myself and all: — — — — Leuth.

They are and Altdorf long ago had been Submerged beneath these avalanches' weight. The master herdsman. There hangs the Viceroy! Your obeisance. Mechthild. They pass the hat without noticing it. and leave his cap! The country would be none the worse for it. leading his son Walter by the hand. is't true. — — — . ! ! [Tell enters with his cross-how. send your husbands here. father ! He tells us there's a charm upon the trees. he that likes may pass the cap : — Mech. trees. if wounded with a boy? hatchet. Delight For my part. will grow from out the Tell. Tell. Out of the way Confounded pack of gossips ? Who sent for you Go. that on the mountain there The Tell.] Walter (pointing to the Bannberg).] Leuth. I'll shut my eyes and take no note of him. Father. Elsbeth.WILHELM TELL 309 [Hildegard. Friesshabdt (driving them away). And if a man shall injure them. And send the avalanches down upon us. and station themselves around the pole. the hand That struck the blow grave. and Elsbeth enter with their children. bleed? Who says so. Dost see those glaciers yonder those white horns That seem to melt away into the sky? They are the peaks that thunder so at night. children I ! would to God he'd go. and advance to the front of the stage. And you are a time-serving sneak that takes in bringing honest folks to harm. There is a charm about them that's the truth. Walter. Walter. If they have courage to defy the order. .

and sea. Tell. Walter (after musing a little). Walter Tell. Tell. to have these glacier peaks Behind one's back than evil-minded men! Walter See. where Our mountain torrents brawl and foam no more. father. at least. heights. But they may freely hunt among the woods'? bird and beast. Walter. The land is fair and bountiful as Heaven But they who till it never may enjoy The fruits of what they sow. Have they not courage to protect themselves ? The neighbor there dare not his neighbor trust. Tell. All quarters of the heaven may there be scann'd Without impediment. father? we travel downward from our And keep descending where the rivers go. see the cap on [They are about to pass yonder pole ! on. But. Walter. on the land their fathers left them? Walter.] . Who He is is this king. father. Walter. Yes. lake. And fair large rivers glide serenely on. instead Of toiling here and struggling as we do? Walter. are there countries with no if mountains. Tell. The game is all the monarch 's But they. Live they not free. The corn grows there In broad and lovely fields. — Walter. I'd rather dwell beneath the avalanches. all to the king belong. I should want breathing room in such a land. . wherefore haste we not Away to this delightful land. 'Tis better. As you Tell. And Tell. tell me. We reach a wide and level country. of the man who whom they're so afraid? fosters and protects them. child. and all the land Is like a garden fair to look upon. do. may surely fish the streams ? Stream.310 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Did not the forest there above the town Stand like a bulwark to arrest their fall. Tell. The fields are all the bishop's or the king's.

! Grandfather. Take my security. traitor. 'Tis Tell. Tell. . and worthy citizen. my friend. Friesshardt. Stay. 311 What Friess. help. — A Rosselmann. He has not made obeisance to the cap. help! This way. and let him go. you men! They're dragging him to prison! [Rosselmann the Priest. An Walter Friess. Friess. let me go. enter. What would ye ? Wherefore do ye stop me thus ? You've broke the mandate. thou art wrong. Come. what is the matter here? ! [Melchthal and Stauffacher Leuth. I? Friend. going. Has Tell done this? ! Melchthal.] Good people. He is an enemy of the King a traitor. with three other and the Sacristan. Friess. Furst. you know 'tis false Leuth. For God's sake. stops him. You have not done obeisance to the cap. acknowledge it. And shall for this to prison? Come.] Stand.] What's here amiss? Sacrist. I command you. Villain. Away.] He has contemn 'd the Viceroy 's sovereign Refusing flatly to power. away Father to prison? Help! to prison ! Walter.WILHELM TELL Tell. presenting his pike. Tell. Furst and runs up to him). men. Friend. I offer bail. in the Emperor's name [As he is ! is the cap to us? Tell (seising the pike). (descries honest man. [Calling to the side scene. Why do you seize this man? Friess. Rosselmann. they want to seize my father Away to prison Furst (running in). and with us must go. Tell (seizing him with violence). let's begone. Leuth. enter. Stauff.

Gessler.] The Governor! Rebellion! Mutiny! Friesshardt (raising his voice). — Peace. who form a circle of lances round the whole stage. had I a mind to use my strength. Bertha. I say. Think you. shall we stand by and see This is too bad Him dragged away before our very eyes? (to the Hence with him. We '11 help you. Help.] Room for the Viceroy Harras.] Go. I can help myself. [Enter Gessler on horseback. ! ! ! ! ! Why Who throng the people thus? [General help? calls for silence. with a falcon on his wrist: Rudolph der Harras.312 Fbibss. help. country people). them Tell. and a numerous train of armed attendants. if Melchthal (to Friesshardt). good people. These pikes of theirs should daunt me? to force him. Who dares the governor's commands? Friess. Drive the clowns apart. What 's the matter ? Down with Sacrist. knave Stauff. We are the strongest. Rosselmann and Melchthal. ! [Hildegard. Only try you dare. and Rudenz. Other Three Peasants (running in). ho ! [Hunting-horns without.] . We Melchthal only do our duty. peace. the servants of the law The Viceroy here Then we shall smart for this Furst. THE GERMAN CLASSICS Keep your security for yourself — you'll need it. friends ! Friesshardt (loudly). go. — Friends. Women. Our countrymen will back us to a man. Riot! Insurrection. Try from our midst Furst and Stauffacher. endure it not. Roar till you burst. Will you hold your tongue ? Friesshardt (calling still louder). Mechthild and Elsbeth return.



That's very truth. I am a soldier of your guard. my gracious lord. sir! At a hundred yards He'll shoot an apple for you off the tree. Tell. man in custody? [Gives his falcon to an attendant.] And who art thou? Friess. then. Tell. To shoot an apple from the stripling's head — — ! . Hast any more of them? boys. And me. thou shalt Approve thy skill before me. Gessler. Whereupon to rescue him the people tried. Tell? Tell. — hear. Gessler. Forgive me now Gessler (after a pause). Then. I'll Tell. I were not William — not offend again. I read in this a disaffected spirit. Gessler (after a pause). which dost thou love the most? Sir. who act as his vice-regent here. Take thy bow Thou hast it there at hand make ready.WILHELM TELL Who was And why it? 313 I will know. And station 'd sentinel beside the cap. The action sprung Pardon me. so lightly hold your King. That you refuse obeisance to the cap. since at a hundred yards thou canst Two Bring down the apple from the tree. Is that From boy thine. you're a master with the bow Tell. Gessler. Yes. Gessler. my lord. I hung aloft to test your loyalty? From inadvertence — not from disrespect. I arrested him. And do you. And. both the boys are dear to me alike. So as you ordered. Tell. [Friesshardt steps forward. Tell. This man I apprehended in the act Of passing it without obeisance due hast thou this . of the two. Walter. Were I discreet.] Dread sir. every rival bear the palm away. good my lord ! I Tell.

See. first. Level I! Gessler. A — Tell. little used are they to hear thee jest. that thou hit'st the apple at the forfeit. Who Room thee that I jest? [Grasping a branch above his head. cross-bow at the darling head Of mine own child ? No rather let me die Or thou must shoot. kind sir. Bertha. forbid! You could not ask father seriously to do that thing! Thou art to shoot an apple from his head I do desire command it so. What. to your task. archer. my — ! Tell. and look you miss not ! . And let him take his disthere. lord. I say! tance Just eighty paces as the custom is Not an inch more or less It was his boast — — — ! That at a hundred he could hit his man. children. no! cannot be. or with thee dies the boy. in His grace. Thou lov'st the marvelous. Another man might pause and hesitate. Now.] Here is the apple. this Tell. thy head shall pay the [All give signs of horror. Shall I become the murderer of You have no The Gessler. Oh.314 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But take this counsel — look well to my lord. ! my So Gessler. shouldst thou miss. on a sudden so discreet? had been told thou wert a visionary A wanderer from the paths of common men. sir you do not know tender throbbings of a father's heart.] thing. at once. What monstrous What! from It you ask? child! the head of mine own — No. do not See. heart and soul. Tell. you meant not that — ! Gesslek. Thou dashest at it. tremble. jest. — my child ! now. God. So have I now I How — Cull'd out for thee a task of special daring. For. — how they tells with these poor souls and how pale they look. is thine aim.

Furst (aside to Melchthal. is master of his craft. No cause has he to say his doom is harsh — . Why this delay? quick! Open a way there life is forfeited. who can scarcely restrain his And beg Command Bertha indignation) yourself . Take half my property. governor). boy. as well as thou. But spare a father this unnatural doom! Grandfather. My ! And will not miss now when 'twould harm his boy! . where am I to stand? I do not fear. take it all. My father strikes the bird upon the wing. trifle To Send him away uninjured to his . nay. we bow to your authority. Who's made the master of his destiny. — Who Nor Furst. Thy And see. I graciously repose thy fate Upon the skill of thine own practised hand. I beg of you! ! (to the. — be calm. Walter. lord. Let this suffice you. Although this wretched man had forfeited Both life and limb for such a slight offence. sir It is inhuman with a father's anguish thus. But oh. do not kneel to that bad man Say. . that To hit the bull's eye in the target. He '11 know thee well in future and this hour He and his children's children will remember. 'Tis well! Now is the fitting time to show thy skill The mark is worthy and the prize is great. heart disturb or eye or hand. Gessler. Can many another do But he. Already has he suffer 'd tenfold death. Thou boastest thine unerring aim. I might dispatch thee. methinks. the governor to spare your life. let justice yield to mercy here.WILHELM TELL Harras. home . 315 Heavens! this grows serious — down. can at lets his all times on his skill rely. on your knees.

Rossel. But if you bind me. father. nor even draw my breath! Harras. show them what thy bow can do. your heart? your deeds. What Is this outrage to be perpetrated Before our very eyes? Where is our oath? Stauff. And why my eyes? No Do you think I fear An arrow from my father's hand? Not I! ! I'll wait it firmly. But let your eyes at least be bandaged. Bethink you. Then I shall writhe and struggle with my bonds. Oh would to heaven that we had struck at once [He goes to the lime tree. And see the wood of lances round us See Melch.] placed Melchthal (to the country people). to Now your task! Men bear not arms for naught. all Bind him Walter. I will not be Still as a lamb — What! Bind me? bound I will be still. I cannot be still. though but to spite the and an apple is on his head. Stauff.316 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Does the child's innocence not touch sir. And on the archer oft his shaft recoils. . This right these haughty peasant churls assume Trenches upon their master's privileges: None should be armed but those who bear com- mand. there is a God in for heaven. nor so much as wink! Quick. He doubts thy skill he thinks to ruin us. To whom you must account Gessler (pointing to the boy). Resist we cannot! Weapons we have none. To carry deadly tools is dangerous. to yonder lime tree ! ! No. — Shoot then and tyrant ! hit. ! ! ! ! ! God pardon Gessler (to those who counsell'd the delay! Tell). boy ! Walter.

Tell. and fixes the arrow). the lime tree). You shake tremble. Shoot.] let them strike me your troopers 'Tis not thy life Thy talent's universal! — I want — I want the — shot. bow sink down). What. test. As snaps the bow that's all too straitly bent. Now. you will not urge this matter further . Tell. A Stauffacher. shoot fear not ! It must be! Rudenz (who all [Collects himself and levels the bow. father. — it so. no! — your hand's unsteady — your knees Tell (letting the Women. It was surely but a object. The governor notes ! all he does. You've gained your far Is sure to miss its Rigor push'd too aim. and his eyes turning alternately to the governor and Heaven. ! Nothing daunts thee The rudder thou canst handle like the bow No storms affright thee. lane there! Room! Well — be you to carry bow and bolt . help thyself thou savest all! ! [Tell stands fearfully agitated by contending emotions. and has with difficulty restrained himself. (bends the bow. advances). his hands moving convulsively. savior.WILHELM TELL It pleases 317 I will prescribe the mark. Suddenly he takes a second arrow from his quiver.] Walter (beneath Tell. and sticks it in his belt. ! [Tears open his breast. You will not. My lord. There's something swims before mine eyes! Great Heaven! Here is my heart Release me from this shot ! ! Summon down Gessler. .] the while has been standing in a state of violent excitement. when a life's at stake. Tell? You would — no. however good.

and I dare! I will speak! my king. where 'tis most abused. Bade my rebellious. Audacious boy. I madly thought That I should best advance the general weal adding sinews to the Emperor's power. not you! I'm free As you by birth. You've led my youthful judgment far astray By — — Deceived I my honest heart. and I can cope with you In every virtue that beseems a knight. I dare the fact. between him and the governor). And you outstep your powers In handling thus my harmless countrymen. The scales have fallen from mine eyes I see The fearful precipice on which I stand. were to be king and country both. But acts like these must make his name abhorr'd. I'd throw my gauntlet down. beckon to your troopers Here I stand if And Which I respect e'en ! . "With best intent. Gessler. .318 Gesslee. But to be silent longer. have been dumb To all the oppressions I was doomed to see. And pent its struggles down within my breast. Ay. My people I forsook traitor to A my Bertha ! — ! — Broke all the ties of nature. till your counsel's ask'd for I reverence ! Rudenz. Ha ! thou grow 'st bold. swelling heart be still. you stood not here in that King's name. sanctions not this cruelty. He Avouch Gessler. Ay. this language to thy lord? The Emperor is my lord. and you should give An answer to my gage in knightly sort. that I might Attach myself to you. methinks I ! Rudenz. had well-nigh achiev'd my country's ruin. Rudenz. THE GEEMAN CLASSICS Peace. (casting herself Oh Heavens you but exasperate his rage renounced my kindred Rudenz. IVe closed mine eyes to shut them from my view.

Pray you. Bertha supports Gessler (astonished) .] Heaven! the apple's cleft right through the By core. The apple's down! [While the attention of the crowd has been directed to the spot where Bertha had cast herself between Rudenz and Gessler. I have a sword. [Tell stands with his body bent forward. Tell has shot. ! ! ! ! Gessler. ! round them deeply affected. my dear children Stauffacher. This feat of Tell. . compose yourself. ! How? Has ! Walter (runs Here is the apple. the archer.] [Pointing — unarmed. That was a shot indeed Almighty powers It will be talked of to the end of time. and embracing him passionately sinks down with him quite exhausted. The madman! Worthy father The boy's alive. His bow drops from When he sees the boy adhe hastens to meet him with open vancing. All crowd his hand. Harras. he shot? in with the apple). as if still following the arrow. father Well I knew You would not harm your boy.] Bertha. The apple has been struck [Walter Furst staggers and is ! about to fall. My children. And he that stirs one step Stauffacher (exclaims). It was a master shot. ye kind Heavens Furst ( to father and son). God be praised Leuth. him. I must allow. arms.] Rossel. The boy's alive ! Many voices. Oh. will be told Long as these mountains stand upon their base. [Hands the apple to Gessler.WILHELM TELL But not like these 319 to the people.] Bertha.

to the mother us bear her son [They are about to lead him off. Gesslee. I promise thee thy life. It is a custom with all archers. and safely penn'd. your pleasure? second arrow in thy belt nay. and fixes his eyes sternly upon the governor. Tell. in quiet to let your home. This second arrow I had aimed at you. rise! You've nobly freed your! Stauff. arrow from his belt. But woe to him who drove The man to tempt his God by such a feat Cheer up. Tell. I should not then have miss 'd. And. Sir. self. Seize on him. nay! I saw it well. without reserve. declare the truth. — Thou didst place ! No. ! Come. — Well. Thy purpose with it? Speak Tell (confused). And now may go Rossel. I cannot let that answer pass. well I know. Gesslee. Tell. Frankly and cheerfully confess the truth. Gesslee.] If that my hand had struck my darling child. the malice of thy thoughts. Well. I promised thou shouldst have thy [He draws the life. my know Where eyes. as I I'll knightly word. neither sun nor moon shall reach thine Thus from thy arrows I shall be secure. I gave Yet. and bind him [They bind him. Tell. Since you have promised not to take my life. I will.320 Rossel.] ! . and I will keep it. Wherefore the second arrow? Tell. There was some other motive. have thee carried hence.] A A word. Tell. my lord. be assured. Whate 'er it be. guards. sir. Gesslee. THE GERMAN CLASSICS The shot was good.

my lord — How can you treat in such a way a man On whom God's hand has plainly been reveal 'd? Gessler. Ill — 21 in great agony). Where are they? Has the Emp'ror confirm 'd them? He never has. I'm sorry for you. Budenz. Our last remaining comfort goes with you Leuthold (approaching him). Friesshardt and Leuthold remain.WILHELM TELL Stauffacher. I'll follow straight. (clinging to him . Tell. So violate our dearest chartered rights. father. why did you provoke the tyrant 's rage ? Let him be calm who feels the pangs I felt. now! He is resolved to bring Destruction on myself and all my house. wise. father dear! Oh. ! Farewell ! Walter Tell Vol. Nor durst the Emperor's save him twice ship. I see you through and through. You power — are all rebels 'gainst the Emp'ror 's And bear a desperate and rebellious spirit. Stauffacher (to Tell). let us see if it will Rossel. Tell.'] Furst (in violent anguish). and attendants. be silent and obey! [Exit. 321 How. but must obey. Oh. Alas ! alas ! Our every hope all With you we is gone. "Well. followed by Bertha. are fettered and enchain 'd. And only by obedience May you that favor hope to win from him. All's over Stauff. You dare not do't. — But in his If you are guilt you all participate. I know you all Him do 1 single from amongst you now. father. Harras. ! self Gessler. Remove him to my At Kiissnacht I will see him safely lodged. Country People (surrounding Tell). Tell.

Our Tell in chains. ! Kunz. too von Attinghaus They say. the tyrant well might dread The just revenge of one so deeply wrong 'd. Heaven). violent roaring and rushing of wind. Kunz Kunz. friend. Had we for liberty to strike a blow The Viceroy takes him up the lake in person They were about to go on board. ! — wife? Tell (clasping the boy The boy's uninjured. The storm grows worse and worse. Fisher. fare ye .] ACT IV Scene I Eastern shore of the Lake of Lucerne. is lying at the point of death. trust me. Gessler will entomb him where .322 THE GERMAN CLASSICS to Tell (pointing Statjff. Then the last anchor of our hopes gives way He was the only man that dared to raise His voice in favor of the people's rights. ! happen 'd all precisely as I've said. Kunz. Fisher. rugged and singularly shaped rocks close the prospect to the west. — — ! Kunz. and follows the soldiers of the guard. well have hindered them from setting out. but the gathering storm. well! So. God will succor me [Tears himself suddenly away. The old Landamman. Fisherman and Boy I saw it with these eyes Believe me. and to Kiissnacht borne? The best man in the land. Tell. to send your passionately to his breast). with thunder and lightning at intervals. Thy father is on high appeal to Him! Have you no message. The lake is agitated. Tell a prisoner. ! : How May Fisher. and in the Viceroy's power! 0. as I Started from Fliielen. He never more shall see the light of day For. Tell once free. That drove me here to land so suddenly. the bravest arm. It of Geksau.

in chains ! Boy. and a new deluge whelm Beneath its waves all living men's abodes ! [Bells heard. [Exit] Fishee. Revolt against the deed? I should not marvel. There's not a chance of getting off today. be lords of all Return. Hark! How the wind whistles. in darkness closed. return To this wide howling waste The land is yours. Though heads. That. when liberty is gone ! ! : ! ! Boy. ye winds! Ye lightnings. exalt thy brazen front — Throw every shame dumb! aside! Truth's voice is The eye that watch 'd for us. have known no thaw. let us to the hut This is no weather to be out in. and drown the country! In the germ Destroy the generations yet unborn Ye savage elements. Should.] . yon primeval cliffs. hard come.WILHELM TELL I'll 323 go and seek out quarters in the village. since creation's dawn. Should topple down. Tell dragg'd to prison. ye bears ye ancient wolves. The arm that should have struck thee down. "Who would live here. Fisher. tyranny. father Rage on. and the Baron dead! Now. yon towers of ice. To level at the head of his own child ! Never had father such command before. from their lofty summits. And shall not nature. melt away Though yonder mountains. rising in wild wrath. to the lake these rocks should bow their Though yonder pinnacles. ye swollen clouds! Heaven. and the whirl! pool roars. Ye cataracts of Descend. I never saw a storm so fierce as this Fisher. flash your 'Tis hailing ! ! — fires! Burst.

And Fisher. Boy (calling from above).] bark that now pursues its course. I pray For Tell who 's with him there on board the ship. [Ascends a rock. — Judgments of Heaven Yes. Rock'd in the cradle of these storm-tost waves! Nor helm nor steersman here can aught avail The storm is master. the sheer smooth Look down inhospitably on his despair. a ship from Fliielen bearing down. These waves yield no obedience to his voice. they are ringing on the mountain. it is he himself. The avenger's arm has not been slow to strike! Now over him he knows a mightier lord. And with Mm bears the burden of his crimes. it seeks an outlet For the rocks hedge it round on every side.324 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Hark. Father. stay not the Judge's arm! I pray not for the Governor. And only tender him their flinty breasts. By its red poop I know it. Fisher.] It is the Governor of Uri's ship. It is the Governor Yonder he sails. These rocks bow not their heads before his cap. ! ! Boy. Howling. Far or Woe to the . and the flag. Toss'd 'twixt the winds and billows. It rages like some savage beast of prey. yonder They surely see some vessel in distress. Walling the narrow gorge as high as Heaven. . toll the bell that we may pray for it. near. Fisher. do not pray. ! Boy. Man is like a ball. Struggling against its cage's iron bars! all in vain. Boy. [He ascends a cliff. Heaven pity the poor wretches When the storm : ! Is once entangled in this strait of ours. No haVen rocks offers him its friendly shelter! Without one ledge to grasp. Boy.

* Has driven them back on the Great Axenberg. And looks as though he were beside himself. rebounding from the Devil's Minster. Tell! Were you not In yonder ship.WILHELM TELL Fisher. But he is manacled both hand and foot. and stretches dut his hands. If man [Enter William Tell. with his cross-bow.* but Must now The blast. looks wildly round. that's founder 'd many a gallant ship. Destroy the vessel and the pilot too? See. Alas. man on's knees. father! Fisher. came you hither? Speak. first toward the earth. he throws himself upon his knees. boy. could save them. If they should fail to double that with skill. . He enters precipitately.* I cannot see them now. The best of pilots. ye. Fisherman. He clutches at the earth with both his hands. The Hakmesser* Is there. they've clear 'd the Buggisgrat. Tell is just the man. and in chains? of * Rocks on the shore Lake Lucerne. Who is it? God Heaven! What! William Tell! How Boy. ye blind. come and look ! Fisherman (approaches). he reaches the centre of the stage. who can it be? See. A Boy (advancing). a prisoner. they have on board. What do I see ? Come in father. unreasoning elements ! 325 Boy. then toward Heaven. Their bark will go to pieces on the rocks That hide their jagged peaks below the lake. and When testifies the most violent agitation. see. in punishing one guilty head.] Boy (observing him).

Tell. Fisherman and Boy. And eyed disconsolate the waste of waters. And how at Fliielen he embarked with you. My bow Rudolph And quiver lay astern beside the helm And just as we had reached the corner. . All this we know. Fisher. Released. Tell (rising). And all on board look'd for a watery grave. And order 'd by the governor to Kiissnacht. Say on. I am released. Tell. That from the Gotthardt's gorge. I lay on deck.326 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Were they not carrying you to Kiissnacht. From yonder vessel Where is ! Fisherman. Then we put forth the Viceroy. wretched man Again to see the — ! Tell. *A rock on the shore of Lake Lucerne. Attend. near The little Axen. gladsome light of day. fast bound with cords. Nor the dear faces of my wife and boys. . Is't possible? How Tell. I did not think ! — ! Fisher. Tell. Whence came you here? Tell. how have you escaped? Tell. Then heard I one of the attendant train. Tell? ! Fisher. disarm 'd. on Fisher. . Oh. and their suite. In utter hopelessness. say on You know what passed at Altdorf.* Heaven ordain 'd it so. oh miracle Boy. a hurricane Swept down upon us with such headlong force That every oarsman's heart within him sank. Fisherman and Boy. Say. But you! How are you here? 'scaped you from your fetters and the storm? By God's most gracious providence. Boy. der Harras. Fisher. I do say How I was seized and bound. the Viceroy? What? Drifting on the waves.

I said. That Fisher. — to it.WILHELM TELL : 327 Turning to Gessler. I might consent to free thee from thy bonds. I jutted. my might. here is Tell. I answer 'd. and your own. " Yes. a stout and fearless man." if : How The cords that bound me. And kept a watchful eye upon the shore. and soon we near'd the Until we came point . my lord. I brought round The vessel's stern close to the rocky wall. To find some point where I might leap to land And when I had descried a shelving crag. it. bade the men to row with all their force before the shelving ledge. straining every muscle. — skill . for His assisting grace. And. . so help me God. And my The puny feet thrust off. my lord. with all bark into the watery hell. Yet ever eyed my shooting gear askance. I never could have dreamt . Then snatching up my weapons. For there. and steered as best I could. And that we hover on the verge of death. The boatmen there are powerless from fear. I'll see what can be done. Nor are they confident what course to take Now. in this wise accost him " You see our danger. : know So steep it That from a boat a man could leap Tell. I smooth atop into the lake At the foot of the Great Axen looks. Tell. And knows to steer with more than common ." On this they loosed we should avail ourselves of him In this emergency? " The Viceroy then " If thou wilt undertake Address 'd me thus To bring us through this tempest safely. the danger will be past! Stoutly they pull'd. with a bound to One prayer God I swung myself upon with the flattened shelf. and I took my place Beside the helm.

and more retired. as I lay bound on board. then conceal yourself without delay Oh. methinks. the A Lord has manifestly wrought I scarce miracle in thy behalf! credit Can my own eyes. And. That I am free. The Viceroy 'scape this tempest with his I heard him say. and man's more dreadful There let it drift about. will ! Heaven release to you from his Tell. Fisherman. convey me Means he to go by land ? life. crossing Schwytz. And Tell. Fisher So he intends. Fisher. he comes back. Fisher Tell. . But whither shall I tell her you have fled ? You'll find her father with her. I was there. took the oath of the confederacy.328 THE GEKMAN CLASSICS Heaven ordains Thus am I here. well.] Did not you also take the oath at Rootli? I heard your name. Then do me this one favor: speed to Biirglen My wife is anxious at my absence tell her — — Fisher. now. But there's a nearer road. should perchance Tell. deliver 'd from the might Of the dread storm. Not twice grasp. Who took the oath with you upon the Rootli . and some more. Which i« the nearest way Arth and Kiiss- nacht? Fisher. At Brunnen he proposed to disembark. The public road leads by the way of Steinen. to his castle. Tell (gives May Heaven reward your kindness! Fare ye [As he is going. as 1 still. That goes by Lowerz. his hand). Tell. Whither you propose to betake yourself? For you will be in peril. which my boy can show you. Tell. Yes. and in secure concealment. But tell me. Tell.

— frankly When once ! 'tis done. And on his features plays a placid smile. your daughter. Be calm! Reflect. [Walter Tell rises. and Baumgarten attending round him. Hedwig.] Who's there? Baumgarten ( returning). Stauff. The Baron upon a couch dying. he yet is mine ! ! Dear mother surely so? ! [Gazing at is it Art thou unhurt? him with anxious tenderness. Walter Furst. boy. Melchthal. All now lies He over with him. 'twill be in every mouth. [Exit. then. you're in the house of death! Hedwig Walter. feather. in view? Come. Oh. Heaven be his support he'll execute. Where is my child? unhand me! I must see him.WILHELM TELL 329 Fisher. [Baumgarten goes the door and speaks with some one. see. — Hedwig Stauff. Furst. Stauffacher.] Scene II Baronial mansion of Attinghausen. The is Moves on his lips ! His sleep to very calm. Tell. is He is gone.] possible he aim'd at thee? . What have you. tell me . Bid them resolute and strong of heart For Tell is free and master of his arm They shall hear further news of me ere long. and see her boy. {forcing her way in). [Exit. not like one dead.] I who need comfort can I comfort her? Does every sorrow centre on my head? Furst. Tell's wife. Whate'er he has resolved. she insists That she must speak with you.] ! Fisher Show him the way. Walter Tell kneeling before the dying man. (falling My Walter And And is it upon her boy's neck). Furst.

That you embitter it by such reproaches? Have you no feeling for his sufferings? Hedwig (turning to him and gazing full upon him). Offend his pride. And Oh full before you roared the storm-toss 'd lake? not with idle tears his pity show'd! Into the boat he sprang. God Were I to live for centuries. and delivered thee! . Statjff. His wife. ship then? The shameful wrong was done before your eyes Patient you stood. Hast thou tears only for thy friend's distress? my noble Tell Say. he would ! ! — Furst. where were you when he Was bound in chains? Where was your friend! ! — — . Hedwig. his father 's mark Should see my boy tied up And still the shaft would quiver in my heart.330 THE GERMAN CLASSICS How could he do it? Oh. forgot his home. You know not how the Viceroy taunted him Hedwig. it. — — . That ordered things so well. ruthless heart of man And reason in his breast forsakes her seat In his blind wrath he '11 stake upon a cast A child's existence. he has no heart And he could wing an arrow at his child His soul was rack'd with anguish when he did No choice was left him but to shoot or die Oh. Hedwig. Have sooner perish 'd by a thousand deaths! You should be grateful for God's gracious care. Oh. Did ever Tell Act thus to you? Did he stand whining by. if he had a father's heart. from your very hands. Baum. his children. Ay. and a mother's heart! Is then your husband's fate not hard enough. When on your heels the Viceroy's horsemen press 'd. and let your friend be dragg'd. Can What might have been the issue. I still I forget in Heaven. Melch.

Attinghausex. He cannot live in the rank dungeon air Prav vou be calm And hand in hand we '11 ! ! * * all Combine Hedwig. has he spoken for his native land? ! . There is no life for him but in the sun in the breath of Heaven's fresh-blowing airs. In Stauff. ! Heaven keep No his soul from sinking to despair friend's consoling voice can penetrate His dreary dungeon walls. starts! Where is he? Who ? He last leaves me — my moments he abandons me. comfort has found his heart at last. do? While Tell was There still. how he must pine for us — . Say.WILHELM TELL Furst. to burst his prison doors. Imprison 'd! Liberty to him is breath. Tell saved [The Baron wakes. Have they sent for him? He has been summoned.] Baum. ! upon his bosom). — You cannot all combined you all Release him from his cruel prison bonds. father. He means his nephew. Cheer 'ly. Stauff. indeed. Oh. sir! Take He Attixg. Should he fall sick ! ! ! Ah In He must And the vapors of the murky vault fall sick. Hush. ! Had still a friend. and thou. too. Furst. and few Hedwig (casting herself numbers as we were. Stauffacher. He What have you power free. weak innocence was hope and the oppress 'd a stay. Even as the Alpine rose Grows pale and withers in the swampy air. It 331 had been madness in to attempt his rescue. hast lost my Tell The country all have lost him! All lament His loss and. Unarm 'd. oh. hush! He Attinghausen (sitting up). and is our own. to gone.

as they close in death! I attain the utmost verge of life. sufferings. wretched fate. Ere another year the blow shall fall. — . dear sleep ebbing to a close. Nay. Forsaken quite — past all deliverance. though hundreds share it ! — Atting. the boy before the dying ay. The league concluded Is it really so ? On one day shall the Cantons rise together. Oh. For know. that these old eyes should see My country's Stauffacher (to Must To feel my hopes go with me Fuest). Wherefore comes he not. and a sacred oath Confirms our union. Ay. sir! This last short Has much Atting. Begins its circling course In a free land your ashes shall repose. like a hero! Attinghausen. like my hopes. The league Has been concluded. [Hedwig kneels with Atting. Life is My FtJRST. Melch. and that has left me now. To hunt the tyrants from the land. That he may take my blessing ere I die? I feel my life fast Stauff. Who shall deliver you ? Ourselves. Oh. ruin. good my lord! He is my grandson. but pain.] — I leave you all. .] is What boy that? Bless him. refresh 'd you. and is fatherless. Raise up your drooping spirit! We are not By Atting Furst. and your eye is bright. The Cantons three are to each other pledged. talk not thus. to the grave ? Shall he depart 'mid grief and gloom like this? Shall not his parting moments be illumed hope's inspiring beams? My noble lord.332 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Stauff. all! And fatherless man. have pass'd away. [Observing the boy. All is prepared to strike and to this hour The secret closely kept.

better liberty shall spring. indeed. In Uechtland and Thurgau the work's begun. see. how to master them? Melch. new and the times are old is crumbling down this boy's head.] whereon the apple lay. [He lays his hand upon the head of the child From Your The changing — (to kneeling before him. Stauff. Their days of rule are number 'd. is hollow 'neath the tyrants' feet. but their castles. [He speaks what folloivs with a prophetic tone. ! Atting. And Freyburg is a stronghold of the free The stirring Zurich calls her guilds to arms . what splendor streams around his eye not Nature's last expiring flame.WILHELM TELL The ground 333 Atting.] . without the nobles' aid Eelied so much on their own proper strength? Nay then. and be maintain 'd by other hands. — ancient might of kings Is shiver 'd 'gainst her everlasting walls. his utterance rising into enthusiasm. Atting. And swearing in the towns the civic oath. This The noble Berne lifts her commanding head. And now. From their old towers the nobles are descending. behold ! — the . who is — And from Stauffacher See. too. (raising himself up in great astonishment). should we need yet the peasantry alone have sworn. And have the peasantry dared such a deed On their own charge. is the ruins blooms a fairer life. Atting. it . are doom'd to fall. That after us the majesty of man Will live. they want our help no more We may go down to death cheer 'd by the thought — . And are the nobles parties to this league? We As trust to their assistance. Ay. On the same day they. It is the beam of renovated life. and ere long No trace will of their hateful sway be left. Furst).

334 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I see the princes Clad all in steel. and concentrating them upon his breast. A willing victim on their serried spears the flower of chivalry's cut down. Some kneel doivn beside him and iveep on his body: while this scene tolls. grasping as many of them as he could reach.] is passing. at the battle of . The confederates rushed forward through the gap thus opened by the sacrifice of their comrade. the castle bell Rudenz * (entering hurriedly). Sempach [9th July. Desp'rate the conflict: And many a pass will tell for life or death. His lifeless hands continue to grasp those of Furst and Stauffacher. I will open you a passage. who regard him for some moments in silence. [Grasps the hands of Walter Furst and — . They yield And Freedom waves her conquering banner high. Be one — be one — be one [He falls back upon the cushion. and then retire. 1386]. overcome with sorrow. that league May answer league. can he still hear my voice? allusion to the gallant self-devotion of Arnold Struthan of Winkelried. Protect my wife and children. and soon became the masters of the field. then — strike." were the words of Winkelried. Dear and faithful confederates. broke and cut down " their enemy's ranks. Lives he? An Oh say. when comes the hour to Hold fast together. testifying different degrees of grief. to after years Of glorious victories sealed in foemen's blood. and their haughty peers. Stauffacher. come striding on to crush 'tis A harmless shepherd race with mailed hand. who broke the Austrian phalanx by rushing on their lances.* The peasant throws himself with naked breast. as he rushed to death. Meanwhile the servants have quietly pressed into the chamber.] forever fast! Let freedom's haunts be one in heart and mind! Set watches on your mountain tops.



Give him your hands. ! hands. tell I owe him — undischarged — ! — Stauff. my whole heart and Mourn His heart — his for our friend. While yet he walked on earth. . 335 are our seignior and protector now Henceforth this castle bears another name. Oh. on thy death-cold ! ! hand. yet be not dismay 'd! 'Tis not alone his lands that I inherit spirit. man Thou lifeless corpse! beloved Here. . too late? Could he not live some few brief moments more. and for ever leaving me the debt — The heavy debt Oh. Now he is gone Gone. God! Is my repentance. its error. as one. [Rises. my knightly oath! Accept my plighted vow ! me your — Furst. my friends ! A heart like Melch. and will act With foreign ties for ever devote myself. he was told what you had done. — have devolved on me. Thine. Our common parent. I was deaf to his true counselling voice. To see the change that has come o'er my heart? Oh. And my young arm Which Give shall execute the task. do not hesitate. me ! Rudenz (kneeling Yes. ye venerable sires Nay.WILHELM TELL Furst (averting his face). sacred relics of a down the valor that inspired your words! beside the dead body). his. Melchthal. that you mean us fair? That sees and owns . When And bless 'd did he part in anger with me ? dying. too Nor from me turn distrustfully away. Do I abjure all And to my country's cause I am a Switzer.] soul. in his hoary age he could not pay. then. You Rudenz (gazing at the body with deep emotion). claims our trust. the peasantry in scorn You ever held What surety have we.

Can ialso shield its owner's breast at need. that tames the stubborn earth. Have kept Trust it like a sacred me foe. Thus each be strengthen 'd by the other's strength. while our native land Is still to alien tyranny a prey? First let us sweep the foemen from the soil. think not of the error of my youth Stauffacher (to Melchthal). — I did not take the oath. — will shield with my sword! too. despite your will. I pledge. RlJDENZ. See they be not forgotten Take my hand Melchthal. The arm. it is more than ! Melch. The gage and the assurance of a man Without us. Yet wherefore talk we. Oh. what would the nobles be ? ! — — ! Our order RlJDENZ I honor it yours ancient. Then you shall shield my breast. my lord. Then reconcile our difference in peace! How! You are silent! Not a word And have I yet no title to your trust? [After a moment's pause. ! Time presses Stauff. If I will not! . off. noble sir. I You've held a Diet on the Rootli — . and swiftly too Already Tell is lost through your delay. Be one! They were our father's latest words. We Rudenz I was not there you delay. And makes its bosom blossom with increase. — Iclosely was my country's never Nor would I ever have against you stood! Yet you did wrong — to put your rising Then must I force my way. swore that we should wait till Christmastide.336 THE GERMAN CLASSICS ! Rudenz. ! We must strike. Into the League you secretly have form'd.] for me? — Know this — know all that was transacted there And though not trusted with your secret. A peasant's hand and with it. sir. and I will yours.

