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Cfje jOineteemfc and Ctoentfet[) Centuries

Masterpieces of German Literature



Professor of the History of

Curator of the Harvard University

LL D., Litt.D. German Culture and Germanic Museum,

Assistant Editor-in-Chief

Assistant Professor of

German, Harvard University


Copyright 1913 by The German Publication.Society .

etc. R. The Shedlock: Beethoven's Letters. Charles Godfrey Leland: The Journey to the Harz. Germany.D. Miller.D. Instructor in English. 1). [v] .M. The Asra. etc. In the Harbor.. The Pilgrimage to Kevlaar. English Fragments. sylvania : The Passion Flower: Songs (Xo. . 8). Harvard University: Beethoven as a Letter Writer. 10. Abroad..CONTRIBUTORS AND TRANSLATORS VOLUME VI Special Writers William Guild Howard. Spalding. Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker: Twilight. The Romantic School. Margaret Armour: J. H. Professor Annina Pebiam Danton The Jewess of Toledo. Associate Professor of Music. Alfred Remt. A. Alma Strettell: Poor Peter. W. Professor of Modern Languages. 2).M. Assistant Professor University: of German. Brooksbank: Songs (No. Translators George Henry Danton. Battlefield of Hastings. A. Brooklyn Commercial High School: The Poor Musician My Journey to Weimar. Harvard The Life Walteb of Heinrich Heine. The Sphinx. 3).: : of German. Boyhood Days. Theodore A. Lord Houghton Enfant Perdu.. Sir Theodore Martin: Dedication. Furness: The Two Grenadiers. Charles Wharton Stork. : A Lyrical Intermezzo (No. A New Spring (No. Butler College. S.. and Medea. 2) A Lyrical Intermezzo (Nos. T. 11. Hail to the Sea. The Rabbi of Bacharach. The Life of Franz Grillparzer. Sonnets (No. University of Penn.D. John Todhunter: Belshazzar. Ph.B. A. and 15). Ph. Ph. Lafayette..


VI pAGE 1 By William Guild Howard Poems Dedication. T. Translated by Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker In the Harbor. Charles Wharton Stork. Sonnets. ton Stork Translators: Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker. Charles G. Translated by Sir Theodore Martin The Return Home. Translated by Sir Theodore Martin Translators: Sir Theodore Martin. Translated by John Todhunter The Pilgrimage to Kevlaar. Furness Belshazzar. Translated by Margaret Armour The Passion Flower. Translated by Margaret Armour Enfant Perdu. Translated by Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker. 49 51 Germany. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Twilight.CONTENTS OF VOLUME HEINRICH HEINE The Life of Heinrich Heine. Translated by Lord Houghton The Battlefield of Hastings. Translated by Charles Godfrey Leland Lafayette. Translated by Charles Wharton Stork Prose 52 53 57 58 The Journey to the Harz. 21 21 Brooksbank A Lyrical Translators: T. Intermezzo. James Thomson. Charles Whar48 4(1 Translated by Margaret Armour The Sphinx. London. Translated by Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker . Translated by Alma Strettell The Two Grenadiers. Tranlated by Margaret Armour The Asra. Translated by Charles Godfrey Leland Dialogue on the Thames. Leland. English Fragments — : Translated by Charles Godfrey Leland Translated by Charles Godfrey Leland The Romantic School. Wellington. Strettell. Wallis. [vii] 132 148 159 173 . Brooksbank. Translated by W. Songs. Translated by Sir Theodore Martin Abroad. Alma Theodore Franklin JohnSir son. Translators: Sir Theodore Martin. Hail to the Sea. E. Kate grath-Kroeker. Richard Garnett. Translated by Charles Godfrey Leland 63 115 Boyhood Days. Translated by Charles Godfrey Leland The Rabbi of Bacharach. 32 33 35 Freili- 38 43 44 46 A New Spring. Brooksbank. J. Martin. H. T. Charles Wharton Stork Edgar Alfred Bowring 23 30 31 Translators: Poor Peter.

Miller The Jewess of Toledo. S... By Walter R. Translated by Theodore A. Feriam Danton 409 The Poor Musician. Translated by Alfred Remy 455 My Journey to Weimar. Translated by George Henry Danton and Annina 337 ".. Shedlock 464 470 .. Translated by J. Spalding Beethoven's Letters. By William Guild Howard 235 Medea.. Translated by Alfred Remy LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN Beethoven as a Letter Writer.viii CONTENTS — Continued FRANZ GRILLPARZER The Life of pAGE 213 Franz Grillparzer.

By W. By Ludwig von Hofmann Flower Fantasy. 20 24 26 30 32 42 44 64 82 98 100 110 114 116 144 174 Market Place.A. By Ludwig von Hofmann Play of the Waves. By Arnold Bocklin in New York. VI PAGE Frontispiece 2 18 By Anselm Feuerbach Heinrich Heine. By d'Orsay Bacharach on the Rhine House in Bacharach Franz Grillparzer Franz Grillparzer and Kaethi Frohlich Grillparzer's House in the Spiegelgasse *Grillparzer's Room in the House of the Franz Grillparzer in His Sixtieth Year The Grillparzer Monument at Vienna Medea. Andreasberg Johann Wilhelm Monument. 178 214 in 1823 218 222 226 230 234 236 306 464 Sisters Frohlich From the Grillparzer Monument By Max Klinger at Vienna . Hader The Lorelei Fountain By Herter Spring's Awakening. Beethoven. Goslar The Witches' Dancing Ground The Brocken Inn About 1830 The Falls of the Use View from St.* ILLUSTRATIONS— VOLUME The Concert. By P. Grotjohann Rocky Coast. Grotjohann The Two Grenadiers. Diisseldorf The Duke of Wellington. By E. Gottingen Old Imperial Palace. By Anselm Feuerbach Medea. By P. By Ludwig von Hofmann Poor Peter. Krauskopf Heinrich Heine.


Assistant Professor of (ggrmanj J HE history of German literature makes mention of few men more self-centered and at the same time more unreserved than Heinrich Heine. but of which more than has yet appeared will perhaps ultimately be made accessible. and there remain many questions not to be answered with certainty.M. and the original records are lost. is to us for the most part an open book. . The parentage. sfiems probable that he was born on the thirteenth of December. 1797. He was born a Jew in a German city which. It may be said that everything which Heine wrote gives us. there are many obscure passages in it. besides losing no opportunity for self-expression. except for high taxes and the hardships incident to conscription in the Vol. . and the time were almost equally significant aspects of the constellation under which young Harry Heine for so he was first named began his earthly career. both in and out of season. VI 1 [1] — French armies. Heine 's life. The citizens of Diisseldorf in general had little reason. then. A.THE LIFE OF HEINRICH HEINE German. was for the first sixteen years of by the French. and was intended to give us. only* fragments of which have come down to us. first of all some new impression of the writer so that after a perusal of his works we know him in all his strength and weakness. His own statements on this subject are But it contradictory. and wrote memoirs. — — his life administered with a brief interruption. . the eldest child of Jewish parents recently domiciled at Diisseldorf on the Rhine. Heine published a good deal of frankly autobiographical matter. Nevertheless. the first of which is as to the date of his birth. the place. as we can know only an amiable and communicative egotist moreover. Harvard University By William Guild Howakd.

— . and the machinery of justice was made much less cumbersome than it had been before. Their trade flourished. We read with amazement that one of the plans of the mother. If we find Heine mercilessly assailing the repressive and reactionary aristocracy of Germany. To Heine. but by no means bigoted Jews. gentile population. was to make of him a Roman Catholic priest. The boy's father.2 to THE GERMAN CLASSICS complain of the foreign dominion. Napoleon was the incarnation of the French Revolution. we shall not lightly accuse him of lack of patriotism. He could not be expected to hold dear institutions of which he felt only the burden. Heine 's parents were orthodox. were among the formative forces brought to bear upon the quick-witted but not precocious boy. and to whom he was him a spiritually akin. Nor shall we call to whom traitor for loving the French. almost as early as Hebrew or German. they were given better laws. and the idea that he was . achievements of the To Jew and gentile alike the military supposed to represent. we can easily understand how the enthusiasm of the boy surrounded the person of Napoleon. who took by storm later soldier carried a field marshal's baton in his knapsack. especially the Jews hailed the French as deliverers for for the first time they were relieved of political disabilities and were placed upon a footing of equality with the But now French were a source of satisfaction and admiration and when the Emperor of the French himself came to town. . a people his people owed so much. as Heine saw him do in 1810. ambitious for her firstborn. — French influences. the glorious new-comer the intrenched strongholds of hereditary the dauntless leader in whose army every common privilege. was a rather unsuccessful member of a family which in other representatives particularly Samson's brother Salomon in Hamburg attained to wealth and prominence in the world of finance. without a share in the sentiment which gives stability even to institutions that have outlived their usefulness. with a glamor that never lost its fascination for the man. Samson Heine.

Krauskopb HEINRICH HEINE After a Drawing in the Possession of Mr. Carl Meinert in Dessau .W.


Outside of school. literature. ents In Diisseldorf. he was rather impulsive than determined. Inquisitive and alert. there had prevailed a higher degree of intellectual culture than the Heines had attained to. To his son Gustav he transmitted real military capacity. or Betty. we were two children" gives a true account of Harry and his sister Charlotte at play. and in her family. She not only managed the household with prudence and energy.HEINRICH HEINE Samson Heine seems to 3 have been too easy-going. To both par- Harry Heine paid the homage of true filial affection. self-indulgent. not merely of stirring events in the world of politics. but also of many a picturesque manifestation of popular life a spectator often rather than a participant. and his practical mother had her trials in directing him toward preparation for a life work. The poem "My child. to have made the most of the talents that he unquestionably had. Heine was a stronger character than her husband. but also took the chief care of the education of the children. Heine's formal education culminated in attendance in the upper classes of a Lyceum. he was an eager spectator. and ostentatious. Among his foibles was a certain fondness for the pageantry of war. The Book Le Grand and a number of poems bear unmistakable witness. Harry Heine inherited his father's more all his amiable but less strenuous qualities. The spirit of the institution was rationalistic and the discipline wholesome. organized upon the model of a French Lycee and with a corps of teachers recruited chiefly from the ranks of the Roman Catholic clergy. and he was in glory as an officer of the local militia. for as a Jew he stood beyond the pale of both the German and the Roman Catholic traditions that gave and give to the cities of the Rhineland — . several members of which had taken high rank as physicians. the particular field of which neither she nor he could readily choose. Peira. and the elements of philosophy. Here Heine made solid acquisi- tions in history. which led to a distinguished career and a patent of nobility in the Austrian service. and of the happiness of the home life.

which reached its culmination during the boyhood of Heine. Such a poem as The Pilgrimage to Kevlaar would be amazing as coming from an unbeliever. his private reading led him for the most part into the region of romanticism in its most exaggerated form. furthermore. T.4 THE GERMAN CLASSICS their characteristic naive gaiety and harmless superstition. and the songs collected by Arnim and Brentano in The Boy's Magic Horn. but also Uhland's ballads. in 1815 at Frankfurt. did we not see in it evi- dence of the poet's capacity for perfect sympathetic adoption of the spirit of his early environment. and to her niece. perhaps because the downfall of Napoleon shut the door of all other opportunity. belong in an atmosphere charged with witchery. That is to say: At the time when in school a critical and skeptical mind was being developed in him by descendants of the age of enlightenment. A. crime. It having been decided. the tales of noble robbers written by Goethe's brother-in-law. the Dream Pictures. Hoffmann. The same is true of many another poetic expression of simple faith. The history of Heine's connection with this movement is foreshadowed by the circumstances of his first contact with it. in the follow- . tendencies will later be seen to account for much patible of the mystery in Heine's problematic character. the wildly fantastic stories of E. At about the same time he read Gulliver's Travels. when he took healthy romantic interest in the picturesque Diisseldorf life. Vulpius. the daughter of a hangman. his imagination was morbidly stimulated by furtive visits to a woman re- puted to be a witch. that Heine should embark upon a mercantile career. Interest in medieval Catholicism and in folk-lore is one of the most prominent traits in the Romantic movement. He tells us that the first book he ever read was Don Quixote (in the translation by Tieck). whether in Christianity or in the mythology of German folk-lore. and the irThis coincidence of incomresponsibility of nightmare. he was given a brief apprenticeship. His earliest poems. Schiller's Robbers. At the time.

the daughter of Salomon. was a member of the Burschenschaft. then of persistent despair that pursued him in the midst of other occupations and even in the fleeting joys of other loves. in 1818. after some brushing up of Latin at home. Heine in the fall of 1819 was matricu- lated as a student at the University of Bonn. for. At Bonn Heine was a diligent student. only to meet with scornful rebuffs at the hands of the coquettish and worldly-minded heiress. he took part in various extra-academic enterprises. He had gained the good will of an opulent uncle whose bounty he continued almost uninterruptedly to enjoy to the end of his days. with a view to subsequent practice in Hamburg. Her father certainly did not so take them. "W. under the immediate patronage of his uncle Salomon who. Accordingly. In spite of failure to accomplish his immediate purpose. Heine had conceived an overpowering passion for his cousin Amalie. Schle. Heine had not sojourned in vain at Hamburg. There is no reason to suppose that Amalie ever took her cousin's advances seriously. and made many friends. On the other hand.HEINRICH HEINE 5 ing years at Hamburg. first of unfounded hope. there is equally little reason to doubt the sincerity and depth of Heine's feelings. even established the young poet in a dry goods business of his own. . Though never a roysterer. always sensitive to the charms of the other sex. But the uncle was magnanimous and offered his nephew the means necessary for a university course in law. The most touching poems included among the Youthful Sorrows of his first volume were inspired by Amalie Heine. The only result of these experiments was the demonstration of Heine's total inaptitude for commercial pursuits. . He duly studied history and law he heard Ernst Moritz Arndt interpret the Germania of Tacitus but more especially did he profit by official and personal relations with A. that democratic-patriotic organization so gravely suspected by the reactionary governments. But in a purpose that lay much nearer to his heart he had failed lamentably.

1821 (with the date 1822). and other eccentric geniuses. form and the art of metrical at Gottingen. In marked contrast to the patriotic and romantic spirit of Bonn he noted here with amazement that the distinguished Germanist Benecke lectured on the Nibelungenlied to an auditory of nine. . now the wife of Varnhagen von Ense. advised to withdraw and in April he enrolled himself as a . ex- the secret of literary pression. for serious quarrels coming to the ear of the faculty. an association recently founded for the amelioration of the social and political condition of the Hebrews in the drawing room of Rahel Levin. As a student Heine was deeply impressed by the absolute philosophy expounded by Hegel as a Jew he lent a willing . however. from 1817 on. he to the endeavors of . the destined this time to be brief. Grabbe. Here. student at the University of Berlin. his first volume.6 THE GERMAN CLASSICS who taught Heine what he himself knew best. he was. dies together with a Lyrical Intermezzo — two very romantic . had befriended Friedrich Schlegel and in the subterranean restaurant of Lutter and Wegener he joined in the revels of Hoffmann. he wrote newspaper articles on Berlin and on Poland. a quarter of a century before. His own residence was fall The of 1820 saw Heine university to which. he came in touch with gifted men and women who were ardent admirers of Goethe. entitled simply Poems. After having. the Hanoverian Americans Ticknor and Everett had repaired and at which in that very year Bancroft had attained his degree of doctor of philosophy. The next three years were filled with manifold activities. shortly before. namely. hand published in December. on January 23. Heine was repelled by the aristocratic exclusiveness of the Hanoverian squires who gave the tone to student society. Heine now began to be known as a man of letters. 1821. as well as by the mummified dryness of the professors. printed occasional poems in newspapers and magazines. which he visited in the summer of 1822 and in the spring of 1823 he published Trage. and some of whom. gel.

But he saw no sense in the idea that Heine already entertained of settling in Paris. whose identity remains uncertain. but who was probably Amalie 's little sister Therese. In the summer of 1824 he made the trip through the Hartz mountains which served as the basis of The Journey to the Hartz. Regret for the loss of Amalie soon gave way to a new passion for a very young girl. In any case. but Heine performed it in a caused not so much by a sense of apostasy as by contempt for the conventional Christianity that he now embraced. . 1824. Submission is the right word for this conversion. Here Heine In less exalted moods he dallied with first saw the sea. fisher maidens he did not forget Amalie but the youthful grace and purity of Therese dominate most of the poems of this summer. when published in 1826. Heine once more betook himself to Gottingen.HEINRICH HEINE 7 and undramatic plays in verse. There can be no sharper contrast than that presented by such a poem as The Pilgrimage to Kevlaar and sundry satirical pieces not included in this volume. in January. where on the twenty-first of July. separated in the volume by a short series of lyrical poems. spirit of bitterness . to whom the Tragedies had been affectionately inscribed. 1825. He insisted that the young man should complete his studies and so. It was an act of expediency such as other ambitious men found unavoidable in those days. he was duly promoted Doctor utriusque Juris. Uncle Salomon. The return from the watering place gave Heine the title The Return Home for this collection of pieces which. Heine met the new love on the occasion of a visit to Liineburg and Hamburg in the spring of 1823. Meanwhile Amalie Heine had been married and Harry's parents had moved to Liineburg. immedi. and was haunted by her image during the summer spent at Cuxhaven. was dedicated to Frau Varnhagen von Ense. ately before his promotion he submitted to baptism in the Lutheran church as Christian Johann Heinrich Heine. . was not displeased with the growing literary reputation of his nephew.

first published in a Gesellschafter. 1856. he arrived in Paris. and the North Sea. to that time. and Paris was thenceforth his home until his death on the seventeenth of February. 1827. 1831. Pictures of Travel III (1830) began with experiences in Italy. issued in 1827. complete the narrative of Heine's movements to the end of the first period of his Berlin. a sojourn in Italy. beginning with the poems of The Return Home and concluding with the first group of hymns to the North Sea. Pictures of Travel II. In October. where Heine renewed and deepened acquaintance with his beloved North Sea. in January and February. magazine. He was now Heine The novelist. the writer: poet. in was issued May of that year by Campe in Ham- burg. written at Norderney in the previous year. . Manv a German was attracted thither. 1830. life. to mann were appended. vacillations between Hamburg. consisted of the second cycle of poems on the North Sea. and lin extracts which epigrams by Immerfrom Letters from Ber- published in 1822. an account in prose of life on the island. the record of Heine's observations in London. The Booh Le Grand. and not without reason Heine hoped to find there a more promising field for the employment of his talents than with all his wanderings he had discovered in Germany. Pictures of Travel IV (1831) included English Fragments. vain hopes of a professorship in Munich. a supplementary chapter on Italy. not very resolute attempts to take up the practice of law in Hamburg. The Parisian revolution of July. Toward the end of May. but degenerated into a provoked but ruthless attack upon Platen.8 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Two vacations at Norderney. Heine collected under the title Book of Songs nearly all of his poems written up The first period in Heine's life closes with the year 1831. and The City of Lucca. entitled Nor- demey. had turned the eyes of all Europe toward the land in winch political experiments are made for the benefit of mankind. a trip to London. as the first volume of Pictures of Travel. journalist. and Journey to the Harts. Der 1826.

and popular historian. in his second. In his first cal. journalist. Pages of verse followed pages of prose and in the Journey to the . Hartz. and he wrote prose before 1831 but in a general way what he says of his two periods is correct: before his emigration he was primarily a poet. and that their collected form. the public were the product of a time when. and afterwards primarily a critic. were dominated. any more than the volumes taken each by itself were units. chiefly about affairs past and present in which he was interested. moreover. to the works of the first period. the flame of truth had rather heated than clarified his mind and expressed the hope that his recent politi. . Heine confessed that for some time past he had felt a certain repugnance to versification that the poems therewith offered for the second time to . In whichever way our judgment finally inclined. — — period he wrote chiefly about his own experiences. Heine does indeed give pictures of some of the scenes that he visits but he also nar. and philosophical writings all springing from the same idea and intention as the poems might atone for any weakness in the poems. Heine wrote poetry after 1831. Pictures of Travel.HEINRICH HEINE II In the preface to the second edition of the Booh of Songs. versified Pictures both. . in contrast to the present. theological. by a romantically tinged longing for individual liberty. written at Paris in 1837. we should declare that the Pictures of Travel were essentially prosified poems and that As the of poems were. is not in itself a true index to the multititle The farious contents of the series of traveler's notes. to which Heine gave so definite a connotation. we might hesitate to whether the Pictures of Travel or the Book of Songs say were the more characteristic product. as the writings after 1831 were dominated. verse interspersed in prose emphasizes the lyrical character of the composition. in Travel.

are telling one another their green legends. — you at every moment in amused perplexity. all seems enchanted" in other words. a wonderland disturbed by no doubts on the part of a rationalistic Alice. not the world into which he most delights to conduct us. his personal reaction upon any idea that comes into his head. unconditionally subject himself to the genius of a single For Heine is capable of writing straightforward a narrative of is descriptive prose. broad. though in the long run exasperating style. the trees whisper as if with a thousand maidens' tongues. his dreams. and in the fact that though the ingredients are. so to speak. locality. And a further secret of this fascinating. is less what was to be seen in the Hartz than what to a very lively imagination and we admire the agility with which the writer jumps from place to place quite as much as the suppleness with which \he can at will was suggested . potentized in the highest degree. his thoughts. so that the substance. and observation a la Washington Irving" Heine himself called the Journey to the Hartz. the herbs. as though endowed with reason. the birds pour forth broken love-sick strains. wit. especially of the Journey to the Hartz. the odd mountain flowers peep up at us as if with a thousand maidens' eyes. drolly scalloped leaves the sunrays flash here and there in sport. on the contrary. as well-ordered and as matter-of-fact as Kleist's. The novelty lay in the mixture. "A mixture of description of nature. and at every point sets forth his recollections. is that in which the water "murmurs and rustles so wonderfully. poetry. This world. is the sublime audacity with which Heine dances now on one foot and now on the other. stretching out to us their curious.10 THE GERMAN CLASSICS lie rates his passage from point to point. where everything has an assignable reason for its being and doing. But the world of reality. The Journey to the Hartz is a work of . they are brought to nearly perfect congruence and fusion by the irresistible solvent of the second named. whether you shall next find him standing firmly on mother earth or bounding upward to recline on the clouds. leaving .

It is a product of superior intelligence not a Sketch Book. another volume of poems so cun- If we examine the book in its most obvious aspect. with the notable exception of The Two Grenadiers and Belshazzar. without monotony. Then come a few pieces of . Dream The first of the Youthful Sorrows are and grotesque imitations of an inferior romantic genre. he too persistently outdoes him also in — — . because each time he finds for it a new set of symbols. and in the older sense of that word. we find it beginning with Youthful Sorrows and ending with hymns to the North Sea passing. poetic expressions. This he tells over and over again. but a single canvas with an infinitude of details not a Sentimental Journey although Heine can outdo Sterne in sentimentality. From the Dream Pictures we proceed to Songs (a very simple love story Pictures. and to extol nature and the life of those uncorrupted by the world. and because the symbols become more and more objective as the poet's horizon broadens. are printed without titles and are successive sentences or paragraphs in the poet's own love story. Thereupon follow the Lyrical Intermezzo and the Return Home. . A It similar unity is would be difficult to find unmistakable in the Book of Songs. that is to say. are relatively feeble attempts at the objectivation of personal suffering. direct communications to particular persons. from the most subjective to the most objective of Heine's ningly composed. Romances which. like the Songs above mentioned. satire : — the work. crude told in to forms as nearly conventional as Heine ever used). each with a prologue and an epilogue.HEINRICH HEINE 11 wit. and thence to Sonnets. the North Sea Pictures are magnificent attempts in highly original form to catch the elusive moods of a great natural element which before Heine had played but little part in German poetry. is in essence thoroughly informed by a two-fold purpose to ridicule pedantry and philistinism. fragmentary and outwardly formless. in the present sense. because the story gains in significance as the lover gains in experience. and with several series of pieces which.

and to utter a feeling. are the means to the which Heine seeks. The movement is a steady climax. we are left to infer the fact from the evidence presented there is neither . poet is his disposition to fix a moment. however fleeting. the subject is impiety and swift retribution. and some poems were altered to make Each was originally the expresand the peculiarity of Heine as a lyric moment.12 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Kevmost religious content (culminating in The Pilgrimage to laar). we are invited to contemplate a series of moments and if effect . a translation of pictorial details into terms of action editorial introduction nor moralizing conclusion. a slight substance can be fittingly presented only in the briefest forms. or points in juxtaposition or in succession. the method is the same. The total effect is one of arrangement. Even in such a narrative poem as Belshazzar the movement is staccato. sion of a in his lyrical confessions he suppressed no impulse to selfrevelation and seldom did his mastery of form fail to en. ovu^^to » The truth of the foregoing observations can be tested only by an examination of the entire Booh of Songs. In the Journey to the Hartz he never lost an opportunity to make a point. noble even the meanest substance. and prophecy. the poems in the Journey to the Hartz (the striking of which are animated by the poetry of folk-lore) these poems clearly transitional to the poetry of the ocean — which Heine wrote with such vigor in the two cycles on the North Sea. and most strikingly in The Pil- . Single points. the order of the poems within the sections is logical. and the merit lies in the justness and suggestiveness of details. Whether. of however slight consequence to humanity it might at first blush seem to be. however. The order of the sec- tions is chronological. a presentation of character larly in circumstance. fit them into the scheme. Some of Heine 's most perfect products are his smallest. or a larger matter calls for extended treatment. Simiwith The Two Grenadiers. not the developed continuity of a line. Connecting links are left to be supplied by the imagination of the reader.

and the variety of these is not great. we find Heine most successmaking of himself the interpreter of objects in the ojrtside world. Indeed.He does not. is probably atti- doomed ere long to death in the waves.HEINRICH HEINE grimage 13 to Kevlaar. Goethe's "Hush'd on the hill" is an apos- . Heine. a life not fortified by wholesome cooperation with men nor nourished with the of kaleidoscopic views of one strength of nature. not that of an interpreter it is that of an artist who seeks the means of expression where they may be found. he. Toward the outside world. a poem of such fundamentally pictorial quality that it has been called a triptych. the outside world. three depicted scenes in a little religious drama. like Goethe and Morike. pletely absent as Morike from the kitchen of The Forsaken Maiden. then. Thus. The number of such objects is greater than It is in pieces like these that fully is naturally his success is surest in the case of objects congenial to him. Heine's habitual tude is . even when he appears to treat it most objectively. he has property given to this borrowed subject so personal a turn that instead of the siren we see a human maiden. Poor Peter is the narrative of a humble youth unfortunate in love. we may be sure. which so take the luck- everywhere believed —though less lover that. Nothing could seem to be less the of Heine than The Lorelei. nevertheless. it is a collection life. like the boatman. but it is no document of the life of humanity. read out of the phenomena of nature and of life what these phenomena in themselves contain. The Booh of Songs is aJiuman document. but none from which he was himself so comtions. but poor Peter's story is Heine's. proves upon closer examination to be in the vast majority of cases only a treasure-trove of symbols for the expression of his inner self. Heine would not have thought it worth the telling. otherwise. he reads into them what he wishes them to say. serenely indifferent to the effect of her charms. but vivifying nature with its own emoHeine has treated many a situation with overwhelming pathos.

active. how do we know what takes place on the banks of the Ganges." The poem Pine and Palm. his poetry is essentially a poetry of tropes that is. single metaphor with which it begins Kingly is the herd's calling. Nor does he allow us to question the occurrence of these marvels. nor yet the objectivation of ideas. whither we are borne on the wings of song? This. But be. would be Heine's answer to any criticism based upon Ruskin's notion as to the "pathetic fallacy. Peeping up as the planets appear. public-spirited youth and Heine's sleepy. India. The Bop's Mountain Song. in which Heine boy expresses his hopeless separation from the maiden of whom he dreams incidentally attributing to Amalie a feeling of sadness and solitude to which she was a stranger* is a bolder example of romantic self-projection into nature. The length to which Heine goes in attributing human emotions to nature is hardly to be paralleled before or since. but peace which the world cannot give and cannot take away is the atmosphere of that poem. indeed. . But the contrast between Uhland 's hardy. His aim not being the reproduction of reality. and there The — He transports us to violets titter. And Whisper words. their warm love confessing. the conception and presentation of things not as they are but as they may be conceived to — A simple illustration of this method may be seen in The Herd-Boy. soft perfumed." If the setting is such as to induce in us the proper mood. whereas Heine's "The shades of the summer evening lie" gets its principal effectiveness from fantastic contributions of the poet's own imagination.14 THE GERMAN CLASSICS trophe to himself. caressing. to each ear. amorous individualist is no more striking than the difference between Uhland 's rhetorical and Heine's Heine's poem is an elaboration of the tropical method. Uhland wrote a poem on a very similar subject. the roses. ' ' : — — not the boldest that Heine offers us.

But Heine was too keenly intellectual to be inhimself. the hypocrite. This procedure perfectly symbolizes a disitself. irony. Nothing could be more trenchant than his bland assumption of the point of view of the Jew-baiter. legitimate attempts to express the inexpressible. it undoubtedly suggests a superior point of the tribulations of view. avoid erring in the direction either of sentimentality or of bitterness. . a still more pervasive incongruity between this temperament and the forms in which it ex- perament. It is as perfect as his adoption of childlike faith in The Pilgrimage to Kevlaar. and with credulous delight contemplate wonders such as we too have seen in i our dreams just as we find the romantic syntheses of sound and odor. and too caustic to restrain terness. The atmosphere of prose. to be sure. bit- Hence the bitter-sweet of many of his pieces. except in especially fortunate moments. Somewhat blunted by over-employment is another romantic instrument.HEINRICH HEINE we 15 readily enter the non-rational realm. did not preclude indulgence in very unideal pleasures and his love of Amalie and Therese. namely. . from which an insignificant indi- vidual are seen to be insignificant. is less favorable to Heine's habitual indulgence in romantic tropes. or the slave-trader. as when a deification of his beloved is followed by a cynical utterance of a different kind of love. so agreeably stimulating and so suggestive of an elastic temThere is. however. . destroying the illusion of his created image. eminently characteristic of Heine. dulgent of sentimentality. could not. and the tracted mind. or of sound and color. Many a time he attains an effect of ironical contrast by the juxtaposition of incongruous poems. hopeless from the beginning. gets a melancholy satisfaction from derision of his own grief. His devotion to ideals current. But often the incongruity is within the poem poet. but in a larger sense it symbolizes the very instability and waywardness of Heine His emotions were unquestionably deep and rebut they were not constant.

and other fine arts stood in no immediate relation to national exigencies. and making it with an amazing ' economy of means. making much of little. when he was primarily a literary artist. mostly of Songs very quatrains of easy and seemingly inevitable structure. and from Eichendorff. was what made his love poetry so novel and so piquant to his contemporaries. This. philosophy. indeed. They are the forms of the German Folk-song. . pressed —two-thirds of the Booh Heine's love — are written in the poemssimplest of verses. There was indeed plenty of agitation in the circles of the Burschenschaft. The Booh of Songs was a unique collection. poetry. and there were sporadic efforts to obtain from reluctant princes the constitutions promised as a reward for the rising against Napoleon but as a whole the people of the various states seemed passive. Taken all in all. and the very considerable activity in science. but it is a highly individual device which succeeded only with this individual.16 THE GERMAN CLASSICS itself. and he carried the art to the highest pitch of virtuosity. this time was unpro- Heine's first ductive in Germany. and that it was a de- vice adopted from no lack of capacity in other measures appears from the perfection of Heme's sonnets and the in- comparable free rhythmic verses of the North Sea cycles. this is one of the qualities that keep it alive today. ni period. a fit vehicle for homely sentiments and those elemental passions which come and go like the tide in a humble heart. from Uhland. because the humble heart is single and yields unresistingly to their flow. But Heme's heart was not single. to 1831. painting. his passion was complex. nearly coincides with the epoch of the Restoration (1815-1830). and the greatest of his ironies was his use of the most unsophisticated of forms for his most sophisticated substances. Politically. Heine learned the art of making them from the Magic Horn. and whatever was .

and novels. VI —2 . Many passages in Heine's Pictures of Travel breathe the the celebrated spirit of the Young German propaganda — confession of faith. . To all intents and purposes he became a Frenchman. plays. the kind of expository and polemic writing that he had developed in the later volumes of the Pictures of Travel.800 francs from the French government he has even been suspected of having become a French citizen. and pamphlets to — others — endeavored stir up in essays. in the main. with the more influential of whom he soon quarreled. Borne. he wrote for German papers accounts of events in the political and artistic world of France. for example. But with the Revolution of July. looked upon him as a renegade so that there was a peculiar inappropri. and for French periodicals more ambitious essays on the history of religion. the political situation in Germany became somewhat more acute. Vol. interest in public questions of political. in the Journey to the Harts. from 1836 or 1837 until 1848 he was the recipient of an annual pension of 4. and. and recent literature in Germany. he was commonly regarded as a traitor and at the same time the Young Germans. social. in which he declares himself a knight of the holy spirit of iconoclastic democracy. nor was he free from longing to be once more in his native land. with or without royal patronage. like many an expatriate. and the so-called "Young Germans" Wienbarg. and religious reform. Laube. Gutzkow. 1830. however. and Heine arranged also for the appearance of the Pictures of Travel and the Book of Songs in French translations. In Germany. philosophy. Regarding himself. as a mediator between the country of his birth and the country of his adoption. as a journalist. Mundt. demands for emancipation took more tangible form. Most of the works of this time were published in both French and German. . In Paris he actively enlisted in the cause. and for about fifteen years continued. in continuation of romantic tendencies. But he in no sense curbed his tongue when speaking of French affairs.HEINRICH HEINE 17 accomplished was the work of individuals.

"What artillery did not accomplish at Leipzig must now be done by pens in Paris. Heine thought. or Mathilde. 1836 Our time is one in which action destined to be decisive for a thousand years is being prepared. Laube. he now says." During the first years of his sojourn in Paris Heine ensocial reform. But Mathilde was no good housekeeper Heine was frequently in financial straits he quarreled with his relatives. and impotently forbidding Germany Young Germans Heine. but entirely without education. But the occupants of insecure thrones have a fine scent for the odor of sedition. 1834. and fell violently in love with her. . and Heine was an untiring sapper and miner in the modern army moving against A keen obthe strongholds of aristocrats and priests. "I feel like Heine in Paris. though not in the manner of the Young Germans. 1835. . From December. Heine regarded her as his wife. . as well as wi^h literary adversaries ' ' . Gutzkow. and in 1841 they were married. Friedrich Hebbel. ' ' : tered gleefully into all the enjoyment and stimulation that the gay capital had to offer. I feel like a fish in water ' ' ' ' is a common expression of contentment with one's sur- roundings. politicians. to do his part in furthering : the circulation in of the writings of the — wrote to a friend in March. She was a woman of great personal attractiveness. ateness in the notorious decree of the Bundesrat at Frankfurt. he was drawn back to his Frau Venus with an attachment passing all understanding. but when one fish inquires after the health of another. Crescence Eugenie Mirat. The well-accredited German poet quickly secured admission to the circle of artists. In October. he made the acquaintance of a young Frenchwoman.18 THE GERMAN CLASSICS voted December 10. frivolous. and he made efforts to escape from her seductive charms. and like Tannhauser. 1835. journalists. and passionate. They were soon united not for long. as he called her. Wienbarg. Heine told a friend. and became a familiar figure on the boulevards. but ineffectually. server in Hamburg who was resolved. and Mundt in that order. and reformers.

Hadek HEIXRICH HEINE .Permission E. Berlin E.. Linde & Co.


") Having for its principal scene the most romantic spot in Europe. in the middle of the forties paralysis of the spinal cord began to manifest itself. Heine's health was undermined. the poem flies to the merriest. the impersonation of those good characters and talentless men who. the fruit the tires. in the early forties. along with negligible cynical pieces. a number of love songs no whit inferior to those of lar allowance ' Book of Songs. The Passion Flower. and in 1855 a ministering angel came to him in the person of Elise von Krinitz ("Camille Selden") whom he called "Die Mouche" and for whom he wrote his last poem. the valley of Roncesvaux. written in 1842) and Germany (1844). maddest height of romanticism in order by the aid of magic to kill the bear and therewith the vogue of poetry degraded . and a wasting frame seemed only to sharpen the wits of the indomitable warrior. of the first of Heine's two trips across the Rhine. Meantime contentions. tribulations. he was visited by many distinguished men of letters. New Songs (1844) contains. and for the last ten years of his life he was a hopelessly stricken invalid.HEINRICH HEINE in . finally doomed for five years to that "mattress grave' which his fortitude no less than his woeful humor has pathetically glorified. Moreover. endeavored to translate the prose of Young Germany into poetry. His wife cared for him dutifully. 19 Germany and France and only after considerable negotiation was peace declared. and scorching political saThe Romanzero (1851) is not unfairly represented such a masterpiece as The Battlefield of Hastings. a. He calls it Das letzte freie Waldlied der Romantik ("The last free forest-song of romanticism. and for its principal character a dancing bear. Atta Troll is one of the most remarkable of Heine's works. and the continuation of a regu- arranged with Uncle Salomon. Historically and poetically. And by from this last period we have two quasi-epic poems: Atta Troll (1847. romances. In the latter thirties he suffered often from headaches and afflictions of the eyes. kind of apology for his life.

a brave soldier. and he was. the dawn of a . but not that charity which seeketh not her own. To be called perhaps an alien. In the war for the liberation of humanity he professed to be. We shall not say that the things destroyed by Heine deserved a better fate. he lived to see. to practical purposes. ridicule his plan of campaign. Heine nevertheless made use. . We shall not think of him either as a leader or as a follower in a great national movement. only accomplishment. nor the loyalty that abides the day when imSarcasm was his perfection shall become perfection. His eye was on the present. he was the man whose self-expressions aroused the widest interest and touched the tenderest chords. discipline.20 THE GERMAN CLASSICS . He never took a city. though he did not himself enter the promised land. with consummate artistry. Heine knew whereof he spoke for he had himself been a mad romanticist. in the more refined romanticism of the Munich School and the poetic realism of Hebbel and Ludwig. sympathy for the disenfranchised bound him to it. Neither can we truthfully say that he saw it as it was destined to be. even national discontent. of the fulness of German culture at a time when many of the after-born staggered under the weight of a heritage greater than they could bear. found expression. a Young German. He was not the one man of his generation through whom the national consciousness. and certainly no monumental German character. and in the present he more clearly discerned what ought not to be than what gave promise of a better future. Democracy was inscribed upon his banner. but he lacked the soldier's prime requisite. new day in the history of German literature. because he could not rule his spirit. and destruction his weapon. . Heine did not enter the promised land. and a political poet and he was a true prophet for.



fade Go. mignonette. that spot. art left. whose blames belie the kiss that blesses.HEINRICH HEINE DEDICATION* (1822) I have had dreams of wild love wildly nursed. Where mine eyes first looked on her ! Translator: Sir Theodore Martin. Of lips. Where my And *i lady's footsteps stir. too. Do thou. thou threshold holy. [21 J . Permission William Blackwood & Song. Last farewell I say to thee Oh. London. Of dirge-like songs to dirge-like airs rehearsed. Oh. My dreams have paled and faded long ago. still worshipped lowly. Nothing is left me but what once I poured Into pathetic verse with feverish glow. fair tomb of peace for me. orphaned song. my last good-morrow. ! say from me if you upon it light With airy breath I greet that airy shade And — — ! SONGS If (1822) fair cradle of my sorrow. ! Fare thee well. Faded the very form they most adored. seek that visioned form long lost in night. Of myrtles. Thou. and silken tresses. Oh. fair town.

Round her prow the ripples shine. Till awakes a half -lulled longing — Waves Cherished deep within my breast. and wretched ever. Temptingly the ripples greet me Luring toward the gulf beneath. Nor thy cruel words of scorn. downcast and dreary. I asked no more. With Till I my pilgrim staff to lay my head aweary In some cool grave far away.22 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Had I but beheld thee never. 2* Cliff and castle quiver grayly From the mirror of the Rhine Where my little boat swims gaily. my bosom's beauteous queen. Thee. . Ne 'er did Might I thy love implore . Madness in my brain is burning. stray. Yet I know that should they meet me They would drag me to my death. * Translator: Charles Wharton Stork. I only breathe the air that Thou didst breathe. Oh. "Wretched now. I should not thus have been ! Touch thy heart? —I would not dare that. And my heart is sick and torn. So I go. Yet I could not brook thy spurning. Heart at ease I watch them thronging of gold with crisping crest.

t Translator: J. London. I felt ah me. Where'er my bitter tear-drops The fairest flowers arise .. Now I have borne it I have borne it. Brooksbank. Wallis.POEMS Lovely visage. . how sweet it was Love in my heart a-growing. London. When all the buds were blowing. And And * : The wilt thou love me. Only never ask me How. Permission William Blackwood & Sons. Translator: Sir Theodore Martin. fall. Ltd. my 21 aspiring.. When all the birds were quiring. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. I despaired at first I should —believing never bear it. — ! — 'Twas in the glorious month of May. thine shall be fairest flowers that spring. thy dimpling wavelet's blossom 23 Laughs as falsely as my love. Guile beneath and smile above. And into choirs of nightingales Are turned my bosom's sighs. Stream. t Translator T. treacherous bosom. Permission William Heinemann. E. — A LYRICAL INTERMEZZO If (1822-23) 'Twas in the glorious month of May. at thy window evermore The nightingales shall sing. London. In burning words I told her all My yearning.

Once loved I them all with a perfect love. then No thought remains of bygone pain! And when No dream I lean But.. so mild — And yet.. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. And press thy heart upon my heart. : * . that fair. them no longer. My deepest sorrow straightway flies. poor child! lips are Only the rosy bright. I love alone The Lovely. And quench the light of Paradise That shines from out those earnest 6§ Lean close thy cheek against my cheek... § Translator: Franklin Johnson. an angel's face. the moon and the dove. Ltd. of heaven could be more blest. when I fall to weeping bitterly. Ltd. That our tears together may blend. ft Translator: Alma Strettell. it I dreamed of sweet face I know. the Graceful. the Pure. 4f Dear. the One Who twines in one wreath all their beauty and And rose is. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. 5$ upon thy breast. love! Translator Richard Garnett. will kiss But soon cold Death them white. Ltd. London. so sadly pale. when I look into thine eyes. awhile ago. eyes. and lily.. But when I kiss thy mouth. love. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. ah. That from both one flame may ascend. thou say'st thou lovest me. London. love. and moon and dove.. London.24 THE GERMAN CLASSICS 3* The rose and I love the lily. Thy It is face.





Wallis.POEMS And Our while in that flame so doubly bright tears are falling and burning. Charles G. London. while in my arms I clasp thee tight 25 And I will die with love and yearning. 7* I'll breathe my soul and its secret In the lily's chalice white. Ltd. Co. with me thou 'It go Away where the Ganges is creeping Its loveliest garden I know — . Leland. : The Walter Scott Publishing Co. E. . Yet none of your greatest schoolmen Can understand that tongue. With all a lover's pains. Copious and rich and strong. They speak a noble language. t Permission Translator: Permission Translator Permission The Walter Scott Publishing T. London. Heart's dearest. William Heinemann.. song of my heart's delight.. Brooksbank. Even as did the kiss That her rosy lips once gave me In a moment of wondrous bliss.. But I have learnt it. The song shall quiver and tremble.. and never Can forget it for my part For I used as my only grammar The face of the joy of my heart. The lily shall thrill and reecho A . London. gazing each on each. Translator: t J. Ltd. — On the wings of song far sweeping. 8f The stars have stood unmoving Upon the heavenly plains For ages.

Whisper words. Unfolding and glowing and shining She yearns toward his cloudy height . The waves of the Ganges sound. the lotus-flowers are yearning Where For their sister beloved and fair. She trembles to tears and to perfume With pain * of her love's delight. . Peeping up as the planets appear. The gentle gazelles come round: While afar. 10* The lotos flower is troubled By She Awaiteth the night 'Tis the the sun's too garish gleam. caressing. Dreaming the happiest dream. gracefully lurking or leaping. deep rushing and sweeping. moon has won her His light her spirit doth wake. droops. Rapture and rest deep drinking. their warm love confessing. and with folded petals in a dream. And the roses. to each ear. The violets titter. And. Translator : Charles Wharton Stork. Her virgin bloom she unveileth All gladly for his dear sake.26 THE GERMAN CLASSICS A garden where roses are burning In the moonlight all silent there. soft-perfumed. We '11 lie there in slumber sinking Neath the palm-trees by the stream. favor.

T THAI £5W0 .

FLOWER FANTASY From the Painting '-q von Hofmann. .



! . my darling. to thee I will surely go. Permission William Blackwood & Sons.POEMS IV The Rhine 's bright wave serenely Reflects as it passes by Cologne that lifts her queenly Cathedral towers on high. Oh. Her eyes. low In the dark grave. For cherubs and flowers are wreathing Our Lady with tender grace. no For all thou dost in diamonds blaze. I saw how wretched. no ray am — ! Of I I light into thy heart's night finds its way. London. Translator : tt Translator: Sir Charles Wharton Stork. piteous sight saw thy heart all empty. 27 A picture hangs in the dome I there. cheeks. my love. Then down And * nestle in beside thee. 12f I not wroth. . and lips half -breathing Resemble my loved one's face. saw thee in a dream. where they hide thee. all in night. Theodore Martin. although My heart is breaking wroth I am not. I saw the serpent gnawing at thy heart. thou art ! 13J When thou shalt lie. my own lost love. roam there my troubled night. On leather with gold Whose beauty oft when Sheds hope on bedight.

And We I dance in airy swarms there. Enshrouds him through the 'Translator: J. and clasp thee and silent lying.. Yet happens again and again. lie wrapt in your arms there. His heart is rent in twain. rise the To bliss or 14* A young man loved a maiden. That other. The youth is in piteous plight. cold. The last to whom it happen 'd. there. t Translator: Charles Wharton Stork. twain quit not our earthly bed. The first adventurous wight That chance may fling before her. weep in dumb despair..28 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Wildly I'll kiss Pale. On the crest He sleeps. And heed not what befalls them. We twain lie on as before we lay. Beside my dead love dying. . calls. shudder. Wallis. The story is old as ages. London. Shout. in anger. The maiden marries. The midnight up rise the dead. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. But she for another has sigh'd. 15t A lonely pine is standing . he loves another. E. and of a northern height a snow-wrought mantle night. the Judgment-day anguish calls them. And makes her at length his bride. Up dead. Ltd.

more sweet. I see thee nightly in dreams. the wreath is no longer there.POEMS He's dreaming of a palm-tree Afar in a tropic land. 16* 29 My love. *t Translator: Sir Theodore Martin. sea we floated on. And With I fling me down at thy dear feet the cry of a heart that is breaking. And ever. Thine eyes the old welcome making. thou lay'st on my hair A wreath with sad cypress shotten. 'Twas night. London. awake. . asleep in a trance Their strains of sweet music were sighing. Whispering a word. wide 17f sea. the strains rose there. But we floated on with our woes there. Forlorn on that wide. sitting together thou and I alone . And the mists heaved in an eery dance. . The mists flitted lightly and free. Permission William Blackwood & Sons. And pearly tear-drops from thine eyes Steal silently and slowly. Like spirits. we were In a skiff. very Still the was the weather. great still Fair isles in the moonlight were lying. That grieves alone in silence 'Mid quivering leagues of sand. Thou lookest at me in woful wise With a smile so sad and holy. And the word I have forgotten. my sweet.

but love discover 'd never. what in thy dear eye floated then That was the sweet love I so long had sought. yes. The Walter Scott Publishing Co. But thou wert there to welcome me again. ah.. And so I homeward went with troubled thought And . though a king should gaze on me. William Heinemann. At thy sweet presence. ever search 'd I after love. That I might love embrace right lovingly. 2f — With foolish fancy I deserted thee I fain would search the whole world through to learn If in it I perchance could love discern.. Brooksbank. But I will speak. I feel the shudder of humility. London.30 THE GERMAN CLASSICS SONNETS TO 1* I (1822) MY MOTHER have been wont to bear Haughty and stern am my head on high. . And. I sought for love as far as eye could see. Thy lofty soul that pierces all things through And speeds on lightning wings to heaven's Or am I racked by what my memories tell ! blue? Of frequent deeds which caused thy heart to swell That beauteous heart which loved me. blissful and serene. Edgar Alfred Bowring. hands extending at each door in turn. Yea. * t Translator Permission Translator: Permission : T. I of mood and mien . dear Mother. . ever Search'd after love. London. candidly: When most puffed up my haughty mood hath been. ah too well. Ltd. prayer for love to spurn Begging them not My my — Cold hate alone they laughing gave to me. I ween. Does thy soul all unknown my soul subdue. I should not at his gaze cast down my eye.








Gkete and Hans come dancing by, They shout for very glee; Poor Peter stands all silently,


white as chalk



Grete and Hans were





shine in bright array; ah, poor Peter stands forlorn,

Dressed for a working-day.

He mutters, as with He gazes at them
" 'Twere easy

wistful eyes

—were I not too wise—

To do myself some

. .




aching sorrow fills my breast, heart is like to break

It leaves




neither peace nor rest, for Grete 's sake.

"It drives




side, as


She still could comfort me; But in her eyes there's something now That makes me turn and flee.

"I climb

the highest hilltop


am at least alone And standing in the stillness

weep and make

my moan/'
Co., Ltd.,

Translator: Alma Strettell. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing



Poor Peter wanders slowly by; So pale is he, so dull and shy, The very neighbors in the street Turn round to gaze, when him they meet.

The maids speak low:


looks, I ween,
' '

As though

the grave his bed

had been.



"The grave
lost his

good maids, ye should have said: will soon become his bed."
sweetheart so, may be, best for such as he

The grave
There he



sleep the years away, rest until the Judgment-day.


To Fbance were


traveling two grenadiers,

From prison in Russia returning, And when they came to the German frontiers,
They hung down
their heads in mourning.

There came the heart-breaking news to their ears That France was by fortune forsaken Scattered and slain were her brave grenadiers,


Napoleon, Napoleon was taken.

Then wept together those two grenadiers
O'er their country's departed glory;

"Woe's me," cried one, in the midst of his tears, "My old wound how it burns at the story!"

The other


"The end has


any longer living? Yet have I a wife and child at home, For an absent father grieving.
* Translator:



W. H.

Co., Ltd.,

Permission The Walter Scott Publishing




cares for wife!


Dearer thoughts in

Who cares for child? my bosom awaken;

Go beg, wife and child, when with hunger For Napoleon, Napoleon is taken!

my only prayer, When death my eyes is closing Take me to France, and bury me there; In France be my ashes reposing.
"Oh, grant me, brother,

"This cross of the Legion of Honor bright, Let it lie near my heart, upon me; Give me my musket in my hand, And gird my sabre on me.
lie, and arise no more, watch like a sentinel keeping, My Till I hear the cannon's thundering roar, And the squadrons above me sweeping.


will I

Then the Emperor comes and his banners wave, With their eagles o 'er him bending, And I will come forth, all in arms, from my grave,
' '

Napoleon, Napoleon attending

' '

To midnight now
the night drew on In slumber deep lay Babylon.

The King's house only was all aflare, For the King's wild crew were at revel


Up there in the King's own banquet Belshazzar held royal festival.


•Translator: John Todhunter. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., London. Vol. VI 3


The satraps were marshaled
in glittering line their beakers of sparkling wine.

And emptied

The beakers they clinked, and the satraps' hurras In the ears of the stiff-necked King rang his praise. The King's hot cheeks were with revel dyed, The wine made swell his heart with pride.
Blind madness his haughty stomach spurred, And he slandered the Godhead with sinful word,


servile courtiers

strutting in pride he blasphemed, the crowd applauding loud.

The King commanded with haughty stare The slave was gone, and again was there.


Much wealth

of gold on his head bare he


from Jehovah's sanctuary.
of a sacred cup



King took hold

his impious hand,

and they

filled it


And And

he drank to the bottom in one deep draught, loud, the foam on his lips, he laughed:

" Jehovah!



Thy glories I spit upon; King of Babylon!"
the awful

But scarce had

words been said


the King's heart withered with secret dread.
stifled all,

The boisterous laughter was




the hall


Lo lo on the whited wall there came The likeness of a man's hand in flame,

And wrote, and wrote, in letters of flame, And wrote and vanished, and no more came.
The King stark-staring sat, a-quail, With knees a-knocking, and face death-pale,


The satraps' blood ran cold none stirred; They sat like statues, without a word. The Magians came but none of them all Could read those letters of flame on the wall.


in that


his satraps'

same night of his vaunting vain hand was Belshazzar slain.

The mother stood at the window Her son lay in bed, alas



"Will you not get up, dear William, To see the procession pass?"


mother, I


so ailing,

hear nor see I think of my poor dead Gretchen, And my heart grows faint in me."
I neither can

"Get up, we will go to Keylaar; Your book and your rosary take The Mother of God will heal you,



cure your heart of



The Church's banners are waving, They are chanting a hymn divine 'Tis at Koln is that procession, At Koln upon the Khine.
* Translator


Sir Theodore Martin. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., London.


With the throng the mother follows Her son she leads with her; and now They both of them sing in the chorus, "Ever honored, Mary, be thou!"

The Mother of God



Is drest in her richest array

She has many a cure on hand there, Many sick folk come to her today.


her, for their votive offerings,

The suffering sick folk greet With limbs that in wax are molded, Many waxen hands and feet.
a wax hand offers, His hand is healed of its sore And whoso a wax foot offers, His foot it will pain him no more.

And whoso

To Kevlaar went many on crutches Who now on the tight-rope bound, And many play now on the fiddle


there not one finger sound.