Ill — 22 This foul enormity was yet undone. Rudenz. we'll place Our fresh victorious wreaths upon his bier. I promised help to you. That all should rush to arms in her behalf What course do you propose? Alas I know not. That more concerns myself. My Bertha's gone. I 337 What ! You would — count me now among the country's chiefs. help me to her rescue She loves you Well. . In the dark mystery that shrouds her fate In the dread agony of this suspense. is stolen is forced away. lead us on Until tomorrow what today may do ? ! From ! Tell's arm was free when we at Rootli swore. ! ! ! — ! — — Melch. Vol. out the ruins of the tyrant's power Alone can she be rescued from the grave. every one. has she deserved. Ere we can penetrate her dungeon walls. We follow Why defer Come. Their strongholds must be levell'd. Fuest. Rudenz. Where I can grasp at naught of certainty One single ray of comfort beams upon me. And my first duty is to guard your rights. oh well. And who knows where she 's by the tyrant hid. Within the earth to lay these dear remains. When we have set the country free. Or with what outrages his ruffian crew — ! May force her into nuptials she detests? ! Stauff. 'tis not your cause alone I with the tyrants have a cause to fight. Has disappear 'd been carried off by stealth Stolen from amongst us by their ruffian hands ! — — ! — Stauff. an outrage has the tyrant dared Against a lady free and nobly born? Alas my friends. Oh. fell ! So And I must first implore it for myself She that I love.WILHELM TELL Melchthau Rudenz. holiest duty is Your nearest and your Rudenz. my dear friends. Forsake me not Oh.

Who Rudenz (to Waltek Furst). before they appear on the stage. And when you see the welcome flames ascend. ! Meanwhile to arms. ! ! Now.338 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And change of circumstance brings change of such a coward as to waver still? vow. Upon one of the foremost a projecting cliff overgrown with brushwood. Here I'll do it The ground is everything I could desire. The milk of human kindness thou hast turn'd To rankling poison in my breast. And from that point my shaft is sure to hit. Then. Yon elder bush will hide me from his view. like the lightning. Tell (enters with his cross-bow). swoop upon the foe. with rocks on either side. was bent on forest game alone. But thou hast scared me from my dream of My bow peace . There is No other way to Kiissnacht. Rocks all around the stage. The travelers are visible upon the heights. ! And lay the despots and their creatures low Scene III The pass near Kiissnacht. sloping down from behind. No thoughts of murder rested on my soul. . — Quiet and harmless was the life I led. Through this ravine he needs must come. Gessler. and wait in readiness The fiery signal on the mountain tops For swifter than a boat can scour the lake Shall you have tidings of our victory. balance thine account with Heaven Thou must away from earth thy sand is run. The straitness of the gorge forbids pursuit. and made Appalling deeds familiar to my soul.

Must be hand protected. Amid the hellish torments of that I hold a sacred debt. my Emperor's delegate. A Then in the anguish of fearful oath. could his . which met That when flight. with fiendishly remorseless glee to level at my own boy's head. tyrant. my bow next wing'd an arrow's The vow I made. thou bringer once of bitter pangs. 339 make arrow his own child's head his Can speed to his foeman's heart. my own good cord. poor innocents. I vow'd God's ear alone. my soul. That hast so often wing'd the biting shaft: — — . chief est treasure precious jewel now I'll set A mark Could never — — my thee. with fiend-like joy: There lives a God to punish and avenge. To deal forth law But not to wanton with unbridled will — — In every cruelty. which the cry of grief — but thou shalt pierce penetrate trusty bow-string. writhed before thee. Desert me not in this dread hour of need Only be true this once. Its aim should be thy heart. Yet would the Emperor not have stretch 'd his power So far as thou hast done. My When boys. I. When imploring pity. and I Thou art my lord. — Come My forth. from thy rage! with trembling last I drew my bow — — And Forced me thou. He sent thee here stern law for he is wroth. my For sport has served me and well. moment. will pay it. my loyal wife. that so oft faithfully it— And thou.WILHELM TELL He who mark.

With scantly furnished scrip The scowling robber. my He A ever brought with him some little gift a curious bird lovely Alpine flower Or elf-bolt. — — — And for his enemy's life-blood lies in wait. .340 THE GERMAN CLASSICS For shouldst thou fly successless from my hand. Roam for whole days.] dearest children. They all push onward every man intent On his own several business mine is murder.] I'll sit me down upon this bench of stone. Men hurry past Each other. Hewn for the way-worn traveler 's brief repose — For here there is no home. such as on the hills are found. He bends his bow to do a deed of blood ! [Rises. I have no second to send after thee. when with joy You hail'd your father's safe return to home From his long mountain toils. all anxiety the pilgrim. But now he goes in quest of other game. Here goes The merchant.] I am watching for a noble prey! Well Does not the huntsman. Time was. To shield you from the tyrant's fell revenge. [Travelers pass over the stage. Sits in this gorge. 'Tis to guard your innocence. Nor stay to question of their grief. — — [Sits down. Dear children. when he came. But still it is of you alone he thinks. and the jovial player. with murder in his thoughts. when winter frosts are — keen. with unflinching heart. — — . for. with quick step and careless look. The carrier with his heavy-laden horse That comes to us from the far haunts of men For every road conducts to the world's end. the pious monk.

WILHELM TELL Leap at the risk of death 341 to rock from rock — And climb the jagged. Stussi.] Stussi. The times are heavy it flies. Tell gazes at it. Everywhere Mischance befalls and misery enough. slippery steeps.'] From my first years of boyhood I have used The bow been practised in the archer's feats. and goes up the pass. which comes gradually nearer. 'tis snatch at pleasure as And a bridal. But this day I'll make My master-shot. He is joined by Stussi the Ranger. dash not a wedding feast. The bull's eye many a time my shafts have hit. and win what's best to win — In the whole circuit of our mountain range. high — ev'ry honest man fits there will be feast tonight. So runs the world we live in. And we must Here Tell. And many a goodly prize have I brought home From competitions. A gloomy guest If you've a trouble. who seeks my — life. Stussi. There goes the cloister bailiff's bridal train Of Morlischachen. [Sprightly music heard in the distance. At Kiissnacht Come with us Tell. there a burial. [A bridal party passes over the stage. is asked. oft the one close on the other treads. A rich fellow he ! And has some half score pastures on the He goes to fetch his bride from Imisee. it from your heart! ! Take what Heaven sends now. to which His limbs are glued by his own streaming blood — And all to hunt a wretched chamois down? A far more precious prize is now my aim The heart of that dire foe. leaning on his bow. Alps. .

Traveler (entering). Some horrid deeds against the course of nature. Aemgaet Stussi. Do the very hills begin to quake? There is stability for naught on earth. And he proceeded to the court on foot. How! Tell. I spoke with one but now. So fiercely stung the beast. And. we hear from other parts. In Glarus there has been a landslip. Stussi. Look not to see the governor today. [Tell looks frequently with restless expectation toward the top of the pass. Stussi. Gessler not coming? Stussi. too. from Baden come. as he rode along. Of strange things. The streams are flooded by the heavy rains. a swarm of wasps Surrounded him. 'Tis thought to bode disaster to the land — Tell. happy he. The very meekest cannot be at peace If his ill neighbor will not let him rest. sits at home untroubled with his kin. The weak are also furnish 'd with a sting. (enters with several children.] So fare you well You're waiting some one here ? I am. . Stussi. Tell. [Tell rises. and places herself at the entrance of the pass). Who said a knight was on his way to court. and side of the Glarnisch has fallen in. And all the bridges have been swept away. ! God speed you You are from The governor's expected thence safely to your home His grace Uri. Want you aught with him? . and settling on his horse. And Tell.342 THE GERMAN CLASSICS A whole Tell. Stussi. every day brings forth such fearful deeds There needs no prodigy to herald them. who tills his field in peace. Why.] Armgaet (coming forward). that it fell dead. Ay. are you not? ! today.

He must hear me. How got ye through the stream. He did not send me here to fawn and cringe. And how to please him my first thought must be. Friesshardt (coming hastily down the pass and calls upon the stage).Eat* Tell. the bridges have been carried down? fought. tell to the castle haste. them.] Stussi (to Friesshardt). [. Stay. Make way. make way! My lord. When Friess.] If honest men. then. — And Stussi. now. speak An Stussi. [Looking round. Is close behind me. And coax these boors into good humor. The Viceroy comes ! [She goes toward the pass with her children. Say what you will. Alpine torrent's nothing after that. had been in the ship. No ! . ! 343 Why then.WILHELM TELL Armgart. that the governor's at hand.] Where has the huntsman gone with whom I : — spoke? [Exit. riding down the pass. I am the Emperor's liege. Gessler and Rudolph der Harras appear on horseback at the upper end of the pass. How! Were you out. I do Stussi. I can't — must [Exit. thus place yourself "Where you obstruct his passage down the pass? Armgart. in that dreadful storm? We were! I'll not forget it while I live. It had gone down with every soul on board Some folks are proof 'gainst fire and water both.] Enter Gessler and Rudolph der Harras on horseback Gessler. Friess.] Armgart (excitedly). Friess. all We've lake. with the tempest on the Stussi. friend. Alas. the governor. Here he cannot escape me.

Gessler. This petty nation is a stumbling-block One way or other. sir. The struggle's this: Is king or peasant to be sovereign here? Armgart.not in sport that I set up the cap In Altdorf or to try the people's hearts All this I knew before. upon our sore distress Who are you? and your husband. Hareas. By Heaven I ! pray you set the . the son will end. Great projects are at work. do you cross me on the public road? Why Stand back.344 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Obedience he must have. — — Those vast designs of conquest which the sire Has gloriously begun. sir. Armgart.] lord governor! Oh. and hatching now. which they perforce must pass. My Pity. pardon. the people have some rights This is no time to settle what they are. [They are about to pass on. herself down before Gessler. which the very cattle dare not climb. Gesslee. That. Now for my petition the moment 'Twas. My husband lies in prison wretched orphans cry for bread. what is he? ! Armgart A Kind poor wild hay-man of the Bigiberg. and I placed They carry far too proudly well I knew their pride could never brook Full in the road. they might call That lord to mind whom they too much forget. I say. Mows the unowner'd grass from craggy shelves. I set it up Now is ! ! — — That they might learn necks to bend those stubborn What Harras. The Imperial house seeks to extend its power. To a sad and pitiable life wretched fellow free. my lord. pardon! Mercy. Armgart throws — Armgart Gessler. when their eye fell on it. . Have pity. it must be put down. But surely. ! H arras (to Gessler). who on the brow of the abyss.

Vice-regent of the Emperor Then do thy duty — as thou hopest for justice ! ! Ay. Until your grace gives me my husband back. No. Our distress Is so extreme. No. no. Give way.WILHELM TELL How great soever His horrid trade 345 may is be his offence. Emperor's . no. Armgart (continuing with vehemence) Trampled the Manv a day thou hast lands beneath thy feet. — Thou stir'st not. that we care this spot. hence! horse shall ride you down. so boundless. Be trodden by thy horse It will not be the into the dust! worst that thou hast done. Six months already has he been shut up. from Thou dost me fullest justice. [To Abmgabt. longer for thine anger. or else ! there Armgart. How! would you force me. justice Thou are From Him who Gessler. Well. — my — Woman. by Heaven. Are you mad. let it [Throws her children and herself upon the ground before him. rules above. I will not stir from where I stand. I've nothing more to lose. punishment enough. Justice. To Your suit.] Here on the ground I lie. — of Heaven. Armgart. woman? Hence! ! Begone Armgart. until — No Gessler. Knit thy brows. my lord judge. . And waits the sentence of a judge in vain.] You shall have justice. show it to us ! Hence! sight ! Drive this insolent rabble from my Armgart (seizing his horse's reins). woman? Harras. Let the wretched orphans I and my children. And roll thine eyes I fear not. This is no place the castle bring to deal with it. Gessler. Viceroy.

dead! heart ! He reels. [He slides from his horse into the arms of Rudolph der Harras. I am but a woman ! Were I man. .346 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Oh. I will crush. have mercy on my Oh God! What's my lord! it? soul ! this? Whence came Armgart (starts up). [The music of the bridal party again heard softly. as they I must take order for the remedy. Lie grovelling in the dust. the servants cannot force their way . than here is I'd find some better thing to do. my knaves ? her away. Tell appears above upon the rocks. the top of the pass.] from Gessler. and is about to sink with a — — feeble voice. — he puts his hand on [An arrow pierces him his heart. Been tamed to due submission.] Harras. ! Sir Gessler. lest I forget myself. I will subdue this stubborn mood I will proclaim a I will This braggart spirit of freedom new law through the land of theirs. Their tongues are yet all too bold — nor have they shall be. That shot was Tell's.] . Dead. My lord! Oh God. Address yourself for mercy to your God You are a dying man. Gessler. Drag And do some deed I may repent me of. Horror of horrors! Heavenly powers! knight. My lord. he falls! 'Tis in his Harras (springs from his horse). who lays him down upon the beach. but more are Habeas. Where The pass is block 'd up by a bridal train. Too mild a ruler am I to this people.

and innocence From thee is safe: thou 'It be our curse no more. Stussi. Away. when he finds they are not understood. Many Voices Who did the deed? Harras. Oh.] Where shall I take you to? To Kiissnacht? What you say I can't make out. Stussi. . the hindmost are still upon the heights. his cheek is pale Life 's ebbing fast.WILHELM TELL Tell. if you can. [Tell disappears. do not grow impatient! Leave all thought Of earthly things and make your peace with Heaven.] See there! how pale he grows! Death's gathering Stussi. Have you no charge To trust me with? [Gessler makes signs with his hand. 347 Thou know'st the marksman — I. now his heart About — his eyes grow dim and glazed. my lord. — pierced Tell me what has happen 'd? by a cross-bow Who has been shot? [While the foremost of the marriage party are coming on the stage. Now are our homesteads free.] Speak. The Viceroy's shot People (running in). [The whole marriage party gather round the dying man. That they make music to a murder? Silence [Music breaks off suddenly. People rush in. What! Are the people mad. ] Harras. which he repeats with vehemence. People continue — ! ! to flock in.] What is the matter? bolt! Armgart. By Heaven. The music continues. and I alone. You would not listen to my warning* words. He's bleeding fast to death. for help pursue the murderer! is this to be your end? Unhappy man.

knight! Your power is Our country's No All. six Fratres Misericordle appear. And we can trust to no man's loyalty. that your eyes Gloat on a sight so horrible as this? take hold. us save that fortress for the king For in a moment such as this. all ties Of order. The country's And Fear and obedience at is it come to this? an end so soon? in.348 THE GERMAN CLASSICS (holds up a child). and sing in solemn tones). other things to We Ve And let think of. will not one assist Help me — ! Women. foe has fallen. and now the ravens stoop. To pull the torturing arrow from his breast? What touch the man whom God's own hand has ! struck All curses light on you! [Draws Gently. is going out with the soldiers. Armgakt Harras.] Armgart. On ! to Kiissnacht.] [To the soldiers of the guard who are thronging You Has see. We are free men. fealty and faith are rent. Stussi. Harras. my friends. Harras. free. at end. 'Tis now too late for help. children. . Room The victim's slain. What. And to pursue the murderer were vain. Here comes the brotherhood of mercy. the bloody piece of work here been done. how a tyrant dies! Mad Have you no touch hag! of feeling. 'Twere best forbear. [As he ! No respite man from him may gain.] Stussi (seizes his arm). Brothers of Mercy (form a semicircle round the body. Death hurries on with hasty stride. We will brook further violence. Look. sir his sword.

See there! The beacons on the mountain heights ! Mason. Mason. Ruodi. In the background to the right the Keep of Uri. Prepared or not the call to hear. ACT V Scene I A common near Altdorf. Uri. as in the Third Scene of the first Act. Ruodi. All. Rousing the echoes of each glen and hill. with the scaffold still standing. my Up to — learn 'd What has been done in Unteywald and Schwytz. To the left. He must before his Judge appear.] lines. And we of Uri. Werni. also women and children Ruodi. [While they are repeating the two last the curtain falls. FtJRST. from peak to peak. on all of which signal fires are burning. To rally swiftly all the mountain men! Enter Walter Furst. Ruodi. till Let's wait we receive intelligence! . And the forts are storm 'd. Hark how the bells above the forest toll ! The enemy's routed. and wind us such a blast As shall resound afar. Day is breaking. Kuoni. and distant bells are heard ringing in several directions. What would ye? your tower.] [Exit Stier of Uri friends! As yet we have not Stay. Master Mason. when life's full tide Is throbbing strong in every vein. Up ! Tear is it to the ground ! Down. down with it ! Where the Stier of Uri? Ruodi. and many other country people.WILHELM TELL He cuts 349 Mm down. stay. Here. Ruodi. do we still endure Upon our native soil the tyrant's keep? the last to strike for liberty ? Shall the yoke stand. the view opens upon numerous mountains. that was to curb our necks? Are we Mason.

When from the blaze rush'd Diethelm. Melchthal. That blaze on every mountain top around? Come all. What! lies [Enter Melchthal and Baumgarten. fall to come. There 's not one tyrant left in Switzerland How did you get the forts into your power? Rudenz it was who by a bold assault With manly valor mastered Sarnen 's keep. The accursed tyrant's And Mason. while we speak. and given it to the flames. men and women. They're not to be restrained.] Stands the fortress still.350 Ruodi. moment. Ruodi. and we know How best All. Come ! Down with it ! [They fall upon the building on every side. and the Rossberg's in our hands'? You. Exclaiming. How on us freedom's glorious day has dawn'd! Are these flaming signals not enough. Furst. Down with the walls. THE GERMAN CLASSICS Wait. Melch. comrades.] The floodgate's burst. In ashes. here? D'ye bring us liberty? Are all the Cantons from our tyrants freed? Melch. That now rose crackling upwards to the skies. The Rossberg I had storm 'd the night before. Gessler's page. to hurl it down. when Sarnen Furst. wait for what? dead. " Lady Bertha will be burnt !" . We've swept them from friend. at this very the soil. But hear what chanced Scarce had we driven ! ! the foe Forth from the keep. come! We built it. let not a stone remain ! — ! ! ! ! Mason. Rejoice. Come. Melch. Now. my Furst. all Burst the arches Destroy the scaffold Down.

WILHELM TELL Furst. Here had she been By Gessler's orders secretly immured. So. A vow that. 351 Good heavens [The beams ! Melch. Up sprang Rudenz in frenzy. fault he bore his sight away. is she saved? Melch. Melchthal. without a thought. For even now The beams and massive posts were crashing down. Is she saved f Melch. He wrung the life which. craven-like. The sword Where — — ! Already quiver 'd o'er the caitiff's head. and rush'd into the flames. . risk'd the worst. welded in yon furnace heat. Rudenz and I Bore her between us from the blazing pile. But the people. She is. and then A silent vow between us two was sworn. Furst. the stifling And through shrieks smoke the piteous Of Furst. The baron fell upon my breast . And when she had revived.] herself. When from the pity of the blind old man. Will last through ev'ry shock of time and fate. And raised her eyes to look upon the sun. With crashing timbers toppling all around. And dragg'd him to my father's feet. We should have been most chary of our lives But he was our confederate. the unhappy lady. 'Twas not my He who had robb'd my father of his eyes He fled I followed overtook him soon. he begged. the danger past. 'Twas not a time to hesitate or pause he been but our baron. Honor 'd We Furst. and no more. 'Twas she of the scaffold are heard falling. and Bertha ! Had . is the Landenberg? Across the Briinig.

Furst.] Here is the cap. have not stain 'd with blood you ! Our spotless victory Children (running across the stage with fragments of wood). and never to return with a hostile intention. others sitting upon the beams of the shattered scaffold. not pledged ourselves to do.* never to return He '11 keep his oath. Destroy the emblem of the tyrant's power! Let it be burnt No. invaded his lands and was worsted. men. is but begun and concord firm. Furst. friends. cap upon a pole. well for you.] Melch. Oh. for he has felt our : Furst. The work : * The Urphede was an oath of peculiar force. women. gloriously the work has been fulfilled at Rootli fulfilled. we need them both. arm. in a large semicircle. by which he bound himself to depart. standing. By force of arms. my hearts. and children. ! We're ! free! we're free! Oh what a joyous scene These children will Remember it when all their heads are gray. stood! Several Voices. all picturesquely grouped.352 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He swore Urphede. who was at feud with another. The whole stage is filled with people. Courage For. the king will make all speed. * stand upon the wreck of tyranny. he often made terms with his enemy by swearing the Urphede. 'Twill of our freedom be [Peasants. Rather be preserved now 'Twas once the instrument of despots a lasting sign. . the tyrant we've expell'd. Thus now. Baum. and reinstate. Which we No. When a man. Furst. be assured. with light and merry We And Furst. some ! — . to which we were to bow What shall we do with it? Do you decide! 'Twas beneath this cap my grandson Heavens [Girls bring in the ! ! Ruodi. To avenge his Viceroy's death.

And all his armies shall not make us quail. What Say is the matter? Rosselmann. who struck the blow. . King Albert fell. In what times we live ! what is't? Ha. The Emperor [Peasants murdered. 353 ! let him come. A most trustworthy man. tidings? What's the matter? Rosselmann. Hear and wonder is ! We are released from one great cause of dread. with all his armaments The foe's expelled that press 'd us from within. These are the awful judgments of the Lord Why . Stauff. What drove him to so dire a parricide ? The Emp 'ror kept his patrimony back. is it you? What Peasant. [Enter Rosselmann and Stauffacher. 1 . Who Melch. Ill — 23 Despite his urgent importunities 'Twas said. his own brother's son. Duke John of Austria. Stauff. John Miiller. he meant to keep it for himself.] ! rise All.WILHELM TELL Melch. Rossel. Werner. These with our bodies we will block. dared commit so horrible a deed? The doer makes the deed more dreadful still It was his nephew. How Furst. Murder 'd !— the Emp 'ror ? What The Hear! Impossible! Emp 'ror ! Melch. by the assassin's hand. came you by the news? 'Tis true! Near Bruck. The foe without we are prepared to meet? The passes to our Cantons are but few Ruodi. . Vol. Knit are we by a league will ne 'er be rent. And with a mitre to appease the duke. on. we will Baum. ! ! Peasant. Furst. brought the news. Stauff.] Rosselmann (speaking as he enters). Gracious Heaven! and throng round Stauffup acher. from Schaffhausen. Furst. Stauff.

A mighty city stood in Pagan times With Habsburg's ancient turrets full in sight. thirty years. That have stood open for these . So down he sank. Thus has he dug his own untimely grave. they Across a fresh plough 'd field — say. Upon his way to join the court at Eheinfeld Von Eschenbach. could only raise An unavailing cry Melch. how was it done? But say The king was riding down from Stein to Baden. And Von with the noble lords. and on her breast he bled to death. resolved. But.354 THE GERMAN CLASSICS However this may be. On his own soil. Von Wart and Palm. the dreadful deed. E 'en ancient Zurich barricades her gates. — When Duke John plunged Palm ' a dagger in his throat. sitting by the way. Furst. Stauff. That was the cradle of his princely race. The passes are blockaded everywhere. Tegerfeld. And Eschenbach. and was riding on where once. Since his demands for justice were despised. The assassins forced their way into the boat. — — With him a train of high-born gentlemen. parted by the stream. . by his own kinsmen slain. the duke gave ear To the ill counsel of his friends in arms . His highness landed. all weltering in his blood. ran him thro the body with his lance. "With his own hands to take revenge at least. And the young Princes John and Leopold And when they'd reach 'd the ferry of the Reuss. A poor old woman. To separate the Emperor from his suite. Stauff. Those on the opposite bank beheld the deed. The country round is fill'd with dire alarm. sentinels on ev 'ry frontier set . Raised him. to end him. clove his skull. of loud lament. Who And sought insatiably to grasp at all.

And bathe in blood as in the dew of May. Deep has she sworn a vow to immolate Whole generations on her father's tomb. The Count of Luxembourg's ! « Already chosen by the general voice. Melch. any named I Stauffacher. By all her sex's tenderness untouch 'd. I hear.WILHELM TELL 355 Dreading the murd'rers and th' avengers more. — . to wreak Dire vengeance for her parent's royal blood On the whole race of those that murder 'd him Their servants. others. . Furst. Arm'd with the thunders of the ban. murder its satiety despair. And. Stauff. it is The dreadful food it feeds on its delight Is Stauff. 'Tis well we stood so staunchly by the Empire Now we may hope for justice. — — Upon the stones that built their castle walls. children's children yea. For cruel Agnes comes. that the crown will pass . children. And thus their crime has borne no fruit for them. And parted ne'er to see each other more. Is't known which way the murderers have fled? No sooner had they done the deed. . The assassins reap no profit by their crime But we shall pluck with unpolluted hands The teeming fruits of their most bloody deed. than they Took flight each following a different route. Its old prerogative of choice. and with cause. 'tis reported. Eevenge bears never fruit. Furst. Itself. the Hungarian queen. Duke John must still be wand 'ring in the mountains. From Habsburg's The Empire Furst and several Is is house into another determined to assert line. For we are ransomed from our heaviest fear The direst foe of liberty has fallen.

356 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The Emperor Stauff. Hush. still in her mind she bears The ancient Melch. He will need some valiant friends. [The peasantry embrace. faith and love of Switzerland." • [Symptoms of dissatisfaction peasantry. A it. "And will in she is well assured. Sacrist. Her people due abhorrence hold of this The perpetrators damned On the three Cantons. and Unterwald. Enter Sacristan I with Imperial messenger. To give them up to the avenger 's hand. what news? Sacristan. In which the bloody exit of her lord Has plunged the queen. the queen with us? Her reign is Furst (reads). Rossel. What wants done. worthy men Of Uri. the Queen Elizabeth sends grace and all good wishes!" Walter Furst). that they loyally assist. Open and read Many voices. That they in nowise lend the murderers aid But rather. Sacrist. let us hear! Furst (reads). therefore. deed.'] among the . ' ' She ne'er did that in her prosperity. All (to " To the Furst (reading). 'gainst Austria's vengeance be our will shield. . 1 i In the great grief and doleful widowhood.] Here are the worthy chiefs of Switzerland Rosselmann and several others. Remembering the love and grace which they Of old received from Rudolph's royal house. courier brings this letter. she relies. Schwytz.

Recall to mind the wrongs that we endured. And had we not ourselves achieved our rights By our own stalwart hands. our freedom's Stauffacher (to the people). Gratitude to him! Within these vales he sowed no seeds of that He stood upon an eminence he might Have been a very father to his people. Melch.] Shall he. did he e'en give audience to the men We sent to lay our grievances before him? Not one of all these things did the king do. Love Must be a tribute free. the wrongs we bore never touch 'd him. indeed. As all preceding emperors had done? Did he judge righteous judgment. nor now Had — . or afford ! The Shelter. nor is our duty. Here see a people. Who would reap tears must sow the seeds of love.WILHELM TELL Many voices. 357 Stauff. lament for him We will not triumph in his fall. that we should avenge The sovereign's death. And Becomes us not. From all enforced duties death absolves. And if the queen laments within her bower. But where is Tell? founder. And unto him we owe no further debt. Alone be absent from our festival? He did the most — endured the worst of all. from its anguish freed. But what have we to boast of from the son? Did he confirm the charter of our freedom. hunt down those who ne'er molested us. To that same Heav'n send up its thankful praise. and unconstrain'd. or stay. who never did us good. . But all his aim and pleasure was to raise Himself and his own house and now may those Whom he has aggrandized. Furst. : . received. Far be't from us! Yet. [Exit the Imperial Courier. love and grace Grace from the father we. to innocence oppress 'd? Nay. Accusing Heaven in sorrow's wild despair.

that you know not where 1 Wilhelm Come Come in. then go refresh 'd away! Walter. Walter.358 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Come And to his dwelling let us all repair. My own And I I. Hedwig. thou art restored to me again Twice have I seen thee given to my sad eyes. How Are you bewildered. bid the Savior of our country hail! — [Exeunt omnes. Walter. Walter. Hedwig. A fire burning on the hearth. Mother will give you food in and rest. Where am I? In what country? Tell me. boys. and all are free The country owes its liberty to him ! . no doubt. in the land of Uri. He comes for alms. is he here? . bore must be named with him. Just at the entrance of the Shechenthal. ! . The open door Hedwig. and we. good man. Yes. yes. with unquiet looks). ! Hedwig (embracing him). and make him feel That he has come into the house of joy. mother. [A monk appears at the door. is free. both! father will be back today.] See. Twice suffered all a mother's pangs for thee! But this is past — I have you both. Are you alone? Your husband. my part in it My father's I shaft Ean my but yet I never flinch 'd. shows the scene outside. and Wilhelm dear boys your father comes today He lives. Monk (glancing round in terror. ! ! You are at Biirglen. too.] Scene II Interior of TBiiL's cottage. That we may give him cheer. yonder stands a holy friar. mother.] (to the monk). life close. [Exit and returns immediately with a cup. And your dear Wilhelm. Monk (to Hedwig). Go lead him in.

you are in want take that. what anguish have I borne for thee [Monk becomes attentive. My father! Walter (without). I am the wretchedest of living men. trembles and stops. I say What is your purpose. which I [Grasps the boys.WILHELM TELL Hedwig. Hedwig. man ? Back from my boys You are no monk. {Offers him the cup. your mother. Oh. (springs up). boys? [They enter. .] Walter. — dear children's heads. Hedwig (falling on his neck). She trembles so with terror and with joy. — By your embrace Hedwig. and can no further. monk! You must stand farther back. The heart is never deaf to wretchedness But your look freezes up my inmost soul. I 359 expecting him. no. come not near me. Mother. Tell. Monk.] ! ! Yes. here once more! Where is . my dear father! Tell (without). But what ails you. am — Monk. My father. by this hearth's bright hospitable blaze. my God [Is about to follow. here once more! Wilhelm (without).] Wilhelm (running after his brother). mother of my children God has been kind and helpful in our woes. here's father! ! Walter Hedwig. Oh. Hedwig. Oh. Nought will I taste till you have promised first Touch not my garments. Tell. Beneath the robe you wear peace should abide. Here.] Howe'er my sinking heart may yearn for food. that omens ill! Whoe 'er you be. There at the door she stands. man? There's something in your looks. Oh Hedwig. ! ! — But peace abides not in such looks as yours. no. if I'm to hear you. Monk.] Stand back. Hedwig. No tyrant 's hand shall e 'er divide us more.

children — Go. roof. Have slain a foe. in the chase shall ne 'er be used again. is this friar here ? Ah. Tell (drawing back). shalt not ever see it Oh. who did you wrong. Tell. is it? Hedwig.] . I forgot him Speak thou with him I shudder at his presence. my dear wife You should be ! You in. my boy. I hide the fact from no man. has been placed. I. too. Who are you? Monk. father. Who Hedwig. [Monk gives a sudden start — he looks at him. Monk Tell. . Monk. dearest wife ? how dost thou return to me ? This hand What alarms Dare I take hold of it ? Tell (with firmness and animation). slain rights. I am he. who . dropping his hand. THE GERMAN CLASSICS ! ! Forget it now. Are you the Tell who slew ! the governor? Yes. it more.] thee. horror! without a word. where 's your cross-bow? Not with ! ! you? Tell. ! Go ! Go Unhappy man. I've rid the land of him. That hath conducted me beneath your Tell (examining him closely). and live for joy alone I'm here again with you This is my cot I stand again upon mine own hearth stone Wilhelm. But. (stepping nearer). How — [Steps back. Tell! Tell! Hedwig. Has shielded you and set my country free Freely I raise it This hand — Oh God — ! . You are no monk. who robb'd me of my He was no less your enemy than mine. And you are Tell Ah! it is God's own hand. Thou Within a holy shrine And Hedwig. Heav'ns. in the face of Heaven. You have The governor. are — oh.360 Tell. In — children.

! ! 361 Do the children not ask. You cast me off to comfortless despair ! I shrink with horror while I talk with you. on the dread career you have begun. the direst doom from all you loved? To Heaven I raise my unpolluted hands. Tell. hear me. John. He robb'd me of my patrimony. — ! ! Tell (to the Monk). Away away Out of the house away You must not rest 'Neath the same roof with this unhappy man Alas! What is it? Come. Cease to pollute the home of innocence ! . Hedwig. You have The Emperor. Have shielded all that was most dear to me. You me. Tell. must not hear it. Tell. Hence. John. Tell. ! your uncle! still And the earth John. You murdered. And John. ere you — shines on you ! Reeking with the blood Of him that was your Emperor. Of Austria I know it. Slain Still him — your ! How king. your kinsman. Dare you set foot within my spotless house. I claim the rites of hospitality? to find compassion at your hands. your uncle. and liege — [Exit with the children. revenge upon your foe Unhappy man Dare you confound the crime Of blood-imbued ambition with the act Forced on a father in mere self-defence? hoped took. To guard your fireside's sanctuary ward off The last.] You are the Duke slain lord. I I have no part with you. I have avenged To curse your act and you — ! That holy nature which you have profaned. And the sun bears you Tell.WILHELM TELL Tell. like ! ! Have you to shield your children 's darling heads. Dare to a honest man to show your face.

! Gracious Heaven. oh let my fate you Move your compassion it is horrible a prince. The impatience of my passionate desires I saw the youth But envy gnaw'd my heart Of mine own cousin Leopold endow 'd With honor. by your mad and desperate act have set A fearful seal upon his wise resolve. and enrich 'd with broad domains.] . Unhappy man. of equal age with him.] have power to weep. — : Where John. a terror to myself. had I only curb'd — — — ! Tell. When from you land and subjects he withheld! You. An outcast murderer standing at my door.] John. If [Covers his face. From mine own self I shrink with horror back. Know you the Empire's ban is out that you Are interdicted to your friends. a suppliant. and given — An John. If in a brook I see mv ill-starr'd form. So young. outlaw 'd victim to your enemies! Therefore I shun all public thoroughfares. your uncle knew you well. I cannot and I will not live this life And yet my soul bleeds for you. If you have pity or a human heart — — [Falls down before him. and through The mountains roam.362 THE GERMAN CLASSICS [John turns to depart. of such a noble line. are the bloody partners of your crime? Where'er the avenging furies may have borne them. Tell. Tell. the grandson Of Rudolph. In abject slavish nonage was kept back. I might I am say. And venture not to knock at any door I turn my footsteps to the wilds. in despair! The poor man's door — — — John. The while myself. rather was Have been most happy. once my lord and emperor. I have not seen them since the luckless deed.

and. me from ! the terrors of despair. hand). place of rest? Alas! to Italy I know not where. accept it as from God. John. Which way. and ease your laden soul! Will he not to the avengers yield me up? Whate'er he does. a cross proclaims where travelers to death. Do all that lies within my power. then. I will describe the road. so mark me well ! You must ascend. am one. ! And many John. Have been by avalanches done I have no fear for nature's terrors. Which from the mountains dashes wildly down. stand up I ! say. — to Saint Peter's City John. discover 'd. From Tell I will Shall no one part uncomforted. Tell. Let go my hand You must away. Tell. But how am I to reach that unknown land? I have no knowledge of the way. — — confess There cast yourself at the Pope's feet You must what Heaven unto my heart suggests. You cannot Eemain here undiscover'd. Tell. — — Duke John (springs up and grasps him ardently by the You Tell. Tell. Tell. then. Your hand in promise of Can I assist you? Can a sinful man? how black soe'er your crime Yet get ye up You are a man. You cannot count on succor. Tell. keeping along the Eeuss. John. so I can appease the torments of my soul. too. Your guilt to him. Not till you give assistance to me. 363 Stand up. Hear. Duke John (in alarm). Would you be going? Where do you hope to find A Duke John. I. save Oh. and dare not Attach myself to other travelers.WILHELM TELL Tell. What! See the Eeuss? The witness of my deed The road you take lies through the river's gorge. .

and in exulting bands All the confederates approach. Then if it give not way beneath your guilt. you gain the Gotthardt's heights. Rudolph. That from the streams of Heaven itself are There to the German soil you bid farewell . My Duke John Tell. dearest wife. Tell? father comes. fed. THE GERMAN CLASSICS At every cross. Proceed through this. the everlasting tarns. Where never sun did shine. [Ranz des Vaches ! sounded on Alp-horns heard without J] is But I hear voices Hedwig (hurrying in). Tell. are not whelm 'd beneath the drifted snows. for his road is long. another stream Leads you to Italy. one where shelter will be hard to find. Hence ! Where art thou. Yet must you hurry on with hasty steps. You'll reach the bridge that's drench 'd with drizzling spray.364 Tell. And you John. and give this man to eat. Rudolph. your promised land. And thence. You must not linger in the haunts of peace. royal grandsire thus Thy grandson first sets foot within thy realms Ascending still. . ! And Hedwig. Woe's me! (covering himself) I dare not tarry 'mong these happy men Go. When you will reach a bright and gladsome vale. have left it safely in your rear. Spare not your bounty. Before you frowns the gloomy Gate of Rocks. with swift descent. ! ! Where are the tarns. Quick — they approach! Who is he? . kneel down and expiate Your crime with burning penitential tears — And And if you 'scape the perils of the pass. That from the frozen peaks come sweeping down.

appears. Eudenz and Bertha appear. peasantry. Will you protect me as your citizen f Peasants. Into your league Confederates Peasants Receive me. When it has stopped. with life and goods! 'Tis well! Bertha. Some are seen crossing a lofty Walter Furst with the two boys. give my hand. free Swiss maiden to a free Swiss man! And from this moment all my serfs are free A ! [Music. 365 Do not ask ! And when he quits you. [Duke John advances hastily toward Tell. When Tell All. Bertha steps play. and the curtain falls. To your brave hands I now intrust my rights.} Bertha. which crosses the Shechen. turn your eyes away. into the centre of the crowd. So that they do not see which way he goes. the heights which inclose it occupied by peasants. Werner and Stauffacher.WILHELM TELL Tell. Ay. that we will. bridge. in front are and embracing The former salutes the the latter embraces Hedwig. all receive him with loud Tell. Others throng after them. cheers. The music from the mountains continues to crowding round him. grouped into tableaux. When both have left the stage. but he beckons him aside and goes out. the scene changes. Long live brave our shield.] Scene III The whole valley before Tell's house. ! ! And now to him {turning to Rudenz) I frankly Rudenz. our Savior! [While those Tell.] . who was happily the first That found deliverance in the land of freedom. come forward.

£ eni H0RUS op C° UNTRY PE o pLE - § The ^ Arts Seven a ' The scene is laid in a country place. Maria Paulowna. Grand-Duchess of Eussia. In the centre of the stage. on each side. 1804. while maidens and children. A A A MothTr. laden with fruit and bedecked with ribbons. Youth. hold it erect by means of garlands of flowers. Maiden. an The country orange-tree. and produced at the Court Theatre in Weimar. [366] . the Weimar. people are setting it firmly in the earth. DRAMATIS PERSONS. November 12.THE HOMAGE OF THE ARTS A Dedicated in of all Masque Crown Princess reverence to her Imperial Highness.