1 '

The mother she took a wax taper, And of it a heart she makes Give that to the Mother of Jesus, She will cure thee of all thy aches.

' '

With a

He went

sigh her son took the wax heart, to the shrine with a sigh;

His words from his heart trickle sadly, As trickle the tears from his eye.

his The suffering son and In their little And close to the sleepers crept. up from her slumber she wakened. And With early and vow.POEMS "Thou blest above all that are blest. with a smile so tender. "And Gretchen she lived there near us. And softly her hand did lay On his And heart. be thou!' mother bed-chamber slept. its whole strength to pray and to " 'Ever honored. before I lay all ' ' thee my anguish and pine. is ! But now she Mary a wax Heal thou dead. 37 Thou virgin unspotted divine. Then the Mother of God came softly. Mary. at Koln. The town that has hundreds many Of chapels and churches fair. Thou Queen of the Heavens. The mother And Then So loudly other things too she marked. well-a-day heart I bring thee. presently vanished away. I pray ! "Heal thou heart of late. ! my my heart's wound. sing. I lived with my mother At Koln in the town that is there. the town dogs barked. I its anguish. too. sees all in her dreaming. She bent down over the sick one. .

Then came the mists of evening. gazed upon the sea . I am wholly wrapt in night. Sing aloud. She folded her hands together. t Translator: Sir Theodore Martin. that all may hear. and he was dead And the light on his pale cheek flitted . She felt as she knew not how. now childlike In the dark to sing am fain. ''Ever honored.. If my song be not delightsome. Now that phantom fair has vanished. And. I. Permission William Blackwood & Sons. they suffer At their heart a spasm of fear . Ltd. 2t We And sat at the fisherman's cottage. . It at least has eased my pain. London. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. their inward pain to deaden. And * rose up silently. Children in the dark. a madcap child. to his full length Stretched out.. London.38 THE GERMAN CLASSICS There lay her son. Of the morning's dawning red. Mary. be thou!" THE RETURN HOME (1823-24) Once upon my life 's dark pathway Gleamed a phantom of delight. Translator: Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker. And softly she sang and devoutly.

You lovely fisher-maiden. We spoke of distant countries to From North Of strange South that range. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. frying Their fishes. Bring now the boat to land Come here and sit beside me. And their customs The Ganges is flooded with splendor. London. quaint and strange. fantastic nations. We '11 prattle hand in hand. and small. still a ship in the distance On the dim horizon alone. . 3* . spoke of tempest and shipwreck. Darkness was settling so fast. They squat round the fire and. Flat-headed. . And perfumes waft through the And gentle people are kneeling To Lotos flowers fair. air. In Lapland the people are dirty. The girls all gravely listened.POEMS The lights within the lighthouse 39 Were We We saw kindled one by one.Tames Thomson. Not a word was spoken at last The ship we could see no longer. * : Translator . and billows 'twixt joy and strife. large-mouthed. And how 'twixt clouds They're tossed.. Ltd.. they shout and they squall. sailors Of and of their life.

— * Translator Elizabeth Barrett Browning. And lived there both together Kept house in a noble kind.. — The neighbor's old cat often Came to pay us a visit . Small. My child. dear. we were two children. We * ' crowed like cocks. Nor be afraid of me . And many purest pearl-gems Within its dim depth glow. The boxes about our courtyard We carpeted to our mind. ebb. Do you not trust all fearless Daily the great wild sea? My heart is like the sea.40 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Your head lay on my bosom. and whenever The passers near us drew Cock-a-doodle They thought — ' ' ! 'Twas a real cock that crew. After her health we asked. and and flow. We made her a bow and courtesy. Our care and regard to evince (We have made the very same speeches To many an old cat since).. : . London. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. . And hide ourselves in the straw. merry by childhood 's law We used to creep to the henhouse. Ltd. Has storm. Each with a compliment in it.

pure. Ltd... and the truth. et I would that my love and its sadness Might a single word convey. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. Praying that God may keep thee Upon So lovely. and truth. rest is over with youth v^?he The Xorld. and fair.POEMS We also sat 41 and wisely Discoursed. And how so rare was the pelf. it. London. children's The — 5* E 'en So as a lovely flower. Ltd. The joyous breezes should bear And merrily waft it away. as old folks do. I gaze on thee. This soft and wailful word. so pure thou art. At every hour thou shouldst hear it. : ' ' ' : . Translator ' Stratheir. London. games are over. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. * t Translator Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker. They should waft it to thee. Complaining how all went better In those good old times we knew — How love. and the love. Where'er thou art 'twould be heard. My hands I fain had folded thy soft brown hair.. and sadness Comes stealing o'er my heart. The belief. And how so dear was the coffee. beloved. fair. and believing Had left the world to itself. the good times. the good games..

and And smoothly The peak The of the it darkles. The There all by herself the fairy bright . bewitching and Is bathing white. 8f I know not what But A song in my head keeps humming. t Translator: James Thomson. "With golden jewels braiden. 7* The shades of the summer evening lie . The air is fresh my coming. Ltd.. In the water a something stirs. loveliest wonderful maiden On high is sitting there. •Translator: Sir Theodore Martin.. heart feels sad and cold evil is . And the wanderer can in the stillness hear A plash and a sigh through the furze. Permission William Blackwood & Sons. down in the stream Her arms and throat. A tale from the times of old. And she combs her golden hair. On the forest and meadows green The golden moon shines in the azure sky Through balm-breathing air serene. Still should my word pursue thee Into thy deepest dream. In the moonshine glance and gleam. flows the Rhine. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co.42 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And when in the night 's first slumber Thine eyes scarce closing seem. mountain sparkles In the fading sunset-shine. London. cricket is chirping the brooklet near. .


From thi .I ROCKY COAST .



Ltd.. and bound him In the spell of a wild. as a boy. in between all a low lullaby singing. Foamed and murmured A A yet nearer and nearer curious jumble of whispering and wailing. The sun sank low. London. "Which once. He sees only her above. ever the while sings she A marvelous It song through the gloaming Of magical melody. and thought-afflicted. crouched down to tell stories the stones of the doorstep. We On of a summer's evening. Methought I heard ancient forgotten legends. The waves through the pass keep swinging. . Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. . And the white foaming waves. The world-old sweet stories. And with her mighty singing The Lorelei hath done. listening hearts. — And soft rippling laughter and sobbing and sighing. Urged on by the tide. When.POEMS With a golden comb 43 And sits combing. But boatman or boat is none .. hath caught the boatman. With small And bright curious eyes. and sinking he shed Kose and vermilion upon the waters. •Translator: Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker. I heard from my playmates. this TWILIGHT* By the (1825-26) dim sea-shore Lonely I sat. sad love He sees not the rocks around him.

hail With rejoicing heart I bid thee welcome. War-horses trample. Calling to mind the dear old memories Of dear and delightful toys. thou eternal sea Hail to thee.. The sun poured down. long ago. and shields clash loudly. Their rosy faces Smiling and moonshine-illumined. as in haste. Long strings of frightened sea-gulls Flutter away shrill screaming . Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. Of all the red-branched forests of coral. World-renowned Greek hearts. .. HAIL TO THE SEA* Thalatta! Thalatta! ! (1825-26) Hail to thee. Ltd. They foamed and murmured. * Translator : Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker. London. ten thousand times. Flickering ripples of rosy light.44 THE GERMAN CLASSICS While the big grown-up girls Were sitting opposite At flowery and fragrant windows. thou eternal sea Like accents of home thy waters are whispering. The billows surged. And far resounds the triumphant cry: Thalatta! Thalatta! Hail to thee. Of all the glittering Christmas presents. And dreams of childhood lustrous I see ! Through thy limpid and crystalline wave. did welcome thee ! Ten thousand Greek hearts — Hardship-battling. As once. homesick-yearning.

nvf^vwimi ' .

>LA T " r HE WAVES d Boc) .



breathing freely. The arrows hissed and the blows rained down. Oh. the goldfish 45 shells. In vain I held out my shield for protection. in the blue sky the birds are singing — Thalatta! Thalatta! my brave Anabasis-heart How often. My poor stunned brains. And rich with the breath of blossoms. Tenderly verdant and sun-awakened And rustling trees shed snowy petals. And Oh. Methought I was prisoned a long sad winter. . And the air is full of laughter and gladness. ah how sadly often ! ! Wast thou pressed hard by barians ! the North's fair Bar- From They With crooked words as sharp as a rapier They threatened to pierce my bosom With cuneiform angular missives they battered . how have I languished in dreary exile Like unto a withered flower In the botanist's capsule of tin. and bright-colored Which thou dost hide mysteriously Deep down in thy clear house of crystal. My heart lay dead in my breast. large and conquering eyes shot forth burning arrows. the sea my friend — Thalatta! Thalatta! . I greet the sea. A sick man kept in a darkened chamber ! . And now I suddenly leave And outside meets me the it.POEMS The pearls. dazzling Spring. And tender young flowers gaze on me "With their bright fragrant eyes. And hard pressed I was pushed to the sea By the North's fair Barbarians — And. The sea my deliverer.

its breath divine it hath all entranced me." Which is the Rose of Roses The older it grows the sweeter it blossoms. hath inspired and kindled my soul And had not the Town-Cellar Master gripped me And It . In the chalice green of Rhinewine Rummer. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing London. sung by Hans. Forests of citron and big reviews.46 THE GERMAN CLASSICS IN THE HARBOR* (1825-26) he who hath reached the safe harbor. of the Bremen Town-Cellar. And Oh. With firm grip and steady. old and new. But. . Leaving behind him the stormy wild ocean. the dancing microcosm Sunnily glides down the thirsty throat! Everything I behold in the glass And how — History. Ltd. above all. how fair art thou. Berlin and Shilda. and Hegel and Gans. sat together And drank like brothers We spoke of wonderful mystic things. Happy is How sweet and homelike the world is reflected. I should have stumbled! That excellent man! We . thy dear little thy image. exalted by prophets Thou art like the "Rose. Beloved. ! That bride of the nightingale.. Both Turks and Greeks. . of the nations. "Translator: Kate Freiligrath-Kroeker.. That mystic red rose. Not like the Rose of Sharon. Dearest! Thou art as fair as the rose Not like the Rose of Shiras. head on a gold-ground of Rhenish ! how fair. And now sits cosy and warm In the good old Town-Cellar of Bremen. Co. and Tunis and Hamburg.

yet oh. and at length The doors of salvation were opened unto me. in jackets of wood. all tipsy and singing! The burning sun up yonder . Where Unto the sacred Vats. as I may one day be forgiven . joyously reeling. Yet within they are fairer and more enlightened Than all the Temple's proud Levites. wept with devotion. And I reel in company. Silently preach. so plainly. and. Though decked out in gold and in purple . Leads me upstairs and into the daylight That excellent Town-Cellar Master of Bremen. Or the courtiers and followers of Herod. 47 And me I to the faith of love he converted . Thou excellent Town-Cellar Master of Bremen! Dost see on the housetops the little angels Sitting aloft. And Even I I forgave all bad poets sincerely. These be men forsooth ! Of humble exterior. in the best and politest of circles to dwell ! Hallelujah! How lovely the whisper Of Bethel's palm-trees How fragrant the myrtle-trees of Hebron ! ! How sings the Jordan and reels with joy! My immortal spirit likewise is reeling.POEMS "We sighed and sank in each other's arms. the twelve Apostles. drank to the health of my bitterest foes. Have Not But The King of Heaven was sure I not constantly said: with the herd of common low people. all nations.

. his locks Heavy were gray. perchance. So lovingly they glow . flowers are fleeting a rose you see. ! Say.. Ltd. my little song. . *t Translator: t : Kate Freiliprath-Kroeker. Of springtime blithely singing! Speed you onward to a house ! Where sweet If. the Universe Spirit's red nose Reels the whole drunken world. My My gazing soul grows dreamy. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. blue eyes enchant I Thy deep me Wherever may go: An ocean of azure fancies O'erwhelms me with its flow. London. I send her greeting 2t Thy deep blue eyes enchant me.48 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Is but a fiery and drunken nose — And round Spirit's red nose. Translator Charles Wharton Stork. 31 Was once an ancient monarch. words come strange and slow. his heart. The Universe A NEW SPRING (1831) Soft and gently through my soul Sweetest bells are ringing. Speed you forth. This poor and aged monarch Took a wife so young and gay.

Dost know the old. On.POEMS Was once a page-boy handsome. 49 With lightsome heart and curly The silken train he carried Of the queen so young and fair. and. . William Heinemann. VI —4 Margaret Armour. tell — They loved each other too well. ABROAD* Oh I (1834) ! had once a beauteous Fatherland High used to seem The oak so high! the violets nodded kind It was a dream. With lime-tree blossoms scented! The moonshine with its mystic light My soul and sense enchanted. Sir Theodore Martin. t Translator Permission Translator: Permission : Vol. old story? It sounds so sweet. THE SPHINX t It is (1839) the fairy forest old. — — — In German I was kissed. as I went. hair. Sweet music o'er me rose there. London. so sad to Both were obliged to perish. in German : told (You scarce would deem How sweetly rang the words) It "I love thee well! —" was a dream. It is the nightingale — she sings woes Of love and * lovers' there. on I roamed. William Blackwood & Sons. London.

. A lioness in trunk and claws. The nightingale I sealed my own undoing. and hearts forsaken: So sad is her mirth. . thrilled with life. A lovely woman The pale cheek of desires that wasted. so sweetly sang. In head and breasts a woman. with her lion claws My hapless body rending. close. These empty halls were dwelling. Half -brutish and half-human.50 THE GERMAN CLASSICS She sings of love and lovers' woes. With gables peaked and towering. Closed were its windows. a gloom. The marble image The stone began She drank my to quiver kisses' burning flame With fierce convulsive shiver. I On saw before me lowering a great wide lawn a stately pile. A Sphinx lay there before the door. everywhere A hush. I yielded to their wooing And as I kissed that winning face. Still on I roamed. Spoke The hushed lips curved into a smile. Dreams long forgot awaken. past telling It seemed as though silent Death within . She clasped me my breath away . to her passion bending. Hearts blest. . She almost drank And. ! That wooed them to be tasted. so glad her sob. and. as I went.

unbounded! 51 Her lips. The oak by the roots uptearing. His anvil cleft in sunder ! Translator: Margaret Armour. how they wounded. Her claws. The nightingale sang: love. He'll beat you till your backs are sore. One grows apace on such a diet. That riddle strange unloosing! For many. is like That song-and-saga wonder Who. have a care This urchin how ye anger ! He is an awkward infant giant. Permission William Heinemann. And He crack your crowns for daring. the noble child. It fires the blood from languor. many thousand years Have I on it been musing ' ' ! "Oh GERMANY* He (1842) Germany's still a little child. when his fabled sword was forged. oh. is .POEMS Delicious torture. love ! "0 beauteous Sphinx! is. the bliss. say. But he 's nursed by the sun. all why this That with the anguish of death itself Thou minglest thy blisses? beauteous Sphinx. their kiss was heaven to me. . answer me. oh. But on flames of burning splendor. though tender not suckled on soothing milk. Siegfried. London. Ye neighbors' children. rapturous pang! The pain. .

A lonely With outpost have I held in vain no triumphant hope or prize in store. but fools know fear sometimes To rouse myself and them. my aim was steady. my And when some But war and have far different laws... I piped and took A gay revenge in all my wanton rhymes. Permission The Walter Scott Publishing Co. eye And gave his brains an extra dose of lead. — Yes! there I stood. Though near enough to let their if e 'er to A friend awake. . snoring keep doze inclined. And when solitude all my spirits shook. sneaking rascal showed his head.52 THE GERMAN CLASSICS To you. Ltd. Hurrah how bright the golden crown ! The Dragon's hoard Will sparkle when you wear it ! ENFANT PERDU* (1851) In Freedom's War. and fell justice — ! •Translator: Lord Houghton. again. who will our Dragon slay. was vigilant. The rascals' shots were better than their cause. of" Thirty Years" and more. Or fear— for thus. ! — Without a thought to see my home . London. Shall Siegfried's strength be given. with none to share it. ! Hurrah how joyfully your nurse Will laugh on you from heaven ! of royal gems You'll win. I watched both day and night I could not sleep Like my well-tented comrades far behind. And worthless acts are often done right well. And I was hit and hit again. My musket always ready.

With sword unbroken. I saw a tailor from Bayeux ride With a pair of golden spurs. London. and with broken heart. while the one Lies in the dust. Father. •Translator: Margaret Armour. the rest in troops depart Unconquered I have done what could be done. Shame yet may be your share. The Bastard has won. the mission drear he sped search for the corse on the battle-plaiD Among And the bloody dead. fallen. Asgod and Ailrik. slaves. evil And "For days have started. two of his monks. alack! is the better man. 53 That outpost — . and knaves And scutcheoned thieves And make the freemen "The veriest rascals divide the land. "0 woe to all who are Saxon born! ! Ye Saxon For high in saints. Permission William Heinemann. from Normandy. beware heaven though ye dwell. forth. the world's a bitter world. The monks arose and went sadly "0 returned as heavy-hearted. THE BATTLEFIELD OF HASTINGS* : (1855) Deeply the Abbot of Waltham sighed When he heard the news of woe How King Harold had come to a pitiful end. And on On To Hastings field lay low. In Britain are lords and sirs. .POEMS is abandoned.

a rapid It is sixteen years since then. Edith of the Swan's Neck. "To this woman. because her neck Was once as slim and white delight. Across the midnight firmament This year on a broom of fire. dwells In a hovel poor and rude. We ' ' went upon the And sought among the dead. As any swan's —when. but sought in vain. forsook. Time runs his course with. The Abbot wrung his hands. still While there lingered any hope sought. We Asgod and Ailrik spake and ceased. . "They named her thus. For such is the way of men. forgot. now we know what the comet meant That rode. brethren. Harold's corse we could not find King m Among the bloody slain. ' ' 'Twas an evil star. long ago. "Now mark ye my commands. midway through the wood. ye And she will follow you fain .54 THE GERMAN CLASSICS " Ah. Awhile he pondered. shall go. and Hastings ' field Has fulfilled the omen dread. foot . blood-red and dire. then he sighed. She was the king's "He loved and kissed. "By Just the stone of the bard at Grendelfield. One. battle-plain.

we seek His body among the dead. is where he fought. That Christian burial he may have. to On the field of Hastings. . with hideous din The daws flew up and croaked. Melted anon. "The Duke The of Normandy has won our bane. Edith of the Swan's Neck." The messengers reached the hut in the wood At the hour of midnight drear. Till Hastings and the at cliffs of chalk They saw dawn of day. ' ' "While for his soul we sing. To Waltham Abbey it shall be borne. And silently went behind The hurrying monks." The woman arose and girded her gown. that like a sheet of white The field of battle cloaked. "Arise and come with us. 'Twas thus our Abbot said. Her grizzly hair Streamed wildly on the wind. The king lying slain. The mist.POEMS To the battle-field the woman 's eye Will not seek the king in vain. Barefoot through bog and bush and briar She followed and did not stay. . "Wake. 55 Thereafter to Waltham Abbey here His body ye shall bring. rise And follow without fear. battle.

When. searching. And from her fixed and staring eyes The arrowy glances flew. She kissed his brow. Until the night was nigh Then sudden from her breast there burst A shrill and awful cry. and pressed Her poor lips to the bloody wounds That gaped upon his breast. And of these boughs they made . Wounded and torn and maimed and stripped. The wan face on the ground. For on the battle-field at last His body she had found. She searched and toiled the livelong day. She searched with eager care. without a tear or word. . She kissed. . His shoulder stark she kisses too. She clasped him close. she discovers Three little scars her teeth had made When they were happy lovers. Long. she kissed his mouth. The monks had been and gotten boughs.56 THE GERMAN CLASSICS In thousands on the bloody plain Lay strewn the piteous corses. The woman stopped not for the blood She waded barefoot through. with the panting monks behind. And pausing but to scare The greedy ravens from their food. Among the fallen horses.

I . She chanted litanies for his soul With a childish. To and fro beside the fountain Where the waters whitely murmured. a slave. THE ASRA* (1855) Every evening in the twilight. The monks Prayed softly as they went. And my people are the Asras When they love. weird lament That shuddered through the night.POEMS 57 A simple bier. And a youth. . whereon the corse Of the fallen king was laid. they love and * Translator : die. Permission William Heinemann. ' ' And Is the slave replied. . Walked the Sultan's lovely daughter. To Waltham Abbey to his tomb The king was thus removed. my name my home is 'Mohammed Yemen . And Edith of the Swan's Neck walked By the body that she loved. one eve the lovely princess Paused and asked him on a sudden Till 1 ' : would know thy name and country I would know thy home and kindred. . And his cheek grew pale and paler." Margaret Armour. was standing Every evening by the fountain Where the waters whitely murmured. London.

— A marble-wrought sarcophagus reposed Unharmed 'mid fragments Its lidless of these fabled creatures . The pain-wrung face now calm with softened features. Esther.58 THE GERMAN CLASSICS THE PASSION FLOWER* I (1856) dkeamt that once upon a summer night Beneath the pallid moonlight's eerie glimmer I saw where. Wharton Haman. sphinx. satyrs gay Figures of fabled monsters and of mortals. A With fig-leaf aprons modestly provided. Moses and Aaron. Then Adam and Dame Eve. aged Nestor. A pillar like some solitary giant Rose from the mass. Next came the people of the Trojan war Paris. Reared toward the firmament its head defiant. With First one might see where. Holofernes. and. depth a dead man's form inclosed. A group of straining caryatides steadfast neck the casket's weight supported. wondrous ill-assorted. O'er all that place a heap of wreckage lay. Yet here and there. decked in bright array. chimera. * Translator: Charles . Helen. wrought in marble dimly bright. in simple Doric form. fearless of the storm. with many more — — As Judith. too. With Triglyphs and pediments and carven portals. Along both sides whereof there ran a frieze Of chiseled figures. A ruin of the Renaissance did shimmer. train of lewd Olympians proudly glided. Achilles. centaur. not far away. Stork.

the sculptor's cunning skill Showed lustful Jove misusing his high power. ! — — But—wonderful to say! —while dreamily I gazed thereon with glance returning often. a braying) And Abraham's sacrifice. Then followed Satan. Lady Venus. Not far from them frowned Sinai. . one might see our Savior as a child Amid the elders holding disputation. her hounds with eyeballs burning And here was Hercules in woman's dress. And Peter with his keys none e 'er seemed larger — Changing once more. speaking likeness A — Near by them danced the wanton Salome.POEMS Such forms as Cupid's one could likewise Phcebus Apollo. Next. His warlike hand the peaceful distaff turning. When as a swan he won fair Leda's will. . 59 God Bacchus and Priapus and Silenus. Among the rest of these stood Balaam's ass (if — you will. Vulcan. Here was Diana. see. alas! Lot's daughters. writhing horribly. Pluto and Proserpine and Mercury. Along whose slope lay Israel 's nomad nation . bleak and wild. too. Thus were these opposites absurdly blent The Grecian joy of living with the godly while round them bent Judean cast of thought The ivy's tendrils. intertwining oddly. leading to the chase Her kilted nymphs. To whom John's head was carried in a charger. And conquered Danae in a golden shower. and there. their drunken sire betraying.

Above my lifeless form in sorrow bending. Such burning tears no flower's cup might render! . Violet and sulphur-yellow was its hue. Whatever to the Passion's rite belongs. the instruments of human malice still it at the crucifixion bears In miniature within its tiny chalice. The hue of And Used all blood. that in that very hour These petals with the Savior's blood were dyed. coffin by my Tradition says. Above the head there grew A flower for a symbol sweet and tragic. only thou thy kisses warm and tender. I knew thee by dearest. when Christ was crucified On Calvary. they say. And therefore is it named the passion-flower. ! And then— witchery of dreams most strange By some occult and sudden transformation This flower to a woman's shape did change 'Twas she I loved with soul-deep adoration — — ! 'Twas thou in truth. kissed my hand. like a My brow mourning woman. nails and hammer. thongs. and eyes. No flower-lips thus softly touched my brow. The cross on which our Master was tormented.60 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Sudden methought that I myself was he. with silent grief contending. cup. Each tool of torture here is represented: The crown of thorns. my . its blossom wears. It seemed to throb with love 's mysterious magic. And. The dead man in the splendid marble coffin. 'Twas such a flower at my tomb did stand.

"We did not speak. from carbuncles outstream. in the moonlight's beam. The war of passions. Or what the wavelet murmurs in its bed. ! — A voiceless dialogue one scarce might deem. Dreaming Within the ecstasy of joys Elysian. Thy As. and all my comfort rudely banished ! . never ask of us what then we said Ask what the glow-worm glimmers to the grasses. No chaste reserve in spoken words may dwell With silence Love puts forth its purest blossom. . 61 Mine eyes were Thy features in the spectral moonlight gleaming. Ah. It fled away The rapture of that calm untroubled vision. thou art best. pleasure without rest Such boons are all that vulgar life can offer. and yet my heart could tell The hidden thoughts that thrilled within thy bosom. calm with rapture. The sacred flower breathed to her dead lover. with thy grave-deep stillness. Or what the west wind whispers as it passes. How time slipped by like some seraphic dream Of night. thou didst gaze on me.POEMS shut. While mute we thus communed in tender fashion. all woven of joy and fear-sweet passion. marble shrine. my — Death. Delight's full cup thy hand alone can proffer. thoughts o 'er rose and violet hover But never ask what. . and yet my soul could see steadfast countenance divinely beaming. rich lights Ask what What perfumed — I cannot tell how long a time I lay. — Alas a sudden clamor put to flight My bliss.

A schism still the ranks of man w ill rend Into two camps. hee-haw there His unremitting discords without number — — That beast so nearly brought me to despair That I cried out and wakened from my slumber. While Moses hurls ! his stern denunciations. Some voices surely I had heard before Why. with scolding and with jangling.62 THE GERMAN CLASSICS 'Twas such a screaming. the Hellenes and Barbarians. And none who heard could tell the why or whether. Alack the wordy strife will have no end. Beauty and Truth will ever be at variance. T Both parties thus reviled and cursed away. Then on all sides began a savage war Of argument. — . With strident-sobbing hee-haw. raging fight That mid the uproar straight my flower vanished. ramping. 'twas my bas-reliefs had fall'n a-wrangling! — Do old delusions haunt these marbles here. Till Balaam's ass at last began to bray And soon outbawled both gods and saints together. And urge them on to frantic disputations? The terror-striking shout of Pan rings clear.

belongs to the King of Hanover. HE town of Gottingen. ruffles frilled Snowy with art. I will climb upon the mountains. youth. celebrated for its sausages a nd its University. a prison for stu- where the beer is Ratskeller. Every pulsation of the heart inflicts a wound. She secures to us what Nature would deny a golden age without rust. and a excellent. Warmed by love which truly glows. dents.> THE JOURNEY TO THE HAR2* By Heinrich Heine translated by (1824) charles godfrey leland permanent but change. Where the quiet cabin stands. divers churches. Where the wind blows freely o'er us. Brooks are rustling. The stream which flows by the town is called ' ' ' ' Permission William Heinemann. birds are singing. a library. Ah I'm wearied with their chanting Of imagined lovers' woes! I will climb upon the mountains. ye polished ladies. Gentle speeches and embraces Oh. Smiling down upon you all. and life would be an endless bleeding were it not for Poetry. [63] . a lyingin hospital. London. if they but held a heart! — Held a heart within ! their bosom. a spring which never fades. an observatory. men and polished hall! Polished I will climb upon the mountains. and contains nine hundred and ninety-nine dwellings. farewell. cloudless prosperity and eternal Borne. Where And Then the wild clouds headlong go. nothing constant but death. the sombre fir-trees grow. "Nothing is — ' ' — Black dress coats and silken stockings. Where the heart at ease expands.