Shield it when the storms are blowing Bid their fury pass it by ! — [367] . Proudly hang the golden store it it ! May May May it May stand by storms unblighted. A. God of the fields. Guard the tender nursling now. to thee we bow! The Maiden Gentle Dryads. Guard it. bountiful tree. guard its growing.THE HOMAGE OF THE ARTS TRANSLATED BY A. DU P. your gifts bestowing. guard it. it grow from more to more! The Mother hear my word! Mother Earth. College of the City of New York The Father LOSSOM. Thou that lead'st the speckled herd. thy branches ne'er decay! All Blossom. bountiful tree With thy golden apples gay. grow from more All to more ! stand by storms unblighted.M. blossom. Pan most high! Mountain nymphs. Which from lands so far away We May have brought for ours to see! Fullest fruitage ever bearing. blossom. Professor of English Literature. Shooting upward strong and free! The Youth With the fragrant bloom united. I. COLEMAN.

Pan most high May kind The Youth skies smile down upon clear it. Music.] . The orchestral music accomall life — ! panies the dance. Earth. Poetry. send out thy softest radiance Feed it. And all bless thee for thy cheer! All Joy. sweet joy. with all thy dew ! ! All Sun. guard its growing. and May'st thou still to new-springing be bringing Joy it was that set thee here [They dance in picturesque groups around the tree.368 THE GERMAN CLASSICS All Gentle Dryads. — May thy gifts of nectar gather Children's children. and life new-springing May'st thou still to all be bringing Joy it was that set thee here. Always and always blue ! Sun. with Painting. guard it. like their father. and gradually passes into a more elevated style. and Dancing on his left. with all thy dew ! The Father Joy. Earth. Sculpture. ! Guard it. as there appear in the background from above Genius and The the Goddesses of the Seven Arts. retire to the sides of the country people stage. Genius comes down to the centre. Drama. and Architecture on his right. sweet joy. send out thy softest radiance! Feed it.

Stuttgart Heem.Permission Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. Wislicenus THE HOMAGE OF THE ARTS .


their goal never knowing. in haste to be gone. Thence turn we our footsteps. No power abating Yet we still seek in vain for a dwelling secure. Ill — 24 will build habitations To dwell without end. And Arts We We hate the deceivers. I know not why — ! Gentus Where weapons are clashing trumpets are blown. roaming people to people. Where mortals are wand 'ring.THE HOMAGE OF THE AETS The Arts 369 We Still come from a far land — — From From We wandering. . Like a troop of fairies nigh Forms whose beauty ne'er was told? Beats my heart. — The Youth Who are these my eyes behold. seek among mortals Who to virtue are given. Despisers of heaven. are seeking a home that shall always endure In peaceful possession To find our expression. Where hearts are with hate and with madness o 'erflowing. Where pure hearts have welcome To give to a friend. We Vol. In stillness creating. ages to ages.

heart like the friends I have loved Yet never before with these strangers I've spoken. Great as good. and good as great. And a feast we keep.370 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The Maiden What is this strange feeling? What can it betoken? By some hidden power my nature They call to is moved. Look — with ribbons and with garlands the tree bedight! Richly — their bosom Surely joy is fills Come to revel with [To the country people. like the sun's warm rays! . delight. but yonder see I mortals. my — The Country People What is this strange feeling? What can it betoken? Genius Ah. The Father Shepherds are we of these hills. Genius What the feast? I fain would hear! The Mother In honor of our lady dear. to bless our humble vale. 'tis true.] Tell me what it is you do. Who. From Has her high imperial station descended her we hail! — The Youth For her charms our Kindness jubilation.

Genius is why you plant it deep. . And And the love of noble brothers.THE HOMAGE OF THE ARTS Genius 371 Wherefore do you plant a tree? The Youth Ah. her sisters' tender bosoms. Which of old she held most dear: Though she has left love behind her. That its blessings you may keep In its new abiding-place? The Maiden To her native land Many. Is not bound by far or near. its heart toward home is yearning That is why we fear its turning it . And comes of foreign race. to tie to is kindled clear. For such treasures? Genius Love can reach to any distance. As the fire is undiminished When another flame its heat. supply a price For such pleasures. With the soil its roots encase. Can the world. many are that bind her the ties — All that she has left behind her In her childhood's paradise: All her mother's fond embraces. From That its new abiding-place. She will find love dwelling here. With glow more So that has no bind her. Can we then in equal measures.

that a noble mind Puts the greatness into living. Love's tender ties soon knit themselves anew For where is happiness. All is not strange to her in this new land.372 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The Mother She has come from halls of state. Rich with gold and crystal sheen . teach us to retain her Oh. Where for gold we boast but sunshine. in our quiet vale retain her! Genius Courage ! The help you seek is nigh at hand. And as the tree takes hold upon the earth With eager grasping roots. I Genius A home in stillness working. its own world: Creates. Can our hills please one so great. . Know. handsome stranger. The Youth Oh. and soon is fast. And our wealth is meadows green? Genius In a heart of princely kind Much is hidden from your sense. never to take flight. there too is home noble heart soon finds itself at ! — — her. So will a great and doubly royal nature By its own noble deeds take hold on life. teach us to find favor in her sight! We long with perfumed garlands to enchain her Within our homeland. lovely strangers. say how we may chain The fairest. then. Never needs to draw it thence. All the Country People Oh.

dealt with thine imperial line. (Shows the Victory) . The thunder of the cannon of thy fleet Alarms the hoary Neptune in his ancient seat. crown the work that springs from human hearts. A paradise of stately pleasure-grounds Arose beneath the magic of my wand. they display their attributes. Sculpture (a small image of victory in her hand) too hast thou beheld with wondering eyes. a golden ship in her right hand) Neva's flood thou saw'st me sit at home: By Thy great forefather called me to his And there I built for him a second Rome Through me it grew to be an empire's side . office plain.THE HOMAGE OF THE ARTS Me she will know. With spotless hand a dedicated shrine Long have we keeps for us.] Genius (addressing the Crown Princess) Lo. — pride. Still Architecture (a mural croivn on her head. And she. We follow thee obedient to her sending. As they do so. I am Genius beauty's lord alone — — And 'Tis these that follow me the sister Arts. For happiness through us finds perfect ending. we We that deck the altar and the throne. the noble dame that gave thee birth. 373 [Genius comes forward. which until this moment have been concealed beneath their robes. and my attendant When we have made our names and train. The Seven Arts follow him and form a semi-circle about him. That did the old Olympian world restore. And now the busy hum of life resounds Where once a desert stretched on every hand. Upon a cliff that age and storm defies Its Me mighty image stands for evermore. a sacred spot of earth.

by my fingers shaped Thy lordly brother grasps it in his hand: And round her form his conquering banners draped. thou wilt know again The fond creator of depicted form. They are not quite alone. on earth. in all my age-long quest. most noble. A sweet enchantment plays on every sense — When my harmonious flood has reached its height — . — Know very life in all its colors plain Upon my canvas glowing fresh and warm. naught disputes my rule Or bids me stay. through the eyes I can deceive the heart. Yea. Music (with the lyre) The might of tones that tremble on the strings. tool. Naught fairer than a pure soul in a lovely breast. Are to Though in — the Word my winged move in heaven above. What fills the quivering heart when music sings Can find in me alone its utterance true. my help who know. I hold supreme dominion O'er realms of thought All things that . Poetry Through farthest space I fly on soaring pinion I know no limits.374 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Lo. across the poet's path is laid. ! — ! Painting And me. but end with lifeless imitation He builds of savage hordes a mighty nation. See Alexander bear her through the land I strive. My skill can cheat the senses without wronging And the beating of the lover's heart Present the very face for which he's longing: still — Wide as the poles asunder though they go. Thou know'st it well for thou canst wield it too. Victory 's image. my penetrating eyes displayed — the secret depths they have their birth. No bar But I have found.

all of us : As Theban walls obeyed the lyre 's sweet sounding. would implore you Do but command. thine eyes astounding. richer for these great sights. they follow me Yet life — To lose themselves within the sinuous maze. Into the peaceful silence of thy soul.THE HOMAGE OF THE ARTS Until the enraptured soul would fain go hence And from the lips. Drama of The mask — In deeps profound. Where I set up my ladder. And with the dark is mixed a light alloy. its dizzy heights. Life's tale before thine eyes I can unroll. 375 A way to scale the dizziest heights is found. All things that move I lead with magic wand. In dancing steps I teach symmetric grace. take its flight. In his own heart no civil strife dismays. Grace is the gift I bear within my hand. — . So here the senseless stone shall live at thine A world of beauty rise. the Divine Is by a silent soul perceived at rest : Dancing (with and youth for gladsome motion pine must expression find. the cymbals) In solemn stillness brooding. Genius And who here appear before you. Who the whole world in one wide view surveys. on the other joy. must thus be blest. built of sound. and we will play our parts. Majestic For leave to serve you. soft sighing. sisterhood of noble arts. They Led by soft beauty's chain. On Zephyr's wings I raise the body free. all its And make thee turn. {with the double mask) Janus have I in my keeping On one side sorrow. For man must alternate 'twixt bliss and weeping. Princess.

of pageantry. All the Arts (embracing one another) For strength must wed with strength. life's great tapestry. each for all. Sculpture The marble shape beneath the mallet's blow. to the fields on high. Painting And as the magic rainbow in the sky Conjures its colors from the gorgeous sun. Drama The whole world '11 pass 'fore thee on the stage. Poetry And fancy with her magic equipage Shall bear thee. ravished. .376 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Architecture Tall columns stand in well-proportioned line. Music For thee the stream of harmonies shall spring. Painting Fresh life upon the painted canvas show. So will we. Dancing Light dances follow close the vibrant string. and all as one. With mystic sevenfold wealth Weave for thee. Lady. and so impart Beauty to life and life to forms of art.


MORRISON. greater determination. the vigilance of its numerous princes.. From this moment he felt a firm confidence in his own powers — self- confidence has always been the parent of great actions. which for centuries had seen no foreign conqueror within its bosom. . M. Ltd. and in the defeat of Tilly beheld the decisive interference of Providence against his enemies. New [378] York. The warlike spirit of its inhabitants. and G. a more lofty tone toward his adversaries. Leav- ing his crown and his country far behind. its many and broad rivers. J. W. Successfully had he confronted the greatest general of the age. Bell & Sons. the artful confederation of its states.THE THIRTY YEARS WAR — THE LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS TRANSLATED BY THE REV. its * Permission The Macmillan London. and in himself the instrument of divine vengeance. His natural courage was further heightened by the pious ardor of his imagination. he advanced on the wings of victory into the heart of Germany. 13111115-^--^ glorious battle of Leipzig effected a great P change in the conduct of Gustavus Adolphus. Co. had long restrained the ambition of its neighbors.. and had matched the strength of his tactics and the courage of his Swedes against the elite of the imperial army. He saw in his own cause that of heaven. the number of its strong castles. the most experienced troops in Europe. even amidst the most unfavorable circumstances. A. and even in his clemency. In all his subsequent operations more boldness and decision are observable. as well as in the opinion which both friends and foes entertained of him. a more dignified bearing toward his allies. and frequently as its extensive frontier had been attacked.A. something of the forbearance of a conqueror.

Co.Copyright Photographische Gesellschaft Permission Berlin Photo.. New York GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS .


LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS interior 379 had been free from hostile invasion. and whether on the banks of the Rhine. that paved the way for the Swedish invader. alone. allies of the King of Sweden It was beyond both Annihilated in a their expectations and their wishes. and the intolerance of religious zeal. as he shattered walls with the thunder of his cannon. or at the mouth of the Lech. he tore asunder the web of the artful policy. was now dissolved. Even now. without a an adversary who was a match for him. while it checked his progress and set bounds to his ambition. moment was that formidable army which. and equally at home in the cabinet and the field. was scarcely greater than the surprise and embarrassment of the at his unexpected success. with as much ease. rendered him in some measure dependent on themselves. which alone had rendered the Empire invincible. which a stronger fear of the Emperor . The consternation of the Emperor and the League at Tilly's defeat at Leipzig. With as much courage as prudence. or check his pretensions. The bond of union between the states. there was no less cause now to fear everything for the Empire from the violence of a foreign conqueror. it was merely the disunion of its members. though invincible from without. If formerly they had dreaded the Emperor's irresistible power. and for the Catholic Church from the religious zeal of a Protestant king. he availed himself of all that the favorable moment afforded. Uninterruptedly he pursued his conquests from one end of Germany to the other. and Gustavus derived from Germany itself the power by which he subdued it. The Empire had hitherto enjoyed the equivocal privilege of being its own enemy. alike maintaining his communication with his hereditary dominions. if the intoxication of success should tempt him to abuse his victory. The distrust and jealousy of some of the combined powers. without breaking the line of posts which commanded a secure retreat at any moment. rival or without Nothing could stop his progress. He now stood in the heart of Germany.

it gave courage to the weaker. powerfully contributed to set . expected the more from the magnanimity of their powerful ally. he was greatly favored by fortune and by circumstances. drew their youth as recruits. and scarcely had Gustavus Adolphus merited. and his respect for the laws. at the same time. enriched himself with booty. While he removed the scene of war into the lands of the League. and particularly with the weaker Protestant states. supplied his troops with necessaries. received into their fortresses. Those who could neither vie with Gustavus Adolphus in importance. it must be owned. their confidence. and prudence made their way through all impediments.380 THE GERMAN CLASSICS had for a time repressed. by his courage and success. his rear. now revived. and emboldened them openly to declare their sentiments and join his party. his own conduct and that of his army in a favorable light. It was these that introduced the king into the heart of Germany. who enriched them with the spoils of their enemies and protected them against the oppression of their stronger neighbors. some brilliant acts of justice. all his more powFrance and Saxony. yet resolution. and the distrust of his own allies. His strength covered their weakness. penetration. while they exposed their own lives in his battles. must his victories henceforth be won. This was the case with most of the free cities. Two great advantages gave him a decided superiority over the enemy. the Spaniards. his popular deportment. inconsiderable in themselves. nor suffer from his ambition. His prudent regard to their national them pride. and the troops of Lorraine. when they began covertly to circumvent plans. Through a continual struggle with the arts of enemies. they acquired weight and influence from their union with the Swedish hero. and. were so many ties by which he bound the German Protestants to his cause while the crying atrocities of the Imperialists. and used the revenues of their fugitive princes as his If . these covered his success excited the jealousy of his But while erful allies. Gustavus Adolphus owed his success chiefly to his own genius.

he traversed Germany as a conqueror. Gustavus Adolphus was irresistible. and a judge. as if to the native sovereign. No fortress was inaccessible. and three fugitive bishops. the inventor as well as the executor of his plans. It was now the turn fled — for Maximilian. the only source from which authority flowed. the soul of his party. then. while the general was separated from the lawgiver and the erals statesman these several functions were united in Gustavus Adolphus. The Swedes and Hessians poured like a torrent into the territories of Mentz. their troops in obedience. at the head of such an army. the Protestants had a centre of unity and harmony. who. the troops of Spain and Lorraine had across the Ehine and the Moselle. while his opponents. suffered dearly for their unfortunate attachment to the Emperor. therefore. the princes of the League. at a distance from their sees. The keys of towns and fortresses were delivered to him. if favored by such advantages. He conquered by the very terror of his name. the operations of their scattered armies without concert. in the midst of conquest. The Swedish standards were planted along the whole stream of the Main: the Lower Palatinate was free.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS resistance and maintained 381 own. Neither the terrible fate of his allies. no river checked his victorious career. in as short a time almost as the tourist of pleasure. which was altogether wanting to their opponents. a lawgiver. and guided by such political prudence. divided among themselves. And. nor the peaceful overtures of Gustavus. while their gen- were deficient in authority. and governed by different and often conflicting interests. In him. acted without unanimity. and Bamberg. No wonder. With the sword in one hand and mercy in the other. with such a genius to direct it. ever held . the sole object to which the eye of the warrior turned. of Wurtzburg. to feel in his own dominions the miseries he had inflicted upon others. moreover. he at once took from the enemy the means of effectual an expensive war with little cost to himself. and therefore without energy. the leader of the League.

. his generals and allies were gaining similar triumphs in the other provinces.382 THE GERMAN CLASSICS out the hand of friendship. In vain did the Emperor look around to the courts of Europe for . and the French in the Electorate of Treves while to the eastward the whole kingdom of Bohemia was conquered by the Saxons. rendered himself formidable. idle in pompous processions and anathemas. and in the heart of Austria a dangerous insurrection was threatened. those ramparts were thrown down. and the fugitive Palatine. Like the banks of the Ehine. William. could conquer the obstinacy of this prince. and the imperial garrisons retired from the banks of the Weser and the Elbe. and instead of the desired subsidy he was shown the devastation of Mantua. On all sides of his extensive monarchy hostile arms surrounded him. . and on which the bigoted violence of the Bavarians seemed troops. now overrun by the enemy. the defeated Elector abandoned to the ravages of the foe his dominions. In Westphalia and the Upper Ehine. The offended Pope sported. Landgrave of Hesse. Frederick V. invincible Munich itself opened its gates to the monarch. in the forsaken residence of his rival. the enemy abandoned Mecklenburg. With the states of the League. hitherto unscathed by war. support in vain did he summon the Spaniards to his assistance. consoled himself for a time for the loss of his dominions. . and the embers of war were now smoldering upon her unguarded fron- . for the bravery of the Flemings afforded them ample employment beyond the Rhine in vain did he call upon the Roman court and the whole church to come to his rescue. The Turks were preparing to attack Hungary. The torrent of war now poured into Bavaria. behind which Austria had so long defended herself. Lower Saxony shook off the yoke of Austria. with the embarrassments of Ferdinand. to invite retaliation. the Duke of Weimar in Thuringia. While Gustavus Adolphus was extending his conquests in the south. those of the Lecke and the Donau were crowded with Swedish Creeping into his fortresses.

The storm of war around Nuremberg. before its walls the hostile gathered armies encamped. A new spirit began from this moment to animate the expiring body of Austria. as success. so it is the guarantee of The danger was extreme.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS tiers. Maximilian of Bavaria. to burst upon the plains of Saxony. it is the consequence. in dismay. 383 were disarmed. gazing on each other with dread and respect. Suddenly the clouds broke. The eyes of Europe turned to the scene in curiosity and alarm. So low had the Emperor now fallen that he was forced to make the most humiliating proposals to his injured subject and servant. struggle. and dispirited by continued misfortunes had unlearnt. object of another name while Nuremberg. that warlike impetuosity His most zealous allies which. and meanly to press upon the imperious Duke of Friedland the acceptance of the powers which no less meanly had been taken from him. the moment that was to close them together in the shock of battle. and the storm rolled away from Franeonia. . a general equally absolute was now opposed and one victorious hero was confronted with another. Liitzen fell the thunder that victory. under beaten generals. longing for. . already almost secured in the hands of Gustavus Adolphus. The most urgent want was that of a general and the only one from whom he could hope for the revival of his former splendor had been removed from his command by an envious cabal. His armies. and yet shrinking from. the was purchased by the death of the king. was to be the ful and a severer trial. was scarce able to defend himself. Near had menaced Nuremberg. his firmest support. To the absolute King of Sweden. and extraordinary means alone could raise the imperial power from the degradation into which it was fallen. and a sudden change in the aspect of affairs bespoke the firm hand which guided them. Both armies were again to engage in the doubt. weakened by desertion and repeated defeat. expected soon to lend its to a more decisive battle than that of Leipzig. half lost. and the prize of victory.

which had never forsaken him in his lifetime. He had here no despicable foe to contend with. or maintained his title to the admiration with which posterity regards him as the first and only just conqueror that the world has produced. and by a series of disasters is driven to the most humiliating and desperate expedients. with the rare privilege of falling in the fulness of his glory and an untarnished fame. As soon as the plan of operations had been concerted at Halle. I be permitted to take a cursory retrospect of Gustavus Adolphus in his victorious career. had he lived longer. his protecting genius rescued him from the inevitable fate of man that of formoderation in the intoxication of success. no loss of a single man is irreparable. The untimely fall of their great leader seemed to threaten the ruin of his party: but to the Power which rules the world. may now history of the Emperor. Swabia. the Emperor with was still powerful. and preparations made for the recovery of the bishopric of Magdeburg. glance at the scene in which he alone was the great actor and then. Destiny still pursued its relentless course. it was seized by two great statesmen. imperial garrisons were posted. to return to the . and for full sixteen years longer the flames of war blazed over the ashes of the long-forgotten king and soldier. and the Palatinate. and jusgetting tice in the plenitude of power. he would still have deserved the tears which Germany shed over his grave. between the King of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony as soon as the . alliance had been concluded with the neighboring princes of Weimar and Anhalt.384 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Fortune. throughout Franconia. the king began his march into the empire. favored the King of Sweden even in his death. It may be doubted whether. when Austria becomes reduced to extremity by the successes of the Swedes. By a timely death. Oxenstiern and — Richelieu. whom must the possession of every place of importance be disputed sword in hand. Within the empire. As the helm of war dropped from the hand of the falling hero. On the Rhine he was .

the Protestant party among the citizens without a blow. Ill — 25 . as of every the citadel. Emissaries were dispatched to gain over to the Swedish side the principal free cities. seized all its strong the pasplaces. and where the mere change of yoke seemed to promise a relief. he might depend on the active support of the Protestants. The ravages of the Imperialists and Spanish troops also powerfully aided him in these quarters where the ill-treated husbandman and citizen alike sighed for a deliverer. sufficient garrison. to be was Erfurt. The first that lay in the king's march. while his connection with France did not leave him at liberty to act with freedom against the Roman Catholics. and having delivered. while he would bring against them one by one his whole united force. and which he could not leave unoccupied in his rear. He also left his queen in Erfurt. and would everywhere dispute with sage over the river. in its march. while he secured its possession by a To his ally. who was fast Mm recruiting his force. the gates of the town and the inhabitants of this. and same time the means by which they were to be overcome. and their hatred to Austrian oppression. In his rear was Tilly. and the awe in which the lesser states regarded the Emperor's power. and promised to increase its privileges. who had overrun the territory of the banished Elector Palatine. The strength of the Imperialists was broken and divided among different garrisons. Here opened to him. he intrusted the command of an army to be raised in Thuringia. by Gotha and Arnstadt. If he was at the opposed by the fanaticism of the Roman Catholics. Every Papist presented an inveterate foe. Gustavus had foreseen all these obstacles. and would soon be joined by the auxiliaries from Lorraine. the county of HenneVol. he exacted an oath of allegiance. The Swedish army now crossed the Thuringian forest in two columns. particularly Nuremberg and Frankfort. From important place which afterward submitted. Duke William of Weimar.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 385 opposed by the Spaniards.

from the sanguinary fanaticism of the Swedes. and the most zealous member of the League. ever entirely effaced. which neither the repeated assurances of the king. the bitter enemy of the Protestants. while his soldiers found a still more agreeable one in the prelate's well-filled cellars. on the frontiers of Franconia. formed a junction on the third day near Koenigshofen. nor the most splendid examples of humanity and toleration. surrendered. their religion. abandoned by their Imperial garrisons. if possible. The Bishops of Wiirtzburg and Bamberg trembled in their they already saw their sees tottering. Many of the richest Roman Catholics hastened to secure by flight their property. A few threats gained for the Swedes possession of his fortress of Koenigshofen. and with it the key of the whole province. The further progress of Gustavus Adolphus in the ecclesiastical territories agreed with this brilliant commencement. Bishop of Wiirtzburg. Francis. was the first to feel the indignation of Gustavus Adolphus. The king found a valuable prize in the library of the Jesuits. the French ministry against the common enemy of religion. and soon afterward Wiirtzburg. his treasures the . Many feared to suffer at the hands of another what in similar circumstances they were conscious of inflicting themselves. Schweinfurt. and their religion degraded. which was believed to be impregnable. their churches profaned. the enemy had collected a large store of provisions and ammunition. In the midst of the alarm. which his bigoted zeal had caused. all of which fell into the hands of the Swedes. At the news of tins rapid conquest.386 THE GERMAN CLASSICS berg from the Imperialists. and their persons. and fled to Paris. which he sent to Upsal. In this place. but Marienberg he was obliged to carry by storm. he abandoned his dominions. The bishop himself set the example. of the persecuting spirit and the mode of warfare pursued by the Swedish king and his soldiers. dismay seized all the Eoman Catholic towns of the circle. The malice of his enemies had circulated the most frightful representations castles . to excite.

But. the League had no second army to fall back upon. whither he had marched tory. he opened the churches to the Protestant people. Duke which compelled him to inactivity. he earnestly requested permission from the of Bavaria to give battle to Gustavus Adolphus. reinforced himself from the garrisons of Lower Saxony. with his army. On the first news of the Swedish irruption. one-half of whose members were Protestants. in the meantime. The king compelled all the bishop's subjects to swear allegiance to himself. their is humane leader not justly responsible. Thus his march to Franconia was delayed. It was a sacred principle of Gustavus to spare the blood of his enemies. Tilly burned with impatience to wipe out the stain of his first defeat by a splendid vicFrom his camp at Fulda. That defeated commander had. as well as that of his own troops. had earnestly pressed the general of the League to hasten to the assistance of the bishopric. Tilly read the commands of his superior. and Maximilian was too cautious to risk again the fate of his party on a single battle.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 387 bishop had in good time removed. In every Roman Catholic town which Gustavus took. collected on the Weser the shattered remnant of his army. but without retaliating on the Papists the cruelties which they had practised on the former. or defenceless. and Gustavus Adolphus gained . and for the occasional acts of violence committed by a few of the more lawless soldiers. the Bishop of Wiirtzburg. in the blind rage of the first attack. Again at the head of a considerable force. were the fearful rights of war enforced. in the absence of the lawful sovereign. and. Those who were peaceably disposed. With tears in his eyes. On such only as sword in hand refused to submit. were treated with mildness. without regarding the treaty which he had entered into with the King of Sweden. who commanded under him. and effected a junction in Hesse with Altringer and Fugger. and submitted to the Swedes. appointed a regency. The whole bishopric followed the example of the capital. in the event of Tilly's defeat.

and Maximilian of relief Bavaria was generally blamed (and not without cause. Against the cipline . and in the pursuit of a visionary phantom in another country. marched with an overwhelming force to the The town and citadel were of Wiirtzburg. It was in vain that Tilly. If these troops were deficient in dis- and courage.000 men from Lorraine. however. Austria willingly conceded to him. and took the direction of the Bergstrasse. Commanded to avoid a battle. perhaps) for having. left undefended his own dominions. occasioned the loss of the bishopric. in the hope of obtaining from the Emperor the electoral dignity. Intoxicated with vain hopes. Duke of Lorraine. already in the hands of the Swedes. was not the sole enemy whom Gustavus Adolphus met in Franconia and drove before him. Deaf to the suggestions of a rational policy. Charles. they were at least attractive by the splendor of their accoutrements and however sparing they were of their prowess against the foe. ventured to raise a weak arm against the Swedish hero. Baffled in an attempt to reinforce the weak garrison of Hanau. to protect the Palatinate from the conqueror. of the towns from the impetuosity of the Swedes. the honor of being ruined in her cause. by Ms scruples. by supporting the Emperor he exasperated France. celebrated in the annals of the time for his unsteadiness of character. and his misfortunes. he crossed the Main. his vain projects. reinforced at Aschaffenburg by a body of 12. near Seligenstadt. . they were liberal enough with it against the defenceless citizens and peasantry whom they were summoned to defend.000 men. as well as to the other princes of the League. his formidable neighbor. Tilly contented himself with checking the farther advance of the enemy but he could save only a few . this prince collected a force of 17. which were instantly overrun by a French army. which it was highly important to the Swedes to gain. he listened only to the dictates of heated ambition.388 THE GERMAN CLASSICS time to overrun the whole bishopric. which he proposed to lead in person against the Swedes. Tilly.

readily accepted the bishop's proposals and named the conditions on which he was willing to save his territories from hostile treatment. by a submissive written apology. He was the more inclined to peace. as he had no time to to lose in the conquest of called him to the Rhine. the duke hurried home by Strasburg. he might easily have extorted from the weak and terrified bishop. in a village on the Rhine a peasant struck the horse of the duke as he rode past. too honorable himself suspect dishonesty in another. It is related upon this occasion that. exclaiming. though these Haste. who had first beaten him out of the field and then called upon him to account for his hostilities. he made offers of peace. On the first advance of the Swedish cavalry a panic seized them. by a longer residence in Franconia. and they were driven without difficulty from their cantonments in Wiirtzburg.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 389 bravery and the formidable discipline of the Swedes this splendidly attired army. the indignation of his conqueror. too fortunate in escaping. and his other designs The rapidity with which he folcost him the loss of those pecuniary lowed up these plans supplies which. however. made no long stand. and the scattered remnant sought a covert from the Swedish valor in the towns beyond the Rhine. " of King Sweden!" The example of his neighbors' misfortunes had taught the Bishop of Bamberg prudence. By this stratagem. This artful prelate broke off the negotiation the instant the storm of war passed away from his own terri- No sooner had Gustavus marched onward than he threw himself under the protection of Tilly. and retories. Gustavus Adolphus. Sir. however. To avert the plundering of his territories. Bamberg. Loaded with shame and ridicule. you must go quicker to escape the great were intended only to delay the king's course till the arrival of assistance. the defeat of a few regiments occasioned a general rout. . ceived the troops of the Emperor into the very towns and fortresses which shortly before he had shown himself ready to open to the Swedes.

He himself with his main army. Following the course of the Main. emboldened the nobility and other inhabitants of this circle to declare in his favor. he subjected. and the rigorous honesty of the Swedish soldiers in their dealings with the inhabitants. in which he condescended to apologize for his hostile appearance in their dominions. Swedish general who had been left in Franconia. The high esteem which the nobility of the circle felt for Gustavus. and the humane conduct of the Swedish king. recruits flocked to his standard from all quarters. the respect and admiration with which they regarded his brilliant exploits. and the Franconian nobles were won to his cause by flattering proclamations. to complete and retain his conquest. The formidable presence of the Imperialists had hitherto been a check upon the Franconian States but their retreat. The imperial garrisons seldom awaited his approach. with a force of 8. Nuremberg joyfully committed itself to his proalike . and was ravaged A . in the course of his march.000 men. to disarm the ecclesiastical electors. and to obtain from their fertile territories new resources for the prosecution of the war. the promises of rich booty which the tection. The king had scarcely spent more time in conquering Franconia than he would have required to cross it. The fertility of Franconia. the whole territory on both sides of the river. Seligenstadt. greatly facilitated the of his troops a step which was made necessary recruiting by detaching so many garrisons from the main body.390 THE GERMAN CLASSICS he delayed only for a brief interval the ruin of his bishopric. At service of this . reinforced by the late recruits. one of his best generals. by friends and foes. AschafTenburg. He now left behind him Gustavus Horn. the sound of his drums. Steinheim. monarch held out. and never . undertook to punish the perfidy of the bishop and the ecclesiastical territory became the seat of war. hastened toward the Rhine in order to secure this frontier of the empire from the Spaniards. brought abundance to the camp of the king.



attempted resistance. In the meanwhile one of his colonels had been fortunate enough to take by surprise the town and citadel of Hanau, for whose preservation Tilly had shown such anxiety. Eager to be free of the oppressive burden of the Imperialists, the Count of Hanau gladly placed himself under the milder yoke of the King of Sweden. Gustavus Adolphus now turned his whole attention to Frankfort, for it was his constant maxim to cover his rear by the friendship and possession of the more important towns. Frankfort was among the free cities which, even from Saxony, he had endeavored to prepare for his reception and he now called upon it, by a summons from Offenbach, to allow him free passage and to admit a Swedish Willingly would this city have dispensed with garrison. the necessity of choosing between the King of Sweden and the Emperor; for, whatever party they might embrace, the inhabitants had a like reason to fear for their privileges and trade. The Emperor's vengeance would certainly fall heavily upon them, if they were in a hurry to submit to the King of Sweden, and afterward he should prove unable to protect his adherents in Germany. But still more ruinous for them would be the displeasure of an irresistible con;

was already before their gates, and who might punish their opposition by the In vain did their ruin of their commerce and prosperity. the danger which menaced their fairs, their deputies plead privileges, perhaps their constitution itself, if, by espousqueror, who, with a formidable army,

ing the party of the Swedes, they were to incur the Emperor's displeasure. Gustavus Adolphus expressed to them his astonishment that, when the liberties of Germany and the Protestant religion were at stake, the citizens of Frankfort should talk of their annual fairs, and postpone for temporal interests the great cause of their country and He had, he continued, in a menacing their conscience.
tone, found the keys of every town and fortress, from the Isle of Rugen to the Main, and knew also where to find a



Frankfort; the safety of Germany, and the freedom



" The inhabitants of Frankfort, he was well wished to stretch out only a finger to him, but he aware, must have the whole hand in order to have something to grasp." At the head of the army, he closely followed the deputies as they carried back his answer, and in order of battle awaited, near Saxenhausen, the decision of the
to the Swedes, it was from fear of the Emperor their own inclinations did not allow them a moment to doubt between the oppressor of Germany and its protector. The menacing preparations amidst which Gustavus Adolphus now compelled them to decide, would lessen the guilt of their revolt in the eyes of the Emperor, and by an appearance of compulsion justify the step which they willingly took. The gates were therefore opened to the King of Sweden, who marched his army through this imperial town in magnificent procession and

of the Protestant Church, were, he assured them, the sole objects of his invasion conscious of the justice of his cause, he was determined not to allow any obstacle to impede his


Frankfort hesitated to submit


in admirable order.

garrison of 600 men was left in while the king himself advanced the same Saxenhausen; evening, with the rest of his army, against the town of Hochst in Mentz, which surrendered to him before night. While Gustavus was thus extending his conquests along the Main, fortune crowned also the efforts of his generals


north of Germany. Rostock, Wismar, and Doemitz, the only strong places in the Duchy of Mecklenburg which still sighed under the yoke of the Imperialists, were recovered by their legitimate sovereign, the Duke John Albert, under the Swedish general, Achatius Tott. In vain did the imperial general, Wolf Count von Mansfeld, endeavor to recover from the Swedes the territories of Halberstadt, of which they had taken possession immediately upon the victory of Leipzic; he was even compelled to leave Magdeburg itself in their hands. The Swedish general, Banner, who with 8,000 men remained upon the
allies in the



39^ o

Elbe, closely blockaded that city, and had defeated several imperial regiments which had been sent to its relief. Count

Mansf eld defended

in person with great resolution but T his garrison being too w eak to oppose for any length of time the numerous force of the besiegers, he was already

about to surrender on conditions, when Pappenheim advanced to his assistance, and gave employment elsewhere to the Swedish arms. Magdeburg, however, or rather the wretched huts that peeped out miserably from among the ruins of that once great town, was afterward voluntarily abandoned by the Imperialists and immediately taken possession of

by the Swedes.

Even Lower Saxony, encouraged by the progress of the king, ventured to raise its head from the disasters of the unfortunate Danish war. They held a congress at Hamand resolved upon raising three regiments, which burg, they hoped would be sufficient to free them from the The Bishop of oppressive garrisons of the Imperialists. Bremen, a relation of Gustavus Adolphus, was not content
even with this but assembled troops of his own, and terrified the unfortunate monks and priests of the neighborhood, but was quickly compelled by the imperial general, Count Even George, Duke of Gronsfeld, to lay down his arms. a colonel in the Emperor's service, Liineburg, formerly embraced the party of Gustavus, for whom he raised several regiments, and by occupying the attention of the Im;

perialists in

Lower Saxony, materially

assisted him.

But more important service was rendered to the king by the Landgrave William of Hesse Cassel, whose victorious arms struck with terror the greater part of Westphalia and Lower Saxony, the bishopric of Fulda, and even the Electorate of Cologne. It has been already stated that immediately after the conclusion of the alliance between the Land-

grave and Gustavus Adolphus at Werben, two imperial generals, Fugger and Altringer, were ordered by Tilly to

march into Hesse, to punish the Landgrave for his revolt from the Emperor. But this prince had as firmly with-



stood the arms of bis enemies, as his subjects had the proclamations of Tilly inciting them to rebellion, and the battle
of Leipzic presently relieved him of their presence. He availed himself of their absence with courage and resolution; in a short time, Vach, Miinden and Hoexter surrendered to him, while his rapid advance alarmed the bishoprics of Fulda, Paderborn, and the ecclesiastical territories which The terrified states hastened by a bordered on Hesse. speedy submission to set limits to his progress, and by

considerable contributions to purchase exemption from plunder. After these successful enterprises, the Land-

grave united his victorious army with that of Gustavus Adolphus, and concerted with him at Frankfort their future plan of operations. In this city, a number of princes and ambassadors were assembled to congratulate Gustavus on his success, and either to conciliate his favor or to appease his indignation.

Among them was

the fugitive



Bohemia, the Pala-

tine Frederick V., who had hastened from Holland to throw himself into the arms of his avenger and protector. Gustavus gave him the unprofitable honor of greeting him as a

crowned head, and endeavored, by a respectful sympathy, to soften his sense of his misfortunes. But great as the which Frederick had promised himself advantages were, from the power and good fortune of his protector and high as were the expectations he had built on his justice and

magnanimity, the chance of

this unfortunate prince's reinThe statement in his kingdom was as distant as ever. inactivity and contradictory policies of the English court had abated the zeal of Gustavus Adolphus, and an irritability which he could not always repress made him on this occasion forget the glorious vocation of protector of the oppressed, in which, on his invasion of Germany, he had so

loudly announced himself. The terrors of the king's irresistible strength, and the near prospect of his vengeance, had also compelled George, Landgrave of Hesse Darmstadt, to a timely submission.



His connection with the Emperor, and his indifference to the Protestant cause, were no secret to the king, but he was As the satisfied with laughing at so impotent an enemy. Landgrave knew his own strength and the political situation of Germany so little as to offer himself as mediator between the contending parties, Gustavus used jestingly to He was frequently heard to say, call him the peacemaker. when at play he was winning from the Landgrave, " that


money afforded double satisfaction, as it was Imperial To his affinity with the Elector of Saxony, whom

Gustavus had cause to treat with forbearance, the Landgrave was indebted for the favorable terms he obtained

from the king, who contented himself with the surrender of his fortress of Russelheim and his promise of observing a strict neutrality during the war. The Counts of Westerwald and Wetterau also visited the king in Frankfort, to offer him their assistance against the Spaniards, and to conclude an alliance, which was afterward of great service The town of Frankfort itself had reason to rejoice to him. at the presence of this monarch, who took their commerce under his protection, and by the most effectual measures restored the fairs, which had been greatly interrupted by
the war.

The Swedish army was now reinforced by ten thousand Hessians, which the Landgrave of Casse commanded. Gustavus Adolphus had already invested Konigstein; Kostheim and Florsheim surrendered after a short siege; he was in command of the Main and transports were prepar;

ing with all speed at Hochst to carry his troops across the Rhine. These preparations filled the Elector of Mentz, Anselm Casimir, with consternation; and he no longer doubted but that the storm of war would next fall upon him.

As a partisan of the Emperor, and one of the most active members of the League, he could expect no better treatment than his confederates, the Bishops of Wiirtzburg and Bamberg,

had already experienced. The situation of his territories upon the Rhine made it necessary for the enemy to



secure them, while their fertility afforded an irresistible temptation to a necessitous army. Miscalculating his own strength and that of his adversaries, the Elector nattered

himself that he was able to repel force by force, and weary out the valor of the Swedes by the strength of his fortresses. He ordered the fortifications of his capital to be repaired with all diligence, provided it with every neces-

sary for sustaining a long siege, and received into the town a garrison of 2,000 Spaniards, under Don Philip de Sylva. To prevent the approach of the Swedish transports, he endeavored to close the mouth of the Main by driving piles and sinking large heaps of stones and vessels. He
himself, however, accompanied by the Bishop of Worms, and carrying with him his most precious effects, took

refuge in Cologne, and abandoned his capital and terriBut these tories to the rapacity of a tyrannical garrison. which bespoke less of true courage than of preparations, weak and overweening confidence, did not prevent the

Swedes from marching against Mentz and making serious preparations for an attack upon the city. While one body

poured into the Rheingau, routed the Spanthere, and levied contributions on the another laid the Roman Catholic towns in inhabitants, Westerwald and Wetterau under similar contributions. The main army had encamped at Cassel, opposite Mentz; and Bernhard, Duke of Weimar, made himself master of the Mausethurm and the Castle of Ehrenfels, on the other Gustavus was now actively preparing side of the Rhine. to cross the river and to blockade the town on the land side, when the movements of Tilly in Franconia suddenly called him from the siege, and obtained for the Elector a short
of their troops

who remained


The danger of Nuremberg, which, during the absence of Gustavus Adolphus on the Rhine, Tilly had made a show of besieging, and, in the event of resistance, threatened with
the cruel fate of
to retire

Magdeburg, occasioned the king suddenly from before Mentz. Lest he should expose him-



a second time to the reproaches of Germany, and the disgrace of abandoning a confederate city to a ferocious On enemy, he hastened to its relief by forced marches. his arrival at Frankfort, however, he heard of its spirited resistance, and of the retreat of Tilly, and lost not a moment in prosecuting his designs against Mentz. Failing
in an attempt to cross the Rhine at Cassel, under the cannon of the besieged, he directed his march toward the Bergstrasse, with a view of approaching the town from an opposite quarter. Here he quickly made himself master of all the places of importance, and at Stockstadt, between Gernsheim and Oppenheim, appeared a second time upon the banks of the Rhine. The whole of the Bergstrasse was abandoned by the Spaniards, who endeavored obstinately to defend the other bank of the river. For this purpose, they had burned or sunk all the vessels in the neighborhood, and arranged a formidable force on the banks, in case the king

should attempt the passage at that place. On this occasion, the king's impetuosity exposed him to In great danger of falling into the hands of the enemy. order to reconnoitre the opposite bank, he crossed the river in a small boat; he had scarcely landed when he was attacked by a party of Spanish horse, from whose hands he saved himself only by a precipitate retreat. Having at

with the assistance of the neighboring fishermen, succeeded in procuring a few transport, he dispatched two of them across the river, bearing Count Brahe and 300 Swedes. Scarcely had this officer time to intrench himself on the opposite bank, when he was attacked by 14 squadrons of Spanish dragoons and cuirassiers. Superior as the enemy was in numbers, Count Brahe, with his small force, bravely defended himself, and gained time for the king to The Spaniards at last support him with fresh troops. retired with the loss of 600 men, some taking refuge in lion of marble on a Oppenheim, and others in Mentz. high pillar, holding a naked sword in his paw, and a helmet on his head, was erected seventy years after the event, to




point out to the traveler the spot where the immortal monarch crossed the great river of Germany. Gustavus Adolphus now conveyed his artillery and the

greater part of his troops over the river, and laid siege to Oppenheim, which, after a brave resistance, was, on December 8, 1631, carried by storm. Five hundred Spanso courageously defended the place, fell indiscriminately a sacrifice to the fury of the Swedes. The crossing of the Rhine by Gustavus struck terror into the

who had

Spaniards and Lorrainers, who had thought themselves protected by the river from the vengeance of the Swedes. Rapid flight was now their only security; every place incapable of an effectual defence was immediately abandoned. After a long train of outrages on the defenceless citizens, the troops of Lorraine evacuated Worms, which, before their departure, they treated with wanton cruelty. The Spaniards hastened to shut themselves up in Frankenthal, where they hoped to defy the victorious arms of Gustavus Adolphus. The king lost no time in prosecuting his designs against Mentz, into which the flower of the Spanish troops had thrown themselves. While he advanced on the left bank of the Rhine, the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel moved forward on the other, reducing several strong places on his The besieged Spaniards, though hemmed in on march.
both sides, displayed at first a bold determination, and threw, for several days, a shower of bombs into the Swedish camp, which cost the king many of his bravest soldiers. But
notwithstanding, the Swedes continually gained ground, and had at last advanced so close to the ditch that they

The courage prepared seriously for storming the place. now began to droop. They trembled before of the besieged the furious impetuosity of the Swedish soldiers, of which Marienberg, in Wiirtzburg, had afforded so fearful an example. The same dreadful fate awaited Mentz, if taken by storm and the enemy might even be easily tempted to revenge the carnage of Magdeburg on this rich and mag;

nificent residence of a


Roman Catholic prince. To save the town, rather than their own lives, the Spanish garrison capitulated on the fourth day, and obtained from the

magnanimity of Gustavus a safe conduct


the greater part of them, however, following the example of many others, enlisted in the service of Sweden.

On the 13th of December, 1631, the king made his entry into the conquered town, and fixed his quarters in the palace of the Elector. Eighty pieces of cannon fell into his hands, and the citizens were obliged to redeem their
property from pillage by a payment of 80,000 florins. The benefits of this redemption did not extend to the Jews and
the clergy, who were obliged to make large and separate contributions for themselves. The library of the Elector

was seized by the king as

his share,

and presented by him

chancellor, Oxenstiern, Academy of Westerrah, but the vessel in


who intended

for the



shipped to Sweden foundered at sea. After the loss of Mentz, misfortune still pursued the Spaniards on the Rhine. Shortly before the capture of that city, the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel had taken Falken-

and Reifenberg, and the fortress of Koningstein surrendered to the Hessians. The Rhinegrave, Otto Louis, one of the king's generals, defeated nine Spanish squadrons who were on their march for Frankenthal, and made himself master of the most important towns upon the Rhine, from Boppart to Bacharach. After the capture of the fortress of Braunfels, which was effected bv the Count of "Wetterau, with the cooperation of the Swedes, the Spanstein

iards quickly lost every place in Wetterau, while in the Palatine they retained few places besides Frankenthal.

Landau and Kronweisenberg openly declared for the Swedes Spires offered troops for the king's service Mannheim was gained through the prudence of the Duke Bernard


the negligence of its governor, who, for this misconduct, was tried before the council of war, at

Weimar and

Heidelberg, and beheaded.



The king had protracted the campaign into the depth of winter, and the severity of the season was perhaps one
cause of the advantage his soldiers gained over those of the enemy. But the exhausted troops now stood in need of the repose of winter quarters, winch, after the surrender
of Mentz, Gustavus assigned to them in its neighborhood. He himself employed the interval of inactivity in the field,

which the season of the year enjoined, in arranging, with
his chancellor, the affairs of his cabinet, in treating for a neutrality with some of his enemies, and adjusting some
political disputes


which had sprung up with a neighboring chose the city of Mentz for his winter quarters,

and the settlement of these

greater partiality for this with the interests of the German princes, or the shortness of his visit to the Empire. Not content with strongly forhe erected at the opposite angle which the Main tifying it, forms with the Rhine, a new citadel, which was named Gustavusburg from its founder, but which is better known under the title of Pfaffenraub or Pfaffenzwang.* While Gustavus Adolphus made himself master of the Rhine, and threatened the three neighboring electorates with his victorious arms, his vigilant enemies in Paris and St. Germain's made use of every artifice to deprive him of
the support of France, and, if possible, to involve him in a war with that power. By his sudden and equivocal march to the Rhine, he had surprised his friends, and furnished

and showed a town than seemed consistent
state affairs,

means of exciting a distrust of his After the conquest of Wiirtzburg, and of the greater part of Franconia, the road into Bavaria and Austria lay open to him through Bamberg and the Upper Palatinate and the expectation was as general, as it was natural, that he would not delay to attack the Emperor and the Duke of Bavaria in the very centre of their power, and, by the reduction of his two principal enemies, bring the
his enemies with the






alluding to the means by which the expense of its


had been defrayed.

war immediately


But to the surprise of both to an end. Gustavus left the path which general expectation parties, had thus marked out for him and instead of advancing to the right, turned to the left, to make the less important and more innocent princes of the Ehine feel his power, while he gave time to his more formidable opponents to recruit

their strength. Nothing but the paramount design of reinstating the unfortunate Palatine, Frederick V., in the possession of his territories, by the expulsion of the Spaniards,

that Gustavus

could seem to account for this strange step and the belief was about to effect that restoration silenced

for a while the suspicions of his friends and the calumnies of his enemies. But the Lower Palatinate was now almost
entirely cleared of the enemy; and yet Gustavus continued to form new schemes of conquest on the Rhine, and to with-

hold the reconquered country from the Palatine, its rightful owner. In vain did the English ambassador remind

him of what justice demanded, and what his own solemn engagement made a duty of honor; Gustavus replied to these demands with bitter complaints of the inactivity of the English court, and prepared to carry his victorious standard into Alsace, and even into Lorraine. A distrust of the Swedish monarch was now loud and
most injurious reports as
open, while the malice of his enemies busily circulated the to his intentions. Richelieu, the minister of Louis XIII., had long witnessed with anxiety the king's progress toward the French frontier, and the
to the evil surmises

suspicious 'temper of Louis rendered him but too accessible which the occasion gave rise to. France
at this time involved in a civil


war with her Protestant

subjects, and the fear was not altogether groundless that the approach of a victorious monarch of their party might revive their drooping spirit, and encourage them to a more desperate resistance. This might be the case, even if Gus-

tavus Adolphus was far from showing a disposition to encourage them, or to act unfaithfully toward his ally, the King of France. But the vindictive Bishop of Wiirtzburg,
Vol. Ill

— 26


to avenge the loss of his dominions, the rhetoric of the Jesuits and the active zeal of

who was anxious

the Bavarian minister, represented this dreaded alliance between the Huguenots and the Swedes as an undoubted



the timid


of Louis with the

most alarm-

ing fears.

Not merely chimerical

politicians, but



Catholics, fully believed that the was on the point of breaking into the heart of France, king to make common cause with the Huguenots, and to overturn

the best informed


the Catholic religion within the kingdom. Fanatical zealots already saw him, with his army, crossing the Alps, and

dethroning the Vice-regent of Christ in Italy. Such reports no doubt soon refute themselves; yet it cannot be denied that Gustavus, by his manoeuvres on the Rhine, gave a dangerous handle to the malice of his enemies, and in some measure justified the suspicion that he directed his arms, not so much against the Emperor and the Duke of Bavaria,
as against the


Catholic religion


the Jesuits raised in all the Catholic courts against the alliance between France and the enemy of the church, at last compelled Carhis religion,

The general clamor of discontent which

dinal Richelieu to take a decisive step for the security of and at once to convince the Roman Catholic

world of the zeal of France, and of the selfish policy of the ecclesiastical states of Germany. Convinced that the views of the King of Sweden, like his own, aimed solely at the
humiliation of the power of Austria, he hesitated not to promise to the princes of the League, on the part of Sweden, a complete neutrality, immediately they abandoned their
alliance with the Emperor and withdrew their troops. Whatever the resolution these princes should adopt, Richelieu would equally attain his object. By their separation from the Austrian interest, Ferdinand would be exposed to the combined attack of France and Sweden; and Gustavus Adolphus, freed from his other enemies in Germany, would be able to direct his undivided force against the

hereditary dominions of Austria.

In that event, the


to the King of Sweden at sent. the Marquis of Breze was as his plenipotentiary. by would frustrate the measures employed for their protection. the princes of the League persisted in their opposition and adhered to the Austrian alliance. assisting it. . as first began to entertain suspicion entered immediately into a secret alliance Emperor. and performed her duty as a member of the Roman Church. as he was disabled. the result would indeed be more doubtful. in the event of any change in the Emperor's sentiments. alone. had no resource left but to endeavor to put a speedy termination to their hostilities. The princes of the evils. Mentz. embarrassed by this conflicting alliance with two hostile powers. But though the origin of the treaty already stated. he hoped to secure the possession of the Palatinate. by his treaty with Sweden. of the when he clearly showed against what enemy milian now thought proper of King it was directed. Richelieu pursued this plan with greater zeal. by which. But tions to both. to learn his sentiments on this point. the more he was embarrassed by the repeated demands of the Elector of Bavaria for assistance from France. and obstinate adherence to the Empercr. with all diligence. and as little inclined to sacrifice Bavaria. on the other hand.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS of Austria 403 great object of Richelieu 's policy would be gained without injury to the church. Maximake use of it against the Sweden. If. but still France inevitable. and themselves in ruin. he set himself. and to procure from him favorable conditions for the allied princes. and did not hesitate to demand from to France that assistance against her ally which she had simply promised against Austria. to bring about a neutrality as the only means of fulfilling his obliga- from For this purpose. involve the church in danger. this was and would have sufficiently proved to all Europe the sincerity of her attachment to the Catholic cause. League would then appear the sole authors of those which the continuance of the war would unavoidably bring upon the their wilful Roman Catholics of Germany they . with France. Richelieu. for this prince.

But at the very time when this monarch was receiving from the French agents repeated assurances of the favorable progress of the negotiation. provisions. Gustavus had agreed to a cessation of hostilities for a fortnight. and from all the Protestant countries. at the expense of the advantages he had already obtained. by which he was likely to gain so little.404 if THE GERMAN CLASSICS Louis XIII. Hard as the conditions were. and He required of the whole League a suited to these views. Convinced by numerous proofs that the hatred of the princes of the League to the Protestant religion was invincible. an intercepted letter from the Elector to Pappenheim. as having no other object in view by the whole negotiation than to gain time for his measures of defence. the imperial general in Westphalia. The conditions. had powerful motives for wishing for this neutrality. as he was constrained to carry on the war in Germany at the expense of the enemy. It was not surprising. the French mediator flattered himself he should be able to induce the Elector of Bavaria to accept them. if Guslittle inclination to purchase the neutrality of the League. which the victor thus imposed upon the vanquished. he apprehended less danger from hostility than from a neutrality which was so little in unison with their real inclinations. from the conquered towns. In order to give time for an accommodation. and from supplies either of men. therefore. . he manifestly sustained great loss if he diminished their number without increasing that of his friends. and their attachment to the House of Austria irrevocable. Gustavus Adolphus had as grave reasons for desiring the contrary. more- their open over. accordingly. their aversion to the foreign power of the Swedes inextinguishable. upon which he offered to tavus evinced adopt the neutrality toward Bavaria were severe. and. the reduction their troops of their military force the exclusion of the imperial armies from their territories. full and entire cessation from all hostilities. revealed the perfidy of that prince. the recall of from the imperial army. or ammunition. Far from intending to fetter his military oper- .

LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS his preparations. the artful prince hastened and employed the leisure which his enemy making the most active dispositions for resistance. with which he threatened to overrun Franconia. he took refuge in the protection of France. and Gustavus himself completed his troops To the conquest of this district by the capture of Kreutznach. Philip von Zeltern. force. the king's generals had entirely cleared the territory of Mentz of the Spanish garrisons. Gustavus Adolphus had made an offer of neutrality to the Elector of Treves. urgently required the king's presence in that circle but it was necessary to expel previously the Spaniards from the Rhine. afforded him. and served only to increase the animosity of the Bavarians and the Tilly's Swedes. the chancellor Oxenstiern was left with a division of the army upon the Middle Rhine. But unwillingly as the Elector had beheld the Spaniards within his territories. he was still less disposed to commit his estates to the suspicious protection of a heretic. was not appeased till he had obtained a free passage for which had moved the Elector through Treves. and to gain for her an important ally on to the German frontier. But the object to this bold step was not comfor the offended pride of Gustavus Adolphus pletely gained. The negotiation accordingly failed. and to make the Swedish conqueror master of his destinies. Pending these negotiations with Treves and France. in 405 ations by a truce with Sweden. and a free passage granted to his troops through Coblentz. A numerous French army was dispatched to protect the territory of Treves. augmented . With his usual prudence. on condition that the fortress of Hermanstein should be delivered up to him. protect these conquests. . With this view. Eichelieu profited by the embarrassments of this prince to augment the power of France. and to cut off their means of invading Germany from the Netherlands. Too weak maintain his independence between two such powerful competitors. and a French garrison was received into Ehrenbreitstein.

In a short time. and compelled him to provide for his own safety by a rapid retreat. in particular. the king had left to his general the chastisement of the bishop. abanits imperial garrison. whose . and the activity of Horn justified the choice. put a stop to Tilly's conquests. but was obliged. and it was with difficulty that the troops. he subdued the greater part of the bishopric. but Tilly. panic which suddenly seized his troops. Firmly resolved to maintain his conquest even against this overwhelming force. under the king himself. been with variable success between Count Tilly and disputed the Swedish General Horn. they amounted to nearly . Fully empowered by his master's order to restore the bishop to his possessions. opened the gates to the enemy. to yield to the vanguard of Tilly what he had thought to be able to dispute with his whole army.000 men and the Bishopric of Bamberg. The banished bishop urgently demanded assistance from the Elector of Bavaria. The reconquest of Bamberg was the fruit of this victory. was unable to overtake the Swedish general. and artillery were saved. bag- doned by A gage. After his junction with Gustavus Horn. Banner. in the meantime. was carried by storm.406 THE GERMAN CLASSICS its while the main body. and Duke William of Weimar. and which no presence of mind of their general could check. Horn awaited the enemy within the walls of Bamberg. The king made a general review of his troops at Aschaffenburg. who retired in good order behind the Main. and the capital itself. who were scattered over the Upper Palatinate. of this circle had. The possession perfidy had excited his indignation. who was at length persuaded to put an end to Tilly's inactivity. Called away to the Rhine by his other projects. The king's appear- ance in Franconia. and with an army of 20.000 men advanced upon Bamberg. this general collected his troops. was at once the prize and the scene of their struggle. began march against the enemy in Franconia. with all his activity. and his junction with Gustavus Horn at Kitzingen. whom Gustavus had left there with 8.

and appeared unexpectedly before the frontier town of Donauwerth. for Tilly. to see himself in this which was the very centre of Germany. cares of the sovereign finally overcame the scruples of the statesman. and. showed at first a resolute determination to defend it till the arrival of Tilly. and excited the citizens to zealous activity and fraternal unity against the common enemy. and the condescension with winch he city. he followed his army to the Danube. The choice of the king. by receiving Tilly into Bavaria. After a short stay in Nuremberg. to leave Bavaria undefended. But the vigor with which Gustavus Adolphus prosecuted the siege soon compelled him to take measures for a speedy . uncertain whither his victoriequally ous course might be directed.000 men. and their commander. The noble appearance of his person completed the impression produced by his glorious exploits. confirmed the alliance he had concluded with it on the shores of the Baltic. and the enthusiasm of the citizens expressed itself on his arrival in loud transports of admiration and joy. Eodolph Maximilian. Bohemia and Bavaria were now near to the king. by rapid marches. still more dangerous. toward the Danube. His progress through Franconia was uninterrupted. during the approach of so formidable an enemy. far too weak to encounter an enemy so superior in numbers. at all hazards.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 407 40. A numerous Bavarian garrison defended the place. He now received the congratulations of this free city won all hearts. to draw thither the enemy The also. now depended on the road that should be left open to Count Tilly. Duke of Saxe Lauenburg. It was dangerous. to cover the frontiers of Bavaria with his army. and to render it the seat of a destructive war. Maximilian could form no immediate resolution. in order to protect Austria. had retreated. and Tilly received orders. Nuremberg received with triumphant joy the protector of the Protestant religion and German freedom. and the fate of both provinces. where he had never expected to be able to penetrate. Even Gustavus could not contain his astonishment.

408 THE GEBMAN CLASSICS and secure retreat. and now the small river Lech alone The immediate danger of separated him from Bavaria. while from the opposite side the enemy's cannon showed their murderous mouths. and water. which. with all the troops he could collect. on his own side of the river. and the disarming of its inhabitants. With exhausted powers they must ascend the hostile intrenchments. The conquest of Donauwerth opened to the king the further side of the Danube. his dominions aroused all Maximilian's activity. to his troops a rich swollen by frequent rains and the melting of the snow from the mountains of the Tyrol. Tilly occupied a strongly fortified camp. whose strength If. they should almost impossible passage. surrounded by three rivers. . threw himself into Tilly's camp. It was now the month of March. a fresh and vigorous enemy awaited the exhausted troops in an impregnable camp and when they needed repose and refreshment they must prepare for battle. and however little he had hitherto disturbed the enemy's progress to his frontier. and opening supply of necessaries from that quarter. soon appeared on the bank opposite the Bavarian intrenchments. Its boiling current threatened the rash assailants with certain destruction. which had long betrayed its impatience to follow the example of Nuremberg and Frankfort. near the small town of Rain. in despite of the fury both of fire accomplish this . which amidst a tremendous fire from the Swedish artillery he successfully executed. after subduing the whole territory of Augsburg. bade defiance to all attack. as if all his hopes centred on this single point. Gustavus Adolphus. The Elector himself. the whole course of the stream protected by strong garrisons as far as Augsburg and that town itself. All the bridges over the Lech were destroyed. when the river. now determined to dispute as resolutely On the opposite bank of the Lech. and here the good fortune of the Swedes was to suffer shipwreck forever. secured by a Bavarian garrison. he the remainder of their course. flowed full and rapid between its steep banks. .

"With great presence of mind he determined to profit by this circumstance. since the same stream which impeded their advance would also cut off their retreat. which the king now assembled. and consequently gave a considerable advantage to the fire of the Swedish artillery over that of the enemy. The most intrepid were appalled. who had grown gray in the field. But the king's resolution was fixed. He kept alive by his own example the courage of his troops. while their height served as a breast-work to their own troops. and wet the work the cannon overpowered the noise of the axes. therefore. concealed for some time the progress of from the enemy. " "What! " said he to Gustavus Horn. with inevitable tained upon this shore would be attended destruction. while the continued thunder of A swept the lower opposite bank. In vain. he immediately caused three batteries to be erected. and discovered that his own side of the river was higher than the other. The cannonade was returned by the Bavarians with equal vivacity for two hours. The Swedish council of war. in order to deter him from this dangerous undertaking. While this tremendous cannonade drove the Bavarians from the opposite bank. and so many great rivers rest. who spoke for the " have we crossed the Baltic. strongly urged upon him all these considerations. and discharged more than 60 cannon with his own hand. kept up by burning wood straw. did the Bavarians attempt to destroy these . and a troop of honorable warriors. as the Swedish batteries thick smoke. and shall we now be checked by a brook like the Lech? " Gustavus had already. if fortune should abandon them. reconnoitred the whole country. from which 72 field-pieces maintained a cross fire upon the enemy. at a great personal risk. did not hesitate to express their alarm.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS seemed to bid defiance to 409 A defeat susevery assault. he caused to be erected a bridge over the river with all pos- an angle with the sible rapidity. At the point where the left bank of the Lech forms right. of Germany. though with less effect.

left a . Overcome tavus Adolphus. — . by rapid marches. panion-in-arms. With astonishment did Gus- generals. fertile fields. by the capture of this import- . and. by which their cavalry were on the point of passing. in order. was. accelerated his inglorious retreat. whose wonted firmness was overpowered by the near approach of death. garrison in the town. the Bavarians gave way in spite of his own judgment. The same night. who completed the passage of the river on the following day. " the Bavarian." said he. before a single soldier of the enemy had crossed the Lech. now flowed over its long spared and . On this dreadful day. and the bridge was completed under their very eyes. Before. was driven to adopt a pusilby the persuasions of the dying Tilly. without giving time for the king to harass him in his march. behold the hostile camp abandoned and the Elector's flight surprised him still more. the king proceeded to the conquest of these provinces. works the superior fire of the Swedes threw them into disorder. however. he gave up his impregnable position for lost. and the discovery by the Swedes of a ford. against Ingolstadt. He then advanced. he delivered the town of Augsburg from the yoke of Bavaria. never would I have abandoned a away my : position like enemies. Deprived of the animating presence of their two at last. lanimous resolve. Tilly did everything in his power to encourage his troops and no danger could drive him from the bank.' ' this. for the first time. exacted an oath of allegiance from the citizens and to secure its observance. At length he found the death which he sought a ball shattered his leg and Altringer. and laid open my territory to my Bavaria now lay exposed to the conqueror and. the tide of war. he broke up his camp. dangerously wounded in the head. soon after. which had hitherto only beat against its frontier. when he saw " Had I been the strength of the position he had quitted. his brave comcannon . though a cannon ball had carried beard and chin.410 THE GERMAN CLASSICS . retreated in good order to Neuburg and Ingolstadt. and Maximilian.

hoping to gain the town by the fury of his first But the strength of its fortifications. perfect self-possession the king rose. faithful of his servants. the young Margrave of Baden. Gustavus Adolphus commenced the siege of Ingolstadt. terminated his career within the walls of that town. presented obstacles greater than any he had had to encounter since the battle of Breitenfeld. quickly changed the king's plan of operations. at the close of his days. and to keep open the communi- cation with Bohemia. he lost. while almost immediately afterward another ball struck his favorite. all the laurels of his earlier victories. of his troops by immediately mounting another horse.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 411 ant fortress. and appeased. With the confidence which was the natural fruit of so many victories. by the advice of Tilly. killed his horse under him. The occupation of Ratisbon by the Bavarians. the wounded Tilly. by a series of misfortunes. Conquered by the superior general- ship of Gustavus Adolphus. and Maximilian of Bavaria of the most . and the walls of Ingolstadt were near putting an end to his While reconnoitering the works. His last message to the Elector was an urgent advice to take possession of Ratisbon. who. With and quieted the fears . the demands of justice. He had flattered himself with by his side. and the avenging manes of Magdeburg. Shortly after the appearance of the Swedish King before Ingolstadt. and even in his dying moments fulfilled the duties of a general. and he fell to the ground. who sealed his fidelity by his death. after experiencing the caprice of unstable fortune. and obtain a firm footing on the Danube. In his death. and the assault. bravery of its garrison. which the Elector covered with the greater part of his army. a 24-pounder career. in order to maintain the command of the Danube. to secure his conquest in Bavaria. had surprised this town by stratagem. the Imperial army and that of the League sustained an irreparable loss the Roman Catholic religion was deprived of its most zealous defender. and placed in it a strong garrison.

stripped of its defenders. seemed to impose upon him the stricter duty to honor his religion by a more con. and cutting off his adversaries' supplies from Bohemia. and their leader as Antichrist. and thus . Landshut. Augsburg. before which he had wasted both his time and his troops. a new and unheard-of phenomenon the blind zeal the . he had to contend against a still more implacable enemy territories. in heart of every Bavarian religious fanaticism. and Frankfort. alone. which.412 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the hope of gaining this town. far from making him depart from the obligations of humanity toward that unfortunate people. The whole country. The approach of the king spread terror in the capital. submitted nothing could resist his arms. in order to draw the Elector into that quarter for the defence of his to strip the Danube of its defenders. in this country. He suddenly raised the siege of Ingoldstadt. sullied the by no act of revenge and the aversion which the Bavarians felt toward his religion. as far as Munich. and justified in committing the most savage atrocities upon them. Mosburg. stant clemency. lustre of his heroic character Gustavus Adolphus. and the whole territory of Freysingen. Bavarians seemed to postpone for a long time the fulfil- ment of his favorite project of making himself master of the Danube. fearful retaliation. which favored the Proand to find in it an ally as devoted to him as Nuremberg. the children of hell. — of the priests represented them to the peasantry as monsters. now lay open to the conqueror. No wonder. Woe to the Swedish soldier who fell into All the torments which inventive malice could their hands devise were exercised upon these unhappy victims and the sight of their mangled bodies exasperated the army to a the ties of ! . Its seizure by the testant cause. and consternation and aban- . if they thought themselves released from nature and humanity toward this brood of Satan. and penetrated into the interior of Bavaria. all then. Soldiers who did not believe in the Pope were. But if he met with no regular force to oppose his progress.

some of extraordinary calibre. which had been principally taken in the Palatinate and Bohemia. this great prince scorned this mean revenge. concealed in one of the largest." other. Contented with the more noble triumph of conducting the Palatine Frederick with the pomp of a victor into the very palace of the prince who had been the chief instrument of his ruin and the usurper of his territories. placed all its hopes in the magnanimity of the conqueror. pressed as he was by Germans to avenge tility the fate of Magdeburg on the capital of its destroyer. for the Elector's treasures had been transported to "Werfen. " Eise up from the dead. " and come to judgment. the architect will take care to prevent." he was answered." said the King. ." The floor was pulled up. and the hosof their sovereign. they found nothing but carriages. and 140 pieces of cannon discovered. Strongly as the king might have been tempted by the inhumanity of the Bavarians. The magnificence of the building astonished him. " I " I had this architect to send wish. and he asked — who showed the apartments.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 413 doned by its principal inhabitants." replied he." When the arsenal was examined. and the very helplessness of his enemies disarmed his severity. The latter had been so artfully concealed under the floor that no traces of them remained." said the King. stripped of their cannon. and but for the treachery of a workman." That. by the brighter splendor The king found in Munich only a forsaken palace. to make a dreadful use of the rights of victory. it hoped to disarm his vengeance. completed the pleasure which the King received from this valuable acquisition. the deceit would not have been detected. " " to Stockholm. A far more welcome spectacle still would have been the the guide tect. A treasure of 30. who was the archi" No " than the Elector himself. he heightened the brilliancy of his triumphal entry of moderation and clemency. and sent deputies even to Freysingen to lay at his feet the keys of the city.000 gold ducats. By an unconditional and voluntary surrender.

the King's distrust. lay conquered in his rear. by the double ties of policy and religion and. to amuse his enemy and keep . the greatest service was rendered by the friendship of the free cities. and the Archbishopric of Mentz. whose affections he had gained. him But tional delay of Wallenstein abandoned Bavaria to the Swedes. If he had not succeeded to his wish in promoting a confederacy among the Protestant States. An uninterrupted career of conquest had conducted him to the threshold of Austria. forced a way through their terriWhere arms were unavailing. in the meantime. he had at least disarmed or weakened the League. frustrated this design and the inten. emboldened the weaker States. even if the state of the war in the Netherlands left them at liberty to interfere in the affairs of Germany. tories into Austria itself. Shut up in Ratisbon. the Spaniards were cut off from the Lower Palatinate. on the part of his subjects. . however urgent. In this expectation he was disappointed. by reviving the negotiation for a neutrality. carried on the war chiefly at its expense. . A part of Bavaria and Swabia. and the most brilliant success had fully justified the plan of operations which he had formed after the battle of Breitenfeld. the Bishoprics of Franconia. for his march into the heart of Bavaria had been undertaken chiefly with the view of luring them from their intrenchments. No enemy appeared no entreaties. By his conquests on the Rhine. he awaited the reinforcements which Wallenstein was bringing from Bohemia and endeavored. lessened the Emperor's resources. the Lower Palatinate. The Duke of Lor. Thus far had Gustavus advanced from victory to victory. without meeting with an enemy able to cope with him.414 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Bavarian army itself. inactive. as long as he should maintain his superiority in the field. could induce the Elector to risk the remainder of his army to the chances of a battle. he might reckon on every thing from their zeal. and while he laid under contribution the allies of the Emperor. too often and too justly excited by his previous conduct.

fortune. which was shortly followed by the expulsion of the Austrian garrisons from the entire circle. in another quarter. He had already commenced embracing the cause of in this weakly defended province the usual course of devastation. which the Elector reaped from the battle the reconquest of Leipzic. Rudolph von Tiefenbach. he had opened. To deprive his enemy of so powerful an ally. . and. Even the numerous garrisons he had left behind him. determined and prepared to carry the war into the heart of Austria. he now stood in the centre of Bavaria. after Ms unfortunate campaign. While Gustavus Adolphus thus maintained his superiority within the Empire. By the arrangement concerted between these princes at Halle. fresh and vigorous as when he first began his march.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 415 raine. through the intervention of Spain. had been no less favorable to his ally. taken several towns. Arnheim. and terrified Dresden itself by his approach. which had been overrun by an Imperial General. had been glad to adopt a neutrality. equally ill-timed. he now wished to repair if possible the consequences of his haughtiness and thus committed a second error in endeavoring to repair the first. when his destructive progress was suddenly stopped by an express mandate from the Emperor to spare the possessions of the King of Saxony. By moderation. the Elector of Saxony. first fruits The of Breitenfeld was in order to chastise the Elector for the enemy. the conquest of Bohemia was intrusted to the Elector of Saxony. Reinforced by the troops who deserted to him from the hostile garrisons. marched toward Lusatia. in his progress through Germany. a negotiation with the Elector. the Saxon General. while the King reserved for himself the attack upon the territories of the League. too. Ferdinand had perceived too late *the errors of that policy which reduced the Elector of Saxony to extremities and forcibly drove this powerful monarch into an alliance with Sweden. and in order to facilitate an . had not diminished his army. after the battle of Leipzic.

were wanderthis fatal war. however steadfast. and emboldened him the more to prosecute the advantages he had already obtained. where a combination of favorable circumstances seemed to insure them an easy victory. and groaned under the hated yoke of Roman Catholic masters. ing in misery far from their native land. No external danger. while the discontent of the inhabitants was fomented by daily acts of oppression and tyranny. at a low rate. On every side. the flames of dissension still . where fair means were ineffectual. Tiefenbach was ordered immediately to retire from Saxony. now relieved from the necessity of marching into Lusatia.416 THE GERMAN CLASSICS accommodation. Others. The blood of the most eminent the confiscated estates. In his kingdom. abandon an ally to whom he had given the most solemn assurances of fidelity. Still more insupportable than the oppression of these petty tyrants. advanced toward Bohemia. the first scene of smoldered beneath the ashes. without becoming chargeable with the most shameful ingratitude. How could he. not even the fearful lessons of past experience. Whole districts had changed their proprietors. only revealed to the Elector the embarrassment of his adversary and his own importance. this unfortunate country showed signs of a mournful change. taking advantage themselves of the general distress. no opposition on the part of the nation. But these concessions of the Emperor. whom the favor of the Emperor and the Jesuits had enriched with the plunder and possessions of the exiled Protestants. recourse was had . of liberty had been shed upon the scaffold and champions such as by a timely flight avoided that fate. could check in the Jesuits the rage of proselytism. was the restraint of conscience which all was imposed without distinction on the Protestants of that kingdom. and to whom he was indebted for the preservation of his dominions and even of his Electoral dignity? The Saxon army. far from producing the desired effect. had purchased. moreover. while the obsequious slaves of despotism enjoyed their patrimony.

on the frontiers between Bohemia and Meissen. while the weakness of the garrison Vol. a revolution and saw with pleasure their deliverers on the tempted them frontiers. Tetschen. then. Before the imperial orders could reach the head-quarters of that general. accompanied by musketeers. however. It is not if this persecuted party was favorable to surprising. which again they presently abandoned. the Protestant inhabitants of which showed little zeal. But on this occasion. Prague was unprepared for an attack. and every Roman Catholic place was abandoned to plunder. and the bold resistance of this small district compelled the disgracefully to recall his mandate of conversion. Leutmeritz.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS to military force to bring the 417 deluded wanderers within the pale of the church. and threats of banishment and fines were tried. Jesuits and supported by fifteen many their appearance in this peaceful valley preach the gospel to the heretics. the imperial garrisons everywhere retired before Schloeckenau. the good cause prevailed. and was too weakly garrisoned to sustain a long siege. they did not venture to abide the vengeful arrival of a Protestant army. fled hastily from the country to the capital. in Silesia. The Saxon army was already on them. The inhabitants of Joachimsthal. Too late had the Emperor resolved to despatch Field-Marshal Tiefenbach to the defence of this capital. who had anything to lose. soon into the enemy's hands. Aussig. the forcibly quartering the latter upon the houses. Ill — 27 . were the chief sufferers from this violence. the court had. the Saxons were already close to Prague. All the Roman Catholics. and seemed to Emperor The example of justify every act to of oppression which their insolence wreak upon the Protestants. afforded a precedent to the Roman Catholics of the Empire. Consternation seized all the Papists of the Empire. Where the rhetoric of the former was ineffectual. to as made Two imperial commissaries. fell its march toward Prague. and conscious of the outrages which they themselves had committed on the Protestants.

who scarcely recovered from their consternation till they reached the imperial city. nation general and complete. because. . He therefore consulted the Duke of Friedland. when the Saxons next morning appeared before it. Saxons to Prague. and an imperial colonel. where he awaited the event. whose approbation might supply the want of authority from the Emperor and to whom the Bohemian generals were referred by an express edict of the court in the last extremity. despairing of the safety of Prague. its defence. The roads to Vienna were crowded with fugitives. however. by his departure. at least his conduct facilitated its capture. and all the officers of the crown. He. and led his small detachment to Tabor. In this fearful state of embarrassment. the town might still hold out until succors could arrive. who now lived in that But far from lending his city as a private individual. to render the consterin the strongest colors. the clergy. the generals with their troops.418 left THE GERMAN CLASSICS no room to hope a long resistance. Count Maradas. the Roman Catholics of Prague looked for security to "Wallenstein. showed serious intentions of undertaking its defence. Maradas himself. His example was followed by all the Roman Catholic nobility. he seized the favorable opportunity to satiate If he did not actually invite the his thirst for revenge. he quitted the capital with his whole court. night the people were employed in saving their persons and effects. however little he had to fear from its capture and the city was lost. toward military experience. no preparations were . followed the rest. he showed that he despaired of its safety. But without command and authority. Though unprepared. he did not dare to venture upon such a step without the advice of a superior. and having no support but his own zeal and courage. artfully excused himself on the plea of holding no official appointment and his long retirement from the political world while he weakened the resolution of the subalterns by the scruples which he suggested and painted At last. Profound silence reigned in Prague. All . and the weight of his name.