I do not just at present distinctly remember the appellations of all the former gentlemen. I might be accused of prolixity should I here enumerate the names of all the students and of all the regular and irregular professors besides. still preserve the mode of life peculiar to their savage ancestors. THE GERMAN CLASSICS and is used in summer for bathing. its waters being very cold. and pleases most when must be very ancient. one's back turned to It with catch-polls. the points of difference between these castes being by no means strictly defined. roasted pigeons. and still. this dansants. and Bovden. and was fully furnished The town is itself is beautiful. washerwomen. beadles. graduation coaches. at the time of the Great Migrations. where. prim look. who at the present day still abound in Gottingen. every German tribe left behind in the town a loosely bound copy of itself in the person of one of its members. for I well remember that five years ago. lawcouncilors. and in more than one place it is so broad that Liider was obliged to take quite a run ere he could leap across. . known as the Comment. Ritschenkrug. Philistines. when I matriculated there (and shortly after received notice to quit). Many even assert that. they may be seen straying singly or in hordes along the Weender Street. which fully deserves a place among the leges barbarorum. Saxons. whom they call " chief cocks. dissertations." and partly by their primevally ancient law-book.64 the Leine. Guelphic orders. and that from these descended all the Vandals. Frisians. They still fight their battles on the bloody arena of the Rasenmill. separately distinguished by the color of their caps and pipe-tassels. compendiums. are governed partly by their Duces. it had already the same gray. Teutons. it. Thuringians. expelling councilors. * Names of Students' Corps. and Cattle. court-councilors. as at the time of the migrations. The inhabitants of Gottingen are generally divided into Students.* and others. pipe-heads. Professors. while . The "Cattle" class is the most important. professors ordinary and extraordinary. Suabians.


rs ad ap m I d 1- .

65 the professors are many who as yet have no The number of the Gottingen "Philistines" name must be as numerous as the sands as the (or. and he plucked up several here and there and laboriously planted them in new beds. y # # # # # # # was as yet very early in the morning when I left Gotbeyond doubt. On these the sun shone cheerily. planted before the gate of the collegiate court of justice. he is a low blackguard. The fresh morning * Name of the University of Gottingen. and the learned in bed. VI — 5 . Such rebirds. Before the Weender Gate I met two small native schoolboys. and. my mind also became fresh and cheerful. indeed.. "I don't intend to keep company any more with Theodore. I won- mud) dered greatly that such an innumerable pack of rascals should ever have been created by the Almighty. the birds by little. still lay tingen. with the breeze and the sang cheerily. Vol.* blew over the highroad. one of whom was saying to the other. for the young birds pipe as the old ones sing. more correctly speaking. freshment was sorely needed by one who had long been confined in the Pandect stable. of the seashore. dreaming as usual that he wandered in a fair garden. for yesterday he didn't even know the genitive of Mensa. Roman casuists had covered my soul with gray cobwebs my heart was as though jammed between the iron paragraphs of selfish systems of jurisprudence there was an endless ringing in my ears of air little . when I beheld them of a morning. ." Insignificant as these words may appear.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ among at all. with their dirty faces and clean bills. and the ex- — pression accurately indicates the narrow. I would even write them as town-motto on the gate of Gottingen. amid the beds of which grew innumerable white paIt . while the sweetest songs of the nightingales rejoiced his old heart. I still regard them as entitled to be recorded nay. petty academic pride so characteristic of the "highly learned" Georgia Augusta. pers written over with citations.

immovable as the pyramids of Egypt. he came to cite me before the university court and found me "not home. as did also donkey-drivers with their gray pupils. and. I saw two hopeful youths appear * * * singing charmingly the Rossinian lay of "Drink beer. The road began to take on a more lively appearance. Only in these university pyra- mids no treasures of wisdom are buried. and only the old professors stand fast in the midst of this perpetual-motion flood. well packed with students. most excruciating were spurred and lashed In no place is the skinning . as their horses. is an author. From out the myrtle bushes. Occasionally a oneat horse vehicle rolled along. whose duty it is to keep watch and ward so that no students fight duels in Bovden. forming an incessant human tide. and after I had long lost sight of the amiable vocalists. Every three years beholds a new student-generation. where one semesterwave succeeds another. In addition to this." he was always kind enough to write the citation with chalk upon my chamber door. who has frequently mentioned name in his semi-annual writings. Milkmaids occasionally passed. above all. that no new ideas (such as are generally obliged to remain in quarantine for several decades outside ' of Gottingen) are smuggled in by speculative private lecturers. which appeared to be gifted with characters of extreme in a German deliberation. as was frequently the case. who were leaving for the vacation or forever. and " and a sentimental brace of lovers seated Blockheadian. too. Shepherd greeted me as one does a colleague. but the duly and comfortably appointed university beadles. Justinian. for he. pretty 'Liza!" These sounds I continued to hear when far in the distance. style. under a tree appeared to me like an edition of the Corpus Juris with closed clasps.66 THE GERMAN CLASSICS such sounds as "Tribonian. Beyond Weende I met the "Shepherd" and "Doris. by Rauschenwasser. Hermogenian." This is not the idyllic pair sung by Gessner. In such a university town there is an endless coming and going. pretty. I my may mention that when.

to earn the scraps of fodder which maintained his wretched life. I stopped there and N@*t€n is not found dinner ready. gifted with a rubicund square mile of countenance. when. when I beheld some lame and sweating hack. imperfect continuation of the face. to inquire of the first convenient student for the Hotel de Briibach. he even had on a pair of green spectacles which cast a verdigris tinge upon his copper-red nose. with dimples in her cheeks which looked like spittoons for A copious double chin appeared below. Still. he ate nothing but salad. according to tradition. like a beast of the forest. All the dishes were excellent and suited me far bet- ter than the wearisome. when there. like an cupids. Beyond Norten tentions toward His in- brain until all evidently good. petite. I been in his later years. and he warmed my the unripe thoughts which it contained came me were to full growth. which was defended by stiff points of lace and a many-cornered collar. reminded one of a fortress. while her high-piled bosom. which were served to me After I had somewhat appeased my apremarked in the same room of the tavern a gentleman and two ladies. was obliged to endure the torment of some roaring blade.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ alive of horses carried to such 67 an extent as in Gottingen. The cavalier was clad entirely in green. as if by turrets and bastions. and often. and to recommend him to a hotel in Got- I advised him. leathery dried fish and cabbage rechauffe. either." A ####### the sun flashed high in heaven. The pleasant Sun Tavern in to be despised. who were about to depart. The Green One requested me tingen. or draw a whole wagon-load of students. I Most certainly thy first reflected: ''Unfortunate beast! ancestors. The gentleman's general appearance was like what we may presume King Nebuchadnezzar's to have in Gottingen. in some horse-paradise. which. One lady was evidently his wife —an altogether extensively constructed dame. did eat of forbidden oats. it is by no means certain that . academical courses of saltless.

In this cage were every variety of singing birds. I . If the one were descended from Pharaoh's fat kine. remarked to my astonishment that it was night and that the hall was illuminated by innumerable over- hanging crystal chandeliers. In my dreams I returned to Gottingen and found myself in the library. and . I assented to this question with a clear conscience. The night was as dark as pitch I when I entered Osterode. Both ladies asked me. stood in a corner of the Hall of Jurisprudence. traveling to the Brunswick fair. I was as tired as a dog and slept like a god. when I finally looked up. the hall doors slowly opened. had no appetite for supper. and the traveler occasionally meets with a picturesque eminence. and. however. and among them there was a group of women. The wayfarers whom I encountered were principally peddlers. her sister. turning over old dissertations. any The other lady. in his sleeve. more than did that of which Philip of Macedon spoke. The landlord of The Sun laughed. while her absolutely dried-up figure reminded one of a charity table for poor theological students. seemed her extreme antitype. every one of whom bore on her back an incredibly large cage nearly as high as a house. lost myself in reading. and as the charming trio drove away I waved my hand to them many times from the window.68 this fortress THE GERMAN CLASSICS would have resisted an ass laden with gold. being prob- ably aware that the Hotel de Briibach was a name bestowed by the students of Gottingen upon their university prison. in a breath. which continually chirped and sung. The bell of the neighboring church struck twelve. It seemed droll thus to behold one bird carrying others to market. . if respectable people lodged in the Hotel de Briibach. Beyond Nordheim mountain ridges begin to appear. Her face was but a mouth between two ears her breast was as inconsolably comfortless and dreary as the Luneburger heath. covered over with white linen. the other was as certainly derived from the lean. while their bearers merrily hopped along and chattered together. and at once went to bed.

— ^s — they. who expressed themselves greatly astonished that brains. And other forms continually flocked in. or a miserable little hypothesis. who with extreme complacency blazed away with their definitions and hair-splittings. joined in the general chattering and screaming. and her every glance indicated the sublime Titaness. should not meet with special consideration and these. until she. hobbled gaily and gallantly along. disputing over every scrap of a title to the title of a pandect. . who f All of the gentlebegin to trim the trees from the top V men who formed her escort now drew nigh in turn. retained in her countenance traces of severe beauty. carelessly grasped in her right hand. declaiming extracts from his last hand-book of law. exclaiming. became louder and madder around the mighty goddess. stantly cracking legal jokes. bursting with impatience. or some similar abortion of their own insignificant I Through the open door of the hall many strange gentlemen now entered. The giantess. "You little scamp. the Lycurgus of Hanover. fluttered here and there like a zephyr. after their manner. the forms of those who were learned in law in the olden time men in antiquated costume. with long councilors' wigs and forgotten faces. like ocean breakers. Two The sword and balance were young Doctores Juris bore the train of her faded gray robe by her right side the lean Court Councilor Rusticus. who announced themselves as the remaining magnates of the illustrious Order mostly angular suspicious-looking fellows. though advanced in years. con.THE JOURNEY TO THE HAEZ 69 there entered a superb colossal female form. either a freshly worked-up miniature system. sud. each having something to remark or jest over. while with the left she held a roll of parchment. which. reverentially accompanied by the members and hangers-on of the legal faculty. the mighty Themis. as she tapped him on the shoulder with the great parchment roll. the privy-councilor of Justice Cujacius. himself laughing so heartily at his own wit that even the serious goddess often smiled and bent over him. while on her left her cavalier servente. the widely famed of the previous century.



denly cried, in a tone of the most agonized Titanic pain, "Silence! Silence! I hear the voice of the beloved Prometheus. Mocking cunning and brute force are chaining the Innocent One to the rock of martyrdom, and all your prattling and quarreling will not allay his wounds or break
his fetters!"

So cried the goddess, and rivulets of tears from her eyes the entire assembly howled as if in sprang

the agonies of death, the ceiling of the hall burst asunder, the books tumbled madly from their shelves. In vain did

Munchhausen step out of his frame to call them to order I sought it only crashed and raged all the more wildly. from this Bedlam broken loose in the Hall of Hisrefuge tory, near that gracious spot where the holy images of the Apollo Belvedere and the Venus de Medici stand near each other, and I knelt at the feet of the Goddess of Beauty. In her glance I forgot all the wild excitement from which I had

eyes drank in with intoxication the symmetry and immortal loveliness of her infinitely blessed form Helescaped,



calm swept through my Phoebus Apollo poured forth,

head soul, while above like heavenly blessings, the


sweetest tones of his lyre. Awaking, I continued to hear a pleasant, musical sound.



were on their way


to pasture, and their bells The blessed golden sunlight shone through

the window, illuminating the pictures on the walls of my room. They were sketches from the War of Independence,


which faithfully portrayed what heroes we all were; further, there were scenes representing executions on the guillotine, from the time of the revolution under Louis XIV., and other similar decapitations which no one could behold without thanking God that he lay quietly in bed drinking excellent coffee, and with his head comfortably adjusted upon neck and shoulders. After I had drunk my coffee, dressed myself, read the inscriptions upon the window-panes, and settled my bill at
the inn, I left Osterode. This town contains a certain quantity of houses

and a



given number of inhabitants, among whom are divers and sundry souls, as may be ascertained in detail from Gottschalk's

"Pocket Guide-Book for Harz Travelers."



struck into the highway, I ascended the ruins of the very ancient Osteroder Burg. They consisted merely of the half
of a great, thick-walled tower, which appeared to be fairly honeycombed by time. The road to Clausthal led me again

and from one of the first eminences I looked back once more into the dale where Osterode with its red roofs peeps out from among the green fir-woods, like a moss-rose from amid its leaves. The sun cast a pleasant, tender light over the whole scene. From this spot the imposing rear of the remaining portion of the tower may be seen to aduphill,


There are many other ruined castles in this vicinity. That of Hardenberg, near Norten, is the most beautiful. Even when one has, as he should, his heart on the left

the liberal side he cannot banish all melancholy on beholding the rocky nests of those privileged feeling

birds of prey,

descendants only their this morning. My heart thawed gradually as I departed from Gottingen; I again became romantic, and as I went on I made up this
left to their effete


fierce appetites.





Rise again, ye dreams forgotten; Heart -gate, open to the sun

Joys of song and tears of sorrow Sweetly strange from thee shall run.
I will rove the fir-tree forest, Where the merry fountain


Where the free, proud stags are wandering, Where the thrush, my darling, sings.
I will

climb upon the mountains,

On the steep and rocky height, Where the gray old castle ruins
Stand in rosy morning


I will

awhile reflecting

the times long passed away, Races which of old were famous, Glories sunk in deep decay.





grass upon the tilt-yard, the all-victorious knight

Overcame the strongest champions,


the guerdon of the fight.

O'er the balcony twines ivy,


Him who

the fairest gave the prize, all the rest had vanquished

Overcoming with her Both the

victors, knight and lady, Fell long since by Death's cold hand; So the gray and withered scytheman Lays the mightiest in the sand.

little distance, I met with a traveling who came from Brunswick, and who related journeyman

After proceeding a

to me that it was generally believed in that city that their young Duke had been taken prisoner by the Turks during his tour in the Holy Land, and could be ransomed only by an enormous sum. The extensive travels of the Duke probably originated this tale. The people at large still preserve

that traditional fable-loving train of ideas which is so pleas' The narrator of this antly shown in their Duke Ernest.
' ' '

a neat little youth, but so thin that the have shone through him as through Ossian's might misty ghosts. Altogether, he was made up of that eccentric mixture of humor and melancholy peculiar to the German people. This was especially expressed in the droll and affecting manner in which he sang that extraordinary popular ballad, "A beetle sat upon the hedge, summ, summ!" There no one is so crazy but is one fine thing about us Germans that he may find a crazier comrade who will understand him. Only a German can appreciate that song, and in the same breath laugh and cry himself to death over it. On

news was a

this occasion I also


remarked the depth


of Goethe have penetrated the national life. rade trilled occasionally as he went along

which the words My lean com"Joyful and

sorrowful, thoughts are free!" Such a corruption of text is usual among the multitude. He also sang a song in which

"Lottie by the grave of Werther" wept. over with sentimentalism in the words




"Sadly by the rose-beds now I weep, Where the late moon found us oft alone!

Moaning where the silver fountains sleep, Once which whispered joy in every tone."


hills here became steeper, the fir-woods below were a green sea, and white clouds above sailed along over the blue sky. The wildness of the region was, as it were, tamed by its uniformity and the simplicity of its elements.


Nature, like a true poet, abhors abrupt transitions. Clouds, however fantastically formed they may at times appear, still have a white, or at least a subdued hue, harmoniously corresponding with the blue heaven and the green earth so that all the colors of a landscape blend into one another like soft music, and every glance at such a natural picture tran;


The late Hofmann would have painted the clouds spotted and chequered. And, like a great poet, Nature knows how to produce the greatest effects with the most limited means. She has, after all, only a sun, trees, flowers, water, and love to work with. Of
and reassures the

course, if the latter be lacking in the heart of the observer, the whole will, in all probability, present but a poor appearance the sun is then only so many miles in diameter, the trees are good for firewood, the flowers are classified ac;

cording to their stamens, and the water is wet. A little boy who was gathering brushwood in the forest for his sick uncle pointed out to me the village of Lerrbach, whose little huts with gray roofs lie scattered along for over

a mile through the valley.

"There," said

he, "live idiots


' ' ' '

with goitres, and white negroes." By white negroes the The little fellow lived on terms of people mean albinos. with the trees, addressing them like peculiar understanding old acquaintances, while they in turn seemed by their waving and rustling to return his salutations. He chirped like a thistle-finch; many birds around answered his call, and, ere I was aware, he had disappeared amid the thickets with his little bare feet and his bundle of brush. "Children," thought I, are younger than we they can remember when they were once trees or birds, and are consequently still able to understand them. We of larger growth are, alas, too old for that, and carry about in our heads too many sorrows and bad verses and too much legal lore." But the time when it was otherwise recurred vividly to me as I entered Clausthal. In this pretty little mountain town, which the traveler does not behold until he stands directly before it, I arrived just as the clock was striking twelve and the children came tumbling merrily out of school. The
' ' ;


rogues, nearly all red-cheeked, blue-eyed, flaxen-haired, sprang and shouted and awoke in me melancholy and cheerful

I once myself, as a little boy, sat all the forenoon long in a gloomy Catholic cloister school in Diisseldorf, without so much as daring to stand up, endur-



ing meanwhile a terrible amount of Latin, whipping, and geography, and how I too hurrahed and rejoiced beyond all measure when the old Franciscan clock at last struck twelve. The children saw by my knapsack that I was a stranger, and


boys told

me in the most hospitable manner. One of the me that they had just had a lesson in religion, and showed me the Boyal Hanoverian Catechism, from which

they were questioned on Christianity. This little book was very badly printed, so that I greatly feared that the doctrines of faith made thereby but an unpleasant blottingpaper sort of impression upon the children's minds. I was also shocked at observing that the multiplication table which surely seriously contradicts the Holy Trinity was printed on the last page of the catechism, as it at once oc-



curred to me that by this means the minds of the children might, even in their earliest years, be led to the most sinful skepticism. We Prussians are more intelligent, and, in our zeal for converting those heathen who are familiar with
arithmetic, take good care not to print the multiplication table in the back of the catechism. -^I dined at The Crown, at Clausthal. repast consisted of spring-green parsley-soup, violet-blue cabbage, a pile of roast veal, which resembled Chimborazo in miniature, and a sort of smoked herring, called "Buckings," from the in-


ventor, William Bucking, who died in 1447, and who, on account of the invention, was so greatly honored by Charles V. that the great monarch in 1556 made a journey from


to Bievlied in

Zealand for the express purpose

of visiting the grave of the great man. How exquisitely such dishes taste when we are familiar with their historical associations

In the silver refinery, as has so frequently happened in In the life, I could get no glimpse of the precious metal. mint I succeeded better, and saw how money was made. Beyond this I have never been able to advance. On such occasions mine has invariably been the spectator's part, and I verily believe that, if it should rain dollars from heaven, the coins would only knock holes in my head, while


the children of Israel would merrily gather up the silver With feelings in which comic reverence was

blended with emotion, I beheld the new-born shining dollars, took one in my hand as it came fresh from the stamp, and said to it, "Young Dollar, what a destiny awaits thee! What a cause wilt thou be of good and of evil How thou wilt protect vice and patch up virtue How thou wilt be beloved and accursed! How thou wilt aid in debauchery, How thou wilt restlessly pandering, lying, and murdering
! !


along through clean and dirty hands for centuries, until
laden with tresspasses and weary with



wilt be gathered again unto thine own, in the





Abraham, who will melt thee down, purify thee, and form thee into a new and better being, perhaps an innocent little
tea-spoon, with which

my own

great-great-grandson will
visit to


his porridge."

I will narrate in detail


"Dorothea" and

"Caroline," the two principal Clausthaler mines, having

found them very interesting. Half an hour away from the town are situated two large dingy buildings. Here the traveler is transferred to the care of the miners. These men wear dark and generally

ample girth, descending to the with pantaloons of a similar hue, a leather apron tied hips, on behind, and a rimless green felt hat which resembles a decapitated nine-pin. In such a garb, with the exception of the "back-leather," the visitor is also clad, and a miner, his after lighting his mine-lamp, conducts him to leader, a gloomy entrance resembling a chimney-hole, descends as far as the breast, gives him a few directions relative to
steel-blue colored jackets, of
' '

' '

grasping the ladder, and requests him to follow fearlessly. The affair is entirely devoid of danger, though it at first appears quite otherwise to those unacquainted with the mysteries of mining. Even the putting on of the dark conThen one vict-dress awakens very peculiar sensations. must clamber down on all fours, the dark hole is so very dark, and Lord only knows how long the ladder may be But we soon remark that this is not the only ladder de!

scending into the black eternity, for there are many, of fifteen to twenty rounds apiece, each standing upon a board capable of supporting a man, and from which a new hole leads in turn to a new ladder. I first entered the


"Caroline," the dirtiest and most disagreeable Caroline with whom I ever had the pleasure of becoming acquainted. The rounds of the ladders were covered with wet mud. And from one ladder we descend to another with the guide ever in advance, continually assuring us that there was no danger so long as we held firmly to the rounds and did not look at our feet, and that we must not for our lives tread



on the side plank, where the buzzing barrel-rope runs, and where two weeks ago a careless man was knocked down, unfortunately breaking his neck by the fall. Par below is a confused rustling and humming, and we continually bump against beams and ropes which are in motion, winding up and raising barrels of broken ore or of water. Occasionally we pass galleries hewn in the rock, called "stulms," where the ore may be seen growing, and where some solitary miner sits the livelong day, wearily hammering pieces from the walls. I did not descend to those deepest depths where it is reported that the people on the other side of the world, in America, may be heard crying, "Hurrah for Lafayette I" Between ourselves, where I did go seemed to me deep enough in all conscience there was an endless roaring and rattling, uncanny sounds of machinery, the rush of subterranean streams, sickening clouds of ore-dust continually rising, water dripping on all sides, and the miner's lamp gradually growing dimmer and dimmer. The effect was really benumbing, I breathed with difficulty, and had trouble in holding to the slippery rounds. It was not fright which

overpowered me, but, oddly enough, down there in the depths, I remembered that a year before, about the same time, I had been in a storm on the North Sea, and I now felt that it would be an agreeable change could I feel the rocking of the ship, hear the wind with its thunder-trumpet tones, while amid its lulls sounded the hearty cry of the sailors, and all above was freshly swept by God's own free
rapidly climbed several dozens of ladders, and my guide led me through a narrow and very long gallery toward the "Dorothea" mine. Here


Panting for

air, I


and fresher, and the ladders were cleaner, though at the same time longer and steeper, than in the "Caroline." I felt revived and more cheerful, particularly as I again observed traces of human beings. Far below I saw wandering, wavering lights; miners with their lamps came upwards one by one with the greeting, "Good luck to you!" and, receiving the same salutation from us, went





onwards and upwards. Something like a friendly and quiet, yet, at the same time, painful and enigmatical recollection flitted across my mind as I met the deep glances and earnest pale faces of these young and old men, mysteriously illuminated by their lanterns, and thought how they had worked all day in lonely and secret places in the mines, and how they now longed for the blessed light of day and for the glances of wives and children. My guide himself was an absolutely honest, thoroughly loyal German specimen. With inward joy he pointed out to me the "place" where the Duke of Cambridge, when he visited the mines, dined with all his train, and where the long wooden table yet stands, with the accompanying great This is to rechair, made of ore, in which the Duke sat. main as an eternal memorial," said the good miner, and he related with enthusiasm how many festivities had then taken place, how the entire "stulm" had been adorned with lamps, flowers, and decorations of leaves how a miner boy had played on the cithern and sung how the dear, delighted, fat Duke had drained many healths, and what a number of miners (himself especially) would cheerfully die for the dear, fat Duke, and for the whole house of Hanover. I am
' ' ; ;



my very heart when

in all its natural simplicity,

I see loyalty thus manifested It is such a beautiful senti-

ment, and such a purely German sentiment! Other people may be wittier, more intelligent, and more agreeable, but none is so faithful as the real German race. Did I not know that fidelity is as old as the world, I would believe that a German heart had invented it. German fidelity is no modern "Yours very truly," or "I remain your humble servant." In your courts, ye German princes, ye should cause to be sung, and sung again, the old ballad of The Trusty Eckhart and the Base Burgund who slew Eckhart's seven
children, and still found him faithful. Ye have the truest people in the world, and ye err when ye deem that the old,
intelligent, trusty

hound has suddenly gone mad, and snaps


your sacred calves




fidelity, the little

mine-lamp has guided

us quietly and securely, without much flickering or flaring, through the labyrinth of shafts and stulms. We ascend out of the gloomy mountain-night sunlight flashes around

'Good luck to you!" Most of the miners dwell in Clausthal, and in the adjoining small town of Zellerfeld. I visited several of these brave fellows, observed their little households, heard many of their songs, which they skilfully accompany with their favorite instrument, the cithern, and listened to old mining legends, and to their prayers which they are accustomed to offer daily in company ere they descend the gloomy shaft; and many a good prayer did I offer up with them One old climber even thought that I ought to remain among them, and become a man of the mines but
! ;

as I took


leave notwithstanding, he gave

to his brother, who dwelt his darling niece.

near Goslar,

me a message and many kisses for

Tranquil even to stagnation as the life of these people may appear, it is, nevertheless, a real and vivid life. That ancient trembling crone who sits behind the stove opposite the great clothes-press may have been there for a quarter of a century, and all her thinking and feeling is, beyond a doubt, intimately blended with every corner of the stove

and the carvings
stove live


of the press.