New York Van Dtck WALLENSTEIN .Permission Fran: Hanfstaengl.


to receive the homage of those whom he had newly taken under his protection for it was only in the character of protector that the three towns of Prague had surrendered to him. of . thus shamefully abandoned by their defenders. 1631. was no army was too succors secret to him. Their allegiance to the Austrian monarchy was not to be dissolved by the step they had taken. and upon the 11th November. and the peaceful confidence with which they advanced. as the speedy approach of the Silesian indifferently provided with materials for a siege and by far too weak in numbers to undertaking attempt to take the place by storm.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS made 419 for defence. The citizens of Prague. allured by curiosity. than the gates were opened. In proportion as the Papists' apprehensions of reprisals on the part of the Protestants had been exaggerated. so was their surprise great at the moderation of the Elector . without further opposition. in astonishment to his officers. not a single shot from the walls announced an intention of resistance. and immediately summoned it among the crowd. whom he . son. all that they had to do was to secure their properties and liberties by an advantageous capitulation. resembled a friendly salutation more than a hostile reception. came flocking round to behold the foreign army. the Swedes learned that the town had been deserted by the troops. Apprehensive of stratagem. and that the government had fled to Budweiss. in his master's name. No sooner was the treaty signed by the Saxon general. had long taken their resolution. From the concurrent reports of these people. confirmed to him this intelli- by a trumpeter. the army made their The Elector soon after followed in pertriumphal entry. a crowd of spectators from the town. This unexpected and inexplicable absence of resistance excited Arnheim's distrust the more. and as he knew that the Saxon discovered " The town is ours without a blow! " exclaimed he gence. On the contrary. he redoubled his vigilance and he continued in this conviction until Wallenstein's house-steward.

but the character of this prince leaves us in doubt whether such moderation ought to be ascribed to a noble self-command or to the littleness of a weak mind which even good fortune could not embolden and liberty itself could not strip of its . and the he now placed guards over his palace. enjoyed the . being too modest to use the apartments of one whom he had deprived of a kingdom.420 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS discipline of his troops. his respect for WallenNot content with sparing his estates on his march. such as Tilly or Wallenstein. without scruple. The surrender of Prague. who were with which the terror of the imperial name inspired him nor did he indulge at Prague in a course of conduct which would assuredly have been pursued against himself at Dresden by imperial generals. The Eoman Catholics of the town were allowed the fullest liberty of conscience and of all the churches they had wrested from the Protestants. He carefully distinguished between the enemy with whom he was at war. Field-Marshal Arnheim plainly evinced. but in the house of Lichtenstein. stein. John George belied not the submission and dependence Jesuits. to prevent the plunder of any of his effects. and the head of the Empire. while. generally considered as the authors of all past grievances and thus banished the kingdom. he appropriated and transported to Dresden the cannon of the former. He did not venture to touch the household furniture of the latter. now returned to their native country. He did not take up his residence in the imperial palace. and Count Thurn. which was quickly followed by that of most of the other towns. in Prague. habituated fetters. From this general indulgence none was excluded but the . Had this trait been related of a great man. four only were now taken back from them. and a hero. it would irresistibly excite our admiration. the famous author of the Bohemian insurrection. effected a great and sudden change in Bohemia. Many of the Protestant nobility. to whom he owed obedience. who had hitherto been wandering about in misery. on this occasion.

had entered .LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 421 triumph of returning as a conqueror to the scene of his crime and his condemnation. they seized on everything which had once been their own. could be satiated only by the blood of its adherents. All the moderation restrain the manifestation of that just displeasure which this persecuted people felt against their oppressors. exposed to view. and to convert their immovable into transferable property. Meantime the succors which the imperial generals. now decorated with . were richly filled. crowds flocked to the newly opened Protestant churches. which had so . and. without thinking of recompensing . Many. they hastened to get rid of these insecure possessions. he now made his triumphal entry and to remove these ghastly his first care. both in the country and the capital. But distrusting the constancy of that good fortune. The presence of the Saxons inspired all the Protestants kingdom with courage and. now openly professed the new doc- and many of the late converts to Roman Catholicism gladly renounced a compulsory persuasion. The lands and cattle had greatly improved in their hands the apartments were the most costly furniture the cellars. in many parts of the kingdom. the stables supplied. were conducting from Silesia. Goetz and Tiefenbach. adherence to Popery. Even though they had the present possessors. which had been left empty. The exiles again took possesobjects sion of their properties. whom fear alone had retained in their of the . the magazines stored with provisions. They made a fearful and cruel of the new regency could not use of their newly recovered rights. was for the purchase money mostly taken to flight. Over the very bridge where the heads of his adherents. trine . their hatred of the religion which they had been compelled to profess. and many had reason to rejoice at the economy of the late possessors. to follow the earlier conviction of their conscience. who had received a price for their estates. unexpectedly smiled upon them. held out a fearful picture of the fate which had threatened himself.

and by consistent measures promoting the plans of the King of Sweden. Nevertheless. wasted the country. The Emperor had now lost the greater part of Bohemia.422 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS Bohemia. and Bavaria. After a severe action. by his heavy fire. by forcing a passage to the Swedish army through the conquered country. and the Croats pushed their incursions Brilliant and promising as to the very gates of Prague. or their fidelity shaken by the danger which threatened themselves. the issue by satisfied the expectations of Gustavus Instead of vigorously following up their adAdolphus. in which they were not always successful. the Saxons weakened themselves in a war of skirmishes. he drove the enemy from their fortified camp and forced them. to recross the Elbe and to destroy the bridge which they had built over that river. its troops had lost the obedience and discipline to which those of the Swedish monarch owed all their superiority in the field. In order to disperse them before they should receive any further reinforcement. while they lost the time which should have been no means devoted to greater undertakings. and then. Even Maximilian of . and the Saxons were advancing against Austria. A long war had exhausted the strength of the Austrian monarchy. and made a vigorous attack on their intrenchments near Limburg. while the Swedish monarch was rapidly moving to the same point through Franconia. The confederates of the Emperor were disarmed. where they were joined by some of Tilly's regiments from the Upper Palatinate. with it. the Imperialists obtained the advantage in several skirmishes. on the Elbe. and diminished its armies. as well as the confidence inspired by constant success. The renown of its victories was no more. not without great loss. Swabia. the opening of the Bohemian campaign had been. Arnheim advanced with part of his army from Prague. But the Elector's subsequent conduct betrayed the motives which had prevented him from pushing his advantage over the Emperor. vantages. attacking the imperial power in its centre.

Ragotsky. the Emperor saw himself a second time on the brink of that abyss into which he was so near falling at the commence- foreign enemy was already on ment of his reign. and the war could no longer be carried on as before at the cost of others. the Elector of Mentz. if Saxony should resist the tempting offers he had held out. while a its frontier.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 423 Bavaria. all these depots. while his suspicious alliance with France had long been a subject of apprehension to the Emperor. After so long a continuance of good fortune. and the Duke of Lorraine. . Austria's most powerful ally. a successor of Bethlem Gabor and the inheritor of his restless mind. If Bavaria should embrace the neutrality. All the resources which had been obtained by the violent and oppressive extortions of Tilly and Wallenstein were exhausted. such brilliant victories and extensive conquests. Poland was still fettered by the truce which sub- between that country and Sweden. in Italy and in Catalonia. where the ill-timed religious zeal of the government had provoked the Protestants to resistance. and thus fanaticism lit its torch within the empire. and France resolve to attack the Spanish power at the same time in the Netherlands. such fruitless effusion of blood. while Gustavus had driven them from the Rhine. Most of the Protestant states. encouraged by their protector's success. To complete his embarrassment. a dangerous insurrection broke out in the territory of the Ens. were either expelled from their territories or threatened with immediate attack. seemed disposed to yield to the seductive proposition of neutrality. The bishop of Wiirtzburg and Bamberg. while the Porte was making great sisted frontier preparation to profit by the favorable conjuncture for aggression. and rallying-points were now lost to the Emperor. Treves had placed itself under the protection of France. The bravery of the Hollanders gave full employment to the Spanish arms in the Netherlands. The Hungarian was threatened by the Transylvania Prince. were openly and actively declaring against the Emperor. magazines.

The chain of these disasters began with the battle of Breitenfeld. but a his services. as their manner of using it. In order to oppose one monarch to another. the states. the leaders lacked har- mony among themselves. in attachment to the cause. distrust of Bavaria would not have allowed the Emperor to place the fate of Austria in the hands of one who had never concealed his attachment to the Bavarian Elector. could control all his means to the accomplishment of his ends. But since Wallenstein's dismissal and self the . the discretion. to the Austrian monarchy. Even had Count Tilly not lost his old renown. superiority in the field was evidently to be ascribed to the unlimited power of their leader. the soldiers were deficient in discipline and obedience. The League and the Emperor mind capable of directing them with energy and effect. in combined operation.424 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the ruin of Austria would be complete. was complete master of every favorable opportunity. the scattered corps. and by the pres- . the unfortunate issue of which plainly revealed the long decided decline of the Austrian power. and liberty of acting at their Tilly's defeat. What gave the Emperor's enemy so decided an advantage over him was not so much their superior power. The generals wanted authority over their troops. very reverse of this course was pursued by the Emperor and the League. The urgent want which Ferdinand felt was for a general possessed of sufficient experience to form and to command an army and willing at the same time to dedicate did not want means. and was responsible to none but himself. and the political system of Germany would undergo a total change. with blind devotion. whose weakness had hitherto been concealed under the dazzling The chief cause of the Swedes' glitter of a grand name. and firmness to execute. This choice now occupied the attention of the Emperor's privy council and divided the opinions of its members. unfettered in his enterprises by any higher authority. quickness to resolve. the allied powers would divide its spoils. who concentrated in him- whole strength of his party and.

King and Bohemia. and by the influence of his name restore the neglected discipline of the troops to its former vigor. But plausible as were the arguments with which a part of the ministry supported this plan. this deficiency might be supplied by a judicious choice of counsellors and assistants. arising from the distrust. whose fitness for so important a post had never yet been tested by experience. the respect of the army. Called by his birth to the defence of a monarchy. under the cover of his name. If so young a leader was devoid of the maturity of judgment. might be vested with supreme authority. was far too powerless to inspire a dispirited army with the assurance . his personal presence with the army could alone suppress the pernicious jealousies of the several leaders. and which yielded at once to calm reflection. of the Emperor. tion. as yet unknown to fame. and military experience which practice alone could impart.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 425 ence of their sovereign to animate the courage of the troops. a tyro. and of whom the subjects of Austria had already formed great expectations. with the natural dignity Hungary of heir to the throne. Ferdinand III. it was met by difficulties not less serious. who. prudence. How dangerous was it to intrust the fate of the monarchy to a youth who was himself in need of counsel and support! How hazardous to oppose to the greatest general of his age. whose cooperation was indispensable to him in the conduct of the war. whose name.. might be filled by his son. and also from the desperate state of affairs. united. and the duties of administra. had offered himself to be the leader of his army but little trouble was required to overturn a resolution which was the offspring of despair alone. But the situation which his dignity. prevented the Emperor from holding. of whose crowns he of wore two already. a youth of talents and bravery. Ferdinand. None but the beloved heir to the crown could venture to impose new burdens on a people already severely oppressed. in the ardor of the moment. perhaps even the jealousy. and the attachment of the people.

426 THE GERMAN CLASSICS ! What a new burden on the country to of future victory support the state a royal leader was required to maintain. Every defeat of his troops opened afresh this wound. in the offended general. But not only was a general to be found for the army an army must also be found for the general. and a defender of his dominions. to commence his political career with an office which must make him the scourge of his people and the oppressor of the territories which he was hereafter to rule. the and an unbroken chain of disasters. every town which he lost re- nary satisfaction was to be Duke of Friedland. and the most dangerous of all. than by his own armies and it was this dependence on equivocal allies. but he was destined to find in him an enemy. vived in the mind of the deceived monarch the his memory of would have been ingratitude. and which the prejudices of the age considered as insepHow serious a arable from his presence with the army! consideration for the prince himself. which had assailed Austria from the day of his dismissal. he had only lost well for him. without bility the all-powerful aid of gold and the inspiriting name of a victorious commander. . if. the Emperor had defended himself more by the assistance of Bavaria and the League. there was but one man equal to this. should be fit to cope . and activity. an army which. a leader of his troops. by But what possithe appointment of a general of his own. which he was endeavoring to escape. was there of raising an army out of nothing. since he was least armed against the own weakness and It stroke of treason. with the experienced troops of the northern conqueror? In all Europe. warlike spirit. The moment had at last arrived when more than ordi- done to the wounded pride of Fate itself had been his avenger. and that one had been mortally affronted. Since the compulsory resignation of Wallenstein. had wrung from the Emperor the humiliating confession that with this general he had lost his right arm. . above all. by its discipline.

Emperor was effaced from his mind what he himself had done for the Emperor was imprinted in burning characters . and concealed. Fortune had denied him nothing which the sub- Till the moment ject and the citizen could lawfully enjoy. From the moment when he had so bitterly experienced the weight of sovereign power. under of fortune a glittering and theatrical pomp. the 427 to the theatre of war and condemned irksome inaction. at the . to absolve him from every obligation toward his former benefactor. by his own efforts. and his dreamy imagination revelled in boundless projects. as it seemed to tear To in pieces the record of past favors. his efforts were directed to attain it for himself the wrong which he himself diet of Ratisbon. the distance between the subject and his sovereign.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS Removed from field of glory. height to attain. Emperor's his insatiable thirst for power. he brooded over projects of ambition and revenge. advanced toward his end. while his rivals gathered laurels on the haughty duke had beheld these changes with affected composure. . the ingratitude was welcome. on his memory. . showed him the difference between original and deputed power. as the external circle of his operations was narportion rowed. humbled him. . his demands had met with no refusal. which. his ambition had met with no check but the blow which. but All that he owed to the surely. In the dis- guise of a righteous retaliation. Roused from the intoxication of his own greatness by this sudden reverse of fortune. of his dismissal. in any mind but such as his. the dark designs of his restless genius. the projects dictated by In prohis ambition now appeared to him just and pure. he compared the authority which he had possessed with that which had deprived him of it and his ambition marked the steps which it had yet to surmount upon the ladder of fortune. the world of hope expanded before him. while without bespoke calmness and indifference. madness alone could have given His services had raised him to the proudest birth to. all Torn by burning passions within. and slowly. which it was possible for a man.

that his wandering star violently threw in disorder the system to which it belonged. The news. who. he undertook to conquer Bohemia and Moravia. announced to him the return of greatness and good for- For him was Gustavus Adolphus laboring. service of Sweden. and to invite him to a close tune. one place after another was lost and at Leipzic the flower The intelligence of this of the Austrian army had fallen. forced from its sphere. renewed it the favorable reception after the battle of Breiten- and pressed for a decisive answer. and with these. its extravagant promises were Gustavus Adolnaturally calculated to excite suspicion. . the prudent monarch hesitated to trust his reputation to the chimerical projects of so daring an adventurer. Gustavus Adolphus had overrun the north of Germany. satisfied with the glory It was only when of being the brightest of its satellites. and to commit so large a force to the honesty of a man who felt no shame .000 men from the king. and came in destructive collision with its sun. before him into Italy. he might have obediently moved in his orbit round the majesty of the throne. contemplated from a calm distance the tumult of war. Had he not been outraged by injustice. encouraged by of his first message. Scarcely had the king begun to gain reputation by his exploits. the Emperor. to surprise Vienna.428 THE GEKMAN CLASSICS had suffered made him a robber. alliance with the duke. defeat soon reached the ears of Wallenstein. Welcome as was this unexpected proposition. who had long entered tria. in the retired obscurity of a private station in Prague. undertook to convey Wallenstein 's the congratulations to the king. feld. phus was too good a judge of merit to reject with coldness But the offers of one who might be so important a friend. and drive his master. when Wallenstein lost not a moment to court his friendship and to make common cause with this successful enemy of AusThe banished Count Thurn. Wallenstein required 15. which filled the breasts of the Roman Catholics with dismay. and the troops he himself engaged to raise. when Wallenstein.

and requite an act of treason. with a crown. perhaps. Wallenstein had reason to expect the most decided and formidable opponent to his views on the Bohemian crown. still less disposed to obey If the pretensions of a rival the instructions of another.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS in openly 429 traitor. Constituted Dictator himself. because it threatened to fetter his own independent judgment. Wallenstein was lost to a party. He excused himself. not to receive them. So cordially. he might turn his arms and consider himself bound bv no obligations against him. if therefore. lost an opportunity of putting an immeHe afterward endeavored to renew diate end to the war. and in all Europe he was the only one who could enforce his opposition. would be so irksome to the Duke of Friedland. therefore. dignity. avowing himself a the king's hesitation. the negotiation. did Gustavus dislike control that he had later. condescend to accept the assistance of a rebellious subject against the Emperor. and to reward his valuable services with regal munificence but he never could so far lose sight . but the favorable moment was past. even if all Europe should tacitly acquiesce. however of his own useful. Wallenstein was nothing where he was not everything. which their characters made inevitable sooner or But Both framed by nature to give laws. in the division of the spoil The proud monarch might they would be insupportable. almost renounced his advantageous alliance with France. and Wallenstein 's offended pride never forgave the first neglect. would certainly suffer in its march through the empire. on the plea of the weakness of his army which. or not at all. as to bestow the recompense which the extravagant ambition of Wallenstein demanded. In him. and thus. by excess of caution. too. he must either act with unlimited power. if he could not lead. perhaps. diminished by so large a detachment. in the con- duct of combined operations. the latter was. in Germany by Wallenstein . if possible. they could not long have cooperated in an enterprise which eminently demanded mutual submission and sacrifices. and the majesty of royalty. only accelerated the breach.

revenging the neglect of the Swedish monarch. ." His first scheme of revenge on the house of Austria had indeed failed. Such a force could not be secretly raised without its coming to the knowledge of the imperial court. would deprive of his influence in Germany. that he alluded to. conjointly with that power. a third party in the Empire. Having always maintained a good the choice of failed in effecting with the understanding with his old friend Arnheim. the Swedish monarch successful. There was no room for a Wallenstein under such an ally and it was.430 to one THE GEEMAN CLASSICS who was himself a traitor. and not any supposed designs upon the imperial throne. by which he hoped to render himself equally formidable to the Emperor and the King of Sweden. to bend to his views as he had always been doubtful of Gustavus Adolphus. after the death of " It is well for him and the King of Sweden. where it would naturally excite suspicion and thus frustrate his design in the very outset. ! two such leaders. this conviction. he exclaimed. and on the ruin of both raising the edifice of his alliance own greatness. What he had King of Sweden. who he knew was jealous of the power and offended at the lofty pretensions If he succeeded in separating of Gustavus Adolphus. would if be welcomed by the Elector of Saxony. apparently. he could not carry them into effect without an army entirely devoted to him. and by this single step he would succeed in gratifying his revenge against the Emperor. Saxony from the Swedish and in establishing. which. the fate of the war would be placed in his hand. but the purpose itself remained unalterable. he now made use of him to bring about an alliance with Saxony. he hoped to less difficulty and more advantage from the obtain with Him he was as certain of being able Elector of Saxony. me that he is gone The German Empire does not require . when. But whatever course he might follow in the prosecution of his designs. means alone was changed. He had reason to expect that a scheme.

by the Emperor himself. This was the advice he received from Arnheim. and his precipitate retreat caused the delivery of the At a conference with the Saxon capital to the enemy. his course was to wait until the post should be forced upon him. therefore. when an unlimited authority might be extorted from his fears. By the fears which he affected to entertain he paralyzed every effort at resist- ance. must raise it publicly and in the name of the Emperor. and this the end for which he labored with profound policy and restless activity. In order to make himself the master of the terms on which he would resume the command of the armv. this be' accomplished otherwise than by his being appointed to the command of the army and intrusted with full powers to conduct the war? Yet neither his pride nor his interest him to sue in person for this post and as a suppermitted pliant to accept from the favor of the Emperor a limited power. and the conquest of Bohemia was the first fruits of this mutual understanding. the rebellious purposes for which it till the very moment of could scarcely be expected that they would at once be prepared to listen to the voice of a traitor and serve against their legitimate sovereign. which was held at Kaunitz under the pretext of general. But how could. Wallenstein. and be placed at its head. with unlimited authority. Convinced that extreme necessity would alone conquer the Emperor's irresolution and render powerless the opposition of his bitter enemies. the seal was put to the conspiracy. negotiating for a peace. when on the route to Lusatia and Silesia. too. he henceforth occupied himself in promoting the success of the enemy and in increasing the embarrassments of his master. where their rapid conquests were partly the result of his measures. had turned their march toward Bohemia and overrun that defenceless kingdom. While Wallenstein was thus per- . Bavaria and Spain.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS From was destined must be concealed execution. since it 431 the army. It was apparently by his instigation and advice that the Saxons.

and while the rapid movements of the Swedes upon the Rhine effectually promoted his designs. Their repeated remonstrances were not needed to convince the embarrassed Emperor of his general's merits . . However sensibly the imperial pride might feel the humiliation. from the height of imperial command however doubtful the fidelity of so deeply injured and implacable a character however loudly and urgently the Spanish minister and the Elector of Bavaria protested against this step. and preand of his serve the Catholic religion.000 men. The immense riches Wallenstein possessed. the immediate pressure of necessity finally overcame . But now when his necessities grew every day more pressing. he could no longer hesitate to listen to friends of the duke. own error. and to consider their overtures for his restoration to command. even in the Emperor's privy council. his friends and bribed adherents in Vienna uttered loud complaints of the public calamities and represented the dismissal of the general as the sole cause of all these misfortunes.432 THE GERMAN CLASSICS sonally endeavoring to heighten the perplexities of Austria. and the weakness of Bavaria more apparent. the little expense at which he had maintained this formidable force. His dependence on Bavaria and the had soon become insupportable. the actions he had performed at its head. exclaimed a thousand voices while their opinions found supporters. but hitherto this League dependence permitted him not to show his distrust. however painful it was to descend to humble entreaties. . matters would never have come to this. the zeal and fidelity he had displayed for his master's honor. or irritate the Elector by the recall of Wallenstein. the universal reputation he enjoyed. the rapidity with which six years before he had assembled an army of 40. and lastly. to save Austria. still lived in the Emperor's recollection and made Wallenstein seem to him the ablest instrument to restore the balance between the belligerent powers. ' ' " Had Wallenstein commanded. in being forced to make so unequivocal an admission of past errors and present necessity.

All his desire ?of quillity power and distinction were and repose were now the sole object extinct: tran- of his wishes. Prince Eggenberg. of his name threatened to put a period to the whole negotiation. by the presence of a superior. were instructed to propose that the King of Hungary should remain with the army and learn But the very mention the art of war under Wallenstein. Too long. No God himself with whom I should have to share my command.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS empowered 433 every other consideration. At first. in this delicate mission. " But even when this obnoxious point was given up. the Emperor's minister and favorite. Questenberg and Werwho. but at the same time." he . as old friends of the duke. came to Znaim in Moravia. in order. to facilitate the negotiations. he expatiated upon the happy tranquillity of a private station. he declined the invitation to the court. who had always been the steady friend and zealous champion of Wallenstein and was therefore expressly sent to him. "No! never. and proud heart exulted repaying with interest the injuries of the Emperor. had he to the vain tasted the pleasures of ease and independence. to silence the objections of the Elector of The imperial deputies." exclaimed Wallenstein. had been employed denberg. he said. to sacrifice phantom of glory the uncertain favor of princes. Ill — 28 "The Emperor. and the friends of the duke were to consult him on the subject and to hold out the prospect of his restoration. exhausted his eloquence in vain to overcome the Bavaria. "will I subnot even if it were mit to a colleague in my office. by this expedient. The better Emperor's to conceal his real impatience. Wallenstein possessed sufficient self-command to conceal his inward triumph and to assume the mask of indifference. — pretended reluctance of the duke. Informed of all that was transacted in the Emperor's cabinet to his advantage. which had blessed him since his retirement from a political stage. With artful eloquence. his The moment of vengeance was in the prospect of at last come. Vol. it was proposed to limit the authority to be intrusted to him.

he only acceded to a part of his demands. in Wallenstein. pompously dwelt upon his own services. It would be great and noble to sacrifice his just indignation to the good of his country. and to display before the eyes of the Emperor the greatness of that assistance which he still retained in his hands." concluded the prince. he condescended with a haughty reluctance to that which was the most ardent wish of his heart and deigned to favor the ambassadors with a ray of hope. thrown : away the most crown but unwillingly and compulsorily only had he taken this step. dignified and worthy of him to refute the evil calumny of his ene- mies by the double warmth of his zeal.434 admitted. that he might exalt the value of that which still remained. soon sink again into nothing. He wished only to show his power and ability in its organization. by giving at once a full and unconditional consent. But far from putting an end to the Emperor's embarrassments. Convinced that an army raised by his name alone would. "would crown his other unparalleled services to the Empire and render him the greatest man of his age." These humiliating confessions and flattering assurances seemed at last to disarm the anger of the duke. but not before he had disburdened his heart of his reproaches against the Emperor. while his esteem for the duke had remained unaltered. l l THE GERMAN CLASSICS had. which he had since deeply repented of. did he condescend to listen to the attractive proposals of the minister. Of these senticostly jewel in his ments he now gave the most decisive proof. but only for three months. if deprived of its creator. by reposing unlimited confidence in his fidelity and capacity to repair the mistakes of his predecessors and to change the whole aspect of affairs. and was of most importance. and humbled to the utmost the monarch who solicited his assistance. He accepted the command. he intended it to . As if he yielded entirely to the force of their arguments. but not of leading. merely for the purpose of raising. his favor for him undiminished. This victory over himself. an army.

agreed to contribute a considerable sum. religion made no difference. as well as the King of Hungary.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 435 serve only as a decoy to draw more important concessions from his master. when. were compelled to assist in the equipment. The greatness of the pay he promised attracted thousands. and. Riches. Wallenstein did not long delay to fulfil those promises which all Germany regarded as chimerical. more by had nothing present levy and still to his express declaration that his do with religion. rather All the Austrian its oppression. who had before fought under his standards. he induced all. The Spanish court. while Wallenstein himself advanced $200. and the plentiful supplies the soldier was likely to enjoy at the cost of the peasant was to the latter an irresistible inducement to embrace the military life at once. came forward from their retirement to share with him a second time both booty and glory. Whoever raised a corps at his own cost was to be its commander. the news spread of Wallenstein's levies. and he only put in motion the machinery which for many Scarcely had years had been prepared for the purpose. and which Gusself. crowds of soldiers repaired to try their fortunes under this experienced general. and experience were more regarded than creed. In the appointment of officers.000 from his personal income to hasten The poorer officers he supported out of his the armament. foundation for the present enterprise had long been laid. from every quarter of the Austrian monarchy. But the tavus Adolphus had considered as raise troops at their own expense. And yet Ferdinand congratulated him- even in having gained so much as he had. No provinces no dignity or privilege class was exempt from taxation from capitation. had been admiring eye-witnesses of his great actions and experienced his magnanimity. who were able. The than be the victim of — ministers made large presents. own revenues. By this uniform treatment of different religious sects. by his own example. bravery. by brilliant promotions and still more brilliant promises. the Protestant . Many.

had assembled thousands in arms. by the bravery of their deeds. chiefly drawn from the unconquered parts of Bohemia. This promising army. the same Emperor. Silesia. worthy of his choice. But it would have been as easy to raise a second army like the first as to find any other commander for it than Wallenstein. from Moravia. . his treasures. this newly created army only awaited the signal of their leader to show themselves. Before the three months were expired.000 men. The charm of his name. as soon as the charm was dissolved which had called it into existence. at time. with all necessaries. What to every one had appeared impracticable. and the troops were ready to take the field. and the German provinces of the House of Austria. and his genius. by Wallenstein it had been raised. and. did not omit to treat. could discharge to the troops the extravagant promises by which they had been His pledged word was the only lured into his service. and favorites. was nothing but an illusion. as his creditors. or. creatures. The duke. the army which was assembled in Moravia. Furnished. with states for men and money. The him as regiments he had intrusted to his own relations. and he alone. amounted to no less than 40. where before Austria had only looked for hundreds. had in a short time effected. and inflamed by enthusiasm which assured itself of victory. his debtors. the last hope of the Emperor. to espouse the cause of the Duke of Lorraine. it sank like a creation of magic into its by experienced Its officers were either bound to original nothingness. commanded officers. Poland was urged to supply him with Cossacks. closely connected with his interests and the preservation of his power. The duke had fulfilled his promise. even to superfluity. without him. and Italy with warlike necessaries. He. Wallenstein. to the astonishment of all Europe.436 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS subjects of the Empire were tranquilized and reconciled to bear their share of the public burdens. He prevailed on the foreign a second time. in his own name. he then retired and left to the Emperor to choose a commander.

" to a restoration to never could trust. his long earned renown would be forfeited. content were to be found in the bosom of private life . he could now dispense with. pompously surrounded by the troops. if he retired who alone was the voucher together in one of their zeal. a word from him might terminate the general embarPrince Eggenberg at length received orders.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 437 security on which their bold expectations rested. Wallenstein. " He haughty subject receive the deputy of his sovereign. a blind reliance on his omnipotence. because the danger had reached its height and safety was hoped for from his arm onlv but his successful services would soon cause the servant to be forgotten. to accept the command. even if he fulfilled them. at any cost and sacrifice. and voluntarily. of its fulfilment. and the dependent monarch would not hesitate. Better for him at once. to make an offering of convenience to a servant whom . However little Wallenstein was serious in his refusal. If he deceived the expectations formed of him. the only tie which linked common life and soul the various impulses There was an end of the good fortune of each individual. rassment. to induce his friend. for the third and last time. which he owned to the Emperor's necessities and not to his sense of justice. he successfully employed this means to terrify the Emperor into consenting to his extravagant conditions." he said. the possession of which he made the Emperor As a suppliant did the so earnestly to long for. a second time. while the remedy was also close at hand. The progress of the enemy every day increased the pressure of the Emperor's difficulties. command. his repose and happiness must be sacrificed. He was now courted. and nothing but the wish to oblige the Emperor had induced . to resign a post from which sooner or later the Security and intrigues of his enemies would expel him. He found him at Znaim in Moravia. and the return of security would bring back renewed ingratitude. Soon would envy be excited anew.

he would not answer. instead of exciting his magnanimity by its condescension. it had only nattered his pride and in- creased his obstinacy." Wallenstein. the wound which it . but the monarch could not confess his error. had itself inflicted. it was not fear that at last overcame his affected This imperious tone was of itself. reluctantly enough. a plain proof of the weakness and despair which dictated all his demands it. If the Duke of Friedland had suffered by an unjust decree. and as services. whose extensive possessions within the Austrian monarchy were momentarily exposed to the power of the Emperor. However greatly Ferdinand may have erred. he might yet be recompensed for all his losses. admitted not of any atonement. If he asked security for his person and his dignities.438 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS him. to relinquish for a time his blissful repose. was keenly sensible that this was no idle threat. " stooped enough had the imperial dignity. dis- commands cancelled the most brilliant The Emperor required his services. yet reluctance. should crush the refractory servant." he added. and yet. to his mind. but only that the suppliant might be converted into the sovereign and the monarch might not avenge his injured dignity on his rebellious subject." Tired of this long farce. Emperor he demanded them. or the weight of his indignation obedience to its . the Emperor's equity would refuse him no reasonable demand. Emperor 's resentment ' ' if already. . the Emperor at least had a claim to obedience the man might be mistaken. Whatever price Wallenstein might set upon them. the Emperor would readily agree to but he demanded obedience. the hand of Majesty might heal. Majesty contemned. the minister at last assumed a serious tone and threatened the obstinate duke with the Low he persisted in his refusal. If this sacrifice had been made in vain. while the Emperor's readiness to yield convinced him that he had attained the summit of his He now made a show of yielding to the perwishes.

the extravagant contents of his writing surpassed even his worst Wallenstein required the uncontrolled comexpectations. with unlimited powers to reward and punish. was stein 's approval. did the minister receive the writing in which the proudest of subjects had prescribed laws to the proudest of sovereigns. if granted. Not without apprehension. pressure of circumstances compelled the Emperor to grant these demands. in the event of a future peace. No commission All the conquests and confiscations that should take place were to be placed entirely at Wallenstein 's disposal. nor the Emperor himself. no pension or letter of to be granted by the Emperor without Wallen- command. had mand over all the German armies of Austria and Spain. . and a formal and timely intimation. an imperial hereditary estate was to be assigned him. to the exclusion of every other tribunal. In vain the minister entreated him to moderate his demands. Every Austrian province was to be opened to him if he required He further demanded the assurance it in case of retreat. in order to write down the conditions on which he accepted the command. it was more than a mere feeling of haughtiness and desire of revenge which induced the duke to make them. would deprive the Emperor of all authority over his own troops and make him absolutely dependent on his general. were to appear in the army. to their success every one of the conditions for which Wallenstein stipu- . of the possession of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. For his ordinary pay. The value placed on his services had been too plainly manifested to prevent him dictating If the the price at which they were to be purchased. But however little confidence he in the moderation of his friend.' in the army. His plans of rebellion were formed. 439 suasions of Eggenberg and left him. still less to exercise any act of authority over it.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS . if it should be deemed necessary a second time to deprive him of the grace. which. with another of the conquered estates within the Empire for his extraordinary expenses. Neither the King of Hungary.

Whatever might be the issue. If circumstances proved favorable to his daring the project. and of acting the dictator in Germany more absolutely than ever any Emperor did in time of peace. this treaty with the Emperor facilitated its execu- tion. Those plans required that the Emperor should be deprived of all authority in Germany and be placed at the mercy of his general. must also be the sole master of the will of his troops. in case of need. which were only lent to him for a time by a higher authority. By the right to use any of the Austrian provinces as a place of refuge. refusal to allow any prince of the house of Austria to be present with the army. he master of their destinies. the conquered and also afford him fearful liberty of free disposal of all confiscated estates in the Empire would The means of purchasing dependents and instruments of his plans. and this object would be attained the moment Ferdinand subscribed to the required conditions. if. and to undermine power of Austria in its very foundation. he had full power to hold the Emperor a prisoner by means of his own forces and within his own dominions. on the contrary. he must cautiously keep the Hence his obstinate latter out of the view of the army. insensibly to supplant his sovereign and to transfer permanently to his own person the rights of sovereignty. it would at least afford him a brilliant compensation for the failure of his plans. he had equally secured his own advantage by the conditions he had extorted from the Emperor. to exhaust the strength and resources of these countries.440 lated in this THE GEEMAN CLASSICS treaty with the court was indispensable. in the face of a law which . The use which Wallenstein intended to make of his army (widely different indeed from that for which it was intrusted to him) brooked not of a divided power and still To be the sole less of an authority superior to his own. But how could he consider an agreement valid which was extorted from his sovereign and based upon treason? How could he hope to bind the Emperor by a written agreement. the course of things ran counter to it.

He left no expedient surely by means of negotiation. But. The Papists form fresh hopes. brilliantly to commence his new career by the reconquest of that kingdom. a new spirit seemed to inspire the troops of the Emperor. ceased from the army. approved of this proceeding. unite with them. contented with harassthe enemy with indecisive skirmishes of his Croats.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS condemned inal to death 441 every one who should have the pre- sumption to impose conditions upon him? But this crim- was the most indispensable man in the Empire. not to conquer the Saxons. The greater the price at which the services of the new general had been purchased. Already in the vicinity of Bohemia and at the head of a formidable force. and Ferdinand. Exclusively occupied with this important he remained inactive in the hope of conquering more object. last. granted the present all he required. he ing Saxons and abandoned the best part of that kingdom to be plundered. and moved calmly forward in pursuit of his own selfish His design was. but to plans. to those of the Weser and the Oder. and . moment Wallenstein assumed the commander's baton. a new epoch of the war began. the Protestant beholds with anxiety the changed course of affairs. the greater justly were the expectations from those which the court of the Emperor But the duke was in no hurry to fulfil these expectations. was felt the life-giving dawning of this new star . then. But the great debt which Saxony owed to Sweden was as yet too freshly remembered to allow of such an act of perfidy. he had but to show himself there in order to overpower the exhausted forces of the entertained. At in-chief From the banks of the Danube. Every other authority in the even that of the Emperor himself. and Ferdinand himself. and every act was invalid which did not proceed from him. him for the imperial army had found a commanderworthy of the name. ever inclined to an accommodation with this prince. well practised in dissimulation. untried. to detach this prince from the Swedish alliance.