a human

clothes-press and being hath breathed into them a


portion of her soul. It was only in such deeply contemplative life as this, in such "direct relationship" between man and the things of
the outer world, that the German fairy tale could originate, the peculiarity of which consists in the fact that in it not

only animals and plants, but also objects apparently inanimate, speak and act. To thoughtful harmless people in the quiet homeliness of their lowly mountain cabins or forest huts, the inner life of these objects was gradually revealed they acquired a necessary and consistent character, a sweet

blending of fantastic

humor and purely human




and thus we find in the fairy tale as something marvelous and yet at the same time quite natural the pin and the needle wandering forth from the tailor's home and losing their way in the dark; the straw and the coal seeking to cross the brook and coming to grief; the dust-pan and broom quarreling and fighting on the stairs. Thus the mirror, when interrogated, shows the image of the fairest lady, and even drops of blood begin to utter obscure and fearful words of the deepest compassion. And this is the

reason why our life in childhood is so infinitely significant, for then all things are of the same importance, nothing escapes our attention, there is equality in every impression ;
exclusively with particulars, carefully exchange the pure gold of observation for the paper currency of book definitions, and win in breadth of

when more advanced design, busy ourselves more

in years,

we must

act with

what we lost in depth. Now, we are grown-up, respectable people, we often inhabit new dwellings the housemaid daily cleans them and

changes at her will the position of the furniture, which interests us but little, as it is either new or may belong today to Jack, tomorrow to Isaac. Even our very clothes are
strange to us we hardly know how many buttons there are on the coat we wear for we change our garments as often as possible, and none of them remains deeply identified with our external or inner history. We can hardly remember how that brown vest once looked, which attracted so much laughter, and yet on the broad stripes of which the dear hand of the loved one so gently rested! The old dame who sat behind the stove opposite the clothes-press wore a flowered dress of some old-fashioned material, which had been the bridal robe of her departed mother. Her great-grandson, a fair-haired boy, with flashing eyes, clad in a miner's dress, sat at her feet and counted the flowers on her dress. It may be that she has narrated to him many a story connected with that dress many serious and pretty stories, which the boy will not readily

Suddenly innumerable lights gleamed around me. a silverhaired. The next morning I had again to lighten my knapsack. and I had the pleasure of paying my respects to the old gentleman. where I arrived without knowing how. blowing shrilly on horns. sits amid the circle of his grandchildren behind the stove. studying thorough-bass in the features of the eternal countenance. landlord remarked of Chamisso that the gentleman had among arrived during one terrible storm and departed in another.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ forget. gazing upon many a lovely meadow vale. which I could not banish from my thoughts. silk canopy of heaven was so transparent that one could look through the depths even to the Holy of Holies. had arrived meanwhile. 81 which will often recur to him when he. the biographer of the immortal Schlemihl. VI — 6 . where the Court of Gottingen. sweet woodbirds sang. over all. opposite the great clothes-press. and. grimacing angrily. and he himself. and deathlike magic slumber. I lodged that night too in The Crown. and threw overboard an extra pair of boots then I arose and went on to Gosiar. But I was all the time — dream of the previous night. von The others. the much loved name of Adalbert Chamisso. It was an echo of the old legend how a knight descended into a deep fountain beneath which the fairest princess of the world lay buried in a lost in a I myself was the knight. a grown-up man. This much alone do I remember. that I sauntered up hill and down dale. therein. the bells of the flocks tinkled. After writing my name in the book of arrivals. which summoned more and ever more of their comVol. silver waters rippled and murmured. tranquil old man. I turned over the leaves of the month of July and found Councilor B ." and which he in turn will narrate when the dear grandmother has long been dead. the blue . the dark mine of Clausthal was the fountain. works alone in the midnight galleries of the "Caroline. where angels sit at the feet of God. the many shaded green trees were gilded by the sun. watchful dwarfs leapt from every cranny in the rocks. cutting at me with their short swords.

over whose foaming waves the ghosts of the departed madly chased one another. their white shrouds floating in the wind. goading them on with cracking whip. and I I rades. It is really a very peculiar misfortune that my love- dreams so seldom have so fine a conclusion. snatched at me with extended claws. that I had hoped to find an imposing and stately . when he has found the sleeping princess. and I came to a splendid lighted hall. The name of Goslar rings so pleasantly. in fact. which I had the day before hewed down on the highway with my stick. by awakened from her magic sleep seated on her golden throne in her palace. I know thee not!" And then he shows her the his bravery. Let there be light and a dazzling flash of eternal light shot down. really dwarfs. long-bearded thistle-tops. but at the same instant it was again night. ''My fairest princess. At last they all vanished. ran a many-colored harlequin and I was the harlequin! Suddenly from the black waves the sea monsters raised their misshapen heads. and the marriage is celebrated. and there are so many very ancient and imperial associations connected therewith. hewed them down with my sword the blood for the first time remarked that they were not — ! — ' ' ' ' ! A — and I awoke in terror. and the trumpets sound. and both tenderly embrace. in the midst of which stood my heart's loved one. and when. ought to cut a piece from her priceless veil. and frantically nodding their great heads. she has been and is ' ' ' ' piece cut from her veil. My bravdost thou not know me ? est knight.82 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But as flowed. I kissed her Heavens I felt the blessed breath of mouth. and she knows that he is her deliverer. exactly fitting the deficiency. It seemed that I heard the divine command. but the red-blooming. while behind all. Alas. and then her soul and the sweet tremor of her lovely lips. how the finest fairy tales may be spoiled! The knight. veiled in white. and immovable as a statue. Then she will answer. the again knight should approach her and say. and all ran chaotically together into a wild turbulent sea! wild turbulent sea. indeed.

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probably the Gose. The Guildhall. always the same old story when we examine I found a nest of houses. I was informed that the church had been torn down. and amid which a miserable stream. The open place before the town." or donjonkeep. in one hand the sceptre. I cannot imagine the reason of this variation from the established order. nor was any wiser. known as the "Zwinger. But when I wished to see these curiosities. drilled in every direction with narrow streets of labyrinthine crookedness. of fire When an alarm formed is raised. stands the statues of German emperors. and of the far-famed imperial throne at Goslar. The pavement of the town is as ragged as Berlin hexameters.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ town. One of the emperors holds a sword instead of a sceptre. 83 But it is celebrities too closely. towers. equidistant from roof and ceiling. and in its midst is a spring fountain. Only the antiquities which are imbedded in the frame or mounting of the say. which gives out a very loud vibration. the devil thing in whatever they do. In Gottschalk's Handbook I had read much of the very ancient cathedral. and in the other the globe. Blackened with smoke and partly gilded. has walls of such extraordinary thickness that entire rooms are excavated therein. as Germans have the remarkable peculiarity of meaning somestands. they strike several times on this cupbasin. and a piquant look. though it has doubtless some occult signification. has a somewhat better appearance. they look like roasted college beadles. and they mutually exchanged gifts. where the world-renowned shooting matches are held. The market is small. The town hall of Goslar is a whitewashed guard-room. Nothing is known of the origin of this work. is a beautiful large plain surrounded by high mountains. hard by. winds its sad and muddy way. the waters from which pours into a great metallic basin. One of these towers. In this building. battlements — give the place city —that is to its remnants of walls. Some say that the devil placed it once during the night on the spot where it In those days people were as yet fools. and that .

— — — — ******* at Goslar did not appeal to The churchyard me very . since I. which in a bowed position hold their hands above their heads in support. Stephen. the death of a man but not of a divinely-born Savior. showed me a special rarity. Oh. which are generally chalked on a common black tablet. including a Lucas Cranach. and is upheld by caryatides. few memorials of the late cathedral of happy memory when A are still preserved in the church of St. But far more hideous is the adjacent large wooden crucifix of which I have just spoken. in the form above described. represents. These consist of stained glass pictures of great beauty. a few indifferent paintings. We live in deeply millennial churches are destroyed significant times. as a Protestant and a Lutheran. in the most masterly manner. and imperial thrones are tumbled into the lumber-room. even ornament the church and fully make up for the want of pictures by Raphael. Such progress delights me infinitely. which hung like a lamp in the middle of the building. but which. and are making the most hideous grimaces. how brilliantly does the spirit of invention manifest itself in the Protestant Church! For who would think it! The numbers on this board are those of the Psalms for the day. This head of Christ. with its real hair and thorns and bloodstained countenance. and a heathen altar of some unknown metal. The sacristan's wife an artistic expert who led me about. and have a very sobering effect on an esthetic mind. Nothing but physical suffering is portrayed in this image not the sublime poetry of pain. am ever deeply chagrined when Catholic opponents ridicule the empty.84 the throne THE GERMAN CLASSICS had been carried to Berlin. The latter resembles a long square coffer. a wooden Christ crucified. This was a many-cornered. God-forsaken appearance of Protestant churches. well-planed blackboard covered with white numerals. Such a work would be more appropriately placed in a hall of anatomy than in a house of the Lord.

"I am a entry. and goggle eyes. but. Yes. I came I drew near she slowly retreated into the dark — — I followed. but a certain very pretty blonde-ringleted head which peeped smilingly from a parterre window did. put them quietly in my cap.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 85 strongly. seizing her hand. for example. she blushed like a ruby and started back. stole the flowers. a naked blade has sought to make acquaintance with my nose or when I have lost my way at night in a wood of ill repute. and descended. passed by the same house. and rose perfume. Later. and when they are Here I quickly snatched a as she was about to flee. I not given to I steal them. instead of a maiden. and. and. transparent incarnation of summer-evening breeze. lover of beautiful flowers and of kisses. and. she was standing at the door. in the twilight hour. unheeding the gaping mouths. said. ' ' me — must smile when I reflect that unconsciously I uttered the magic formula by which our red. I beheld a glass containing white bellflowers. probably never to return. After dinner I again sought out this fascinating window. whispered soothingly. with which the people the street. am ing lieutenant has threatened to swallow me —but ghosts I . a remarkably curious occurrence befell me. I clambered up. regarded this qualified theft." During the night which I passed at Goslar. nightingale notes. or when. a yawnI without terror. at a concert.and blue-coated cavaliers more frequently win female hearts than by their mustachioed attractiveness —"Tomorrow I leave. moonshine. petrified noses. probably never to return. This time I had seen the beautiful face to better advantage. m the beauty stood by the window. as she saw the flowers in my cap. kiss. it was a sweet. Even now I cannot think of it not cowardly by nature and Heaven knows that I have never experienced any special anguish when. an hour later. As I. and especially the old women. "Tomorrow I leave this town." Then I perceived a faint pressure of the lovely lips and of the little hand and I hurried smilingly away.

when we accidentally met in the Cafe Royal in Berlin. This man. In addition to this. for reason alone is an active power the emotions are not. . by a certain process of reasoning. such as sunshine. does not prohibit the enjoyment of the things of * Name of an Austrian periodical. where for a long time I used to take dinner. so that there remained nothing for him but the cold positive grave. where I found him in company with very pretty girls for Reason.86 fear almost as THE GERMAN CLASSICS much as the Austrian Observer* What is Does it originate in the brain or in the emotions? This was a point which I frequently disputed with Dr. so far. and he had even published a pamphlet against the latter. I visited the Doctor of Reason several times in his own house. . he has written a great number of books. his tight-fitting inated all had. poor man and flowers. by dint of philosophizing. in all of which Reason shines forth in all its peculiar excellence. "Reason is Toward the highest principle!" Reason! Never do I hear this word without recalling Dr. the Doctor it we recognized — continued to demonstrate to me the advantages of reason. The Apollo Belvedere and Christianity were the two special objects of his malice. it seems. simply because it is a child. befear? cause as fearful. Saul Ascher. in which he had demonstrated its unreasonableness and unreligion. elimthe splendid things from life. the end of his demonstration. his forbidding icy face. deep in the fifties. he was accustomed to look at his watch and remark conclusively. The Doctor invariably maintained that we feared anything. Saul Ascher. . with his abstract transcendental-grey long coat. and as the poor Doctor meant what he said in spect. deserving of rein this. he was. the legs. While I ate and drank my fill. all But the great joke consisted precisely seriousness. In his striving for the positive. which could have served as frontispiece for a text book of geometry.was a personified straight line. tenableness. that when he could not comprehend what every the Doctor invariably cut such a seriously absurd figure child compre- hends.

At the same instant there struck a deep-booming. and as I raised myself in bed and glanced fearfully toward them." said I soothingly to myself. caused. all kinds of uncalled-for shapes quivered on the walls. yawning bell. that terrible story of the son who went about to murder his father and was warned in the night by the ghost of his mother. like the unsteady steps of an old man. as if irritated and scolding. But it availed me nothing. The wonderful truthfulness with Once. and the death sank over the whole house. and in a room where we have never been before. while reading it. stillness of seemed to hear. Between the last and next to the last tones. which this story is depicted. his servant told me the "Herr Doctor" had just died. in the corridor before A . which I had brought with me from Clausthal. and there entered cold fever slowly the late departed Dr. there struck in very There is sees his own abruptly. As the two iron tongues were silenced. I suddenly my chamber. however. a shudder of horror in all my veins. something halting and shuffling along. At last my door opened. I experienced as much emotion on this occasion as if I had been told that the "Herr Doctor" had just moved. the moon shone into my ' ' room in a doubtful. I had just been reading in Varnhagen von Ense's German Tales. and by night in a town. I be- held— nothing so uncanny as when a man accidentally face by moonlight in a mirror. "The highest principle is Reason. another bell. We involuntarily reflect. To return to Goslar. How many horrors may have been perpetrated on this very spot where I now lie!" Meanwhile. Saul Ascher. and that so slowly and wearily that after the twelfth stroke I firmly believed that twelve full hours must have passed and that it would begin to strike twelve all over again. suspicious manner. 87 when I called. which was apparently out of patience with the slowness of its colleague.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ this world. as I slid into bed. Ghost-stories invariably thrill us with additional horror when read during a journey. in a house.

Reason is the highest Here ' ' — ' ' ! the clock struck one. in a moment of distraction. while around my tiful Sunday weather. the mouth. What reasonable connection is there between such an apparition and reason? Reason. Again we had beau- and mountain. Deduce for me the conditions of the possibility of a ghost. partly at random. but the ghost vanished. nor believe that I am a ghost. 3. and from very agony of soul I nodded an unconditional assent to every assertion which the phantom doctor alleged against the absurdity of being afraid of ghosts. What is a ghost? Define one. my teeth clattered like castanets. I say. "Do not be afraid. He appeared as usual. book 2. I trembled like an ivy leaf and scarcelydared to gaze upon the ghost. part II. and remarking his error. and said in his usual circles and the drawling accent but in a friendly manner. replaced them with a ridiculous but terrified haste. cited from Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. and supporting himself as usual upon his Malacca cane. and which he demonstrated with such zeal that once. saw and wandered away merrily through the quivering woods. . The next morning I left Goslar and wandered along. and concluded with the logical proof that there are absolutely no ghosts.88 THE GERMAN CLASSICS ran through me. instead of his gold watch he drew a handful of grave-worms from his vestpocket. 2 around the eyes had a somewhat greater radius. which formerly described two angles of 22y degrees. was pinched together. the distinction between phenomena and noumena. Meanwhile the cold sweat ran down my back. chap. then went on to construct a hypothetical system of ghosts. I climbed hill how the sun strove to drive the mists. It is a deception of your imagination. with the legs. section I. Tottering. same transcendental-grey long coat. if you believe that you see me as a ghost. a little yellower than usual. piled one syllogism on another. Reason!" Here the ghost proceeded to analyze reason. he approached me. the same abstract and the same mathematical face only this latter was . and partly with the intention of visiting the brother of the Clausthal miner.

the mother cannM see us. lily finger Archly on the rose' she lays. In the hut there stands an arm-chair. .THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ dreaming head rang the bell-flowers of Goslar. And And the dear blue stars shine on me. the birds were at morning prayers. Here I stayed all night and experienced the following beautiful poem — Where the ancient woodman golden dwells : There the dark-green Casts the fir-trees rustle. I. 89 The moun- tains stood in their white night-robes. He who And sits therein is happy. On the footstool sits a On my lap her arms maiden. that none may hear. "With her eyes like blue stars beaming. that happy man am repose. And I As he the father plays the cithern sings a good old song. For she spins the whole day long. Kichly carved and cleverly. little a solemn secret in Hath she murmured my ear. Softly. the fresh morn- ing wind curled their drooping green locks. And Many the maiden softly whispers. the fir-trees were shaking sleep out of their branching limbs. the meadow-vale flashed like a golden surface sprinkled with diamonds. like heaven's great arch their little Wide her gaze. Nay. ******* Stands the hut upon the mountain After much circuitous wandering I came to the dwelling of the brother of my Clausthal friend. and the shepherd passed over it with his bleating flock. And her mouth a new-born rose. moon its spells.

. Now we To never more repair And the shooting-lodge at Goslar. in pleasant gossip. sounds the cithern. On And the rocks where cold winds blow. Near at hand their rest they take. mother. Frightened by her own surmise. Seems unlikely.90 THE GERMAN CLASSICS "Since I lost my aunt who loved me. more harshly drones. : In their pauses And the old song's simple tones "Do not fear. But we two. in winter we are always Deeply buried in the snow. Casts within her sweetest glow. my tender nursling. Father. I declare. both are sleeping. Silent falls the Louder now the Spinning-wheel fir-trees rustle. "That thou prayest much too often. Little hands." winsome maiden. so white and dimpled. "And I'm such a timid creature. On thy lips there is a quiver Which was never born of prayer. And I'm frightened like a child At the evil mountain spirits. the moon. it is so pleasant there ! "Here above it is so lonely. For good angels still are watching Round thy pathway day and night. Aught of evil spirits' might. Keep each other long awake. "Who by night are raging wild." Now And the fir-tree's dark-green fingers Tap upon the window low. Pressing on her sweet blue eyes. a yellow listener.

Hast thou faith in God the Father. Still — that I in full-grown manhood Reading. In the Son and Holy Ghost?" "Ah. darling! when an infant mother's knee I stood. truly I believe the Holy Ghost. who. loving. "Yet I doubt if thou believest "What is held for truth by most. I believed in God the Father. wisdom boast . Are as nobles in his sight. my By my In the Ruler great and good. my darling. Broken every "Ancient deadly wounds he healeth. And now Son — — "In the well-loved Son. And to sun and moon and planets Pre-appointed each its course. travel. "Now. cold my Though my All being terrifies expression — By darkling fear is lessened thy frank and honest eyes. born free and equal. Oped the gates of Love so wide. . vassal's chain. He renews man's ancient right. "As I I older grew. gave him force. Gave man beauty. And for thanks as is the custom By the world was crucified. He hath broken tyrants' strongholds. my "Who hath worked the greatest wonders still — Greater he'll work again. "He who made the world so lovely. heart expands. All to him. and.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ "Ah ! 91 that heartless. And my way in in wisdom won. in the reason believe comprehended.

the purple rose is glowing. "And a thousand knights in armor Hath he chosen and required To fulfil his holy bidding — All with noblest zeal inspired. my darling. Such a proud and noble knight? "Well. And their banners wave in fight ! "What ! Thou fain would'st see. In the chest it lies at evening. Kiss me! and you kiss a chosen Champion of the Holy Ghost !" Silently the i moon conceals her trees. Arid those cobwebs of the brain Which forbade us love and pleasure. While the gentle maiden speaks. rest. "From our milk Then they the little all people Steal the cream and the best. Down behind the sombre And the lamp which lights our chamber Flickers in the evening breeze. For by when storms arise. my dearest. then. Oft she seeks the haunted hill-top Where the fallen tower lies. I'm certain.92 THE GERMAN CLASSICS "Clouds of t evil flee before him. leave the dish uncovered. In the morning it has fled. "Little people — fairy goblins — Steal away our meat and bread. And "And our cat drinks up the the cat's a witch. But the starry eyes are beaming And Softly o'er the dimpled cheeks. night. gaze on me. . I am of that lordly host. Scowling grimly on our pain. "Lo! their precious swords are gleaming.

Could I speak the proper word. the cithern. And the gentle eyes are shedding Star-blue lustre through the gloom. smiles. Seem at once familiar grown. owls are nesting there. . gravely." So the simple fairy pictures From the little rose-mouth bloom. As if e'en the chairs and clothes-press. When "I should see the ruins changing Swiftly to a castle bright. and then is still. Now Of And the clock talks kindly. Round my hand the little maiden Winds her gold locks as she will. to Well of old me were known. And the knight with drum and trumpet Loud will hail him lord alone. "But a sorceress (manned the castle. With its lords and ladies fair. "He who speaks the word of power Wins the castle for his own. the proper hour occurred. and arm£d knight. Home of joy and weapons bright.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ "There was once a splendid castle. page. 93 Where there swept in stately pageant Lady. Now it is And "But the a lonely ruin. All things in the silent chamber. as 'twould seem. itself is faintly chiming. Gives a name to every finger. my aunt hath often told me. And I sit as in a dream. In the proper place up yonder. Kisses. And again in stately dances Dame and page and gallant knight.

how would'st thou be astonished. Here the charm should now be heard. my little maiden. Giant lilies. wondrous flowers. Fill the lilies' cups gigantic "With their lights' abundant flow. Leaves of vast and fabled form. the stars above us Gaze adown with burning glow. the proper hour is striking. Should I speak the magic word! If I spoke that word.94 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Now Child. Flowers grow forest-high around. wildly quivering. thyself be the princess. I have conquered Thee. Thousand startling. Ladies. In a crimson conflagration Roses o'er the tumult rise. Great as suns. Strangely perfumed. •then fading Night would thrill in fearful strife. Torchlight gleams o'er gold and satin Round Thou us merrily would would'st fall. white as crystal. "Would be changed more than all. singing by. Kinging lutes and goblin ditties From the clefted rock would Like a mad and merry spring-tide sound. As if thrilled with passion's storm. lords. "We ourselves. dancing. with the word! Serfs and castle lo! with trumpet — Loud they hail me as their Lord! . Shoot like columns to the skies. Trees and streams would roar together As the mountains woke to life. however. and graceful pages Would be I. And this hut thy castle high. and all things.

The morning dew of love wet my cheeks the rustling pines understood me their twigs parted and waved up and down. light-haired young fellow. ringing their and laughing at us with great merry eyes. and I was glad enough when the young man invited me to share his meal. they would express their joy with gestures of their hands. For many leagues around there is no house. most assuredly. while above me soared the fair sun. The mists flitted away like phantoms at the third crow of the cock. as if. ever lighting up new scenes of beauty. and on this morning he let me see his Harz as it is not. . bells We royal meal. the cattle-bells. Again I wandered up hill and down dale. told me that the great hill at whose base I stood was the old. according to the position of the sun. in the clearness and purity. while pretty glossy heifers roguishly. world-renowned Brocken. made a bread. forest church. But the Harz also saw me as I am seen by few. a friendly. and there were as costly pearls on my eyelashes as on the grass of the valley. and its shepherd. The sheep snatched up our crumbs. consisting of bread and cheese. like the sound of bells belonging to some hidden . jumped around. : On O'er his hair the sunlight falling Gilds a living coronet. seen by every one. the knoll his throne is set. my host appearing to me every inch a and as he is the only monarch who has ever given me king. like mute mortals. The Spirit of the Mountain evidently favored me. . We sat down to a dejeuner dinatoire. well knowing that a ''poetical character" has it in his power to say many a fine thing of him.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 95 The sun rose. People say that these sounds are caused by Harz ring with remarkable It was noon. which. as I chanced upon such a flock. I will sing his praises right royally Kingly is the herd-boy's calling. and from afar I heard beautiful and mysterious chimes.

And the cows and warblers gay ' . Goats are actors nimbly springing. how happily! And Kingdom wide enough her loving glance discloses for me. . Calves that strut before him proudly Seem each one a stalwart knight. and with a light heart I began to ascend the mountain. for which I entertain great respect in every regard. or to split them in two. and during the days of their youth it fared hard with them.96 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Red-marked sheep that bleat so loudly Are his courtiers cross-bedight. for these trees have not found growing to be such an easy business. and most of the trees were obliged either to twine their roots over the stones. — Were "With I but at home. I was soon welcomed by a grove of stately firs." he mutters. Yawning syllables he utters "Ruling is too hard a task. my queen 'tis all I'd ask. Till his bark from cliffs rebounding Echoes to the sleeper's ear. Here and there stones lie on top of one an* Translator : We Charles Wharton Stork. 'jf* With their bell and flute-notes ringing Form the royal orchestra. and thus laboriously to search for the soil from which to draw their nourishment. "On her arm my head reposes Free from care." * \f took leave of each other in a friendly manner. Far away a cataract rushes — Look. our noble king's asleep ! Meanwhile through the kingdom bounding Rules the dog as minister. The mountain is here sprinkled with a great number of blocks of granite. Soft the pine-tree murmurs creep. And whene'er the music hushes.

The roots of the trees formed a natural' stairway. stretching out to us their curious. twining their naked roots down over the stone portals. the herbs. Bend down toward all this ceaseless activity and listen. they stand more securely than their comfortable comrades. the sun-rays flash here and there in sport. as if with light-green velvet cushions. how educated and refined people can take pleasure in hunting and killing it. the mysterious history of the growth of the plants. Everywhere a pleasant freshness and the dreamy murmur of streams. and you will hear. forming. as it were. as it were. the trees whisper as if with a thousand maidens' tongues. as though endowed with reason. yellow deer were quietly grazing. men who have Most beautiful were the golden sun-rays shooting through the dark-green of the firs. as they have forced their way up to that startling height and grown into one with the rocks. forming little cascades. and suckled the pining Schmerzenreich of the holy Genofeva. beneath. when I see such a noble. broad. lovable animal. strengthened and established themselves by resolutely overcoming the obstacles and hindrances of their early years. I cannot comprehend. washing the bare roots and fibres of trees. drolly-scalloped leaves. the birds pour forth broken lovesick strains. and the quiet pulsations of the heart of the mountain. Such a creature was once more merciful than man. so that they appear to be growing in the air and yet. are Vol. There is such a wonderful murmuring and rustling. who are rooted in the tame forest soil of the level country. In many places the water jets strongly up amid rocks and roots. a gate. Squirrels climbed amid the fir-twigs. and over all rise the trees. for the stones are here covered footdeep. the odd mountain flowers peep up at us as if with a thousand maidens' eyes. and everywhere my feet encountered swelling beds of moss. Here and there we see water rippling silver-clear amid the rocks. and only laying hold of the soil when they reach its base. So it is in life with those great . while. It is pleasant to sit in such places.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ other. VI — 7 .

unhallowed revelry begins. as it were. The higher we ascend. utterly denying aught like piety or Christianity. while journeying from Berlin to Gottingen passed the Brocken on the first evening in May. how they comfortably read aloud the Evening Journal. were holding their esthetic tea-circle in a rocky corner. and especially of the great mystical German national tragedy of Doctor Faust. when the witches come riding hither on brooms and pitchforks. for it is a road which is to the last degree exhausting. It is also sensibly colder. shrinking up. become fully visible. all seems enchanted and it becomes more and more mysterious an old. old dream is realized the loved one appears! Alas. And I verily believe Mephisto himself must breathe with difficulty when he climbs his favorite mountain. when we ascend the upper half of the Brocken. within themselves. that ' ' ' ' . as our credulous nurses have told us. how they praised as universal geniuses their see it we may poetic billy-goats which and how they passed a of final German literature.98 telling THE GERMAN CLASSICS one another their green legends. who. when the mad. and mountain herbs remain. and I was glad enough when I at last beheld the long-desired Brocken house. Here. the granite boulders. — ! no one can well help thinking of the amusing legends of the Blocksberg. bilberries. and some one breathing humorously. even noticed how certain ladies who cultivated belles-lettres. terror seized him I spurred my steed and rode onwards In fact. It ever seemed to me that I could hear the cloven foot scrambling along behind. so much the shorter and more dwarflike do the fir-trees become. a young poet. that she so quickly vanishes! — . until finally only whortleberries. Yes. for the first time. judgment on all the productions But when they at last fell upon Ratto the author cliff and Almansor. and as represented in the beautiful Faust pictures of Master Retsch. These may well have been the balls which evil spirits cast at one another on the Walpurgis night. hopped bleating around their table. the hair of the youth rose on end. which are frequently of enormous size.

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From its midst rises a towerlike observatory. and the Brocken landlord was reasonable enough to perceive that the sick gentleman must be provided with a decent bed. for a tipsy man sees double. where a young merchant a long emetic in a brown overcoat had already es- — — tablished himself. consists of a single story. There was pinching of tion. the traveler suddenly finds himself in a house amid the clouds. as is usual in such assemblies. I first thought of the night. On entering the Brocken house. and forests. wrote their names in the album. The roof is low. as every one knows from numerous pictures. Some of the newly arrived were taking refreshments. cheeks. is situated on the summit of the mountain. preparing for departure.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 99 This house. answers given. With the voice of one dying I called for tea. fragments of conversation such as fine weather —footpath—prosit—luck be with — —Adieu you ! ! Some of those leaving were also partly drunk. Far below lie cities. and near the house lie two little out-buildings. while above he encounters a curiously shelter to the —half blended circle of strangers. one of which in earlier times served as Brocken visitors. almost like an expected companion I found the inquisitively and half indifferently. house full of guests. as becomes a wise man. and of the discomfort of sleeping on straw. questions asked. This he gave me in a narrow room. and. and received Brocken bouquets from the housemaids. trilling. buckled on their knapsacks. springing. singing. hills. in behalf of whom it is managed as a tavern. On account of the wind and cold in winter its walls are incredibly thick. by whom he is received. . In the public room I found a full tide of bustle and animaThere were students from different universities". Others. I experienced a somewhat unusual and unreal sensation. After a long solitary journey amid rocks and pines. and was erected in the year 1800 by Count Stolberg-Wernigerode. and these derived a twofold pleasure from the beautiful scenery.

and plains which extend endlessly in all directions. with those boyish eyes. I would most if I that is the fairy of the mountain. seen the aforesaid young lady in the aforesaid position on the Brocken. and that the train of a lady's dress may become wet in a very natural way. With German thoroughness he points out to us sharply and accurately defined as in a panorama the hundreds of cities. flowing locks. and these. But for this very reason everything appears like a sharply designed and perfectly colored map. amid whose white plumes the wind played. unite in our soul in an as yet undefined uncomprehended sensation. gentleman with two ladies. The young lady was very beautiful a superb figure. having learned from natural historv that those svmbolical feathers are found on the most stupid of birds. at the first from the Brocken everything appears in a high deglance gree marvelous. If we succeed in grasping the sensation in its conception we shall comprehend the character of the mountain. Yes. When a boy I thought of naught save tales of magic and wonder. and every fair lady who had ostrich feathers on her head I regarded as an elfin queen. varied and often contradictory. and nowhere is the eye grati- and . and villages which are principally situated to the north. This character is entirely German as regards not only its advantages but also its defects. assuredly have thought and she has just uttered the charm which has caused everything down there to appear so wonderful.100 THE GERMAN CLASSICS my little After recruiting and there found a strength I ascended the observatory. New impressions throng in on every side. Now I know better. towns. surmounted by a helm-like black satin chapeau. ' ' ' ' — — — all the mountains. rivers. calmly looking down into the great free world. fine limbs. one of the other elderly. The Brocken is a German. and great free eyes. so closely enwrapped by a black silk mantle that their exquisite form was made manifest. forests. But whom was young and — had. If I observed that the train of her dress was wet I believed at once that she must be a water-fairy.

v° D O m < h W H u o w — MM .

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THE JOUKNEY TO THE HARZ fied 101 by really beautiful landscapes just as we German compilers. has a certain calm." but that was an error. And when such a mountain opens his giant eyes. and the tower platform was filled with students. in real German fashion. as. which he occasionally covers with — I appear manner. the sun sank lower and lower. and Claudius once sang "The Blocksberg is the lengthy Sir Philistine. to think of The mountain. gazing on the beautiful fire-ball as it gradually sank in the west our faces were bathed in the rosy light our hands were involuntarily folded. Then he casts his cloud- cap uproariously and merrily into the air. tolerant character. it may be that he sees somewhat more than we dwarfs. that the priest raised the body of the Lord. on the first night of May. and the Palestrina's immortal hymns poured forth from the organ. simply because he can see things so distant yet so distinctly. and becomes. as with many other great Germans. romantic mad. Many indeed assert that the Blocksberg is very Philistian. While we conversed twilight stole. the Blocksberg has indeed a somewhat Philistian aspect. all of whom were desirous of witnessing the sunset. for instance. but this with him. owing to the honorable exactness with which we attempt to give all and everything. the air grew colder. For a full quarter of an hour all stood in solemn silence. I soon sought to entfapnthe beauty into a conversation. a cloud-cap. like the rest of us. ####### . . traveling mechanics. . for we begin to fully enjoy the beauties of nature only when we talk about them on the spot. is the result of pure irony. intelligent. It is truly a sublime spectacle. and a few honest citizens with their spouses and daughters. which tunes the soul to prayer. a silent congregation. for it is notorious that he has his wild student and fantastic periods. stood in the nave of a giant cathedral. who with our weak eyes climb over him. it seemed as if we. German. On account of his bald head. never giving the details in a beautiful in consequence.

I fired my pistol. To the younger lady. recited several passages about the sunset. and I could see the outlines of the two hills known as the Witch's Altar and the Devil's Pulpit. which the gallant heaven had thrown upon the white outspreading bridalveil of his loved earth. the Baroness Elise von Hohenhausen. who did not understand English. They permitted me to talk an hour longer with them. but there was no echo. "Ah. and thought that a frequent observation of such phenomena weakened their impression. and I was now able to say a few neat things to the ladies about the sunset and to accompany them. Turkish shawls. for there it is never quite dark. to their room. They brought me back to my week-day frame of mind. and who wished to become familiar with those poems. On this occasion. Suddenly. I heard familiar voices and found myself embraced and kissed. however. Great was their against to declaim astonishment at finding me again. as is my custom when talking with young ladies. I heard some one near is. The newcomers were fellow-students from my own part of Germany. seemed like a red glowing rose. cheerlessness. I recommended the translation of my fair and gifted countrywoman. heartlessness. alone on the Blocksberg. Then came a flood tide of narrative. and heaven knows what besides. the young merchant. me exclaim. I did not fail Byron's godlessness. as calmly as if nothing had happened. was about the sun. like the earth's course. After this business I took a walk on the Brocken.102 THE GERMAN CLASSICS As I stood thus. how beautiful Nature as a general thing!" These words came from the sentimental heart of my room-mate. The mother declared that the sun. The mist was not heavy. and had left Gottingen four days later than I. daintly lisping and sighing. of astonishment. as it sank in the snowy clouds. from whose poems the elder lady. Our conversation. I believe that we also spoke of Angora cats. The daughter smiled. The mother corrected this error by a quotation from Goethe's Letters of Travel. maccaroni. Etruscan vases. lost in devotion. and Lord Byron. and of . and asked me if I had read Werther.

where refinement is carried to such an extent that the bears are tied up in the taverns. of laughing. The window-panes of CourtCouncilor Schiitz were exegetically illuminated. ' ' as given in the dictionary above cited is. * "A young lady anxious to please. in consequence. were discussed. and in the spirit we found ourselves again in our learned Siberia. Then jokes were Some one supposed a case in which a live German might be exhibited for money in China. and of recollecting. Then the two Chinese. and the sables wish the hunter good evening. greatly moved. A young Burschenschafter. had wept according to rule.a genuine Teuton. and once again duels. who two years before had been ex- — ' . that the monarch had chosen a natural son. and endless patience. duels. who had recently passed his period of purification in Berlin. in the usual topic of university conversation dulged duels. The definition of a " sable. that he had married with the left hand a princess of the house of Lichtenstein that the State-mistress had been forced to resign." . as these animals would be sure to snap from the poor German all his titbits. the nucleus of their discourse. and Halle formed. smoking. placard was fabricated. including a list of his accomplishments. with two rows of hungry students. and to this end a made. Then it was mentioned that the King of Cyprus last levee had been very brilliant. "to bind a bear" signifies to contract a debt. in which the mandarins Tsching- Tschang-Tschung and Hi-Ha-Ho certified that the man was . the Burschikoses Woerterbuch. and who were now appointed lecturers on Chinese esthetics in Halle. spoke much.* In the great room we had supper. The company consisted principally of Halle students. which consisted principally of philosophizing. or Student-Slang Dictionary. I need hardly explain that this all referred to certain beer dignitaries in Halle. It concluded with the notice that visitors were prohibited from bringing any dogs with them at twelve o'clock (the hour for feeding the captive). but very parAccording to that dignified and erudite work. hibited in Berlin. There was a long At first we intable.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 103 appointment-making. and that the entire ministry.

Christian Gumpel. "For youth is ever ready with a word. without quit- ting the spot alluded to the German Diet that he was thinking of the lesser princes when he tripped around with his . but judged falsely of both. and gongs. the banker. Least of all did the — youth comprehend the diplomatic significance of the ballet. nee Lilienthau. show exerts the greatest influence (as is abundantly evidenced by the commonness of the phrase "so people do")." etc. trumpets. is a heroic means of inspiring our enervated people with warlike enthusiasm a means once shrewdly recommended by Plato and Cicero. and consequently that the special care of the management must be for the color of the beard with which a part is played" and for the truthfulness of the costumes which are designed by sworn historians and sewed by scienoutside ' ' tifically if instructed tailors. would with justice complain that thereby all illusion was destroyed and if Lord Burleigh in a moment of forgetf ulness should don the . for instance. with its kettledrums. that all his tours de danse signified diplomatic negotiations. and that his every movement hinted at state matters. The youth knew not that in Berlin. this ostentation must flourish on the stage preeminently.104 THE GERMAN CLASSICS He had frequented both Wisotzki and the theatre. he meant our Cabinet. And this is indispensable. still less was he aware that the Spontini as this Janissary opera. as. vhose of Henry the Fourth. that a hundred pirouettes on one toe . For Maria Stuart wore an apron belonging to the time of Queen Anne. * * * But little young man had comprehended the conditions of the Berlin drama. of scandals among actors and actresses. He spoke of the sumptuousness of the costumes. . then the War-Councilor Von Steinzopf 's wife. stretching his hands out wide and grasping at the air. It was with great trouble that I finally made him understand that there was really more political science in Hoguet's feet than in Buchholz's head. when he bent forward anxiously. elephants. of this city. and similar matters. where tially. would not get the anachronism out of her head for the whole evening.

the ballet forms in diplomatic circles an inexhaustible subBy Apis how great is the number of ! ! the exoteric. punchbowls steamed. Riickert. and finally. slaves. Miiller. stands for a long time in this elevated position. which caused the great unsteadiness of the floor of our room. Best of all sounded our own Arndt's German words. and brotherhood was drunk in true student fashion. and why ject of conversation. one resembling Adonis. The scales fell from the eyes of the young man. in which plates learned to dance and glasses to fly. studying anatomy in the positions of Lemiere. The old "Landsfather toast" and the beautiful songs of W. and a few reeling friends even asserted that he merrily shook his bald head." "harmony. songs were sung. and how small the array of the esoteric freThere sit the stupid audience. he rises on high. ******* And — The company around the table gradually became better acquainted and much noisier. very that lie when he tottered hither gradually unfolding himself. Wine banished beer. a Congress when he twisted his bended that he hinted at arms together like a skein. and others rang out with the exquisite airs of Methfessel. who bade iron grow. the other . and then all at once breaks out into the most terrifying leaps. "The Lord." During this crazy scene. that he sets forth our altogether too great friend in the East.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ legs tied . and he now saw how it was that dancers are better paid than great poets. 105 described the European balance of power and thither like a drunken man. and applauding the entrechats " of and of Rohnisch." limbs no one remarking meanwhile that he has before him in chronological ciphers the destiny of the German ' ' ' ' Fatherland. prattling grace. quenters of the theatre gaping and admiring leaps and attitudes. wished for no out of doors it roared as if the old mountain sang with us. when. Uhland. beautiful and pale as statues. there sat opposite me two youths.

how ye cool and revive my cheeks How sweetly ye play * ' ! amid my fluttering locks mountain far below me . where the one by mistake. Finally the other said. "The bird died. The faint rosy hue which the wine spread over their cheeks was scarcely noticeable." was the conclusion. sighing. They gazed on each other with infinite affection. and who. over the rolling sea. and saw them enter a dark chamber. spoke no more to any one. love. My soul is sorrowful come forth with me into the dark night Let me inhale the breath of the clouds and the moon-rays. that I could hunt with ye on your cloud-steeds through the stormy night. stretched arms. the other had also . like the rustling of reeds and the flow of rivulets they reecho in my breast. and Lora did not long survive it. but my soul is sad!" Both of the young men arose. gazing over on the canary-bird which her. ! sorrow I love thee thy words are musical. lover had given her. as if the one could read in the eyes of the other. Com' ' . instead of the window. . "Lora is dead now too !" said one. threw open the door of a large wardrobe. and thus they left the noisy room. I followed. THE GEBMAN CLASSICS Apollo. which an angel on high bears from one star to the other. fir-trees! List far below in the valley rustle the hills Far above yonder sweep in misty forms the spirits of our fathers. and in those eyes there was a light as though drops of light had fallen therein from the cup of burning voices. "Ye breezes of darkening night." cried the first. Oh. and ! blue waters gleam. and my soul is sad ' ' ! Meanwhile. One threw his arm around the neck of the other. and. standing before it with outpanion of my ! .106 . wept day and night. ate but little. spoke alternately. proceeded to tell of a maiden of Halle who had loved a student. and softly with earnest trembling narrated sad stories. through all of which ran a They conversed tone of strange sorrow. ! I stand on the cloudy peak of the lie the sleeping cities of men. upwards to the stars! Alas! I am laden with grief. when the latter left Halle. expressing poetic rapture. and both the youths sighed as though their hearts would break. and both.

fancy to humbug him came over me.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 107 stretched out his arms toward the wardrobe. ah. like me. Then the stars. declared that they had lost all feeling for the beautiful and noble. Whither. oh! ye winds. enveloped in his chalk-white night-cap yellow^ night-shirt of sanitary flannel. whither. they have fallen down. will raise their green heads and rejoice. Thou walkest in loveliness the calm of thy counThe stars follow thy blue path in the east! their dark forms At thy glance the clouds rejoice. ! now art clothed in thy beaming splendor and gazest down from the gate of heaven. thou the night-born? before thee. and gleam with light. and consequently spoke at once of the Jews. daugh' ' ter of heaven ! Lovely and blessed is ! tenance. and that the foaming waves of the sea in light!" hills may roll I can bear a tolerable quantity say how many bottles —and —modesty forbids me to chamber in tolerably good already lay in bed. when morning pales thy face. Who is like unto thee The stars are ashamed in heaven. and thou hidest thyself often to bewail them! Yet the night must come at last when thou too will have passed away. and turn away their sparkling eyes. Tear aside the clouds. thy Halle? Dwellest thou amid shadows of sorrow? Have thy sisters fallen from heaven? Are they who joyfully rolled with thee through the night now no more? Yea. dost thou flee from thy path? Hast thou. while tears fell from his eyes as he cried to a pair of yellow leather pantaloons which he mistook for the moon. He was not asleep. that were once ashamed in thy But presence. that the night-born may shine forth and the bushy gleam. The young merchant my and saffron prices. He was from Frankfurt-on-the-Main. and must beforehand beg A . and that they sold English goods twenty-five per cent. and I told him that I was a somnambulist. oh lovely light. and sought to enter into conversation with me. Fair art thou. under manufacturers' I consequently retired to condition. and left thy blue path above in heaven.

wintry light. so that we could imagine ourselves standing on a little hill in the midst of an inundated plain. only their summits being visible. Far and wide the mountain summits Swim above the misty sea." . while in a somnambulistic state.108 his THE GERMAN CLASSICS pardon should I unwittingly disturb his slumbers. above the horizon. spreading a dim. Far around. there rose a little carmine-red ball. But in truth I fared no better myself. dear. rock. and river. and rubbing their freezing hands others. Had Over I seven-league boots for travel. until finally the whole silent congregation of the previous evening was reassembled. Though the sun gleams fitfully. To retain what I saw and felt. prevented intelligence. this confusion I . Softly kiss her childlike forehead. especially since the idea had entered his head that I. amid the mists. and we saw how. for I slept very little. stumbled up to us. From the bed where now she's sleeping Soft the curtain I would slip. him from sleeping a wink through the whole night. To the home of her I love. Yet more softly would I whisper In the little lily ear. Dreary and terrifying fancies swept * * * through my brain. might shoot him with the pistol which lay near my bed. Kiss the ruby of her lip. Think I never lost thee. "Think in dreams we still are loving. I sketched the following poem: In the east 'tis ever brighter. was rescued by the landlord of when he awoke me to see the sun rise. Like the fleeting winds I'd rove valley. as if swimming in a white rolling sea. This as he confessed the following day. From the the tower I found several people already waiting. rose the mountains. On Brocken. in which here and there rose dry clods of earth. with sleep still in their eyes.

THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 109 Meanwhile my longing for breakfast was also great. such as this on the Brocken. who ascend the mountain write their or." "Went up wet without and came down wet within. to which a naive "Nanny. for all within me was as sober and as sombre as in the Stephen's Church at Goslar. But the book which lay near me. adds. tobacco and cheese. minarets. after paying a few compliments to my ladies. of disappointed hopes. old German revolution dilettanti with their Turner-Union phrases. repeated in the book hundreds of times. with their Congreverocket-glances. It was the so-called "Brocken-book. was not the Koran. sult with their moldy "high inspirations. "I too." Many even express themselves in verse. and Berlin school-masters with their unsuccessful efforts at enthusiasm. became St. the students were changed to camels. But with the Arabian beverage." counter-jumpers. Mr." who was impressed by this. got wet while doing this thing. Eastern roses breathed forth their perfumes. It was full time. ." is a standing joke. Snobbs will also for once show himself as author. The whole volume smells of beer. becomes poetic. "Caroline" writes that in climbing the mountain her feet got wet. the Philistine noses. houris. with their pathetic outgushings of the soul. sweet bulbul songs resounded. though full of nonsense. in another complaints occur of bad weather. —most inscribing their thoughts. etc. Those who shine in it with especial splendor are Messrs. A we might fancy it one of Clauren's novels. In one page the majestic splendor of the sunrise is described. the Brocken housemaids. In this book one may observe the horrors which re- when the great Philistine host on opportune occasions. in default there- their "feelings. and of the mists which obstruct the view. the excise collectors." in which all travelers names of. I hastened down to drink coffee in the warm public room. the warm Orient thrilled through my limbs. The palace of the Prince of Pallagonia never contained such absurdities as are to be found in this book. and.

suddenly inspired with courage. as is their custom. upon whose countenances the traces of successful amours were And now plainly visible. brought. rush forth to join the first. only here and there they peeped out amid rocks and bushes. — . their Brockenbouquets. among whom were the Swiss and Greifswalder. took the road toward Schierke. until at last one Then followed the usual little spring jumped forth boldly. Burschen. about twenty men. so-called "Snow Holes down Such a head-over-heels. party. which they were duly rewarded with either kisses or copThus we all went down the mountain. Ere I knew where I was. the susceptible housemaids. The lower we descend the more delightfully did subterranean waters ripple around us. in gaily colored garb. the bald summit of the mountain. and the others. was behind us. and helped some to adjust their caps for all of . Knapsacks were buckled. the bills. led ' ' by a guide. and we went through the fir-wood which I had seen the day beThe sun poured down a cheerful light on the merry fore. When cheerful youth and beautiful nature meet. went through the to Ilsenburg.110 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the students prepared to depart. they mutually rejoice. as they merrily pressed onward through the wood. Myriads of springs now leaped in haste from their ambush. appearing to be reconnoitring if they might yet come to light. were settled. running across marshy places on trunks of trees. with groups of stones strewed over it. the invisibly plashing rivulets. which were moderate beyond all expectation. among whom were my fellow ''countrymen" and myself. climbing over shelving steeps by grasping the projecting tree-roots. albeit one pers. disappearing here. and then to their show own astonishment the great multitude of hesitators. coming to light again there. while they thrilled all the time in the merriest manner and received as joyous an answer from the twittering wood-birds. break-neck piece of business! Halle students travel quicker than the Austrian militia. the bravest one makes a beginning. and the resounding echo.

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being clad even to their base with beechtrees. take us with thee. runs laughing down the mountain side. pleasant Use. and then. grows preferably upon the "Lower Harz. who must pay for all . ! ! ! pleased uncle. take us with thee. Being in reality much higher. sweet pealing as a flute— . It is impossible to describe the merriment. and my senses are lost in all the beauty and splendor. anxious at such bold leaps. it is therefore better adapted to the growth of evergreens. dear sister!" But the merry maiden may not be withheld. who are. "Oh. the proud oak looks on like a not over. She flows through the blest on whose sides the mountains gradually rise vale. as if from a giant watering-pot. birds joyfully sing their applause whisper. in the full bloom of youth. and the usual shrubs. Yes. the old legend is true the Use is a princess. the white birch-trees nod their heads like delighted aunts. which. with its innumerable waterfalls and beauThis is now the tiful windings. however.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 111 united with the leader. so that the water strangely whizzes or foams in one place amid rifted rocks. higher and higher. simplicity. How her white foam garment gleams in the sunshine How her silvered scarf flutters in the breeze How her diamonds flash The high beech-trees gaze down on her like grave fathers secretly smiling at the capricious self-will of a darling child. for that variety Use Use of trees east side of the —the sweet. oaks. the the flowers on the bank she leaps onward and suddenly seizes the dreaming poet. and there streams over me a flower-rain of ringing gleams and flashing tones. trips away again over the pebbles like a merry maiden. and in another pours forth in perfect arches through a thousand crannies." as the Brocken is called in contradistinction to the west side or Upper Harz. and the fine weather. ripples down the valley. lower down. who. and I hear only the voice. and finally formed quite an important brook. the firs and other needlecovered evergreens having disappeared. and charm with which the Use leaps down over the fantastically shaped rocks which rise in her path.

my snow-white breast. old legends. And dwarfs And blow As round Spurs ring from night to morn. In my And Thou'lt on white arms reposing. and the perfume of herbs. the blue of heaven. Come with me to my castle. kiss thee day I kissed the Emperor Henry. the songs of birds. and green trees. gentle melancholy. And I'll dream of old. run together in sweet . memory. Thou'lt lose amid their rippling The cares which grieve thee now. —* \ My arms round thee I held his ears —he shall fall. The trumpet's warning "We feel infinite happiness when the outer world blends with the world of our own soul. thoughts. Thou shalt be blest — and mine! With I'll ever-flowing fountains cool thy weary brow. Where many a knight and lady In merry measure springs. sing in joy to rest. the golden horn. and caress thee. silent. And dwell in Ilsenstein. the Emperor Henry. heard not call.112 I THE GERMAN CLASSICS am the Princess Use. My crystal castle rings. And I am fair and blooming Dost feel my wild heart move! — And as my heart is beating. are gaily drumming. The dead are dead and Only the living love. As in the ancient Who long has passed away. Silk trains are softly rustling.

so legend likewise has shed upon it a rosy shimmer. Others again say that it was the Old Saxon Emperor Henry who had a royal good time with the water-nymph Use in her enchanted castle. which three sides high from out a it is still bathes every morning in the Use." Others narrate a pleasant legend of the lovers of the Lady Use and of the Knight of Westenberg. we thought in advance of the descent. and many of us lost our breath. Finally As if we reached This is the Ilsenstein. the fourth bad wit. with a thousand drawers. "People say that there once stood here an enchanted castle. but on the fourth. and this may be the cause that such a sweet incredulous smile plays around their lips when we. and were all the merrier in consequence. I scarcely observed that we had left the depths of the Ilsethal and were now again climbing uphill. According to Gottschalk. apothecary-like. who now lies buried at Moelln. in which dwelt the rich and fair Princess Use. through picturesque position and form. how our heads are pro- vided. the Idea. but. which has been romantically sung by one of our most noted poets in the Evening Journal. boast of our logical deeds —how nicely into subjective we have classified everything so and objective. And as Nature. and the fifth nothing at all —that is to say. has adorned the Ilsenstein with fantastic charms. one of which contains reason. This was steep and difficult work. the north side. rises boldly on surrounded by glen. the third wit. who an enormous granite rock. "Women best understand this feeling. Vol. wandering in dreams. and we gazed past the Ilsenburg and the Use lying below us. On the towerlike summit of the rock stands a great iron cross. with scholastic pride. another understanding.THE JOURNEY TO THE HARZ 113 arabesques. there is an open view. He who is fortunate enough to hit upon the exact time and place will be led by her into the rock where her castle lies and receive a royal reward. like our late lamented cousin. On high woody hills. far away into the low lands. VI — 8 . and in case of need there is also room here for four human feet.

would assuredly have fallen into the abyss. so rich in oranges and poisons. while the red-tiled roofs of Ilsenburg were dancing. who has written a Guide which the height of the hills.114 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Harz in Esq. sceptre and sword in firm hands. asserts. until all was green and blue before my eyes. were often enticed of being called Roman emperors. in the dire need of my No one who reflects on soul. the tive that the Old Emperor Henry knew it too It was not without cause Saxon emperors were so attached to their na! Let any one only turn over the leaves of the fair Liineburg Chronicle. had I not. title." Thus do all men speak to whom a beautiful princess has never appeared. and green trees flew through the air. but simply of his own feet. I suddenly heard the subterranean music of the enchanted castle. advise every one who . clung fast to the iron cross. and then in their dear mustachiod faces he can plainly read how they often longed for the sweet hearts of their Harz princesses. Harz even yes. and for the familiar rustling of the Harz.. in which I was then placed the critically ticklish situation can possibly find fault with me for having done this. overcome by giddiness. the holy imperial crown on their beloved heads. one Niemann. however. forests. lost in thought. which finally destroyed emperor and empire. but we who have been especially favored by fair ladies know better. when they sojourned in distant lands when in Italy. that "what is narrated of the Princess Use belongs entirely to the realm of fable. a genuine by the desire German lust for I. and I. where the good old gentlemen are represented in wondrously true-hearted woodcuts sitting in full armor on their mailed war-steeds. may hereafter stand on the summit of the Ilsenstein to think neither of emperor nor empire nor of the fair Use. with their followers. And to the A later author. and similar matters are described with praiseworthy accuracy. town finances. For as I stood there. however. variations of the compass. and saw the mountains around begin to stand on their heads. whither — they.


I .