Suddenly assembling his troops. but even while he was renewing his proposals to Arnheim. the rapidity of Arnheim 's operations fortunately extriAfter the retreat of this cated them from the danger. the opportunity of proving the sincerity of his intentions. with a view of cutting passes off the retreat of the Saxons into their own country.442 THE GERMAN CLASSICS even had the Elector been disposed to yield to the temptation. the treachery of some Capuchins opened the gates to one of his regiments. what he could not obtain by negotiation. by circumstances. and. unwillingly resolved to extort. between Aussig and Pirna. for a time. moreover. Egra Saxons. compel the Elector to enter into a private treaty with the Emperor. He. After a short resistance. he appeared before Prague ere the Saxons had time to advance to its relief. he did not hesitate to give them weight by strikHe hastened to seize the narrow ing a decisive blow. by the disclosure of his real motives. who had taken refuge in the citadel. he acted faithlessly upon the very occasion when perhaps he intended to act honestly. or rather with himself. but disgraceful conditions. soon laid down their arms upon Master of the capital. by force of arms. now pur- posed to carry the war into Saxony. he hoped to on more successfully his negotiations at the Saxon carry court. Notorious already as a treacherous statesman. . and the garrison. surrendered to the conqueror : and the whole king- dom was than it restored to lost. was denied. to a more pressing emergency. the last strongholds of the general. and Leutmeritz. therefore. But however little accustomed he was to make his will bend to circumstances. in less time had been Wallenstein. its legitimate sovereign. and by ravaging his territories. less occupied with the interests of his master than with the furtherance of his own plans. he now perceived the necessity of postponing his favorite scheme. the equivocal character of Wallenstein and the bad character of Austrian policy precluded any reliance in the integrity of its promises.

at the Diet at Ratisbon. and the Elector's late attempts to prevent his reinstatement were no secret to The moment of revenging this affront had now arrived. already detailed. and. Wallenstein remained inactive in Bohemia and abandoned The remembrance of the evil the Elector to his fate. till he same request could himself come with the main force.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVTJS ADOLPHUS 443 While he was driving the Saxons from Bohemia. and one messenger after another was sent to Wallenstein. was deeply engraved on the implacable mind of the duke. and Maximilian was doomed to pay dearly for his him. Ferdinand seconded the request with all his influence. to dispatch in the meantime a few regiments to his aid. he chastised his enemy and. by the defence of Bavaria. and entreated him. on the Rhine and the Danube. by the arm of the Swedes. It now appeared how completely the Emperor had sacri- ficed his authority in surrendering to another the supreme command of his troops. service which Maximilian had rendered him with the Emperor. Maximilian. He also made the to avert the danger from Austria itself. he allowed the Elector vainly to await his It was only when the complete subarrival in Ratisbon. to Wallenstein. Indifferent to Maximilian's en- treaties. urgently solicited the Emperor to send with all speed the Duke of Friedland to his assistance from Bohemia. jugation of Bohemia left him without excuse and the conquests of Gustavus Adolphus in Bavaria threatened Aus- . and deaf to the Emperor's repeated commands. Wallenfolly in provoking the most revengeful of men. defeated on the Lech and deprived by death of Count Tilly. Gustavus Adolphus had been gaining the victories. his best support. and that Austria could not be better protected than by allowing the Swedish army to waste its strength before the Bavarian fortress. while one place after another fell . into their hands. urging him to move toward the Danube. and carried the war through Franconia and Swabia to the frontiers of Bavaria. Thus. stein maintained that Bohemia ought not to be left exposed.

if any object was to be gained by the union.444 THE GERMAN CLASSICS tria itself. to the general anticipation of the decide the fate of the campaign. and the junction had been effected at Egra. Apparently he reckoned too much on the hatred which alienated the leaders and seemed to render their effectual cooperation improbable when the event contradicted his views. command . : inseparable from that resolve and sufficiently master of himself to put up with petty grievances when an important end was in view. and the little energy he used to prevent it was the occasion of great surprise. too weak in numbers to cope even with Wallenstein 's force alone. would never have had the power of granting it but having once made up his mind to it. Not content with having seen him. he was ready to bear all the annoyances which were haughty prince patiently submitted. Even to this humiliation the for the It had cost him a severe struggle to ask for protection of the man who. it . according . it conditions on which it was The united army must be placed under of one individual. would Gustavus Adolphus. he imposed upon him the hard condition of leaving his territories in his rear exposed to the enemy. which. naturally dreaded the junction of such powerful armies. that he yielded to the pressing entreaties of the Elector and the Emperor and determined to effect the longexpected union with the former an event. wishes had been consulted. But whatever pains it had cost was equally the difficult to settle the to effect this junction. if his own. On the first certain intelhe received of their designs. and each general was equally averse to be maintained. he hastened to the ligence Upper Palatinate purpose of intercepting the Elector: but the latter had already arrived there. as it were. and declaring by this long march to meet him the necessity and distress to which he was reduced. Roman Catholics. a suppliant at his feet. This frontier town had been chosen by Wallenstein for the scene of his triumph over his proud rival. was too late to repair his error.

had sufficient command over himself not to betray in a single feature his real f eelings but a malicious triumph . the idea of imposing laws on so imperious a spirit flattered in the same degree the haughtiness of Wallenstein. he commenced a rapid retreat into Franconia and waited there the of Sweden was not for some decisive movement on the part of the enemy. sparkled in the eyes of Wallenstein. well versed in dissimulation. The combined Imperial and Bavarian armies amounted men. the two generals at last ventured upon an interview but not until they had mutually promised to bury the past in oblivion. If it was deeply humiliating to the pride of the former to serve under an imperial subject. assigned the unlimited command of both armies. gave an equally strong title to it. An obstinate dispute ensued. After these preliminaries were settled. or even the route of the army. soul. Wallenstein's military renown. while the Elector was deprived of all power of altering the order of battle. and the constraint which was visible in all his movements betrayed the violence of the emotion to nearly 60.000 which overpowered his proud chiefly veterans. however. terminated in a mutual To him was compromise to Wallenstein 's advantage. on his electoral dignity. and the unlimited command conferred on him by the Emperor. particularly in battle.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 445 If Maxto yield to the superior authority of the other. and made mutual professions of friendship. they publicly embraced in the sight of their troops. . the nobleness of his descent. while in reality the hearts of both were over- flowing with malice. and his influence in the empire. Maximilian. The position of the com- . Before this force in a condition to keep the field. imilian rested his claim. According to agreement. and all the outward formalities of a reconciliation had been settled. He retained only the bare right of punishing and rewarding his own troops and the free use of these when not acting in conjunction with the Imperialists. King As his attempt to prevent their junction had failed. in order to form his own plans. which.

not of conquest. this extensive work. and the Duke's march through the Upper Palatinate placed the matter beyond a doubt. not without a secret design. it was generally supposed.446 THE GERMAN CLASSICS bined armies between the frontiers of Saxony and Bavaria left it for some time doubtful whether they would remove the war into the former. difficulty. Measures were immediately taken to surround the city and suburbs with redoubts and to form an intrenched Several thousand workmen immediately commenced camp. The question now was. he chose the first without hesitation. of favoring the entrance of the Duke of Friedland into that electorate and of thus driving the irresolute John George into peace with the Emperor. and an heroic determination to hazard . as soon as circumstances would allow. or to meet the enemy but either to throw him- Indifferent to danger while he obeyed the call of humanity or honor. Saxony had been stripped of troops by Arnheim. The approach of the had surprised him before he had time to concentrate enemy his troops. But the movements of Wallenstein's army soon led him to suspect that he himself was the object of attack. or to sacrifice that city and await a reinforcement Germany. His fertile genius must now supply the means. with the intention. which were scattered all over summon his allies to his aid. and the prize was no longer his supremacy but his very existence. firmly resolved to bury himself with his whole army under the ruins of Nuremberg rather than to purchase his own safety by the sacrifice of under the cannon of Donauwerth. hastily dispatched a strong reinforcement to the assistance of his confederate. Gustavus Adolphus himself. or his conferedates. he had no choice left self into Nuremberg and run the risk of being shut up in its walls. Too weak to in the field. but of preservation. who was pursuing his conquests in Silesia. how to provide for his own security. fully persuaded that Wallenstein's views were directed against Saxony. or endeavor to drive the Swedes from the Danube and deliver Bavaria. of following with the main body.

in Thuringia and Lower Saxony. A trench. days. the magistrates of Nuremberg were busily occupied in filling the magazines with provisions and ammunition for a Measures were taken. he could not "In four in a childish boast: will be shown whether I or the King this . if the strictest regulations. assistance his allies. in a fortnight. The Imperialists had. Duke William of Weimar. the youth of the city were enlisted and trained to arms. at the same time. in the meantime. and ordered his generals on the Rhine. and. three hundred pieces of cannon defended the town-walls and the intrenchments. eight feet deep and twelve broad. assisted the Swedish soldiers so zealously that on the seventh day the army was able to enter the camp. according to the letters of the Gustavus had. His army. refrain At the sight of from indulging he. and the Landgrave of Hesse Cassel.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS life 447 and property in the common cause animated the inhabitants of Nuremberg. The river Pegnitz. this great work was completed. While these operations were carried on without the walls. to long siege." said " it formidable force. advanced to Neumark.000 men. called to his alphabet. by slow marches. surrounded the whole fortification. which was encamped within the lines. The peasantry from the neighboring villages. the gates by half moons. and a new regiment raised. did not amount to more than 16. where Wallenstein made a general review. the lines were defended by redoubts and batteries. secure the health of the inhabitants. consisting of four-and-twenty names. which was likely to be endangered by the conflux of so many people. in the meantime. and the inhabitants of Nuremberg. to support the King. cleanliness was enforced by In order. the militia of the town con- siderably reinforced. which flows through Nuremberg. to commence their march immediately and join him with their troops in Nuremberg. necessary. divided the whole camp into two semicircles whose About communication was secured by several bridges. scarcely a third of the enemy.

The ing country exhibited the most melancholy traces. as long as it was possible to provision his army from with. was his answer it is now to those who advised him to attack the King time to try another method. he erected a strong fortified camp on the other side of the Pegnitz. Wallenstein had not taken sufficient pre- cautions to avert from himself the fate he was designing for others. the peasantry had fled with their property and what little provision remained must be obstinately contested with the Swedes. reputation required not any of those rash enterprises on which younger soldiers rush. necessaries of life must be obtained sword in hand. wearing out by famine and pestilence the courage of his opponent whom he had no wish to encounter in the field. of the resources and the strength of his adversary. Little aware. and flattered himself with the hope of slowly. of which the surround. by this well chosen position. in the hope of gaining a name. and . cut off from the city and the camp of Gustavus all supplies from Franconia. and. by thus depriving him of every opportunity of availing himself of his impetuous bravery. Thus he held in siege at once the city and the King. and. From the whole of the neighboring country.448 of THE GERMAN CLASSICS is to be master of the world. out and these forays produced constant skirmishes between the Croats and the Swedish cavalry. and opposite Nuremberg. while a defeat would irretrievably ruin the Emperor's affairs. The King spared the magazines within the town. notwithhe did nothing to fulfil his promstanding his superiority. "Without making any attack. Swabia. ise and even let slip the opportunity of crushing his enemy Sweden . but surely." Wallenstein's well-founded ." Yet. he resolved to wear out the ardor of his opponent by a tedious blockade. take from him the very advantage which had hitherto rendered him invincible. however. and Thuringia. when the latter ' ' had the hardihood to leave his lines to ' ' ' * meet him. therefore. Battles enough have been fought. Satisfied that the enemy's despair would dearly sell a victory.

rendered it uncertain which party would be first compelled to give way. which began to be felt in the Imperial camp as strongly as in the Swedish. A large convoy from Bavaria was on its way to him. about 1. was. The want of provisions. and the armed camp rendered an its his troops . made the Duke of Friedland repent that he had The strength of the Swedish declined to hazard a battle. But at length the long expected succor arrived in the Swedish camp. fell into the hands of the Swedes the Imperial escort was broken up. Fifteen days had the two armies now remained in view of each other. immediately sent out a regiment of cavalry to intercept it. and by this strong reinforcement the King was now enabled Vol. who had. the natural consequences of bad food and a crowded population. attack impracticable. equally defended by inaccessible intrenchments. infectious diseases. with an escort of a thousand men. were attacked by the King. which Wallenstein had sent forward to Altdorp to cover the entrance of the long and anxiously expected convoy. with the town in which it enterprise.200 cattle were carried off. in like manner. and so firm and unexpected a resistance on the part of the King. Gustavus Adolphus having received intelligence of its approach. youth of Nuremberg served the King as a nursery from which he could supply his loss of troops. being driven back into the Imperial camp with the loss of 400 men. On both sides. but Wallenstein had to support from a distance. without attempting anything more than slight attacks and unimportant skirmishes. which could not be brought away. loaded with bread. Seven regiments. were set on fire. advanced to cover the retreat of his cavalry and routed after an obstinate action. and the darkness of the night favored the The whole convoy. So many checks and difficulties. had occasioned a greater loss than the sword. and a thousand wagons.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 449 the foraging parties could not venture out without a numerous escort. And when this supply failed the town opened magazines to the King. Ill — 29 . And this evil daily increased.

000 men confronting each other. and nearly the same number in that of the Swedes. there were in the camp of Wallenstein about 15. in the two armies. which. Gustavus now saw himself at the head of an army of nearly 70. Oxenstiern. a .000 baggage wagons. After being joined at Windsheim by the Duke of Weimar himself and the Swedish General Banner. two contending parties was fearfully drawn. and besides the inhabitants of Nuremberg.000 fighting men a formidable force. where the whole strength of the . The war seemed at length compressed to the point of a single battle. without reckoning the militia of Nuremberg. This reinforcement amounted to nearly 50. which the Landgrave of Hesse and the Palatine of Birkenfeld dispatched to the relief of the King. for Wallenstein had also received reinforcements from Bavaria. and was attended by a train of 60 pieces of cannon and 4. where he passed the Rednitz and reached the Swedish camp in safety. The Chancellor. of If. whose number far exceeded the Swedish army.000 strong. break the In obedience to his requisitions.000 men.000 horses. the Duke of Weimar had hastily drawn together a corps from the garrisons in Lower Saxony and Thuringia. and more than 50. in case of necessity. at Schweinfurt in Franconia. to a focus. as it were. he advanced by rapid marches to Bruck and Eltersdorf. before the arrival of the Swedish succor. and at Kitzingen by the corps of the Rhine. which. the soldier to The custom of the time permitted carry his family with him to the field. With divided sympathies. a want had been felt.000 women.450 THE GERMAN CLASSICS and to to obey the dictates of his native courage chains which had hitherto fettered him. which was to decide its fearful issue. Besides the 120. undertook to lead this force to its destination. opposed to another not less formidable. the evil was now fearfully inprovisions creased to a dreadful height in both camps. Europe looked with anxiety upon this scene. with as many drivers. was joined by four Saxon regiments. could bring into the field about 30.

on day of encampment (the festival of St. on his numerical superiority. nor the ridicule of his opponent. and by their immense consumption raised the necessaries of life to an exorbitant price. His plan was to wear out the king by his inactivity. left his lines on the relying 25th day. this camp for their For the rising generation who had home and country. while. and neither the remonstrances of Maximilian and the impatience of his army. the hunger of the soldiers. . which were daily delivered by the town into the Swedish camp. could shake his purpose. now attempted impossibilities. Intrusting his the fifty-eighth own camp his to the militia of Nuremberg. forming before the enemy in order of battle. No wonder. Gustavus. if these wandering nations exhausted every territory in which they encamped. to these distresses. All the mills of Nuremberg were insufficient to grind the corn required for each day. excited. and 15. But the duke remained immovable in his intrenchments.000 pounds of bread. and contented himself with answering this challenge by a distant fire of cannon and musketry. without allaying. Gustavus's care for the morals of his soldiers encouraged marriages. regular military schools were established. then. and resolved to storm a position which art and nature had combined to render impregnable. with the view of preventing the excesses practised by the latter. which educated a race of excellent warriors by whom the army might recruit itself in the course of a long campaign. while the increasing mortality in the camp consigned more than a hundred men daily to the grave. deceived in his hope of forcing a battle.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 451 number of prostitutes followed the Imperialists. while he cannonaded the duke 's camp from three batteries erected on the side of the Rednitz. and compelled by his in- To put an end creasing necessities. Gustavus Adolphus. The laudable exertions of the magistrates of Nuremberg could not prevent the greater part of the horses from dying for want of forage. and by the force of famine to overcome his resolute determination.

from the summits of which Wallenstein calmly and securely discharged the lightnings of his artillery from amid the dark thunder-clouds of smoke. and a hundred pieces of cannon threatened the desperate assailant with certain destruction. commanded by these eminences. Exposed to the whole fire of the enemy's artillery. camp itself. a fifth. Deep trenches surrounded inaccessible redoubts. and a third regiment succeeded them to experience the same fate. The main army of the Imperialists the steep heights between the Biber and the called the Old Fortress and Altenberg. he now led on his Finlanders . while thick barricades. supported by a few infantry (for a greater number could not act in the narrow space). The furious. thinking. On these heights the whole of the artillery was placed. took to flight. yielded to the superiority of the enemy. discharged on them a shower of shot. and . enjoyed the unenvied privilege of first throwing themselves into the open jaws of death. in an instant. and infuriated by assault was the prospect of inevitable death. after a the cowardice of the Germans. and passing the Rednitz at Furth. to the attack. with pointed palisades. and divided them till the intrepid band. these determined warriors rushed forward to storm the heights which. Against this dangerous post Gustavus now directed his attack. similar hot reception. field. to shame But they. while the Rednitz.452 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Bartholomew). This was replaced by a fourth. conquered by the strength of nature and of man. five hundred musketeers. he advanced in full order of battle. leaving a hundred dead upon the To Germans had Gustavus yielded this post of honor. the resistance obstinate. converted into a flaming volcano. by their northern courage. A destructive fire of musketry was maintained behind the breastworks. easily drove the enemy's was posted on outposts before him. spread out immeasurably along the plain. the heavy cavalry rushed forward into the openings which the artillery had made in the close ranks of the assailants. also. At the same moment. defended the approaches to the heights. Exasperated at their retreat.

It commanded the hills But the heavy rain which fell during the night rendered it impossible to draw up the cannon. the king did not venture the following morning to renew the attack with his exhausted troops. One of the heights above the old fortress had. a sharp contest had taken place between the imperial cavalry and the left wing of the Swedes which was posted in a thicket on the Eednitz. in the heat of the action. " Sire." replied the brave soldier. addressed himself. he had rashly vowed never again To him Gustavus now to draw his sword for the king. and Wallenstein held his position unshaken. The Duke of Friedland and Prince Bernard of Weimar had each a horse shot under him the king himself had the sole of his boot carried off by a cannon ball. king for having. so that. been by the Duke of Weimar. But the Swedes had advanced too far to retreat without hazard. not long before.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS ment was brought from the contest. Offended with the . whose native courage alone had drawn him from the camp to share in the dangers of the day. during a ten hours' action. 453 a sixth. for it is a hazardous one" — diately hastened to carry the command. While the king was seeking an officer to convey to the regiments the order to retreat. The combat was maintained with undiminished obstinacy. he met Colonel Hepburn. In the mean time. a brave Scotchman. with varying success but with equal intrepedity and loss on both sides. which had been gained with so much bloodshed. praising his courage and requesting him to order the regiments to retreat. every regito the attack to retire with bloody loss thousand mangled bodies covered the A yet Gustavus undauntedly maintained the attack. till the approach of night separated the combatants. "it is the only service I cannot refuse to and immeyour Majesty. Diffident of fortune. was also voluntarily abandoned. preferred a younger officer for some post of danger. and this post. he led back his troops over the carried and the whole camp. field . which forsook him on this decisive day. . even because he was not victor. and vanquished for the first time.

encouraged by the silence. and. the un- bridled excesses of the furious soldiers exercised the wildest outrages on the peasantry. On your account I have stripped my orders . Your want of discipline convinces me of your evil intentions. rob your native country. that the tears of poverty follow me. As God is my judge. my heart sinks within me whenever I look upon you. the THE GERMAN CLASSICS Two thousand dead which he left behind him on field. The increasing distress broke up the all discipline and order in the Swedish camp and . For fourteen davs after this action. .454 Rednitz. in particular. breaches of discipline. the two armies still continued in front of each other. and the vehemence with which he reproached the German bespoke the liveliness of his that said he. our friend. and the Duke of Friedland remained unconquered within his lines. does us more harm than in my ear even our worst enemies.* while from your German empire I have not received the least aid. whatever cause I might otherwise have to treasures. " ' ' ' ' . I gave you a share of all that God had given to me and had ye regarded my orders I would have gladly shared with you all my future acquisitions. applaud your bravery. each in the hope that the other would be the first to give way. I loathe you officers for their negligence. emotion.000 rix dollars. and ruin your own confederates in the faith. of a single individual could if not the These shameful actual example. The weak hand not check excesses." A ton of gold in Sweden amounts to 100. Germans. as scarcity became greater. on the maintenance of which he had hitherto justly prided himself. testified to the extent of his loss. — ' ' my own kingdom of its and spent upon you more than 40 tons of gold. It is you yourselves. distinguished themthe ravages they practised indiscriminately on selves for German friend and foe. . Ye break ye are the cause that the world curses me. regiments. of the inferior officers. severely pained the king. Every day reduced their provisions. I abhor you. that complaints ring The King.

had only awaited the retreat of the Swedes to commence his own.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS Nuremberg had exerted itself. and leaving one division to protect Franconia. Affected by the general distress. the villages were in ashes. together with the heat of the dog-days. and also to be near to Nuremberg in case the enemy should make an attempt upon the town. putrifying carcasses. The fields around the city were trampled down. By the casualties of war and sickness. to subsist for eleven weeks the vast crowd which was compressed within its boundaries but its means were at length . But Wallenstein. exhausted. and long after the retreat of both armies. continued to load the country with misery and so many distress. burning villages in the neighborhood. He advanced in full order of battle before the enemy. the exhalations from so dense a population. The latter now divided his army. and . who remained motionless and did not attempt in the least to harass his retreat. leaving in Nuremberg a sufficient garrison. as exhausted as himself.000 of its inhabitants. and Gustavus Adolphus nearly 20. the king broke up his camp on the 8th of September. . but he was too far advanced to be overtaken by the king. Nuremberg had lost more than 10. was marked by march.000 of his soldiers. the plundered peasantry lay faint and dying on the highways foul odors infected the air. and bad food. and the king's more numerous party was obliged to determine on a retreat. rising from all the fire. 455 almost beyond its power. produced a desolating pestilence which raged among men and beasts. and despairing of conquering the steady determination of the Duke of Friedland. where he halted five days to refresh his troops. with the other he prosecuted in person his conquests in Bavaria. announced his reHis treat and showed the city the fate it had escaped. Five days afterward he broke up his camp at Zirndorf and set it on A hundred columns of smoke. His route lay by the Aisch and Windsheim toward Neustadt. which was directed on Forchheim. which the exhausted country was unable to support. the most frightful ravages.

desertion. the expectations of Europe. where. they had gained Silesia several advantages over the Emperor's troops. He found which so lately had amounted to 60. lay open on every side to attack. The king's conquests in Bavaria. and prosewith renewed earnestness. by any decisive result. without advancing the termination of the war. and. and the attempt was the more easy as Saxony. reinforced by troops from Brandenburg and Sweden. and of these a fourth were Bavarians. the Duke of Friedland eagerly seized the opportunity from this burdensome associate. to about 24. it is true. Still cuting. hoping by his destructive presence to force the Elector the more readily into his views. would be saved by a diversion against the Elector in his own territories. his favorite plans. where the Duke of Friedland a second time mustered his troops. or satisfying. different toward the fate of that country. No conjuncture could be more favorable for his designs. under the mask of a patriotic zeal for the Emperor's interests. difficulty.456 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS In the mean time. diminished by the sword.000 men. Thus had the encampments before Nuremberg weakened both parties more than two great battles would have done. and Austria secured against the danger of immediate invasion. The Saxons had invaded Silesia. but by the retreat of the king from that city. left undefended during the war in Silesia. he selected that country for his winter of separating quarters. and disease.000. apparently this force. checked for a time by this diversion before Nuremberg. The pretext of rescuing from the enemy a hereditary dominion of Austria would silence the remonstrances of the Elector of Bavaria. and weary of the itself restraint which his union with the Elector imposed upon him. adhering to his purpose of detaching Saxony from its Swedish alliance. were. the imperial Bavarian army had marched into the Bishopric of Bamberg. Maximilian might be sacrificed without much . he was again Inleft at full liberty to make Bavaria the seat of war.

Ruined churches. was recalled from Lower Saxony. to reinforce the diminished army of the duke and to complete the miseries of the devoted country. to protect his defenceless territory with the small remains of his troops. the Elector separated from Wallenstein at Bamberg. and by the conquest of the whole country to prescribe laws to the Elector. Vogtland. An imperial general. Duke of Liineburg. while the increasing coldness between Gustavus and the Saxon Court gave him little reason to apprehend any extraordinary zeal for the deliverance of John George. Yet this was but the prelude to greater sufferings with which Wallenstein himself. after a short resistance. at the head of the main army. His design was to push on to Dresden. approached the Mulda. another of the Duke's generals. Placed between the Saxon and Swedish armies.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 457 By giving up the rich country of Bavaria to the Swedes. he arrived with his whole army in the Circle of Leipzic. villages in ashes. Thus a second time abandoned by his artful protector. He had already . threatened Saxony. in his march through Franconia and Thuringia. Pappenheim.000 men. . and murdered peasants. which were likely to be further reinforced by the troops of George. and compelled the city. had previously been sent into Vogtland with 6. directed its march through Bayreuth and Coburg toward the Thuringian Forest. he hoped to be left unmolested by them in his enterprise against Saxony. After having left behind him fearful monuments of his fury. Hoik. under whose scourge the whole of Thuringia. Finally. under Wallenstein. and an equally faithful instrument of his inhuman orders. harvests wilfully destroyed. to waste this defenceless province with fire and sword he was soon followed by Gallas. threatening to overpower the Saxon army which had advanced as far as Torgau to meet him. while the imperial army. lay defenceless. when the King of Sweden's arrival at Erfurt gave an unexpected check to his operations. to surrender. too. marked the progress of these barbarians. and Meissen. families plundered.

and if his were long disregarded. Even the generals of the two powers. Every arbitrary step on the part of the King. political A prince.458 THE GERMAN CLASSICS from Lower Saxony. his authority with the Protestant states. every demand. however reasonable. and nothing but the extreme danger of his dominions could overcome the aversion with which he had long witnessed the progress of this unwelcome intruder. which he addressed to the princes of the Empire. manifested the same jealousy as divided their leaders. the arts employed by Spain and Austria to detach his allies from him. favored the efforts of skilfully to Arnheim. he hastily retired upon Meresberg. John George's natural aversion to war. labored incessantly to effect a private Emperor. who. which the imperial emissaries did not fail keep alive and cherish. awakened in the Elector's breast a thousand anxieties. with great uneasiness. still the event representatives proved that they were not altogether without effect. the more anxiety the inconstant temper of John George caused him. proud of his importance and accustomed to consider himself as the head of his party. naturally apprehensive of the consequences which the defection of so powerful an ally would treaty between his master and the . The more important his alliance with Saxony. was followed by bitter complaints from the Elector. Between himself and the Elector a sincere friendship could never subsist. and a lingering attachment to Austria. maintaining a constant correspondence with Wallenstein. which seemed to announce an approaching rupture. the unambiguous proofs which he gave of his ambitious views. could not see without annoyance the interference of a foreign power in the affairs of the Empire. The increasing influence of the king in Germany. Gustavus Adolphus. whenever they were called upon to act in common. Gustavus Adolphus had witnessed. which were of a character calculated to excite the jealousies of all the states of the Empire. to form a junction there with Count Pappenheim and to repel the further advance of the Swedes.

. spared no pains to avert so pernicious an event. At Erfurt he took leave of his queen. joined the king at Armstadt. An insurrection of the peasantry in Upper Austria opened to him a passage into that country. in this expedition. He had already resolved upon a second attack on Ingoldstadt and the weakness of the Elector of Bavaria gave him hopes of soon forcing this exhausted enemy to accede to a neutrality. But the formidable power with which the Emperor seconded his seductive proposals.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 459 produce on his future prospects in Germany. who. he followed the route of Wallenstein through Thuringia. Is it possible. who was not to behold him save in his Their anxious adieus seemed to forcoffin at Weissenfels. the great king was destined to terminate his career? Eapidly assembling his troops in Franconia. bode an eternal separation. had steadily adhered to his own selfish projects and who was important. who now saw himself at the head of 20. on the pressing occasions of common good. Duke Bernard of Weimar. undertaken for the benefit of such an ally. might at length overcome the resolution of the Elector. who. not for the services he was expected to render. should he be left exposed to the vengeance of his enemies while an indifference to the fate of so powerful a . neither by his services nor his fidelity was worthy . and the miseries which. in the case of hesitation.000 veterans. This consideration induced the king a second time to yield to the pressing entreaties of the Elector and to sacrifice his own brilliant prospects to the safety of this ally. then. but merely for the injuries he had it in his power to inflict. when we know that. confederate would irreparably destroy the confidence of the other allies in their protector. All these views he now gave up for the sake of an ally. who had been dispatched to act against Pappenheim. he threatened to accumulate upon Saxony. and the capital might be . to refrain from indignation. and his remonstrances had hitherto had some effect upon the Elector. in his possession before Wallenstein could have time to advance to its defence. of the sacrifices .

to secure his winterquarters in Saxony. a second time. "as if this people would make a God of me 1 Our affairs prosper. declines that homage which is due only to the Immortal. "Is it not.460 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He reached Naumburg on the 1st of November. His present superiority in numbers. a year before. said he. and strengthens his title to our tears. the people knelt before him. the nearer the moment approaches that is to call How them forth ! In the mean time. he honors an avenging Nemesis. and. the great king. 1632. could make itself master of that place. had first appeared in that quarter. and struggled for the honor of touching the sheath of his sword or the hem of his garment. But his present rein his numerical superiority as in the predictions of his astrologer Seni. he should decline a battle. like a guardian angel. which the Duke of Friedland had dispatched for that purpose. though much less than what it was at the beginning of the siege of Nuremberg. The modest hero disliked this innocent tribute which a sincerely grateful and admiring multitude paid him. was still enough to give him hopes of victory. His inactivity before Nuremberg had occasioned a suspicion that he was unwilling to measure his powers with those of the Hero of the North. the vengeance of tion. The inhabitants of the surrounding country nocked in crowds to look upon the hero. if he could compel the king to give battle before his junction with the Saxons. who. who had read in the stars that the good fortune of the Swedish monarch would liance was not so much . even at the hazard of a battle. indeed but I fear ' ' . if. Heaven will punish this ' ' ! me for this presump- and soon enough reveal to human weakness and mortality deluded multitude my amiable does Gustavus appear before us at this moment. as far as Weissenfels. the Duke of Friedland had determined to advance to meet the king. Shouts of joy everywhere attended his progress. when about to leave us forever! Even in the plentitude of success. before the corps. the avenger. and his hardearned reputation would be at stake.

and also the river Saal which ran at their foot. he had no reason to apprehend But the approach of prolong the campaign and it. Undecided whether to advance against the king through the narrow passes between Weissenfels and Naumburg or to remain inactive in Duke of Liineburg was bringing camp. he called a council of war. the preparations which the position. as the important city of Cologne upon the Rhine was threatened by the Dutch. and which might. or commence a laborious retreat through Thuringia. . with the intention of awaiting there the reinforcements which the up. But the rapidity with which Gustavus Adolphus had taken possession of Naumburg disappointed this plan. and. in order to have the opinion of his most experienced generals. at this season. But in this expectation he was disappointed for the king. and the more so. Besides. and it was now Wallenstein himself who awaited the attack.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS decline in 461 the month of November. between and Weissenfels there was a range of narrow Naumburg defiles formed by a long mountainous ridge. already so much in need of repose. . and to expose the greater part of his army to a march through a desert country entirely destitute of all necessary supplies. be rendered almost impassable. with the assistance of a few troops. instead of advancing to meet him at Weissenf els. almost conyielded vinced that. None of these his thought it prudent to attack the king in his advantageous On the other hand. All voices were in favor of immediately terminating the campaign. If attacked there. made preparations for intrenching himself near Naumburg. latter made to fortify his camp plainly showed that it was not his intention soon to abandon winter rendered it impossible to by a continued encampment to exhaust the strength of the army. while the progress of the enemy in Westphalia and the Lower Rhine called for Wallenstein effective reinforcements in that quarter. along which the Swedes could not advance without difficulty. to the weight of these arguments. the king would have no choice but either to penetrate with great danger through the defiles.

of the fortress of Moritzburg. to the assistance of Cologne. to watch. moved forward to possess themselves of the villages lying upon the Rippach. Three cannon shots. he hastened with his whole force to attack the enemy. by rapid marches. while Wallenstein moved forward into the wide plain between the Canal and Liitzen. and tain his at this concerted signal. from whence the news of his arrival quickly reached the enemy and greatly astonished the Duke of Friedland. where he awaited the King in full order of battle. from whence he purposed to march to Leipzic and to cut off the communication between the Saxons and the Swedish army. with orders to take possession. Count Pappenheim was dispatched. when. with a great part of the army. under the command of the Croatian General Isolani. he might hope to mainground until the return of Pappenheim. Different corps took up their winter-quarters in the neighboring towns. between Plotzgaben and the Saal. on his march.000 men to oppose to the 20. toward Weissenfels. cut off his communication with Leipzic and the Saxons auxiliaries. five miles distant.462 THE GERMAN CLASSICS an attack from the King. the motions of the enemy. Messengers were hastily dispatched to recall him. and. but so that. in the territory of Halle. fired by Count Colloredo from the castle of Weissenfels.000 of the enemy. who could not have advanced farther than Halle. who crossed the . Count Colloredo guarded the castle of Weissenfels. Though he had little more than 12. if necessary. But a speedy resolution was now necessary. suddenly breaking up his camp at Naumburg. the light troops of the Duke of Friedland. on all sides. now weakened to one half. and Wallenstein himself encamped with the remainder not far from Merseburg. by this position. and the measures of Wallenstein were soon taken. Their weak resistance did not impede the advance of the enemy. they might be rapidly assembled. Scarcely had Gustavus Adolphus been informed of Pap- penheim 's departure. announced the king's approach. He advanced. he put his troops into winterquarters.

to support the fire from the trenches. On this canal rested the left wing of the and the right of the King of Sweden. all the camp-follow. Wallenstein. All the baggage was sent to Leipzic that it might not impede the movements of the army and the ammunition-wagons alone remained. which were placed in rear of the line. and to the south of that town was posted the left wing of the Swedes. had possessed himself of this highway. and at the windmills. To the northward. musketeers. near the village of that name. and when the morning dawned all was ready for the recepers sutlers until and tion of the enemy.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 463 Rippach. These only Pappenheim's troops arrived. to the great disadvantage of his opponent. and the cavalry covered the flanks. that the cavalry of both extended themselves along the opposite side. His disposition was the same as that . and planted them with tle. both armies fronted the high road. The infantry. To conceal the weakness of the Imperialists. behind Liitzen. was Wallenstein 's right wing. was erected a battery of seven large pieces of cannon. deepened the trenches which ran along its sides. Behind these. again. arrangements were made during the darkness of the night. divided into no more than five unwieldy brigades. close behind Liitzen. The high road which goes from Weissenfels to Leipzic is intersected between Liitzen and Markranstadt by the canal which extends from Zeitz to Merseburg and unites the Elster with the Saal. and formed in line below Liitzen. which ran between them and divided their order of battle but the evening before the bat. On the evening of the same day. opposite the Imperialists. Gustavus Adolphus appeared on the opposite plain and formed his troops in the order of attack. so as to make the crossing of it both difficult and dangerous. but were mounted and posted on the left wing. was drawn up at the distance of 300 paces from the road. fourteen smaller field-pieces were ranged on an eminence from which they could sweep the greater part of the plain. but so Imperialists.

The second line was formed in the same manner. was to render so terrible and remarkable. commanded by Henderson. in order to excite the emulation of the two nations to a noble competition. the canal on the right and in its rear. . Europe towas next day to learn who was her greatest general morrow the leader. During the whole course of the war. In the centre the infantry was formed. The victory was as yet doubtful. the king led on the Swedes in person. and troops of musketeers were placed here and there among the cavalry. This morning was to place it beyond a doubt whether the victories of Gustavus at Leipzic and on the Lech were owing to his own military genius. had daring been cooled by so awful a hazard. In this position they ing. while. The strained expectation of Europe. Never. Bernard. on the right. so disappointed before Nuremberg. a Scotchman. was now to be gratified on the plains of Liitzen. had not before been pitted against each other. under the command of Count Brahe the cavalry on the wings. was intrusted the command of the German cavalry of the left wing. Duke of Weimar. two such generals. or hope animated by so glorious a prize. so equally matched in renown and ability. the artillery in front. and the picked body. as yet. and behind these was placed the reserve. must acknowledge a victor. but certain were the labor and the bloodshed by which it must be earned. The army was arranged in two lines. To the German hero. to begin a contest awaited the eventful dawn of mornwhich long delay.464 THE GERMAN CLASSICS which had been so successful the year before at Leipzic. rather than the probability of decisive consequences. whether the services of Wallenstein were to vindicate the Emperor's choice and justify the high price at which they had been purchased. who had hitherto been invincible. or to — the incompetency of his opponent. and the town on the left. the high road in front. rather than the number of the combatants. Every private in both armies felt a jealous share in their leader's . Small squadrons of horse were interspersed among the divisions of the infantry.

however. and the enemy became visible. the first of the five with imperial brigades was immediately routed. rushed upon the enemy. maintained the attack the enemy's musketeers regiments of cavalry. The king then mounted his horse. the king offered up his devotions. Kneeling in front of his lines. at the same moment dropping on their knees.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 465 reputation. and under every corslet beat the same emotions that inflamed the bosoms of the generals. delayed the attack till . Supported by three . rapidity of lightning he was on the spot to rally his discomfited troops and his powerful word was itself sufficient to stop the flight of the fugitives. Maria ' ' ! began same moment Liitzen was seen in flames. and the infantry advanced cavalry against the trenches. Ill — 30 . the trenches were passed. burst into a moving hymn. Jesus God with us was the war-cry of the Swedes ' ' ' ' ' ' ! . these intrepid battalions undaunted courage. the flanked on that side. About eleven the fog that of the Imperialists. which spread over the plain. the battery carried and turned against the enemy. till abandoned their posts. forming Vol. With the Wallenstein opposed itself to their progress. noon. the vanquished brigades. and the third put to flight. the foreboding presentiment of his own bosom contradicted. and the whole army. rode along the ranks to animate the courage of his troops with a joyful confidence. accom- panied by the military music. which. At the of musketry and heavy artillery. Received by a tremendous fire to disperse. having been set on fire by command of the duke to prevent his being outThe charge was now sounded. At last the fateful morning dawned but an impenetrable fog. They pressed forward with irresistible impetuosity. Each army knew the enemy to which it was to be opposed: and the anxiety which each in vain attempted to repress was a convincing proof of their opponent's strength. and clad only in a leathern doublet and surtout (for a wound he had formerly received prevented his wearing armor). the second soon But here the genius of after.

the fury of the attack no time for loading. * Gefreyter. led by himself. nearly corresponding to the corporal. the wearied Swedes at last retire beyond the trenches. was beginning to give way. were able to keep up with the king. The nearness of the enemy left no room for fire-arms. that every one respectfully made way for him as he rode along. and only a few horsemen. and the captured battery is again lost by the A thousand mangled bodies already strewed the retreat. immediately ordered a musketeer to take aim at him. while he head of the regiment of Steinbock. a person exempt from watching duty. and their disorderly flight spread terror and confusion to pike. The first impetuous shock of the heavy Finland cuirassiers dispersed the lightly-mounted Poles and Croats. He rode directly to the place where his infantry were most closely pressed. among whom was Francis Albert. man was matched man. to repair the disorder of his right wing. exposed to a severe among from the enemy's cannon posted at the windmills. A murderous conflict ensued. With rapid decision he committed fire the pursuit of the enemy's left. and while he was reconnoitering the enemy's line for an exposed point of attack.466 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS anew. Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg. at the Horn him with the velocity of lightning across the trenches. who were posted here.* remarking close to their ranks. At this moment notice was brought the king that his infantry were retreating over the trenches. faced the enemy and pressed vigorously into the broken ranks of the Swedes. His noble charger bore to General flew. had fallen upon the enemy's left. In the meantime the king's right wing. " Fire at him " that must be a man of yonder. the rest of the cavalry. and as yet not a single step of ground had been won. Overpowered by numbers. the shortness of his sight unfortunately led him too An imperial Gefreyter." said he. . and also that his left wing. the useless musket exchanged for the sword and and science gave way to desperation. plain. but the squadrons that followed could not come on with the same speed.

LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS consequence. A murderous conflict ensued over the body. Bernard. in French. Duke of Saxe. till his mangled remains were buried beneath a heap of slain. . The left wing quickly formed again and vigorously pressed the . Smaland. his majesty received a second shot through the back. already making but feeble resistance to General Horn. to lead him unobserved out of the tumult. and a confused cry of shot! " spread terror and consternation through all the ranks. soon made known to the Swedish cavalry the fall of their king. The mournful tidings soon ran through the Swedish army but instead of destroying the courage of these brave troops. he requested the Duke of Lauenburg. it but excited it into a new. flying without its rider and covered with blood. At that moment his squadron came hurryThe king bleeds the king is ing up. gave to the bereaved Swedes a noble leader in his own person and the spirit of Gustavus led his victorious squadrons anew. With the lowly fury of lions the Upland. Life had lessened in value. which deprived him of his remaining making a long " " I Brother. . circuit to keep this discouraging sight from the disordered infantry. sacred life Gothland regiments rushed a second time upon the left wing of the enemy. with a dying voice. East and West flame." 467 The soldier fired. and consuming strength. he breathed his last amidst the plundering hands of the Croats." cried the king. was now entirely beaten from the field. "It is nothing follow me. have enough! look only to your own life." At the same moment he fell from his horse pierced by several more shots and abandoned by all his attendants." said he. now that the most of all was gone. collecting his whole strength. Finland. but overcome by pain and nearly fainting. . While ' ' ! — the duke proceeded toward the right wing with the king. a wild. and the king's left arm was shattered. His charger. death had no terrors for the since the anointed head was not spared. They rushed madly forward to rescue his sacred remains from the hands of the enemy. which.Weimar.

and to be at first involved But with rapid presence of mind he rallied them once more against the his wild bravery. was captured and turned against the enemy. the flying troops. he ordered eight regiments of cavalry to mount. Without waiting therefore. and chance conspired with Swedish valor to complete the defeat. and their artillery in the enemy's hands. for it. The order which recalled that general to Liitzen had reached him in Halle. also. their right wavering. and inferior in numbers. The centre. advanced a second time against the trenches. he burst furiously upon the Swedish ranks. which. the air. another moment would settle the fate of the day.468 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The artillery at the windmills. which they successfully passed. thought they . were. Carried away by to encounter the king who he supposed was at the head of this wing. and led . The attack was now renewed with redoubled fury upon the heavy battalions of the enemy's centre. of the Swedish infantry. exhausted by victory. and at their head he galloped at full speed for Liitzen. when Pappenheim appeared on the field. with that rapidity which the urgency of the order infantry and Pappenheim 's impatience required. explosion. to share in the battle. He arrived in time to wit- ness the flight of the imperial right wing. were attacked in the rear. and retook the battery of seven cannons. which Gustavus Horn was driving from the field. right of the Imperialists. Their while the Swedish brigades pressed them in front. courage began to fail them. The battle seemed to be almost decided. now the battle was to be fought anew. while his troops were still plunderIt was impossible to collect the scattered ing the town. commanded by the duke and Knyphausen. their resistance became gradually less. grenades and bombs filled and. which had maintained so murderous a fire upon the Swedes. Their left wing was already beaten. with a tremendous The enemy. in their rout. and impatient enemy. and in confusion. The imperial powder-wagons took fire. with his cuirassiers and dragoons all the advantages already gained were lost.

Less fortunate was Pappenheim. and But his own mantle was perforated by several shots.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 469 after a noble resistance. encouraging the valiant with praise. death first brought together these two great heroes. which had been twice lost. until he was carried along in the general Wallenstein himself was seen rout of the whole army. avenging destiny this day protected that breast for which another weapon was reserved on the same field where the noble Gustavus expired. and the wavering by his fearful glance. closely serried battalions of the Swedes were. The . The same fate befell another regiment of Blues. and he himself was pierced with six musket balls yet he would not leave the field. when alive. lay dead on the field. his ranks with cool intrepidity. Pappenheim 's unexpected appearance revived the drooping courage of the Imperialists. was again rescued from their hands. the finest of all that distinguished themselves in this dreadful day. shower of balls. where he thought his noble opponent was most surely to be met. but these hostile wishes remained ungratified. after a tremendous conflict. covering the ground almost in the same excellent order which. the bravest soldier of Austria and the church. Gustavus had also expressed a wish to meet his brave antagonist. the Telamon of the army. amidst a riding through . renew the attack. Wallenstein was not allowed to terminate his guilty career. and his . and the Duke of Friedland quickly availed himself of the favorable moment to re-form his line. . An ardent desire to encounter the king in person carried this daring leader into the thickest of the fight. which Count Piccolomini attacked with the imperial cavalry and cut down after a Seven times did this intrepid general desperate contest. assisting the distressed. they maintained with such unyielding courage. seven horses were shot under him. again driven across the trenches and the battery. The whole yellow regiment. overpowered by this fresh body of enemies. Around and close by him his men were falling thick. Two musket-balls pierced the breast of Pappenheim.

. Terzky. quitted the field. despair endows every one with superhuman strength no one can conquer. since I know that the my religion has fallen on the same With Pappenheim. . When the was confirmed to him. him to the rear. strife the fortune of the day. to repair in these It was in vain. time they captured the battery. implacable enemy of day. and each party claiming the victory. and Piccolomini compelled to keep their ground. The an end the last efforts of and skill and courage did their utmost precious moments grew hotter as it drew to strength were mutually exerted. The right wing fell into the same confusion. the trumpets sounded. . Both armies separated. departed. profited by the enemy's confusion. and a third charge. The art of war seemed to exhaust its powers on one side. before the fury of the combatants was exhausted and the contest ceased only when no one could any longer find an antagonist." said he. truth of the report Tell the Duke hope of life. only to unfold some new and untried masterpiece of skill on the other. " that I lie without but that I die happy. no sooner missed their victorious leader than they gave up everything for lost and abandoned the field of battle in spiritless despair. The Swedish infantry. the good fortune of the Imperialists The cavalry of the left wing. Colloredo. To fill up the gaps which death had made in the front line. brighter. they formed both lines into one. and only rallied by his exertions. a murmur reached him that he conveying whom " he had sought lay dead upon the plain. Night and darkness at last put at end to the fight. his look became his dying eye sparkled with a last gleam of joy. with the exception of a few regiments which the bravery of their colonels Gotz. already beaten. and with it made the final and decisive third time they crossed the trenches." of Friedland. The sun was setting when A the two lines closed. no one will give way. . with prompt deter- mination.470 THE GERMAN CLASSICS men While they were forcibly carried him from the field. as if by tacit agreement.

History says nothing of prisoners. proof of the animosity of the combatants. and. who neither gave nor took quarter. at once the reward and the evidence of victory to him who should hold it. the Abbot of Fulda. and.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS The artillerv 471 on both sides. Imperialists. paid for his curiosity and his ill-timed zeal with his life. who had been unable to follow the rapid movements of their general and who amounted to marched on the field. few hours earlier. between Liitzen and Weissenfels. Swedes. Many Even of the principal nobility had fallen on both sides. forgot to remove his part. even now. as the horses could not be found. they retired to Leipzic. near enough to the field of battle to oppose any attempt the enemy might make to recover it. The battle of Prague. The Duke of Friedland had retreated thither. . after the toils of allowed the Swedish army some repose. where they hoped to join the main body. six regiments. and almost without it appears. the dying. more than 9. he was present . remained all night upon the field. The entire plain from Liitzen to the Canal was strewed with the wounded. and was followed on the morrow by the scattered remains of his army. a further jured. this The Duke of Weimar. and the dead. they might have saved the duke's artillery and made a prize of that of the But they had received no orders to act. but the work was done. among the dead. Wallenstein. A and. who had mingled in the combat as a spectator. uncertain as to the issue of the battle. scarcely a man escaped from the field unin- arms. Of the two armies. in his haste to leave Leipzic and Saxony. by remaining on the field. bloody day. Pappenheim's infantry.000 men lay a still greater number were wounded. Not long after the battle was ended. Pappenheim died the next day of his wounds at Leipzig an irreparable loss to the imperial army. without colors. which this brave warrior had so often led on to victory. without artillery. where together with Wallenstein. so considerable a reinforcement would perhaps have decided the day in favor of the Imperialists .

in all Spanish and Austrian lands. beneath the weight of his horse. hands were deeply steeped in blood war rendered savage and ferocious his disposition. could cool. was sung in honor of a victory. openly confessed his defeat. With a small force he defeated. to victory. however apparent. by sending out his Croats . Even in his later years these became visible. were perceptible. when death overtook him at Leipzic.472 as colonel. The imperial force. is true he made one more feeble attempt to dispute. bearing to him the order of the Golden Fleece. even in his flight. all Saxony. he for a long time delayed the defeat of Tilly by his bravery. as often as his blood was stirred by passion and superstition easily persuaded itself . or impos- made him the most powerful arm of the but unfitted him for acting at its head. in three different engagements. which had been cultivated by youthful studies and various travels. the honor of victory. was lost through At the destruction of Magdeburg. and led the arms of the Emperor on the Elbe and the Weser The wild impetuous fire of his temperament. like swords. with which sibilities check. Wallenstein himself. man was As a thus impressed upon faithful servant of the the strongest claims on the gratitude of both its lines. he made an impetuous attack on a regiment of the enemy. but he did not survive to enjoy the most brilliant proof of their regard. his his rash ardor. two red streaks. with a few troops. THE GEBMAN CLASSICS was the beginning of his heroic career.000 strong. that the future destiny of the the forehead of the child. battle of Leipzic. soon after. . though 40. and by renouncing his original design of fixing It there his winter-quarters. Though Te Deum. messenger was House of Austria. if Tilly may be believed. the rebels in Upper Austria. till he was discovered by some of his own men in plundering. and lay for several hours mixed with the dead upon the field. which no danger. On his forehead. by the haste with which he quitted Leipzic and. he had A already on his way from Madrid. Dangerously wounded. At the battle of Leipzic. nature had marked him at his very birth.

had stood between Liitzen and the Canal." But when a ' ' ' ' ' . who had led them: there he lay the field which he had won. from the the Stone of the Swede. at the sight of the king's doublet stained with blood. and apparently sincere feeling. said he. The universal sorrow absorbs all individual woes. but now affection assumes its rights. returned not with them fruitless search. and soon after by the capture of Leipzic. had Germany been at peace. conveyed to Weissenfels. not far from the great stone.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS army drawn up 473 next morning to the field. would I have granted to "Willingly. the corpse of the king was discovered. He. and blood had atoned for the blood of the monarch. his body was drawn from beneath a heap of dead. still stupefied by the unexpected blow. and no one trusted himself enough to contemplate the full extent of their loss. showed symptoms of deep. by keeping possession of the field. mingled with the dead upon bodies of the common crowd. but the sight of the Swedish in order of battle. and tears of grief must flow for the man. maintained indisputably his claim to the title of victor. memorable disaster of that day. the unfortunate prince a longer life and a safe return to his kingdom. still bears the name of Covered with blood and wounds so as scarcely to be recognized. and there delivered up to the lamentations of his soldiers and the last embraces of his queen. which. which had been stripped from him during the battle and carried to Vienna. for a hundred years before. and Duke Bernard. stripped by the rude hands of plunderers of its ornaments and clothes. and which. The first tribute had been paid to revenge. a dearer triumph! It was not till the fury of the contest was over that the full weight of the loss sustained died away into a silent was felt and the shout of triumph gloom of despair. stood speechless and motionless around his bier. The generals. The Emperor. But it was a dear conquest. immediately dispersed these flying bands. After a long and almost to the charge. trampled beneath the horses' hoofs. we are told by Khevenhuller.

sufficient motives for its commission. Duke of Lauenburg. been made the subject of the highest eulogium and compared with the magnanimous tears of Alexander for the fall of Darius. was in fact not incapable of this atrocity. moreover.474 trait. This prince. a free access to the king's person. of his own ideas of moral dignity. and the absence of which could exist only in the most inhuman heart. is much for one whose memory his biographer has to clear from the suspicion of being privy to the assassination of a king. laid the foundation of an irrecon- . important an event for the Emperor not to excite in his bitter opponent a ready suspicion that what was so much to his interests was also the result of his instigation. Francis Albert. But even such praise. and. though immediately repented of. our distrust is excited of the other virtues of the writer's hero. in his early years. THE GERMAN CLASSICS which is nothing more than a proof of a yet linger- ing humanity and which a mere regard to appearances and even self-love would have extorted from the most insensible. while at the same time it seemed to place him above the suspicion of so foul a deed. of this dark deed. the youngest of four sons of Francis II. repaid by this fiery youth with a box on the ear. the Emperor would require the aid of a foreign arm. had committed against Gustavus Adolphus. It was scarcely to be expected that the strong leaning is still of mankind to the marvelous would leave to the common course of nature the glory of ending the career of Gustavus The death of so formidable a rival was too Adolphus. in the queen's chamber. what worse. whatever its amount.. had. and amply apologized for. however. however. found a most friendly Some offence which he reception at the Swedish court. and related by the mother's side to the race of Vasa. which. For the execution. it is said. was. Duke of The rank of the latter permitted him Saxe-Lauenburg. has. and this it was generally believed he had found in Francis Albert. by a Roman Catholic writer of modern times and acknowledged merit. and he had.

he suddenly quitted the Austrian service. formed a close intimacy with Wallenstein. it was thought. and a prepossessing and nattering deportment. and appeared in the king's camp at Nuremberg to offer his services as a volunteer. exposed himto him. remains indeed buried in mystery but here. . kept close to the king's side and did not leave him he fell. the He was at any rate the first to color of the Imperialists. where he rose to the command of a regiment. He owed. warned in vain by Oxenstiern. he exchanged the Swedish service for the Saxon. an imperial army in Silesia. who. After the battle. in which Francis Albert. who had run effort to believe in the innocence through a career like this.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 475 Francis cilable hate in the vindictive heart of the duke. it is well known. Albert subsequently entered the imperial service. he gained the heart of the king. being charged with being an accomplice of that general. Without any sufficient cause being assigned. By his show of zeal for the Protestant cause. which did little honor to his rank. more than anywhere. his own safety amidst the fire of the enemy. does the maxim apply that where the ordinary course of things is fully sufficient . of the act charged against him. like the meanest soldier in his army. too. he escaped the sword of justice only by abjuring his His last appearance in life was as commander of faith. How it reached him. like an evil genius. and condescended to be the instrument of a secret negotiation with the Saxon court. however great may be the moral and physical possibility of his committing such a crime. but. continued to lavish his favor and The battle of friendship on this suspicious new comer. it must still be allowed that there are no certain grounds for imputing it Gustavus Adolphus. might naturally meet his death. to a green sash which he wore. self to danger. he. Liitzen soon followed. of a man. friend Wallenstein the intelligence of the convey to his till king's death. and. where he died of the wounds It requires some he had received before Schweidnitz. after the murder of Wallenstein. and where thousands fell.

. now incapable of sinking into the oppressor. But it was no longer the benefactor of Germany who fell at Liitzen. today. History. stopping for a time the whole Adolphus from the scene movement of the political machine and disappointing all — the calculations of human prudence. with him. his extraordinary destiny But by whatever must appear a great interposition of Providence. like a hand from heaven. and the proud The Protedifice of his past greatness sunk into ruins. an end. the great and animating principle of his own creation . hand he fell. struck unpitiably to the ground in the very midst of his eagle flight untimely torn from a whole world of great . . — to die. designs and from the ripening harvest of his expectations. the beneficient part of his career Gustavus Adolphus had already terminated and now the greatest service which he could render to the liberties of Germany was leader. is occasionally rewarded by the appearance of events which strike. into the nicely adjusted machinery of human plans and carry the contemplative mind to a higher order of Of this kind is the sudden retirement of Gustavus things. Yesterday. was henceforth . the honor of not to be stained by any suspicion of uniform play of human passions. the very soul. he left his bereaved party disconsolate. with its invincible estant party had identified its hopes and scarcely can it now separate them from him. restricted to the more modest part of an ally. they now fear all good fortune is buried. and those emancipation which could not be received without danger from the hand of the mighty and the Swedish power. too often confined to the ungrateful task of analyzing the to account for the fact. They now looked to their own exertions for the Estates. The all-engrossing power of an individual was at but many came forward to essay their strength the .476 THE GERMAN CLASSICS human nature ought moral atrocity. equivocal assistance of an over-powerful protector gave place to a more noble self-exertion on the part of the who were formerly the mere instruments of his aggrandizement now began to work for themselves.

and immediate restoration to But. his gratitude. and forgot the sacred character of a protector. and maintained by his energy and activity. supported by Ms power imperial crown.LAST CAMPAIGNS OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS 477 The ambition of the Swedish monarch aspired unquestionably to establish a power within Germany and to attain a firm footing in the centre of the empire. prouder of the title of a royal city than of the higher dignity of the freedom of the empire. and by principles and enthusiasm a determined enemy to Popery. coercive homage which Augsburg. had claims on could be satisfied only at the expense of their Eoman Catholic neighbors. Born in a foreign country. the take with the constitution of the empire. evinced plainly what liberties he was disposed to His allies. would in his hands be liable to more abuse than had ever been feared from the House of Austria. was forced to pay to the Swedish crown. and particularly of the immediate Ecclesiastical Chapters and it seems probable a plan was . or to respect their liberties. early formed for dividing the conquered provinces (after the precedent of the barbarian hordes who overran the German empire) as a common spoil. as the dower of his daughter Christina. flattered itself with the anticipation of becoming the capital of his future kingdom. among the German and Swedish confederates. and the obligations both of justice and honor demanded its full the legitimate sovereign. and afterward destined for his chancellor and friend Oxenstiern. which he first intended to bestow upon the Elector of Brandenburg. by a subtlety unworthy of . and this town. which was inconHis aim was the sistent with the liberties of the Estates. he was ill qualified to maintain inviolate the constitution of The the German States. which Protestant princes. he entirely belied the magnanimity of the hero. The Palatinate was in his hands. with many other cities. bespoke the con- queror rather than the protector of the empire. His ill-disguised attempts upon the Electorate of Mentz. and this dignity. In his treatment of the Elector Palatine. educated in the maxims of arbitrary power.

His sudden disapsecured the liberties of Germany and saved his pearance reputation. Saxony Denmark viewed his success with alarm and jealousy. too. fettered by conditions which diminished half its value. and degraded this unfortunate prince into a humble vassal of Sweden. in the event of the ultimate success of the king. to furnish. peace. the firmest and most potent of his allies. as a Swedish fief. while it probably spared him the mortification of seeing his own allies in arms against him and all the from him by a disadvantageous was already disposed to abandon him.478 THE GERMAN CLASSICS a great mind. a condition which plainly indicates the fate which. and thought that this circumstance gave him a right to deal with it as he pleased. he eluded that obligation. One of these conditions obliged the Elector. awaited Germany. and that. not as a debt. terrified at the rapid growth of his power and the imperious fruits of his victories torn tone which he assumed. treated the Palatinate as a conquest wrested from the enemy. along with the other princes. his contribution toward the maintenance of the Swedish army. after the conclusion of the war. and disgraceful to the honorable title of proHe tector of the oppressed. and even France. . He surrendered it to the Elector as a favor. looked around for foreign alliances at the very moment he passed the Lech in order to check the progress of the Goths and restore to Europe the bal- ance of power.

it has fallen through its professors. New York. more especially if our aims Poetry be of a grand and elevated character. in every age in which Art has gone to decay. It is the privilege of Art to furnish for itself whatever is requisite. he labors to realize the ideal in his own mind though in the execution of his purpose he must needs accommodate himself to cir- — cumstances. the Public to the level of his own conceptions and. and The Macmillan Co. not well founded. The People need feeling alone. It is the artist that brings [479] . It follows. I might safely leave the Chorus to be its own advocate. that if the Chorus is deprived — — destruca mere hindrance to the development of the plot tive to the illusion of the of accompaniments appealing so powerfully to the senses. then. To do in justice to the Chorus. to which.. in a stage. we must transport ourselves from the actual to a possible stage. But it must be remembered that a dramatic composition first assumes the character of a whole by means of representation on the The Poet supplies only the words. and the accidental deficiency of auxiliaries ought He not to confine the plastic imagination of the Poet. music and rhythmical motion are essential accessories. They take their station before the curtain * Permission G. The assertion so commonly made.ON THE USE OF THE CHORUS TRANSLATED BY A. IN TRAGEDY * itself LODGE POETICAL work On must vindicate — if the execution be defective. . lyrical tragedy. aspires to whatever is most dignified. that the Public is de- grades Art. Bell & Sons.. it will appear a superfluity in the economy of the drama scene and wearisome to the spectators. and feeling they possess. Ltd. London. these grounds. little aid can be derived from commentaries. if we had ever seen it presented in an appropriate manner.

and recreate ourselves with the The man who expects it the least will neverthepossible. if they have once tasted what is excellent. and that. and if. with these powers of appreciation. a diversion. they deign to be satisfied with inferior productions.480 THE GERMAN CLASSICS with an unvoiced longing. perfectly aware that — . insist on having it supplied to them. and in its denizen as before world which he fails to discover in real life. an empty show. Their object is relaxation. the pleasure of the It will be spectator will not be increased. They bring with them an aptitude for what is highest they derive the greatest pleasure from what is judicious and true. they will. and this consists in the abandonment of the spirit to the free play of all its faculties. his every-day existence and individuality. and there can be no higher and worthier end than to make men happy. The true Art is that which provides — — . he is again compressed within its narrow bounds. but ing to an Ideal that mere executive art is subject to contingencies and depends for effect on the occasion. with a multifarious capacity. — the highest degree of pleasure. in the end. and experience delight from uncommon incidents: if he be of a serious turn of mind. When he returns from the theatre to the world of realities. he is for it remains what it was. still. Every one expects from the imaginative arts a certain emancipation from the bounds of reality: we are willing to give a scope to Fancy. less forget his ordinary pursuits. It is sometimes objected that the Poet may labor accordthat the critic may judge from ideas. but a poetical one. and they are disappointed if mental exertion be required. all is at the same time. All Art is dedicated to pleasure. but ennobled. in a true sense. when they But if the Theatre be made expected only amusement. instrumental toward higher objects. he is feeding only on dreams. he will acknowledge on the stage that moral government of the But he is. Managers will be obstinate actors are bent on display the audience is inattentive and unruly.

not being our own work. but denied the plastic imaginative power. reproduce to us the matter of the world. and yet harmonize with Nature. indeed. how it can entirely leave the actual. It is commonly supposed that one may be attained by the sacrifice of the other the result is a failure to arrive at either.ON THE USE OF THE CHORUS IN TRAGEDY 481 him nothing has been changed. I mean that probability or vraisemblance which is so highly esteemed. can never have the beneficent operation of Art. Art has for by awakening. of which the essence is freedom. object not merely to afford a transient pleasure. which. exercising. hence the distorted views which prevail in regard to poetical and plastic works for to ordinary judgments these two requisites seem to counteract each other. Ill — 31 . Art requires somewhat of the objective and not satisfied with a show of truth. is the cast of also that true real. he will adapt casual appearHe will only ances. One to whom Nature has given a true sensibility. Serious. but never catch the spirit of Nature. then. to excite to a momentary dream of liberty. will be a faithful painter of the real. but unpleasing. What. it is — — Vol. yet in the strictest sense real. and thus acquire a dominion over the material by means of ideas. For the very reason us . But how Art can be at once altogether ideal. and perfecting in us a power to remove to an objective distance the sensible world (which otherwise only burdens us as rugged matter and presses down with a brute influence) to transform it into the free working of our spirit. has he gained beyond a momentary illusive pleasure which vanished with the occasion? It is because a passing recreation is alone desired that a mere show of truth is thought sufficient. the product of our creative spirit. is a problem to the multitude. its aim is to make us absolutely free and this it accomplishes its . It rears its ideal edifice on Truth itself on the solid and deep foundations of Nature. but which the commonest workers are able to substitute for the true.

endowed with a lively fancy. and as his whole performance is nothing but foam and glitter. holds good as to their various kinds. he will sport with the stuff of the world. he will. — . in the abstract. To the art of the ideal alone is lent. is poetical. Yet. as it were. in truth. a writer. and we may apply what has been advanced to the subject of tragedy. and it is thus that she becomes more true than all reality. it is true. absolutely given. will not concern himself in the least about truth. but by means of her creative power to the imaginative faculty alone. On the other hand. In this department. and more real than all experience. not to travel into the realm of the ideal and the imitative reproduction of the actual cannot be called the representation of nature. Nature herself is an idea of the mind. like the gravity of the other. His playfulness is. with which poetry is altogether . but destitute of warmth and individuality of feeling. even Art cannot present it to the senses. or rather. but build up and confirm nothing in the understanding. thoroughly un- we To string together at will fantastical images. It follows from these premises that the artist can use no single element taken from reality as he finds it that his work must be ideal in all its parts. and is never presented to the senses. engage the attention for a time. that Art is true only as it altogether forsakes the actual and becomes purely ideal. if it be designed to have. Both requisites stand so little in contradiction to each other that they are rather one and the same thing. What is true of Art and Poetry. but is herself never apparent. and endeavor to surprise by whimsical combinations. She lies under the veil of appearances. an intrinsic reality and to harmonize with nature. the privilege to grasp the spirit of the All and bind it in a corporeal form. it is still necessary to controvert the ordinary notion of the natural. feel ourselves painfully thrust back into the narrow sphere of reality by means of the very art which ought to have emancipated us.482 THE GEKMAN CLASSICS thought with which such an artist and poet dismisses us.

and the debasement of this sensibly powerful organ into the charIt is well known the Chorus . a paltry deception. adopted on their stage the unities of time and place in the most common and empirical sense. by its own living energy. general effect sacrificed to a part. though. it would be for us a living wall which Tragedy had drawn around herself. All the externals of a theatrical representation are opposed to this notion. who have utterly misconceived the spirit of the ancients. to guard her from contact Avith the world of reality. at best. in process of time. The day itself in a theatre an artificial one. and the Thus the French. . 483 A certain ideality has been allowed in paint- ing.ON THE USE OF THE CHORUS IN TRAGEDY incompatible. or any other time than the is mere sequence of the incidents. that the Greek tragedy had its origin in and though. all which. the Chorus was the source of its existence. and in spirit. and that without these persevering supporters and witnesses of the incident a totally different order of poetry would have grown out of the drama. few lyrical A dramas have been successful on the stage. has triumphed over preBut so long as these erroneous views vailing prejudices. to declare open and honorable warfare against naturalism in art. and Poetry. I fear. and maintain her own ideal soil. would be. By the introduction of a metrical dialogue an important progress has been made toward the poetical Tragedy. it became independent. still it may be said that poetically. on grounds rather conventional than intrinsic but in dramatic works what is desired is illusion. . The abolition of the Chorus. her poetical freedom. if it is merely a symbol of the real. and if it only served this end. could be accomplished by means of the actual. the metrical dialogue is itself ideal. namely. in truth. are entertained little has been done for it is not enough — barely to tolerate as a poetic license that which is. as though there were any place but the bare ideal one. yet the conduct of the play must forsooth be real. the essence of all poetry. The introduction of the Chorus would be the last and decisive step.

that it courts of of kings are in these days closed from the gates of cities to justice have been transferred the interior of buildings. — But precisely as the painter throws around his figures .484 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS acterless substitute of a confidant. has become a part of the civil polity. he must resolve on such an adaptation of his story as will admit of its retrocession to those primitive times and to . and conducts him back to the most simple. The Chorus thus renders more substantial service to the and for this reamodern dramatist than to the old poet that simple — transforms the commonplace actual world into the old poetical one. and genuine motives of action. heroes and kings. — — — tive character. The modern poet no longer finds the Chorus in nature he must needs create and introduce it poetically. The poet must reopen the palaces courts of justice beneath the canopy of heaven place restore the gods. such an improvement in tragedy as the French. and of all external circumstances adopts nothing but what is palpable in the highest of forms that of humanity. by no means. writing has narrowed the provthe sensibly living mass ince of speech. as the statuary rejects modern costume. and thereby an abstract idea in The palaces — — — our minds the deities have returned within the bosoms of he must mankind. and their imitators. is. that it enables him to dispense with all that is repugnant to poetry. original. essential accompaniment. would have it supposed to be. which at first only concerned itself with gods. introduced the Chorus as an The poets found it in nature. son. and for that reason employed it. It grew out of the poetical aspect of real life. form of life. The old Tragedy. reproduce every extreme which the artithrow aside every ficial frame of actual life has abolished factitious influence on the mind or condition of man which impedes the manifestation of his inward nature and primi. In the new Tragedy it becomes an organ of art which aids in making the poetry prominent. that is. the people itself when it does not operate as brute force.

But it must deserve its place by animation. need not be visible the chemical color vanishes in the finer they . the material. and make them visible and entwines his rigidly contracted plot tragic poet inlays and the strong outlines of his characters with a tissue of — — lyrical magnificence. to 485 fill up the space of his picture and gracefully. But man is from what so constituted that he is ever impatient to pass is fanciful to what is common. In a higher organization. move freely and nobly. with a sustained dignity and exalted repose. fulposition. and in the tragical kind. in which. and give value to the ideal forms which it surrounds. 'which is our immediate subject. its In respect of the pictorial art. which charms and at once to envelop human and refreshes the eye so the forms in a spiritual veil.ON THE USE OF THE CHORUS IN TRAGEDY draperies of ample volume. or the elementary. to arrange its several parts in harrichly monious masses. this is obvious to ordinary apprehension. ness and harmony. however. by means of delivery. This is what the Chorus effects in tragedy. the ideal and the sensible. merit this place it must. recover what it wants in actual life. do not operate with an inward or poetry is mutuality. . tints of the imaginative one. has and may be included in an artistical compeculiar effect. the equipoise can be maintained only by an agitation of both scales. for if the two elements of poetry. represented by a palpable body which appeals to the senses — . have its place even in tragedy. It is. to give due play to color. as in flowing robes of purple. instead of stifling them by its weight. and reflection But to must. perfect. yet in poetry likewise. The material. in not an individual but a general conception yet it is itself. Whatever fascinates the senses alone is if it mere matter and the rude element of a work of art: which take the lead it will inevitably destroy the poetical — — lies at the exact medium between the ideal and the sensible. the same doctrine holds good. therefore. they must at least act as allies If the balance be not intrinsically out of the question.

changes the ordinary poverty of costume into a charm and an ornament. and expands the mind. of the spectator ought to maintain its freedom through the most impassioned scenes. without doubt.486 THE GERMAN CLASSICS with an imposing grandeur. or what is now great and majestic will appear forced and overstrained. yet. the same accomplishment would impart to Shakespeare's tragedy its true significance. and pronounce the But all this it does with the full power a bold lyrical freedom which ascends. It is the Chorus alone which entitles the poet to employ this fulness of tone. But as the painter finds himself obliged to strengthen as the painter. to the topmost height of worldly things and it effects it in conjunction with the whole sensible influence of melody and rhythm. the diction of the tragedy must generally be lowered. The old Chorus introduced into the French tragedy would present it in all its poverty and reduce it to nothing. If the Chorus be taken away. of fancy — with . but it is that beautiful and lofty repose which is the characteristic of a true work of art. which at once charms the senses. dents. exercises a purifying influence on tragic insomuch as it keeps reflection apart from the incipoetry. pervades the spirit. it should not be the mere prey of impressions. but calmly and severely As — For the mind . in order to counterbalance the material influences so the lyrical effusions — of the Chorus impose upon the poet the necessity of a proportionate elevation of his general diction. and thus impart a tragical grandeur to his picture. so also it the Chorus gives life to the language gives repose to the action. obliges him to mount This one giant form on his canvas all his figures on the cothurnus. in tones and movements. the tone of color of the living subject. as with godlike step. to deduce the grand results of life. over distant times and nations and general humanity. and by this separation arms it with a poetical vigor . It forsakes the contracted sphere of the incidents to dilate itself over the past and future. lessons of wisdom. The Chorus thus by means of a rich drapery.

who made to the Chorus that disturbs the — — — enunciate the deep things of Humanity. in discussion on the entirely Greek tragedy. It is by holding asunder the different parts. as . It is true that choruses are not unknown to modern tragedy but the Chorus of the Greek drama. have employed it is of an furthering and accompanying the whole plot distinct character. that the Chorus restores to us our freedom. respite should mix ourselves up with the subject-matter. as a single ideal person. which would else be lost in the tempest. I hear mention made of choruses. Thus much on my attempt to revive the old Chorus on the tragic stage. my view the Chorus has never been reproduced since the I — — decline of the old tragedy. I genIn erally suspect the speaker's ignorance of his subject. and merely represent individuals but ideal persons and representatives of their species.ON THE USE OF THE CHORUS IN TRAGEDY detach itself from the emotions which it 487 suffers. . the Chorus. which Tragedy inflicts on our bosoms followed without We the passion would overpower the action. it The com- monplace objection illusion and blunts the edge of the feelings. for it is this blind force of the affections which the true artist deprecates If the strokes this illusion is what he disdains to excite. The characters of the drama need this intermission in order to collect themselves. and when. and stepping between the passions with its composing views. for they are no real beings who obey the impulse of the moment. is what constitutes its highest recommendation. and no longer stand above it.

which. can merely dissect what is given it. which * Permission The Macmillan Co.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE* TRANSLATED BY L. My recent conversations with you have put the whole store of my ideas in motion. We may therefore hope to see you among us again soon. and that far more . [488] Bell & Sons. London. which I. for several of my speculative ideas. August 23. the body. on my part. Many things upon which I could not come to a right understanding with myself have received new and unexpected light from the contemplation I have had of your mind (for so I must call the general impression of your ideas upon me). Minds like yours. Ltd. but the giving losophy itself is not the work of the analyzer but of genius. for they related to a subject which has actively engaged my thoughts for some years past. I needed the object. and you have put me on the track of finding it. .. alas! we know only that which we can take to pieces.. is the wealth of your mind concealed from yourself. New York. can learn only from them. seldom know how far they have penetrated and how little cause they have to borrow from phiPhilosophy. For. therefore. perfectly than what is laboriously sought for by analysis and merely because this lies within you as a whole. own bent all Your correct intuition grasps things. Your calm and clear way of lookat things keeps you from getting on the by-roads into ing which speculation as well as arbitrary imagination which merely follows its — — are so apt to lead one astray. and G. yesterday received the welcome news that you had returned from your journey. DORA SCHMITZ Schiller to Goethe Jena. in fact. most heartily wish. 1794.