[115] . Jan wig hanging down his back. when they come to Diisseldorf as yet leave the celebrated house — unvisited. This house will some day be And when a great curiosity. Dutton & Co. New York. P. VT-IX). there. it has cost my poor mother trouble enough. and feel as if I must go straight home. and go directly to the market-place and there gaze on the colossal black equestrian statue which stands This is supposed to represent the Prince Wilhelm. •From Ideen: Das Buch Le Grand (Chaps. For the whole house she would now hardly get as much as the tips which the distinguished green-veiled English ladies will one day give the servant girl when she shows them the room where I was born. I say home I mean the Bolkerstrasse and the house in which I was born. and the hen-house wherein my father generally imprisoned me for stealing grapes. strange I was born feelings come over your soul. the waste-paper laurel with which they have bedecked my brow has not yet spread its perfume through the wide world.. and if you think of it when far away. When a boy. and William Heinemann. and also the brown door on which my mother taught me to write with chalk Lord! Madame. and the green-veiled English ladies. and I have sent word to the old lady who owns it that she must not for her life sell it. He wears black armor and a long Elector. and happen at the same time to have been born there.BOYHOOD DAYS* (1823-1826) By Heinrich Heine translated by charles godfrey leland HE % town of Diisseldorf is very beautiful. Permission E. I heard the legend in its midst. London. should I ever become a famous author. But my fame as yet slumbers in the marble quarries of Carrara.

. truth. to his was being cast. you know. and then all the citizens of the town came running with all their silver spoons. 'tis reported.116 that the artist THE GERMAN CLASSICS who made it horror. and no soup. and how many apple-tarts the silver would buy. I was speaking of the equestrian statue which has so many silver spoons in it. He was a brave gentleman. whose praises he well knew how to call out in — — high treble voice. that he had not metal enough to fill the mold. they still show us an extremely artistic piece of work. "Here you are! hot apple" tarts! just from the oven smelling deliciously Truly. at the theatre corner. in fact. Their crowns grew firmly on their heads. and crab-soup Prince Elector. In those days princes were not the harassed creatures they now are. consisting of one wooden cup within another which he himself had carved in his leisure hours. and I often stood for hours before the statue wondering how many spoons were concealed in it. and not far from the statue of the liberty. and-twenty. while this statue became aware. and which represents the Prince Elector. he always spoke in just such an enticing high treble voice. And. Apple-tarts were then my passion now it is love. whenever in my later years the Evil One sought to get the better of me. of which latter he had every day four. a lover of art and handy therein himself. would never have so sorely tempted me if the crooked Hermann had not covered them up so mysteriously with his white apron. and I should certainly have never remained twelve full hours with the Signora Giulietta. if she had not an irresistible — ! thrilled her sweet perfumed apple-tart tones. generally stood a curiously constructed bow-legged fellow with a white apron. the apple-tarts me with — Jan Wilhelm. and threw them in to make up the deficiency. which but I wander from the subject. and a basket girt around him full of delightfully steaming apple-tarts. He founded the picture-gallery in Diisseldorf and in the observatory there. and it is aprons.



and then asked why we wept. although the crazy Aloysius again stood upon one leg and chattered the names of French generals. The slow gait . The weather was dark and lowering. so old a man. and in his blue woolen stockings. with foolish grimaces. It is a strange sight to see. and at the words "for the long-manifested fidelity of my subjects. While we read. so that his little bare legs peeped out dismally. crooked Gumpertz rolled around " the ira ira the sun. and his thin lips quivered as he murmured the words of the placard to himself. Everywhere there was a sort of funereal atmosphere. and at certain phrases a transparent tear ran down his white. An old invalid ' ' . and the princes replied. "The Prince Elector has abdicated.BOYHOOD DAYS 117 and at night they drew nightcaps over them besides and slept in peace. and he replied. in faded uniform. with a scarred veteran's face. ' ' gutter. Qa ! Qa ! . suddenly bursts into tears." "and hereby release you from your allegisoldier ance. and their people slumbered calmly at their Good feet and when they awoke in the morning they said. "Good morning. singing. dear children!" But there came a sudden change over all this. and everything began to appear as oppressively desolate as though we were waiting for an eclipse of city councilors went about at an abdicating. ' ' ' ' ! from the Palatine read it in a somewhat louder tone. Good morning. while the tipsy. and people crept silently through the market and read the long placard placed on the door of the City Hall. yet the lean tailor Kilian stood in the nankeen jacket. and in the whole town there was nothing but dumb sorrow." Then he read further. and wept with him. I stood near him. the Princely Electoral coat-of-arms was being taken down from when the City Hall. father morning. and stood calmly indifferent. honorable old mustache. for one morning when we awoke in Diisseldorf and wanted to say." he wept still more. even the omnipotent beadle looked as though he had had no more commands to give. father!" the father had traveled away. which he generally wore only at home.

"I must go home and dress myself neatly. and I went out before the house-door and looked at the French troops marching in that joyous people of glory. poor child. and these too. for I am dead and am to be buried this " And it afternoon. weeping and lamenting because "the Prince Elector had abdicated!" My mother tried hard to comfort me. and I. and. and was really a very respectable man that he wore his beautiful black hair in flowing locks. I heard — — — — ' ' ' ' light-footed barber. who was sitting in his white dressing-gown. that he was sure to please all the ladies. fell down like yellow leaves in autumn. and as I entered the sitting-room and said "good morning" to my father. sighing. grew darker and darker a few stars glimmered meagrely on high. and she laid it carefully in the open grave and behind me stood the Palatine invalid. the little was of excellent family. singing and playing. and near him an ugly. there was a sound of drums in the street. one by one all men vanished. and in the night dreamed that the world had come to an end that all the fair flower gardens and green meadows were taken up from the ground and rolled away. I heard. narrate very minutely that allegiance would be sworn to the Grande Duke Joachim that morning at the City Hall. but I would hear nothing. wandered around in anguish. Meanwhile the drumming in the streets continued. swept over the world. who held something in her apron like a human head but it was the moon. like carpets. at length. and went weeping to bed. and The Prince Elector has abdicated. that a beadle climbed up on a high ladder and took down the sun. . and that the tailor Kilian stood by and said to himself. in fine.118 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But I went home. I knew what I knew. too. spiteful-looking woman. the that the new ruler ried the sister of the . who. spelling out When I awoke the sun shone as usual through the window. that he would shortly make his entrance into the town. that he had marEmperor Napoleon. and finally found myself before the willow fence of a deserted farmhouse. where I saw a man digging up the earth with a spade. as he dressed his hair.

and donned their Sunday coats. and it would have been better if they had been killed outright. the balcony of the City Hall was filled . was on this account elected active member of a public treadmill institute. and was finally shot at Mayence while the other. and the omnipotent giant-like silver-laced tambour major. A new coatof-arms was placed on the City Hall. nearly broke their necks in accomplishing this feat. Our neighbors. the voltigeurs. and his eyes even to the second. French grenadiers stood as sentinels. the old city councilors had put on new faces. . where also there were pretty girls sitting at the windows. and eventually died in London through wearing an all too tight neck-tie which automatically drew together. But having broken the iron bands which bound him to the latter and to his fatherland. I was so glad that soldiers were to be quartered in our house in which my mother I hastened to the marketThere everything looked changed. and I. and looked at each other Frenchily. the tri-colored cockades. curious citizens and glittering soldiers filled the square. somewhat as place. and thence stared down on the motley crowd. the bear-skin shakoes. menced. and said. for the one afterwards ran away from his parents. with other boys. Pitter and the tall Kunz. who could cast his baton with a gilded head as high as the first story. when a royal official removed a plank from beneath his feet. Finally. its iron balconies were hung with embroidered velvet drapery. deserted. he safely crossed the channel. the glittering bayonets. enlisted as a soldier. "Bonjour!" Ladies gazed from every window. Tall Kunz told us that there was no school today on account of the ceremonies connected with taking the oath of We had to wait a long time ere these comallegiance. full of vivacity and point d'honneur. climbed on the great bronze horse of the Prince Elector. though the world had been newly whitewashed. differed from me — and — having made geographical researches in strange pockets.BOYHOOD DAYS 119 serious and yet merry-faced grenadiers.

and things were learned by heart as before the Roman kings. And it was ! really necessary that I should. And much of it was eventually to my advantage. dates. Hebrew. Hurrah and while I myself cried hurrah. and we had school as before. And had I not learned those — — ! ! — . the nomina in im. the verba irregularia. geography. for I began to grow giddy. which stretched out like Indian rubber. it would subsequently have been a matter of perfect indifference to me whether Niebuhr had or had not proved that they never really existed. and climbed slowly down from the great bronze horse." n The next day the world was again all in order. that tinctly understand many of his phrases made happy. and I also beheld crooked Gumpertz rolling in the gutter and growling. Greek. with flags and trumpets. while the old Prince Elector. I As went home. German.120 THE GERMAN CLASSICS with gaily dressed gentlemen. the people cried. with his long wig. I held fast to the old Prince Elector. the flags were waved. ca ira. ' ' ' ! saw the crazy Aloysius again dancing on one leg. in his celebrated red coat. nodded and whispered. the drums were beaten." and at the last words the "we are now to be — — — trumpets sounded out. 1 Hold fast to me and not till the cannon reechoed along the wall did I become sobered. or like a knitted nightcap into which one has thrown a stone only that it was not the philosopher's stone and I could disfor instance. mental all had arithmetic Lord my head is still giddy with it to be learned by heart. "Qa ira. while he chattered the names of French generals. It seemed to me as if the people were standing on their heads. and our burgomaster. that account there is no school today. for had I not learned the Roman kings by heart. delivered an oration." and I said to my mother. because the world whizzed around. I 1 ' We are all to be made happy on .

Ah. so that the one recalled the other. all. had to learn them by heart. have found out anyone in big Berlin. our tears are dry. and are now already regular professors. I thought at once of the flight of Mahomet. I was at once reminded of Cleopatra. For I once thought of the I saw the well-groomed banker. we oft shall look upon her like again But. how could I ever. when I met the university judge. you can really have no idea of how complicated it is. and some curious point tailor. where one house is as like another as drops of water or as grenadiers. heaven! the poor creature is dead now. which had happened in a year to find a friend unless ! corresponding to the number of his house. tell what may happen. and with their aid knew where to find the right houses in Berlin. The Romans would never have found time to conquer the world if they had been obliged first to learn Latin. Christian Gumpel. I. when when ' ! . battle of me whenever I met any one whom I visited. dates are necessary. in later years.BOYHOOD DAYS 121 dates. on the contrary. I know men who had nothing in their heads but a few dates. as I said. and where it is impossible you have the number of his house in head At that time I associated with every acquaintyour ance some historical event. deeply in debt. therefore I must borrow one". the trouble I had at school with the multitude of numbers and as to actual arithmetic. I at in history always occurred to instance. and for this there is a very practical rule: "Four can't be taken from three. when I caught sight of a Portuguese friend. and we may say of her with " Taken all in Hamlet. for no one can ' met my Marathon. a man whose probity is well known. I thought of the death of Haman. in the sweat their cradles . Lucky dogs! they already knew in ! which nouns have their accusative in im. and as soon as I laid eyes on Wadzeck. but I advise all in such a case to borrow a few extra groschen. But oh. the Latin Madame. that was even worse! I understood best of all subtraction. she was an old woman. But oh. I immediately remembered the destruction of Jerusalem.

the blunder would have been evident to the Freshmen. tussis. on the 20th of July. 1825 Madame. amussis. otherwise I should vex myself too much. and the fact that I have them . cucumis. and it also learned the sacred language. the they are distinguished from the verbis the fact that the boys in learning them got regularibus by more whippings are terribly difficult. but still it is well that I know them. cannabis. which had much intimate intercourse with pawnbrokers and in consequence acquired many Jewish habits for instance. Madame. subsequently far in — even studying it the night I have. and an endless shame for me. sitis. It wrong when they asserted that Greek was an Lord knows what I suffered through I always went better with Hebrew. for example. The monks of the Middle Ages were not so very much it ! in the invention of the devil. that even yet at times rises in my dreams and gazes sorrowfully on me with fixed bleeding eyes. heard it industriously . —these words. that I may get by heart the irregular verbs ' ' ! I will say nothing of Greek. In the musty arch- verba irregularia — — ways of the Franciscan cloister near our schoolroom there hung a large Christ-crucified of grey wood. when I publicly disputed in Latin in the College Hall of Gottingen. inasmuch as they belonged to a distinct class. brow. to grammatically for often when sleepless in my amazement. and yet withal remained an exception therefore I highly respect them. although they crucify my good name up to the present hour. "Oh. it would not go on Saturday. my — — Vis. But. it was well worth while to hear it if I on that occasion had said sinapem instead of sinapim. I pray Thee. Thou poor and also tormented God. if it be possible. effected this. and yet I never could get as Hebrew as my watch did.122 of THE GERMAN CLASSICS For if I. often affords me in life's darkened hours much internal tranquillity and consolation. a dismal image. Before this image I often stood and prayed. sinapis which have attracted so much attention in the world. ready at my fingers' ends when I perhaps need them in a hurry. . for had a great predilection for the Jews. buris.

even the character of the nations changed the Germans became pliant. pik. kittalta. The products of the country were also changed chickory and beets now grew where only hares and country gentlemen pursuing them were once to be seen. and in whose class my school-fellows quarreled and fought more than in any other. many indeed were even dyed blood-red the old stereotyped souls of the schoolbooks became so confused and confounded that the devil himself would never have recognized them. from house and home. clerical gentleman. katalti. I have unexpectedly chattered myself back among old school stories. and the Venetians were not subtle enough. old kings received new uniforms. pokadeti-pikat. Madame. bag Mr. poll-taxes. there was promotion among princes. and I avail myself of this opportunity to mention. kitalti-pokat. many potentates were chased. ciently vexed with having soldiers quartered on us. I learned much German from the old Rector Schallmeyer. pik. a man who had written a book on eternal peace. katalta. though German itself is not such child's play. a brave. all. Meanwhile I learned more of German than of any other after suffi- tongue. on the other hand. who have already been duties. Adelung and torment needs. For we poor Germans. must over and above all this. whose protege I was from childhood. kittel. the French paid compliments no longer. those which were once blue suddenly became green. new kingdoms were cooked up and sold like hot cakes.BOYHOOD DAYS ticking 123 away to itself : katal. every day the countries were recolored on the world's map. the English ceased making ducks and drakes of their money. one another with accusatives and datives. But I also learned something of the kind from Professor Schramm. For in those days the French displaced all boundaries. and had to find some new . . . . military and a thousand other exactions. And while I have thus been writing away without a pause and thinking about all sorts of things. that it was not my fault if I learned so little of geography that later in life I could not make my way in the world.

and. no one must be a bete allemande. who had written a number of grammars. to into trade. much apprendre par coeur. gained so much with our unity. what is French for above all. French has its difficulties. To — the plain truth. in ancient was a school- catechism — that Rome who knew is. rhinoceroses. and to learn it there must be much quartering of troops. it seems to me that if we must learn all the heathen gods by heart. the principal points of his the loves of Venus better than I. paragraph must be brought shall be out of breath —in to an end. And having many such pictures in my memory. and wore a red wig. sealing wax. a very decent idea of Homer to give to much-loved Venus a husband. we might as well have kept them from the first. "Henry. and it was. and some therefore went at once and manufactured. so jolly and naked. and took a real delight in the of gods and goddesses who. a French emigre. for example. and I can remember as plainly as though it happened but yesterday that I once got into a bad scrape through la religion. Still. etc. too. govI do not believe that there erned the world. I succeeded better in natural history. I was asked at least six times in succession. and we always have standard engravings of apes. and we have not. mob boy tell I also did well in mythology.124 THE GERMAN CLASSICS of earning their bread. in such times it is advance far in geography. or I impossible fine. There was here. and jumped about very nervously when he lectured on his Art poetique and his Histoire Allemande. or this way —Madame. But I succeeded best in the French class of the Abbe d'Aulnoi. many a hard nut to crack. .. He was the only one in the whole gymnasium who taught German history. kangaroos. for instance. zebras. perhaps. etc. it often happens that at first sight many mortals appeared to me like old acquaintances. much drumming. for there we find fewer changes. New-Roman Trinity or still less with our Jewish Perhaps the old mythology was not in reality so immoral as we imagine.

when in an aristo- cratic circle. Madame. and could understand every word he spoke. and yet had the good heart of an angel. as long as I live. Not long ago. Yes. for Monsieur Le Grand rors. purple in the ' ' and there was a rain face. "It is called la religion" of blows and a thunder of laughter from all my schoolmates. And to tell the honest truth. who looked like a devil. I pledge Madame! I have succeeded tolerably well in for I understand not only patois. and withal drummed so divinely He was a little. I once heard Monsieur Hans Michel Martens talking French. We must know the spirit of a language. with an ever increasing inclinaI replied. while his wild eyes shot fiery glances all round. It occurs to me just at this instant that I still — owe the landlord of The Lion in Bologna five dollars. and this is best learned by drumming. nervous figure. "It is called le credit. each of whom could count at least sixty-four years. governess French. since that day I never hear the word religion without having my back turn pale with terror. and as many ancestors. Parbleu! how much do I not owe to the French drummer who was so long quartered in our house. and helped him to clean his military buttons till they shone like mirI. to the parade-ground in those times there — — — . though there was no understanding in anything he said. I understood nearly one-half of the conversation of two German countesses." And after tion to weep. in the Cafe Royal in Berlin.BOYHOOD DAYS 'the faith? ' 125 And six times. cried. but even patriFrench. le credit has during my life stood me in the better stead than la religion. Parbleu. and to pipe-clay his vest liked to look well and I followed him to the guard house. la religion. And you my sacred word of honor that I would owe him five dollars more if I could only be cerwillingly tain that I should never again hear that unlucky word. a young shaver. stuck to him like a burr. to the roll-call. with a terrible black mus! tache. beneath which red lips sprang forth defiantly. the seventh question the furious examinator. cian. and my cheeks turn red with shame.

Les aristocrats a ga ira. but as he constantly drummed while speaking. and he drummed the all too simple melody which on market-days is played to dancingdogs. cannot be correctly understood until we know how the drumming was done on such occasions. were beheaded. if I knew not what the word liberte meant. People are apt to forget things and a young man has now- . This is. that is really a wonderful march! It thrilled through marrow and bone when I first heard it. If I did not understand the word egalite. For instance. the Queen. namely. His Majesty the King. the Dessauer March. you understand it correctly for the first time. dum-dum-dum! I was vexed.126 THE GERMAN CLASSICS of — weapons and merriment les jours de fete sont passes! Monsieur Le Grand knew but a little broken German. If I did not know what Betise meant. but I underI drummed — stood him for all that! manner he taught me modern history." "Kiss. the best method. "Bread. and ' ' : — I was glad that I forgot it. of this kind as they grow older. only the three principal words. I knew what he meant. the words which he spoke. which we Germans. I did not understand. as Goethe also declares. of the Tuileries. In our school comTheir Excellencies pendiums of history we merely read the Barons and Counts and their noble spouses." But when you hear the red march of the guillotine drummed. and the like. their Highnesses the Dukes and Princes and their most noble spouses were beheaded. The history of In like the storming of the Bastile. and with it the how and the why. Madame. he drummed the march was nothing but the gleam — — — "Qa ira. and his most illustrious spouse. he drummed the Marseillaise and I understood him. qa ira. He once wanted to explain to me the word I'Allemagne (or Germany)." "Honor" but he could make himself very intelligible with his drum. la lanterne!" and he understood him. drummed in Champagne and I understood him. it is true. fundamentally.

sat idle without the least occupation for my jaws. which people have long forgotten. too. very queer marches. court hunters' wives. the liturgy. But to return to the mutton aforesaid. in my hands. . perhaps. that in Pausanias we are told that by the braying of an ass an equally dangerous plot was once discovered. to my astonishment. despite all the jogging up of my brain. I could not for a long time recall that tremendous tune! And only to think. a I once sat in the lecture-room of the man who had loquacious putaine. I found myself suddenly drumming the red. feet. court keepers of the royal plate. me f Enough. it lies in my limbs. and . that geese once saved the Capitol. suddenly begin to drum. from boredom. I assure you that really.BOYHOOD DAYS his 127 adays so much and such a variety of knowledge to keep in head whist. princesses. or was it early developed in my lin. in and often involuntarily manifests itself. and. "And what happened?" Madame. the good people were not in the least disturbed. carving and yet. and whatever else these aristocratic domestics are termed. dramaturgy. and kneaded little bread-balls. in the lecture-room of the Herr Privy Councilor Schmaltz. genealogical registers. nor did they know that other people. the terrible conspiracy of Catiline came to light. and you also know from Livy. Madame. court-marshalesses. At Ber- Privy Councilor saved the state by his book on the Red and Black Coat Danger. Madame! Not long ago I sat one day at table with a whole menagerie of counts. Boston. and you must certainly know from Sallust that by the chattering of a Schmaltz. Is drumming now an inborn talent. the Lady Fulvia. upper court mistresses. when they can get nothing to eat. I was listening to the law and rights of nations. and that. and their under-domestics ran about behind their chairs and shoved full plates before their mouths but I. decrees of the Federal Council. or from Becker's History of the World. You remember. and drummed with my fingers. — — princes. who was passed by and neglected. long-forgotten guillotine march. seneschals. chamberlains.

in full round beds flowers are growing. unreflecting feet! They once played me a little trick. where I often.128 THE GERMAN CLASSICS it was a lazy sleepy summer afternoon. but the mignonette. and little by little I listened less and less my head had gone to sleep when all at once I was awakened by the — — and had probably heard that just the contrary of the law and rights of nations was being taught and constitutional principles were being reviled. the night-violets sighed. the wine-red roses laughed at me from afar. Cursed. A long avenue of lindens in bloom arises before me. and dreamily nodding their sit I was on a footing of wondrous intimacy with the rouged tulips. and they drummed so loudly that I thereby came near noise of feet. and wound himself up to curse the Emperor Napoleon feet. condescendthem. was my very particular friend. with his angular agility. strove to make themselves intelligible by drumming. the scholar of Le Grand. I cannot blame would in regular set style no. —I now on am speaking of the Court garden of Diisseldorf. and on the leafy twigs nightingales. proud as beggars. all in my memory again becomes summer-green and golden. I not have blamed you if in your dumb naivete you had — — expressed yourselves by still more energetic movements. . with whom I am such bad terms. for they did not entice with a shining bloom. the waterfall murmurs. singing. jumped about here and there in his desk. and which with the little eyes of their corns had seen better how things go in the world than the Privy Councilor with his great Juno eyes these poor dumb feet. my own which had not gone to sleep — getting into a terrible scrape. with the myrtle and laurel I was not then acquainted. and as this learned gentleman. tender melancholy. How dare I. when I. and I sat on the bench. my poor you for drumming then indeed. on a time in Gottingen. hear the Emperor cursed? The Emperor! the Emperor! the great Emperor! When I think of the great Emperor. was temporarily at- tending the lectures of Professor Saalfeld. the nervous sick lilies nodded to me with fair heads. ingly greeted me. incapable of expressing their immeasurable meaning by words.

I saw. while the scream of frightened birds of prey sounded around. yet curious. I saw the Emperor in the battle of Austerlitz ha! how the bullets I saw. I saw the passage over the Simplon the Emperor — in advance and his brave grenadiers climbing on behind him. beating meanwhile the marches which were drummed while the deeds were performed. his cortege rode directly through the The trembling trees bowed toward middle him as he advanced. so confidently. which stepped with such calm pride. so that I saw and heard it all vividly. thinking of the doughty deeds and battles which Monsieur Le Grand had drummed to me. naught around save powder. of Wagram no. icy road tle of Jena dum. smoke. through the green leaves. And the Emperor with of the avenue. I saw the Emperor with glove in hand on the bridge of Lodi. He rode a white palfrey. As I pressed through the gaping crowd. him —Hosannah ! the Emperor. and the glaciers thundered in the distance. I heard the battle of Eylau. It was precisely in the avenue of the Court garden at Diisseldorf. I saw the Emperor in his grey cloak at Marengo I saw the . dum. m But what were first my feelings when my very own eyes were blessed with the sight of him. VI — — 9 . I could hardly stand it Monsieur — — ! — ! Le Grand drummed so that my own eardrum nearly burst. and in the blue heaven above there swam visibly a golden star. so nobly had I then been Crown Vol. and Mamelukes. my heart beat the "general march" yet at the same time I thought of the police regu- — lation that no one should dare ride through the middle of the avenue under penalty of five dollars fine. dum. The Emperor wore his unpretentious-green uniform and the little world-renowned hat. I heard the batwhistled over the smooth. frightened.BOYHOOD DAYS 129 lay upon the grass and piously listened there when Monsieur Le Grand told of the martial feats of the great Emperor. Emperor on horseback in the battle of the Pyramids. the sun-rays quivered.

and the entire clergy would have stopped their ringing and singing those lips needed but to whistle. not far off bellowed the tipsy Gumpert. and the entire Holy Roman Empire would have danced. and from time to time there was a quiver which swept over this brow. near me crazy Aloysius spun round. a mighty hand one of the pair which subdued the many headed mon- — ster of anarchy. straight through the middle of the avenue no policeman stopped him behind him proudly rode his cortege on snorting steeds and loaded with gold and ornaments. The Emperor rode calmly. and those were the creative thoughts. which warmed and tranquilized every heart. It was a sunny marble hand. wherewith the spirit of the Emperor strode invisibly over the world and I believe that every one of those thoughts would have furnished a German author plentiful material to write about all the days of his life. the great seven-league-boots thoughts. while we ordinary mortals see them only one by one. The drums rolled. the phantoms of future battles were nestling there. . And these lips It was an eye clear as smiled. The brow was not so clear. and with the other good-naturedly patting the neck of the horse. flitted over the A all knew that those lips needed but to whistle Prusse n'existait plus those lips needed but to whistle. of his generals. the traits were as nobly proportioned as those of the ancients. almost laxly. and the eye too smiled. holding his rein with one hand. and on that countenance was plainly written "Thou shalt have no gods before me!" smile. heaven it could read the hearts of men it saw at a glance all things in the world at once.130 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Prince of Prussia I would have envied that horse. The Emperor sat carelessly. . "Es lebe der live the Emperor ! . Even the face had that hue which we find in the marble Greek it and Roman busts. . and then only their colored shadows. . the trumpets pealed. and regulated the conflict of nations — and good-naturedly patted the neck of the horse. and snarled the names lips et la —and yet — — . and the multitude cried with a thousand Kaiser ' ' ! —Long voices.

where five weeping willows shake out their green hair. and there will be no Britannia in existence —when the people of pride will be humbled to the earth. the sea is thine to wash away the shame which that mighty one hath enough ! bequeathed to thee in dying. professor in Gottingen. And St. There is no inscription on his tomb but Clio. and had seated — himself by thy hearth. thou thyself wert the Sicilian bravo whom perjured kings lured that they might secretly revenge on the man of the people that which the people had once openly inflicted on one of themselves. as it is written in the evangelists. ghostly tones. But the sea hath not water Britannia. A cut his throat. which will resound. with unerring style. And he was thy guest. . and he for whom the world was too narrow lies silently under a little hillock. Las their hearts will their pilgrimage in ships. murmuring sorrowfully. and Autommarchi. and when those songs of mockery and tears resound across the strait. with 'Meara. Sir Hudson no. has written thereon invisible words. terrible destiny has already overtaken the Strange! three greatest enemies of the Emperor: Londonderry has Cases. and Professor Saalfeld is still. But a day will come when this song will ring thither. ripples by. there will be a blush on the cheek of every honorable Briton. Not thy wind bag. with great memories of grow strong the deeds of the worldly savior. when Westminster's monuments will be broken. and a gentle little brook. Until the latest times the boys of France will sing and tell of the terrible hospitality of the Bellerophon. like . Louis XVIII has rotted away on his throne. through the centuries. as before. and when the royal dust which they inclosed will be forgotten. Helena is the holy grave whither the races of the east and of the west will make and pennons of many a hue. who suffered and died under Sir Hudson Lowe. On a waste island in the Indian lonely grave.BOYHOOD DAYS IV The Emperor Sea lies his is 131 dead.