Permission Louis Held. Weimar MONUMENT TO GOETHE AND SCHILLER (Sculptor. IN WEIMAR Ernst Rietschel) .


you would. — — imitating nature in creating him. and thus. and had you from infancy been placed in the midst of choice natural surroundings and of an idealizing Art. with ever renewed admiration. the path which you have marked out for yourself. You seek for the necessary in nature. by the help of the power of thought.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE 489 combines things according to objective laws under the obscure but safe influence of pure reason. to produce a Greek from within by a reasoning process. you had no other choice but either to become a Northern artist. and your Grecian spirit having been cast in this Northern mold. in order. At that . and you. to supply your imagination with what reality withheld from it. in the end. as it were. when seeking to get light thrown upon her individual parts you look for the explanation of the individual in the totality of her various manifestations. This is a great and truly heroic idea. or. made your choice between Phthia and immortality. have taken up the form of the Necessary. or even an Italian. But being born a German. on your first perception of things. From the simple organism you ascend step by — . man out genetically to form the most complicate of all of the materials of nature as a whole. You look at Nature as a whole. Although I have done so at a distance. but to have struck out such a path is worth more than reaching the end of any other. Had you been born a Greek. which sufficiently shows how your mind keeps the whole wealth of its conceptions in one beautiful unity. and the grand style would have been developed in you with your first experience. step to those that are more complex. By thus. Had such been the case. but you seek it by the most difficult route one which all weaker minds would take care to avoid. perhaps even have been rendered entirely superfluous. and have observed. You can never have expected that your life would suffice to attain such an end. as it were. I have long watched the course which your mind has pursued. your path would have been infinitely shortened. like Achilles in the Iliad. you try to penetrate into his hidden structure.

then discovered this want from within. and your victorious genius. so you had now to go back and retranslate ideas into intuitions. You had then. then individuals will be produced. However. and whether I am right or not you will yourself know best. rising above its materials. you had already assumed a wild Northern nature. However. It is somewhat in this manner that I imagine the course pursued by your mind.490 THE GERMAN CLASSICS period of life when the soul. then the two cannot fail to meet each other half way. however. therefore. and to change thoughts : into feelings. for it is only through the latter that genius can be productive. it is true. the speculative mind only with species. what you yourself can scarcely be aware of (as genius ever remains the greatest mystery to itself) is the beautiful harmony between your philosophical instinct and the purest results of your speculative reason. It is true that the intuitive mind has only to deal with individuals. had one task more for inasmuch as your mind had passed over from intuition to abstraction. and became convinced of it from without through its acquaintance with Greek nature. and the intuitive mind which proceeds from variety. if the speculative mind is that of a genius. Upon a first view it does indeed seem as if there could not be any greater opposites than the speculative mind which proceeds from unity. but they will possess the character of the species and again. in accordance with the better model which your developing mind created for itself. to correct your old and less perfect nature. and the latter seeks law with self -active and free power of thought. surrounded by defective forms. the former seeks experience with a pure and truthful spirit. . You. constructs its own inward nature out of outward circumstances. and this could be effected only by following leading ideas. But if the intuitive mind is that of a genius and seeks the nature of the Necessary in experience. If. and . is not very compatible with the esthetic state of mind by which alone a reflecting mind becomes creative. this logical direction which a reflecting mind is forced to pursue.

the anniversary of my birthday. do not on that account flee from it. then it will indeed produce species only. which took place this week. is handled with edifying delicacy. interest with which the subject has filled me. considering the subject. I think. Wilhelm Meister. I pray. be well if we could now soon start the new periodical. by your sympathy. me to a more assiduous and active use of you encourage my powers. But lively writing an essay you a letter I am and ascribe it to the this. and you would perhaps be kind enough to let the first number be opened with something of yours. and in which. therefore.* especially the first part. take the liberty of asking you whether you would be willing to let your novel f appear in our journal in successive numbers! But whether you determine to let us have it or not. Goethe to Schiller Ettersburg. It would. and it will be a pleasure to me to unfold to you *Les Bijoux t Goethe's Indiscrete. and I find that in place of sending — pray excuse should you not recognize your own image in this mirror. but with the possibility of individual life and with a well-founded relation to actual objects. . I should consider it a very great favor to be allowed to read it. is very interesting. I.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE 491 does not lose sight of experience when rising above it. My friends and my wife commend themselves to your kind remembrance. I beg to be permitted to keep this book for a few days longer. and. Pure enjoyment and true usefulness can only be reciprocal. I could not have received a more acceptable gift in so friendly a On than the letter in which you give the sum of my existence manner. August 27. 1794. * * * Diderot's work.

after so unexpected a meeting. It is the only thing I have by me of any size. more especially during these latter years. we I hope to be able to spend some time with you soon. for it seems to me that. Of what great advantage your sympathy will be to me you will yourself soon perceive. for. a few weeks before receiving your proposal.492 at leisure THE GEEMAN CLASSICS what your conversation has been to me. howtinctly aware of their existence. when. ever. shall talk over many things. regard those days as an epoch in my life. how I. although disSuch phenomena. we cannot but wander on in life have always prized the frank and rare earnestdisplayed in all that you have written and done. . and we quietly submit to them as long as they do not become too tyrannical. that it would have been very suitable for your periodical. I have more than once thought. All that relates to myself I will gladly communicate to together. when Unfortunately. and I may now claim to be made acquainted by yourself with the course taken by your own mind. f A publisher in Berlin. I ness which is you. I should like to deposit many things with you. I may be said to be only the editor. and is a kind of problematical work such as the good Germans like. upon a closer acquaintance. and thereby not only preserve them but give them life. and how contented I feel in having gone on my way without any particular encouragement. the better able we shall be to work on together without interruption. during these last days. in the actual sense of the word. It is so long since it was written that. you discover in me a kind of obscurity and hesitation which I cannot entirely master. are often found in our natures. being fully conscious that my undertaking far exceeds the measure of human capabilities and their earthly duration.* and the first proof sheets have already come to hand. I will send the first Book as soon as I get all the proof sheets. too. If we make it clear to each other to which point we have thus far attained. I had given my novel to Unger.



moreover. there were anything that would serve the purpose you mention. easily agree as to the most appropriate form to put it in. 1794. have always the most Do are to not expect to find any great store of ideas in me. and remember me to working it out. inasmuch as the last travelers join company on a long journey to say to each other. my to heart to express late. that we may travel over the rest of our life's however. this is what make much out I shall find in you. and. different paths I now hope. the contents of which pleased me for two reasons. Great as my his desire always was to become more closely acquainted with you than is possible between the spirit of a writer and most attentive reader. Our acquaintance. and is how much better it often is to let it another proof chance have its way me than to forestall with too much officiousness. although it comes awakens in of me many a delightful hope. and. you . way who together. for I perceive from it that the view I took of your mind coincides with your own feelings.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE 493 If. August 31. of little. do this with more than usual advantage to each other. I received your last letter but one. among my projects. My need and endeavor to when you once come know my poverty in all so-called acquired knowledge. On my return from Weissenfels. and there should be no delay in my Farewell. and that you were not displeased with the candor with which I allowed itself. have brought us not. where I met my friend Korner from Dresden. I now clearly see that the very upon which you and I have moved could with any advantage to ourselves. we should. together sooner than at the present time. I think. your circle. Schiller to Goethe Jena.

Even now my frequently enough happens that imagination intrudes upon my abstractions. You have to govern a whole realm. illness seizes . as a hybrid.494 will THE GEEMAN CLASSICS perhaps find that I have sometimes succeeded in doing this for. but. which I would be heartily glad to be able to extend into a little world. for the poetic mind generally got the my better of me when philosophical mind it I ought to have philosophized. I shall. between ideas and intentions. and can. to have to be their common representative. at last. I but a somewhat numerous family of ideas. and what in a great measure you have already attained. I seek variety for my small means. I might yet look forward to to a happy fate . after . I can scarcely hope to have time to complete any great and general mental revolution in myself but I will do what I can. and cold reason upon my poetical productions. My understanding works more in a symbolizing method. between a technical mind and genius. produce that variety which is . the circle of my ideas being small. and when. Your mind works and all your come to an agreement with your imagination intuitively to an extraordinary degree. This is what you have endeavored to do. wanting in the subject-matter. gave me a rather awkward appearance both in the field of speculation and in that of poetry. You strive to simplify your great world of ideas. alas ! just when I have begun me and to use my moral powers threatens to undermine my physical powers. perhaps. this is the most that a man can make of himself if only he succeeds in generalizing his perceptions and making his feelings his supreme law. that. If I could obtain such mastery over these two powers as to assign to each its limits. know and rightly. between law and This it is feeling. and thus I hover. by means of form. and when I wished to poetize. thinking powers appear. particularly in earlier years. I can the more rapidly and the more frequently run through it. In reality. the building falls. as it were. for that very reason I can use my small resources with more effect.

I cannot sufficiently regret that lost to our periodical. 1795. 495 have snatched from the ruins what was most worthy of being preserved. fessions to you in confidence. indeed. I cannot better express in words than by calling it a Accept my best thanks The sent me. as well as on account of the occasion for which they were penned (they were intended for an indulgent friend). I shall today refrain from entering into details about your essay. by a different path My — have own led researches me to a result rather similar to that at which will you have arrived. and in the accompanying papers you perhaps find ideas which coincide with your own.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE all. since their crudeness of form. cision. you will find some ideas of Korner's on Declamation. and I make these conI have made use of the permission. for which reason. I " Wilhelm Meister " is hope that your fertile mind and friendly interest in our undertaking will give us some compensation for this loss. . and this may possibly bring them much nearer to yours. which will at once lead our conversations on this subject upon — entered upon the most fertile track. However. received in me a better foundation and greater prethen. In the number of the Thalia which I herewith send you. will please you. which. there is some excuse for These ideas have. I wrote them about a year and a half ago. I think. for the copy of the novel you have which penetrates and takes hold of feeling me with increasing force the further I read on in this work. You expressed a wish that I should speak of myself. January 7. and venture to hope that you will receive them in a kindly spirit. Schiller to Goethe Jena. whereby the admirers of your genius will be double gainers.

so harmoniously evolved. and which leave nothing to disturb or to dissatisfy the mind. I need scarcely assure you that I am in the utmost anxiety to know what you have to say to my philosophy of the Beautiful. . in fact. and cannot.496 delicious. and I will vouch that this will be the effect produced upon all readers. is certain man. and the best philosopher is but a caricature in comparison with him. help perceiving a want in my own nature which in happier hours I am forced to think of only as a natural quality of the thing itself. Your presence here will be a source of nourishment both . philosophical character. and so extremely unnatural for all nature is synthesis. which I am looking forward to with longing. and philosophy but antithesis. Especially great is my longing some poetical works in common with you. so my analysis of it is drawn from my own whole being. abstract. and I cannot but be deeply interested in knowing how this accords with yours. This sense of comfort I account for from the calm clearness. . in such melancholy moments. and transparency which pervade the whole of your work. and so true to human life. however. THE GERMAN CLASSICS inward sense of comfort. Of the individual parts I shall say nothing till I have seen the Third Book. the poet is the only true This much. is to I cannot express to you what a painful feeling it often me to pass from a work of this kind into one of a In the former all is so joyous. so rigid. I can. give proof of having been as true to nature in my speculations as is compatible with the idea of analysis indeed. in the latter all is so stern. But still I am no less fully conscious of the infinite difference between Life and Reasoning. smoothness. so alive. I have perhaps been more faithful to her than our Kantians would consider permissible or possible. As the Beautiful itself is derived from man as a whole. — to my mind to enjoy and my heart. and the mind is not more excited than is necessary to fan and maintain a joyous life. a feeling of mental and bodily well-being.



I have. I will see to it that you get them in proper time. Just as I am about to close comes the welcome continuation of your Meister. A thousand thanks for it! me when an opportunity occurred. 1795. Goethe to Schillek 21. perhaps. it is true. I wish you could induce Cotta to pay for this manuscript at once. Stolberg's abominable preface to his Platonic discourses? The disclosures he there makes are so insipid and intolerable that I feel very much inclined to step out and chastise him.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE You promised to let 497 hear some of your epigrams It would be a great and additional pleasure to me if this could be done during your approaching visit to Jena. one had but a rational public on one's side. I. so Cotta might surely once in way pay upon the receipt of a manuscript. as he has given himself so much trouble. and we should thus have the first three numbers of next year's Horen nicely adorned. think this the right proportion. but it would look much better. It would be a very simple Have you seen matter to hold up to view the senseless unreasonableness of this stupid set of people. as it is still very uncertain when I may be able to get to W. . if. publisher has often enough A to a pay money in advance. too. nothing ought. this would at the same time Vol. no actual occasion to ask this. to be altered without his sanction. in so doing. Ill — 32 . and also help in making the good name of the Horen better known. it could easily be calculated how many sheets it would print. would encourage energetic cooperation. Weimar. Knebel wants the Elegies to be divided into three contributions. November Today I received twenty-one of Propertius' elegies from Knebel and shall look them over carefully and then let the translator know where I find anything to object to for.

especially. at present. I am. to let In such cases one hardly knows what is best to do take its natural course or to fortify oneself with the grief If one determines to assistance which culture gives us. at the present moment. with have had some correspondence about the optical subjects we spoke of.498 THE GERMAN CLASSICS be a declaration of war against that superficiality which it has now become necessary to combat in every department The secret feuds of suppressing. I find this doubly necessary and unavoidable in the case of my scientific order. even though it were but done in a passing manner! However. collectors of magazines. which it has carried on against us. and these gentlemen are usually quick enough in noting down everything in their interleaved books! How many different ways there are of dispatching a work like this. openly to declare myself against the public. which I felt sure you would give me. to Lichtenberg. in a prelude or prolog. which I I intend to speak out am gradually getting into my mind pretty frankly against reviewers. and with whom. in this instance. so what is to become of my poor novel? Meanwhile. Your dear letter reached me safely. one feels better as I always do follow the latter course — — — . What whom I do you say. and that continuously. for instance. and misprinting. and I thank you for your sympathy. and my comfort is that. especially as a new edition of a compendium is surely issued in order to introduce the latest discoveries. of learning. works. I am on pretty good terms. misplacing. very far from being in anything like an esthetic or sentimental mood. and. at so low an ebb. besides. journalists. have long deserved that this declaration should be held in honorable remembrance. I am making use of my time as best I can. and writers of abridgments. my cunning brains cannot think of any one of these ways. not even mentioning my essays in his new edition of Erxleben's Compendium. one may hope that the flood is about to return. I do not intend to allow any one 's opposition or reticence to pass.

Your testimony and in favor of my tale I prize very highly. I confess — — that what I have as yet grasped correctly is but the con- . for the surprising and in the unparalleled variety which is therein concealed strictest sense of the word is overpowering. The last volume of my novel cannot in any case appear before Michaelmas. but the subject-matter alone is so large that I could scarcely get through it in two days' reading. I think. Toward New Year's I to hope again spend some time with you. I can scarcely venture to pass on to it till it would be well if we we I have. the poor reader never knows what he is about with works of this kind. by December. lately My new story can. his feelings. hardly be ready by December. at this I shall henceforth work with more confidence species of composition. The Sixth Book of my novel has made a good impression here also. therefore. for he does not consider that he would probably never take them up had not the author contrived to get the better of his thinking powers.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE 499 merely for the moment. I ought not to say it is I have now run through anything about it even today. and his curiosity. in tion of the to give some way or other. Schiller to Goethe Jena. and I have noticed that Nature always reasserts her rights in other ways. all the eight Books of your novel. who May we long enjoy having around us those are nearest and dearest to us. If. I could write something of this kind neatly. 1796. and. true. July 2. very hurriedly. I should be very glad of thus being able you a contribution for next year's opening number. Properly speaking. the plans could arrange discussed in reference to this. Farewell. written something in explanafirst. moreover. to be sure.

and is merely the result of my reason not having I now quite underyet been able to master my feelings. Besides this. is a serious undertaking. and that I may draw inspiration from this pure source. and to develop all that is real in nature so fully that my mind may become the clearest mirror of what exists beneath this covering. not the unity. the beautiful vitality. How vividly have I felt. that it has been written while my faculties are still in a state of growth. is greater than it will be when I have completely mastered your subject. there is no freedom but love I cannot say how much I have been moved by the truth. however. inasmuch as they will tell of direct impressions. to receive . it is true. as contrasted with excellence. and the simple fulness of your work.500 THE GERMAN CLASSICS tinuity. are not altogether without value. but yet this agitation is the effect of the Beautiful and only of the Beautiful. under the circumstances. I promise you that our discussions about your novel shall continue throughout the month. and that will be an important crisis in my intellectual life. that excellence is a power. I shall devote the whole of the next four months to it. you must be content with a few yet remarks these. the continuity than half the unity. . and that. and that with pleasure. if. To make up for this. call my ! stand what you meant by saying that it was the Beautiful. To give an and truly esthetic estimate of a whole work. further. it is one of the greatest blessings of my existence that I have lived to see this work of yours completed. and that I may deserve the name of being your friend in the higher sense of the word. although I do not for a moment doubt that I shall become perfectly clear on this point also. as I think. that it can influence selfish natures only as a power. in works of this kind. at this time. you cannot exactly expect from me anything thoroughly satisfactory and wish to hear something. as adequate a work of art. My agitation. is more As. the beautiful relation that exists between us makes it seem to me a kind of religious duty to your cause my own.

Q w « < I—t w S O H w W o OS o o B u w « « w •J J 1— ) u .


connect the system with one that is more remote and larger. so closely together again work may be compared to a beautiful planetary system. I must today confine myself to the Eighth Book. and worked out. like nature. moreover. while in the case of the three others the reader I could almost say she has will gladly turn from what is individual to the idea of the is whole. clear and yet incomprehensible. find words to describe these impressions. will ever draw forth being saved. How well you have succeeded in bringing the large and widely extended circle. been made a sacrifice to the novel. Calm and work makes deep. therefore. alarmed at it. to tears. and still more admirably first turned to account. from the abortions conceived it is what is of the understanding. that could often 501 move you . and. and even the smallest secondary incident shows the beautiful equanimity from which all has emanated. and it is only the Italian figures which. your its influence felt it stands there. to derive How beautifully practically monstrous and in the fate of Mignon and the Harpist terribly pathetic from what is theoretically monstrous. as yet. after having merely served to produce a poetical movement in it. bitter tears. separate themselves from it as foreign individuals. Wilhelm's false relationship to Theresa ceived. the different attitudes Your and scenes of the events. admirably con- motivated. as also Marianna and Aurelia. everything belongs together.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE the True. like comets and as weirdly as they. these figures. her masculine nature. Even Aurelia 's ruin is but the result of Toward her own unnaturalness. as the nature of the case would not permit of her Her fate. be actually for I can promise Theresa but few well- Many a reader will at . But I cannot. so that nothing is thereby laid to the Senseless superstition charge of pure and healthy nature ! alone gives birth to such monstrous fates as pursue Mignon and the Harpist. Further. and. Marianna alone could I accuse you of poetic selfishness. run ! wholly out of this system again.

Natalie may in some measure be said to be hurt by this same delicatesse when. for they unite all that could be desired. maintained. the union of Natalie and Wilhelm. all the more beautiful is the way in which the reader is rescued from this state of uneasiness. and is excellent. One other thing I specially admire in the concatenation of the events is the great good which you have contrived to draw from Wilhelm's already-mentioned false relation to Theresa so as most speedily to bring about the true and desired end. even although the possibility is thereby reopened to her of possessing Lothar. Wilhelm is allowed to lament is over the loss of Theresa. and Theresa's letters to Natalie lead up to this beautifully. further. is quite in accordance with nature. I cannot imagine how this false relation could have been dissolved How more tenderly. nay. I am quite — aware of the complication of this state of things and what demanded by delicatesse. that Wilhelm and Natalie belong to each other. to be anything of the kind to him.502 THE GEEMAN CLASSICS wishers. In no other manner could this end have been arrived at so well and so naturally as by the path you have pursued. more delicately. I think there are good reasons for Wilhelm's showing deep indignation and a certain amount of pain at the banterings of his fellowmen and of fate but it seems to me that he ought to complain less deeply of the loss of a happiness which had already ceased In Natalie's presence. all that appeared wholly un- . or more nobly. Such contrivances are of the greatest beauty. as it seems to me. his regained freedom ought to be to him a greater happiness than he allows it to be. in her presence. but. although It can now be this very path threatened to lead from it. on the other hand. pleased Richardson and all his set would have been had you made a scene out of it and been highly indelicate in I have but one little the display of delicate sentiments! objection to raise: Theresa's courageous and determined resistance to the person who wishes to rob her of her lover. with the most perfect innocence and purity.

in fact. before her had begun to appear more womanly and softer. This pure and poetic creature is specially and excellently qualified to have so poetical a funeral. 1 felt it less. Her last song. Hence it strikes one as odd that. and that this living being should so soon be able to forget the person.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE unitable. when the present should have so wholly absorbed him. but. is the cause of her death. — It strikes one as being equally strange that — You may. on reading it a second time. Mignon. they complicate. merely in order to regard her as the instrument of a scientific inquiry. while appearing making every effort to keep from it. In her isolated con- . melts one 's heart to the most intense sympathy. but I doubt whether you will be able to do this as regards the sentimental demands of in order that nothing should your readers. and end. in this case also. directly upon the affecting scene of her death. Mignon 's death. was a very decided feeling in my own case. . that many will think you quit the subject too abruptly. and is aware of it should at that moment notice the instrument-case and be lost in the recollection of past scenes. they produce restlessness. and therefore interfere with the reader's acceptance of a scene which is so splendidly motivated and so well worked out I would ' ' ' ' — — advise you to pay some attention to it. thus to have become more interesting in herself the repulsive heterogeneity of her nature had relaxed. Wilhelm who. This. they succeed in reaching the goal. and with this relaxation some of her impetuosity had likewise disapthis. the doctor should make an experiment upon her corpse. 503 in to and yet carry the solution themselves. although we are prepared for it. Otherwise. most uncommonly beautiful. when living as well as when dead. I find everything you do with Mignon. and yet lead repose to be . peared. when surprise had subsided. justify yourself as having been quite true to nature. affects one powerfully and deeply so deeply. after all. especially. in — gone a hair's breadth too far. upon first reading it. and yet I fear that you may have.

One is forced to upon the fact oneself. to recall to mind how close in life was the relation which existed between these two mysterious natures. You have yourself spoilt the reader by the arrangement of the rest of your work. and that you yourself do not mention it or thrust it at the makes the effect all the greater. she is so truly a representative of the period of life in which she stands that she moves one to a feeling of unmixed sadness and genuine human sorrow. You might perhaps make Sperate's story a little shorter still. THE GERMAN CLASSICS her mysterious existence. reflect depth of fate. I have already said how excellent I find your thought of deriving the terrible destinies of the Harpist and of Mignon from religious extravapriest's notion of describing a small transas monstrous. revolting. That which. I should have liked to see the appearance of the Marquis in the family motivated by something more than his mere dilettanteism in art. is. in her. as well as the whole history of the Harpist. Could not the Marquis be made an old acquaintance of Lothar or of the Uncle. is sublime of its kind and a worthy representative of this whole mode of thinking.504 dition. excites the greatest interest. for nothing but pure humanity was manifested in her. would be inconsistent. and his journey hither be more interwoven with the whole? The end. nay. and have justified him in making greater demands than can generally be required of novelwriters. in a certain sense. and to look down into an unfathomable reader. He is too indispensable to the devel- opment. and the need of his interference might easily have been made more conspicuous than the inner necessity. her purity and innocence. The — — for by it. in order that a great crime which gression he will not mention for humanity's sake may be atoned gance. That the Harpist should prove to be Mignon 's father. as it comes in at the end where one is prone to hurry impatiently to the goal. in every other individual. . sublime and noble.

Goethe to Schiller Weimar. that they will angrily thrust the work from them. me your opinion frankly. like two voices from another world to which I can do naught come but my listen. Farewell. As soon to write to as I received your . while in their hearts they are certain to be though with de mauvaise grace — — your liveliest worshippers. and find their needy selves in such straits. who perceive the means by which the effects been produced. first letter I at once sat down you but verily your two following letters have to me. the whole work becomes more connected at the points in question. of the grandness of your art. The wonderful naturalness. in the midst of truly worldly occupations. moreover. my beloved. What you require of possess the . means to satisfy nearly every one of your suggestions. so hostile toward the genial power which they there see in action. Pray continue to refresh and to encourage me ! Your suggestions as soon as I will enable me to finish the it Eighth Book I already am able again to take in hand. and those who are capable of following the have artist. truth. July 5. my me in you. and fluency of your description hide from the common herd of critics every thought of the difficulty. even to my mind.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE 505 But no more for today. and keep the book a week telling " Cellini " I shall meanwhile longer. My wife wishes to inclose a little note to tell you her impressions of your Eighth Book. 1796. will feel themselves so averse. and Do not become weary of both truer and more pleasing. by which. so few esteemed friend ! I am deeply moved when and rarely so close to I think that that which we otherwise look for find in the far distance of favored antiquity lies that there are You need no longer be astonished who are capable or worthy of understanding you.

for it is. nay. the historical element itself is but a light The veil through which we have the purely human element shin- ing forth. left to the imagination as to what becomes of her. and give my kind greetings to your dear wife. For stage purposes it is quite not sufficiently developed. Farewell. 1799. and you must know how grateful I am to you for having so unexpectedly set my mind at ease about so many points. the new motives. a little from If. I would certainly close with the monologue by the Princess. to have the Equerry introduced in the first piece. The close of the whole with the address of the letter is. and hence the last transcript shall be out of our hands by the beginning of August. might perhaps be well. frightening. Your letters are now my sole recreation. you a sketch of what I still think of doing to my Eighth Book. although your work. I have. what is terrible after exceptional case to conclude with . but tasted the outside of it.506 THE GERMAN CLASSICS . pieces would be a priceless gift to the German stage. eventually. it is true. you with all my heart upon having finished has given me particular satisfaction. throughout many a long year. so to say. in reality. which I did know are very good and to the point. in any It case. especially considering the tender It is doubtless an state of one's feelings at the moment. that everything ceases to be political and becomes of purely human interest. The effect upon the mind is neither interfered with nor disturbed. you could cut off " both " The Piccolomini. and they would have to be given of. push forward I shall also give Goethe to Schiller March I congratulate it 18. at some future time. and that on a most disturbed morning. last piece has. this great merit.

Inclination and necessity draw me toward subjects of pure fancy. and can but say that I am delighted I hope at the prospect of enjoying this work with you. You shall know for to be able to start on Thursday. however. March 19. I shall of the feeling of restlessness which at present is also drawing me off from smaller things I have in hand.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE 507 having exhausted all that was capable of rousing fear and pity. rid of I have for long dreaded the moment when I should be my work. still certain on Wednesday we will then read the play together. and think of me. which has formerly drawn and held me to it has now gone. and I intend then to enjoy it in a thoroughly composed state of mind. much as I wished for the time to come. case. I do feel my present freedom to be worse than The mass the state of bondage I have hitherto been in. in the first instance. just yet. Schiller to Goethe Jena. and I feel as if I were hanging indefinitely in At the same time I feel also as if it empty space. in order that I may not. When you come I mean to lay before you some tragic materials of my sible for me at rest till I once own invention. not to his- . I do not intend. I shall not add more. Farewell take a rest now and let us both begin a new life during the vacation. in fact. with hope and inclination in view. ever to produce anything again I shall not be more have my thoughts turned to some When definite subject. and. make a mistake as regards subject. be rid I again have some definite object before me. it may be regarded as preparatory. My kind greetings to your dear wife. 1799. were absolutely impos. to boast of the work extorted from the Muses. it is still a great question whether it is . worth anything in any . .

an of material and form. be sure not to allow theatrical cares to disturb you. How I envy you your present activity your latest! You are standing on the purest and sublimest poetic ground. I will gladly relieve you of whatever trouble . especially as you do not even reckon upon having April for work. already it. at least. any day. During these last days I have again been looking into Homer. poem. and Your hope August. When you will talk it over together. ' ' ago Imhof sent me the last two cantos of her The which have given me very great pleasure. and shall then. you will be able to preserve your epic mood. heroes. — in the definite figures where everyor can be re-made. You have. I am now heartily tired. be able to send the three plays to Korner. at last. and is accomdevelopment plished by simple means and unusual elegance. thing ready-made living in the home of poetry and being waited upon by the gods. You are. is of being able to finish the "Achilleid " do by so." A few days come we out. There is. and there have read of the visit of Thetis to Vulcan with immense pleasure. if so. so to say. " and " The I herewith return Piccolomini. for of soldiers. and commanders. received . beg you to " Wallenstein '& which I wish likewise let me have Camp. in the graceful description of a domestic visit such as we might receive most beautiful world of is in an account of any kind of handicraft. or. I can in connection with ' ' Wallenstein. I sincerely regret that you will lose this month perhaps. The box of groats has been called for and delivered up to have copied in your name to a Herr Meyer.508 torical ones. and the Naive shows the full infinity nature of the Divine. however. notwithstanding all the proofs I have myself had of the rapidity with which you get through things. your believing it to be possible to to me inconceivable. is extremely refined and pure. THE GEBMAN CLASSICS and toward such in which the interest is of a purely sentimental and human character. no doubt.

with the French original. I am looking forward eagerly to seeing your work and to our discussions upon it. ' ' ' ' . therefore. I cannot boast the same of myself. had printed in it. we shall be making an important experiment on the stage. brings on my spasms. If you are curious to see them. much as I should have liked to see him again. 1 ' ' ' you carry out your idea respecting the choruses. 1800. Goepferdt could send you sheets R and S as soon as they have been printed off. I look upon as a good sign of the productive state of your mind. it was very welcome news to me to hear from Korner that he could not undertake the journey. I hope. I congratulate you upon the progress you have made in The liberty which you appear to be taking your work. for.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE Farewell. and also augur from this that the work will bring us a step further forward than Mahomet did. will. My piece. During the last few days I have likewise been engaged with the conclusion of my colThe stanzas on Mahomet I have also lection of poems. which is so favorable to you. too. 509 My wife sends kindest greetings. not go to Lauchstedt. in order to assure myself that you approve of it before I set about working it out. July 30. the state of the barometer. The cheerful tone of your letter proves to me that things are going well with you in Jena. and I congratulate you that such is the case. be so far advanced by the time If you return that I may lay the finished sketch of it before you. Tomorrow hear that we may expect you on Thursday. Owing to this state of things. I hope to Schiller to Goethe Weimar. I shall. it would just at present have been a little inconvenient to me. and shall thus have an unexpected gain in time and also in money. and I do not sleep well.

so that the beginning and the end may become somewhat fuller than the original. . May you fare well and enjoy the gay variety of entertainments by which you are surrounded in Jena. and has again taken up his abode in Doernburg. Farewell. Mellish passed through here yesterI day. once being upon the path we have entered. which broke in two however. she herself was not hurt. By this means. and here and there a little more than this translated the close of the second act and the third and fourth acts. My sister-in-law met with a serious accident in the carriage. to choruses will be very appropriate however. Yesterday I attended to some business matters. I have unfortunately taken it into my head that my presence is required in Weimar. . I shall nevertheless have to act very cautiously so as not to injure the whole.510 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Kirms sent me a very welcome roll today. However. Still. " Tancred " I laid aside I have yesterday morning. August 1. In other ways. task. My wife sends kindest greetings. as I think. I have secured the worthier parts of the which I shall now have to add something of my own that is life-giving. I shall never regret working out and accomplishing this . where the proceedings are evidently very Utopian. also. and to" " day solved a small difficulty in Faust. hear a great deal about the merry life they are leading in Wilhelmsthal. Goethe to Schiller Jena. — — with the exception of the close of the two latter. 1800. these last few days have not been We have long pondered unfruitful in many good things. for which I send you my best thanks. The piece. and I am going to sacrifice my dearest wish to this fancy. if I could remain here another fortnight it should assume quite a different appearance.

consents to accept an unknown stranger as her betrothed. easily do such things oneself. dissected some very neatly and explained them to me. in his poetic journal. who has ruined her faithful lover. and shall have a number of things to bring with me and to relate. indeed. were it not that they would at once lead one over into an entirely different sphere. who is engaged with the anatomy of insects. Juan. if I can come over here again before the time when certain caterlike this could at. One might." which I too remember to have seen in my young " " Don It is a pendent to Faust. On Monday I shall be with you again. or that he has contrived to make his intentions clearer. partly in knowledge of the subject itself. Farewell meanwhile. still unable to A student here. however." Tieck. and I have thus made progress in this branch also. partly also in the treatment of it. Whether it be that I have for some years past interested myself more in this species of writing." or. if work pillars change into chrysalies. and he. If a young man given him to have some definite object for four months. rather. or the four quarters of the globe. as a devil. However. ." An extremely vain and heartless girl. carries her off with him Ought we not at to be able to find the idea for a bride in sorrow here — — least in this direction? I have been reading a treatise of Baader's on the Pythagorean square in nature. many very only pleasant things might be the result. to days. Hoellenreminds me of an old marionette play called the braut. as she deserves.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE ' ' 511 over a il Bride in Sorrow. my faculties are comprehend all of the latter. the little work has pleased me and has served me as an introduction to his earlier writings. in the end. I shall assuredly try to of his ability make use and dexterity. and hold me in remembrance.

the more are individual things advanced. With regard I too am a poet. and give us as genuine poetry that is in fact no poetry at all. in cent. but this is all done. The more genius a century possesses. with Art in its to exercise it a certain good-natured kind of — — — widest sense. It is well I expect much good from your latest work. With regard to the questions contained in your last letter. I wish you all happiness upon your return to Weimar. I not only agree with your opinion. person of genius can also act ration- A ally. and hope soon to see you again. stay here suits me very well. of the poet. by means of reflection and action. This is my confession of faith. if you devote sufficient time to it. No work of genius can be improved or be freed from its faults by reflection and its immediate results. . indirectly. April 1801. is done unconsciously. of the opinion that these will not readily call forth The art of poetry requires of the person who is to the great demands now made narrowness which lies concealed what enamored of what is Real. I think that everything that is done by genius as genius. and thus there comes My over me a certain feeling of nonchalance and indifference such as I have not known for a long time. as it were. Ober-Rossla. behind Demands made by criticism destroy the innois Absolute. something place of poetry as unfortunately we have seen in our own day. partly because I move about in the open air all day. from conviction. will round conceived.512 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Goethe to Schiller 6. which otherwise does not make any further claims. but genius can. with reflection. partly because I am drawn down to the common objects of life. and. but go even further. and the same is the case with the kindred arts nay. be gradually raised to a degree that in the end shall produce exemplary works. productive state. either by your coming to pay me a visit or by my again repairing to town.

< w to > a u W u Q < n W H W O o w w .


some day soon. to show you the latest. I hope that soon the only thing wanting in the great gap will be the disputation this. and shall now pass on to Spain. I foresee that I shall this year write at least two or three chapters more in my theory of colors. I have thought out some new experiments which will carry the matter further still. Would you care to come to me on Thursday with Professor Meyer? Please talk this over with him. will have to be looked upon as a distinct piece of work. Herschel's new discoveries. The physical colors are thereby identified with the chemical colors. M Faust " also has meanwhile had something done to it. and I will then write to him more fully on the subject. farewell. and one which will not be accomplished at a moment's . it is true. Ritter came to see me for a minute. and has. Vol. but certainly does so on the blue-red side. The time and care which I have devoted to this subject give me the greatest advantage in judging of new observations. I have also has not been lost sight In order to obtain an empiric foun- my attention again to the theory of colors. notice. Ill — 33 . I am daily becoming more convinced how much more limited everything appears when such observations are made from within. inasmuch as. The famous prize-question commenced examining European nations. Meanwhile. I am anxious. among other the character of the different of during these days. in fact.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE itself off of its 513 own accord. In Link's " Travels " I have read a good deal more about Portugal. are very beautifully connected with that observation which I have frethat Bolognian phosphorus does not quently told you of things. dation for my observations. directed — receive any light on the yellow-red side of the spectrum. which have been carried further and extended by our young naturalist.

I should have had time to master If your scientific investigations. in his hand. . preserve them occupied. we had become acquainted with each other half a dozen years earlier than we did. what actually didactic is not a part of your nature. and he seems to have I have lately been reading applied all the activity of his mind to acquiring knowledge for on one occasion he called his nephew severely to task for walking up and down the garden without having a book . in reality. and. August ductive You can never be inactive. making quotations and dictating. moreover. and what you call an unpromood most other people would consider time fully If only some subordinate genius one of those very persons residing and presiding at the universities would give the finishing touch to your scientific ideas. as I think. not unsuccessfully. collect and edit them fairly. as has already happened to you several times and would happen more frequently still if people understood their own advantage better. Compared with him. left him no proper time for independent reflection. because. But I am afraid that the immense amount of time he devoted to reading.514 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Schiller to Goethe 18. in this way. even Haller was a time-squanderer. very well qualified for being appropriated and plundered by others during your own lifetime. During these last play. You are. can accomplish by putting time to good use. Weimar. some notices on the elder which have astonished me in regard to what a man Pliny. in any case. and. you yourself will always be putting off this business. should have honestly looked after what belonged to you. unfortunately. — — for the world! is For. and. yet learned so much from any work of my days I have been hard at work with my and I have never own as from this. 1802. I should perhaps have sustained your inclination to give these important subjects their ultimate shape.

be finished this week. This I maintain as positively as was ever declared by yourself in find . are not agreeable to me. to have to dress. having made and other arrangements will. and she could remain as long as she liked. she shall be well to be expected that I should be recalled * * * If she when comes received. and let me soon hear that you are coming back to us with a rich gift. however. Otherwise. It was Madame de Stael came to Weimar. and when you return I shall be able to bid you welcome in a clean and pretty house. to drag me out of my old position. as political affairs may also affect my circumstances. to pay me a visit. I am awaiting my fate not withThere are also other things which threaten out anxiety. therefore. and. besides. and the rest of my time I would place at her disposal but to drive over in such weather as this. Take this as a friendly guidance for your actions. but we should really meet and speak to each other. The repairs I am Goethe to Schiller Jena. What I have to do here can be done at odd quarters of an hour. to be at court and in society. 1803.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE It is 515 one I can more readily survey and also more readily manage.twenty hours beforehand. Farewell. a part of Loder's house shall be furnished for her use. she would homely fare. it is a more grateful and enjoyable task to make a simple to limit one that is too rich subject rich and full of substance than and broad. I hope. and. for I actually to see desire nothing more than and to become . is utterly impossible. if I know of her coming four-and. similar circumstances. a variety of things are at present engaging my thoughts. December 13. and which.

friendly hand. I am always learning more distinctly from we have in reality to conceive Polygnotus and Homer But — as — hell as existing a life. Unfortunately. I am merely paddling about in it. nay. 1805. is am very sorry to hear that your having to keep at home not voluntary on your part. I fear I shall not be able to do. Arrange and manage these things with your gentle. as soon as anything important occurs. according as I wish you success in everything that your solitude proI you yourself may wish and desire ! am rowing about in a foreign element. . A here thus it may be considered to be also thousand farewells in a heavenly sense . however. I am very glad now that I formed a determination and have com- menced to occupy myself with a translation thus these days . been put to some use.516 THE GERMAN CLASSICS acquainted with this remarkable and highly respected woman. On her journey she must have become accustomed to worse fare than she will find here. which. duces. we are none of us quite strong. and I have lived and been active. and he who is of necessity forced to I learn to put up with being ill has the best of it. I may say that to things with- and without satisfaction from within or toward within. with loss out. During the next eight days I whether I can put myself into the proper my Demetrius. at all events. and send me an express messenger at once. If it cannot be managed. ! Schiller to Goethe January 14. I shall have to shall try to see humor look for ' l ' ' up some other semi-mechanical work. and I wish for nothing so much as that she may care to take this drive of a couple of hours for my sake. of misery have.

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occasionally compare them with the original. that I feel as if I had arisen It is true that my . was pleasant to me to see a few lines in your handwriting. 1805.SCHILLER-GOETHE CORRESPONDENCE 517 Herewith I send you what has been copied out. If the roles are commenced day The Duke has given me permission to read the " Memoirs which you now have therefore. present attack seems to have been merely the general epidemic that is going about. to seeing and hearing many other things at your house. but the fever in my case was so great. — my system and I shall have difficulty in recover- ing my strength. ' ' . Farewell and let me. so that I can make use of the time for having them copied out. and it has again awakened my belief in the return It which I have at times quite of the old state of things The two severe attacks which I have had of. me have them when you have finished with them. The Grand Duchess yesterday again spoke with great She is looking forward interest about your late recital. Should you not be in the humor to read the sheets through. please let of Marmontel. Schiller to Goethe February 22. and before the roles are copied out. Tomorrow my Rudolph will get the whole finished. we could have a reading-rehearsal next Sunday. too. and there would still be ten days before the thirtieth. and it seized me when I was already in such a weak state. despaired within the space of seven months have shaken to its very foundation. after tomorrow. soon hear from you again. and mark in pencil whatever you may have to suggest? I should like to have it ready as soon as possible. please send them back to me. Would you look over the first sheets. .

and.518 THE GERMAN CLASSICS illness. ' ' I am anxious to hear whether you have yet sent off the Remeau. . in fact. from a most severe trouble in and find it struggle against a certain listlessness which specially difficult to is the worst my case. for the last fortnight I thing have not heard of anything that is going on in the world. I trust that things may daily and hourly improve with* you and with me too. so that we may soon see each other ' ' in gladness. Goeschen has not written anymanuscript of about it to me.









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