Freedom. its martyrs. perhaps. But as every race of old. The old cathedrals. so. ! "Land of Freedom!" I I greet thee Hail to thee. and has in like manner its evangelists. "you will not find what you seek. It is a religion not preached to the rich. and only timid turtle-doves nestle amid the soft thickets. every country adopts * From Pictures of Travel. Every power of the human breast now tends to a love of Liberty. Love and Faith. and can no longer light or warm us. Heinemann. permission W. [132] . London. at present. once piled in towering height by an arrogantly pious race. are withered and cold. are worn religion of the modern age. did so according to its requirements and its peculiar character.ENGLISH FRAGMENTS* By Heinrich Heine translated by charles godfrey leland DIALOGUE ON THE THAMES HE man stood near me on the deck. when it received Christianity. which fain would force its faith into heaven. are now deserted. You may be in the right in believing "Young that Liberty is a new religion which will spread over all the world. as I on the green shores of the Thames. the to believe in themselves. which were once all too full. shape others. and their gods have ceased ties Those diviniand our age lacks the imagination to out. are crumbling. The ancient myrtle woods. young sun of the renewed world! Those older suns. and Liberty is. and its Iscariots!" enthusiast. gazed while in every corner of my soul the nightinsallow gales cried. but to the poor." said the sallow man. awoke ' ' to life.

whose first and de- last principle. and if the ground of the Revolution should be sought in the Budget. and his conjugal and even his whims. his property. feudal smile. And . 'My house is my castle. peaceable. race. yet not on that account less exasperating. and. therefore. they run gossiping about from the cafe to the casino.' "If the Englishman has the greatest need of personal freedom. but a social. to use a celebrated expression. The Englishman is. apparently on a footing of equality with the high noblesse. is equality. the Frenchman. yes.ENGLISH FRAGMENTS from the new cordance with its local 133 religion of liberty only that which is in acneeds and national character. in case of necessity. they are no friends to a silent tete-a-tete. their light champagne-blood and inborn talconditional manner. and from the casino to the salons. family life. and to introduce a noble equality in place of a vulgar inequality. "The English are a domestic race. whose very soul. in the most un- No one is freer in his home than an Englishman. The French are not a domestic. and who were now and then reminded. And when the canaille roturiere took the liberty of beheading that high noblesse. if we only grant him that portion of universal liberty known as equality. his religion. it is none the less true that its language and tone were drawn from those wits of low degree who lived in the salons of Paris. The velopment of the social principle in France necessarily involved that of equality. it was done less to inherit their property than their ancestry. he is king and bishop between his four walls and there is much truth in the common saying. can dispense with it. and the Englishman seeks in the circle of those connected with and pertaining to him that easy state of mind which is denied to him through his in- nate social incapacity. contented with that liberty which secures his most personal rights and guards relations. it may have been by a hardly perceptible. of the great and ignominious inequality which lay between them. ent for company drive them to social life. living a sequestered. his body. . which they call une conversation anglaise.

golden spurs and oldfashioned French styles of expression clatter. colored livery which indicates eys. Only at the theatre of St. which were raked from the off-scourings of the Middle Ages. as on the Continent. there the stars glitter. James.134 THE GERMAN CLASSICS we are the better authorized to believe that this striving for equality was the main principle of the Revolution. There we may see the ribbons of orders of nobility. who. In the streets and in places of public resort in London. kept all their freedom within the limits of his "powerful guardianship. with us military rank is. so an English officer hastens. of any avail. permitting 1 l them only the pleasure of a perfect and the admirable equality. anything but a sign of honor. in the plain garb of a gentleman. and so long as no one interferes when he plays comedy in like manner in his own house. since the French speedily found themselves so happy and contented under the dominion of their great Emperor. James are those decorations and costumes. fully appreciating that they were not yet of age. and. or plays with the garter of a pretty cook-maid 1 'Honi soit qui vial y penSe!' "As for the Germans. silk kneebreeches and satin trains rustle. and gold and silver signs of distinction on the dresses of lackEven that beautiful. colored ribbons are seen only on women's bonnets. they need neither freedom nor . as an actor after a play hastens to wash off the rouge. Nor does the aristocracy here make a show of its privileges. making his lackeys kneel before him. in England. consoling himself with the reflection that he has a right which renders it impossible for others to disturb his personal comfort or his daily requirements. to strip off his red coat and again appear like a gentleman. so long as it does not trouble him. there the knight struts and the lady spreads herself. Far more patient than Frenchman. the Englishman easily bears the glances of a privileged aristocracy. But what does a free Englishman care for the Court comedy of St. when the hours of active duty are over.

proph- and sages. like boys. He burns for a flame he casts himself at her feet with the most extravagant protestations. ideologists. sitting behind the familiar stove. dreamers who live only in the past and in the future. loves liberty as though she were his old grand' ' Men are strange beings! We grumble in our Fatherland. Scarcely had I lost sight of the German shore ere there awoke in me a curious after-love for the German nightcaps and forest-like wigs which I had just left in discontent and when the Fatherland faded from my eyes I found near it. we are always longing to rush forth into the wide world. a "cubby-house" vertiser. and woe to the red-coated rascal who forces his way let him do so as a gallant or as a catchpoll. to her bedroom — The Frenchman her he . we find it too wide. it And. its The German began struggle against enemies. loves liberty as his bride. he is still ready in case of need to defend her like a man. Englishmen and Frenchmen have a present. his philosophizing wiseacres taught him to doubt the existence of such things. Yes. The Englishman loves liberty as his lawful wife. German General AdSo it was with me in my journey to England. has nothing for which to battle. and. and when he to realize that there might be things worth striving for. and who have no present. and. read the . its history. 135 They are a speculative race. and often yearn in secret for the narrow stupidities and contrarieties of home. it again in my heart. even if he does not treat her with remarkable tenderness. vexes us there. and.ENGLISH FRAGMENTS equality. as it were. The is German mother. making for ourselves. every stupid thing. he will fight for her to the death. may be that my voice quivered in a . every contrary trifle. It cannot be denied that the Ger- mans love liberty. ets. . when we finally find ourselves there. with them every day has its field of action. nestling there. but it is in a different manner from other people. he commits for her sake a thousand follies. we would fain be again in the old chamber. therefore.

and laid us down again and dreamed. we can perhaps dispense with freedom for our tyrants also sleep. and were never to see again. Since we all sleep and dream. man will never — turn his old grandmother quite out of doors . and I wondered at the adroitness with which they avoided collision. for now and then they speak. We sometimes came so near that it was possible to shake hands in joint welcome and adieu. and. The splenetic Briton. an imposing palace-like building which in reality consists of two wings. weary of his wife. he will always find a place for her by his fireside. Should Freedom ever vanish from the entire world which God forbid a German dreamer would discover her again in his — ! dreams. dance after the Court dames (courtisanes) of his royal palace (palais royal). like somnambulists. and his last rays up the hospital at Greenwich. sir! do not mock our dreamers. do not scold the Germans many of them have conceived such beautiful dreams that I would hardly incline to change them for the waking realities of our neighbors. and only dream their tyranny.136 THE GERMAN CLASSICS somewhat lower key as I replied to the sallow man Dear If they are dreamers. one can foresee the turn which things may take. The flattering Frenchman may perhaps be untrue to his beloved bride and abandon her. wondrous things in No sleep. many a sober and friendly face nodded greetings faces whom we had never seen before." While the steamboat. still sir. One's heart swells at the sight of so many — . On the water the throng of vessels became denser and denser. But the Ger' ' ! — . We awoke only once when the Catholic Romans robbed us of our dream-freedom then we acted and conquered. the sun had set. the space between which is empty. — . and their words become the seeds of freedom. may put a halter round her neck and sell her in Smithfield. where she can tell his listening children her legends. swam thus along the stream. While passing. and a green hill crowned with a pretty little tower from which one can behold the passersby. singing. and with lit it our conversation.

things vanished little by little behind the white veil of the fused hum and evening mist. he laid his hand on my shoulder. for one is greater and brighter than another none of them wanders free. and there remained visible only a forest of masts. I have seen it. and still there remains fixed in my memory the stone forest of houses. and said in a tone as though secret thoughts involuntarily became words "Freedom and equality! they are not to be found on earth below nor in heaven above. and station him at a corner of Cheapside. and amid them the rushing stream of faces of living men with all their motley passions. Send a philosopher to London. for your life. and the deep voices of resound from the shore. but. as he pointed to a high building which rose like a spectral. The stars on high are not alike. all obey . — a prescribed and iron-like law as on earth!" ' ' —there is slavery in heaven There is the Tower ' ' ! suddenly cried one of our travel- ing companions. still gazing aloft. where he will learn more than from all the I show — ! . gloomy dream above the cloud-covered London. And. 137 the con- and we feel strangely moved when far-off dance-music. as though he sought for the pale stars in the cloudy heaven. and am still astonished. LONDON have seen the greatest wonder which the world can to the astonished spirit. and of hatred I mean London. all their terrible impulses of love. rising long and bare above it. The sallow man still stood near me and gazed reflectively on high.ENGLISH FRAGMENTS bellying sails. of hunger. no poet Send a philosopher there. But the outlines of all sailors.

But never send a poet to London This downright earsecrets of social will be . clothed than . — — ! nestness of chine-like all things. harmony suddenly revealed to him he will hear the pulse of the world beat audibly. Moreover. in a vainglorious mood. and runs and rushes. this mathis troubled spirit in pleasure itself. so will a sea of new thoughts rise before him. London. they have enormous debts. and the Eternal Spirit which moves upon the face of the waters will breathe upon him the most hidden books of the last Leipzig fair life . even a ragged beggar-woman. or the shining wares of a goldsmith's shop why. they must still be better fed and this exaggerated rends the heart. to the Strand. and he will be hustled about on every side. they make ducks and drakes of their guineas. or perhaps be knocked over with a mild "God damn !" God damn! damn the knocking about and pushing! I see at a glance that these people have enough to do. movement. — John Bull must work to get the money for such expenditure. yet occasionally. By day and by night he must tax his brain to discover new machines. stands bolt in his way on the corner of Cheapside. . and from the Exchange if he. who stares at everything. . therefore. mighty right hand which leads from the Exchange to Downing Street as the world's pyloric artery. and therefore it is quite pardonable when a poor German poet. this colossal uniformity. and see it visibly for if London is the right hand of the world its then we may regard that route active. — — — we are as gentility requires. They live on a grand scale. from the Docks to the Exchange. smothers the imagination and And should you ever send a German poet thither a dreamer. and he siis and reckons in the sweat of his brow. at least he will find things going right badly with him. and though food and clothes are dearer with them than with us. pay other nations to box about for their pleasure.138 THE GERMAN CLASSICS . give their kings a handsome douceur into the bargain and. gazing into a print-shop window. and as the billows of human roar around him. without much looking around. then.

where every one presses on in mad haste to save his scrap of life. and bleeding. jolted out of my gazing. without feeling. all glides along here Calmly the sentinels are uniforms and houses shine in the quiet sunshine. horses. whereas he received a most unusually severe licking on an unusual place with a cutting switch. where the best friends rush. changed. and with them a funeral. and children. whirled groaning and creaking along. and where thousands in the weakness of death. where a parti-colored coil of men. women. looked again on the raging street. or some Court-marshal-low-brow struts along as if in judgment. and for men to stand at ease and chat about the theatre. had made up my mind in advance not to be astonished at that immensity of London of which I had heard so much. swallows flit over the flagstones. graciously returning salutations. And when I.ENGLISH FRAGMENTS should knock the latter sideways with a rather rough ' ' 139 God damn ' ' ! But the picture at which I was gazing as I stood at Cheapside corner was that of the French crossing the Beresina. pleasant and homelike it is in our dear Germany With what dreaming comfort. I anticipated great palaces. when some small aristoand bow deeply oh. it seemed to me as though all London were such a Beresina Bridge. while along the echoing streets there is room enough for the dogs to sniff at each other. where every one who falls is lost forever. where the daring rider stamps down the poor pedestrian. But I had as little success as the poor schoolboy who determined beforehand not to feel the whipping which he was to receive. fat Court-counciloresses ! How much more from the windows. The facts of the case were that he expected to I get the usual blows with the usual stick in the usual way on the back. grasp in vain at the planks of the bridge. over one another's corpses. with colored ribbons on his shabby coat. how deeply smile — ! — cratic scamp or vice-scamp. in what Sabbathlike repose. and are shot down ! into the icy grave of death. and saw nothing but mere small . stagecoaches.

must still have a house to itself for its own castle. reminding us of . THE GERMAN CLASSICS But their very uniformity and their limitless ex- tent impress the soul wonderfully. in the contrast of colors. — . because the eye of the stranger is incessantly caught by the new and brilliant wares exposed for sale in the windows. which remind one of newly extracted bleeding teeth. the variety of the English shops even the most com. generally two or three windows wide. and finished above with small red tiles. yards in length. wholesale. most at home. indeed. These houses of brick. though it consist of only two persons. monplace necessities of life appear in a startling magic light through this artistic power of setting forth everything to advantage. owing to the coal smoke. which they reIn the principal streets of the city. and because every article of luxury. entire streets of these dwellings. because the Englishman completes so perfectly everything which he manufactures. Ordinary articles of food attract us by the new light in which they are placed even uncooked fish lie so delightfully dressed that the rainbow gleam of their scales attracts us raw meat lies.140 houses. that is to say. three stories high. build. of a brown olive-green. every astral lamp and every boot. on neat and many-colored porcelain plates. this characteristic uniformity is less striking —the less so. where the tail singly. where old-fashioned buildings are mingled with the new. are all damp atmosphere and of an uniform color. every teakettle and every woman's dress. shines out so invitingly and so finished. This has its reason in the fact that every English family. and rich speculators. And these articles do not merely produce an effect. while the broad and accurately squared streets which these houses form seem to be bordered by endlessly long barracks. There is also a peculiar charm and in in the art of arrangement. and are all of the same style of building. garlanded about with parsley yes. to meet the demand. . and in relief. as if painted. everything seems painted. and where the fronts business of is London of the houses are covered with signs. generally gilt.

But the human beings whom we see are not so cheerful as in the Dutch paintings. who stand at the corners of the streets cleaning pathways a very necessary thing in muddy London and ask for "coppers" in reward. for they sell the jolliest wares with the most serious faces. though anything but remarkable as regards their exterior. ters of the multitude. and the cut and color of their clothes is as uniform as that of their houses. those eyes are still beautiful. inclosed by an iron railing and containing some statue or other. sees little or nothing of the fearful misery existing there. Only here and there at the mouth of some dark alley stands a ragged woman with a suckling babe at her weak breast. generally blacks. the windows of the first etage (or second story) are adorned with iron-barred balconies.ENGLISH FRAGMENTS 141 the highly polished yet modest pictures of Franz Mieris. we glance into them. and begs with her eyes. It is in the dusky twilight that Poverty — — . damp Poverty dwells with her rags and her tears. crammed away alleys. if The common beggars are old people. yet here there are very long and very broad streets. as in all the better class of houses in London." where rows of houses like those already described form a quadrangle. where all the houses are large as palaces. The stranger who wanders through the great streets of London. and are shocked at the world of wretchedness visible within. In all of these places and streets the eye is never shocked by the dilapidated huts of misery. unless we except the fact that in these. Everywhere we are stared down on by wealth and respectability. In this part of the city there are also great aristocratic and less ''squares. and does not chance right into the regular quar- while. the uniformity spoken of is still more dominant. in retired lanes and dark. Perhaps. in whose centre there is a garden. and also on the rez de chaussee there is a black railing protecting the entrance to certain subterranean apartments. On the opposite side of End "the west end of — the town. which they call the the town" and where the — West more occupied world lives.

on his high horse. staring beseechingly hurries along. joys and sorrows have nothing in common with his feelings. speaking eyes. and their a talisman which conjures into fulfilment their ! Poor Poverty how agonizing must thy hunger be. They sweep nobility. red vice was painted. only Hunger sometimes drives them at noonday from their dens. glide forth from their They shun daylight the more anxiously since their wretchedness there contrasts more cruelly with the pride lairs. purity. Paris their social salon. and the whole world their inheritance. is I quenched —but with it. rides by gold. Yes for over the vulgar multitude which sticks fast to the soil there soars. And even have seen women on whose cheeks and in whose hearts dwelt heavenly too. and jingling or at the lazy lord who. is knowing nothing of sorrow or suffering. of wealth which glitters everywhere. I power of good. vice is not always vice. as though they were or rather a mass of baser beings. Vice and Crime. England's indifferent glance at the — their little island is only a temporary resting-place. the I have seen women — I would that I saw them again ! . and then they stand with silent. whose swarming ants. in whose white hearts the power of evil. reproachless town burghers of virtue. Well art thou in the right when thou alliest thyself to Vice and Crime Outlawed criminals often bear more humanity in their hearts than those cool. it is true. like a surfeited god.142 THE GERMAN CLASSICS and her mates. casting now and then an aristocratically at the rich merchant who mob below. to whom along. like beings of a higher nature. Italy their summer garden. gold wildest wish. busy. how bitter must the tears be wherewith thou moistenest it! Thou poisonest thyself with thine own tears. where others swell in scornful superfluity! And when some one casts with indifferent hand a crust into thy lap.

Wellington would perhaps pass for a great man.ENGLISH FRAGMENTS 143 WELLINGTON the bad fortune to meet with good fortune and wherever the greatest men in the world everywhere. and consequently it would never have been discovered how small he is as man. would not measure him too accurately. Now she lets him conquer again on the Catholic Emancipation question yes. were unfortunate and that excites us. Without such an adversity of prosperity. and makes him hateful. The man has — ! womanly wise she cherishes a secret grudge against the man who overthrew her former darling. and perhaps in shield of victory. He is a small man. and smaller than small at that. though the very overthrow came from her own will. The French could say nothing more sarcastic of Polignac than that he was a Wellington without celebrity. exhibit his empty littleness by raising him high on the Fortune is a woman. In fact. adored. great — of — — in the English sense of the word. . but it happens that he is the successor of the noble — Canning and he conquers where Canning was overwhelmed. in the very fight in which George Canning was destroyed. at least not with the heroic measure with which a Napoleon and a Canning are measured. My readers will be astonished when I honorably confess that I once praised . It is possible that he might have been loved had the wretched Londonderry been his predecessor in the Ministry. We see in him only the victory of stupidity over genius Arthur Wellington triumphant where Napoleon Never was a man more ironiBonaparte is overwhelmed and it seems as though she would cally gifted by Fortune. people would not hate him. what remains when we strip from a Wellington the field-marshal's uniform of celebrity? I have here given the best apology for Lord Wellington Canning the much-wept.

he was so lean that even his full face looked like a profile. while to himself. anyway. White a poor little man in a shabby black dress. and as he lathered me he himself foamed with rage. and the refrain then was that bread and porter were so dear that the poor people must starve to feed fat lords. worn until it almost shone white again. and here barber in London was a Radical. hounds!" But his Radical rage boiled most fiercely against the Duke of Wellington. and that there was only one remedy. sir. and the sighs in his bosom were visible ere they rose. he murmured grimly "Lords.144 this hero THE GERMAN CLASSICS — and clapped on I will tell it all sail in : so doing. and now the high nobility and the High Church between 'em ought to pay. — not for any good of the poor people. "why need the English people trouble themselves as to who reigns in France. White came to the "poor people" he always sighed more deeply than ever. and . he spat gall and poison whenever he alluded to him. Once I was fairly frightened when he. It is a good story. "Ah!" I generally heard him sigh. murmuring all the while. and as he drew it murderously up and down the strop. and At these priests. barbering away at my neck. words he was wont to whet his razor. "If I only . and the High Church were afraid of the principles of liberty of the French Revolution and to keep down these principles John Bull must give his gold and his blood. stag-hounds. priests. We've got all we wanted out of the war the Revolution has been put down. and the High Church may be cock-sure that none of these eagles will come a-flying over the Channel. named Mr. These sighs were caused by the misfortunes of Old England by the impossibility of paying the National Debt. the French eagles of liberty have had their wings cut. and make debts into the bargain. My — — and what the French are a-doing at home? But the high nobility. for the debts which were made for their own good. Ah ! the poor people ' ' ! Whenever Mr. burst out in wonted wise against Wellington.



with eternal eyes in his marbleimperial face. the dumb ghost. the name of Pontius Pilate will be as little Wellington and likely to be forgotten as that of Christ. that I really was the Duke of Wellington. even in like Wellington. so proud in death "Te.ENGLISH FKAGMENTS had him this 145 way under my razor. figure never disappears from my memory. and. with an ashy-gray soul in a — ! That like. salutant. Caesar. think of the figure of Napoleon. that he was fond of beefsteak. in his excitement. I called up his national pride I represented to him that the Duke of Wellington had advanced the glory of the English. in an underhand manner to soothe him. who killed himself that-away at North Cray in Kent God damn him — ' ' ! man's hand trembled and. torn seems me Vol. to we were ever contemporaries. that he had always been an innocent tool in the hands of others. every inch a god their external appearance. Napoleon! It is a wonderful phenomenon that the human mind can at the same time think of both these names. It is true that. did." There often really it steals over if me a secret doubt whether I ever saw him. morituri. high on his steed. VI — 10 as if from the little frame . Londonderry. glancing calm as destiny on the Guards defiling past —he was then sending them to Russia. fearing lest he might imagine. in I felt that the . and then his portrait. by the side of that. I'd save him the trouble of cutting his own throat. — manner. and that he finally but the Lord only knows what fine things I said of Wellington as I felt that razor tickling around my throat! What vexes me most is the reflection that Wellington will be as immortal as Napoleon Bonaparte. There can be no greater contrast than the two. as his brother in office and fellowcountryman. I still see him. and the old Grenadiers glanced up at him so terribly devoted. buckram body. I endeavored to allay his violence. a wooden smile on his freezing face and. so — ail-consciously serious.

and who understood as little of the language as I myself. I was suddenly as if transported into Scherezade's story. His name even now sounds to us like a word of the early world. and gold-covered elephants. It was a giant-like ship. their shouts of joy and their laughter. my heart enjoyed at least a few drops of that draught which I had so often tasted in gloomy Hanoverian or Royal Prussian winter nights. and who was as sick of Europe as I then was. narrate to me enough of what a ridiculous race they were. and as antique and as heroic as those of Alexander and Caesar. with the seriousness ever rising and falling on certain soft yellow faces. in his truly English narrow-mindedness. at the India Docks. the strange gestures. To one whose whole soul was weary of the spiritless West. nearly all pure Mohammedans collected from every land of Asia. could not. how significantly and magically that name can sound. It was in the harbor of London. the enigmatical expressions of countenance. It has already become a rallying word among races. in the deepest manner. vanished away more proudly and imperiously in the twilight of the past. there being even some jet-black. I once felt. this fragment of the East which moved cheerfully and changingly before my eyes was a refreshing solace. manned with Hindoos. woolly-haired Africans among them. and it is very possible that the foreigners awoke . and long-necked camels. The grotesque forms and groups. their eyes like black flowers which looked at me as with wondrous woe all of this — in me a feeling like that of enchantment. and when the East and the West meet they fraternize on that single name. from the limits of China to the Arabian Sea. and on board an East India- man fully just arrived from Bengal. the singularly variegated dresses.146 THE GERMAN CLASSICS of the present. and I thought that broad-leaved palms. the wild and foreign ring of their language. The supercargo who was on the vessel. and other fabulous trees and animals must forthwith appear.

"Mohammed I" Joy suddenly flashed over the dark faces of the foreigners. At length a means occurred to me of expressing to them with a single word my friendly feelings. stretching forth my hands reverentially as if in loving greeting. I cried the name. and. as a cheerful greeting they exclaimed. and. and it was a vexation that I pleased them. and gladly I would have spoken a kind word to them. "Bonaparte!" . folding their arms as reverentially in turn.ENGLISH FEAGMENTS saw in 147 me how agreeable the sight of them was to me. neither understood the other's language. It was also plain from the very depths of their eyes how how much and they would also have willingly said something pleasant to me.

London. an estimable father of a family. under the permission of the censorship. even condescend to lie. a tender spouse and a good economist. man does not show the least mercy toward a citizen-king. in order day more and more like plain of him. and that only. January that. which does not permit the ^' ^ least remark to be leveled at absolute kings. permission of William Heinemann. For that. Its crafty hint is well understood. He is to make war on him. and I know of at least one liberal writer who no longer considers it honorable to use. HE Temps remarks today Zeitung now publishes articles the Allgemeine which are hostile to the royal family. [148] . such inimical language of a citizen-king as would not be allowed when applied to an absolute monarch. is guilty of no cruelties. and the spirits of truth. for it is because he is becoming every — an absolute king that we must comcertainly perfectly honorable as a man. but it is vexatious to see how he allows all the trees of liberty to be felled and stripped of their beautiful foliage that they may be sawed into beams to support the tottering house of Orleans. although tactics its melaneven the members are as innocent as they are amiable. the Liberal press blames him. j and that the Ger- (CiHssi ra I censorship. It is choly and lamentable that through such family of the King must suffer. You should at least have pity on the King. let Louis Philippe do us one single favor which is to remain a citizen-king. 1832. But in return for that. TRANSLATED BY CHARLES GODFREY LELAND Pakis." lately cried the good' ' * From French Affairs. As regards this. less witty but much kinder than its French elder sister. The Temps is really the shrewdest and cleverest journal in the world! It attains its object with a few mild words much more readily than others with the most blustering polemics. the German Liberal press.LAFAYETTE* (1833) By Heinrich Heine 19.

" a list. And terrible as an echo from the bloodiest days of the Convention sounded the speeches of those chiefs of the Societe des Amis du Peuple who were placed last week before the court of " accused of assizes. Nor is it long of Menotti. on Poland ? ' ' — I who was hanged saw a few days ago the young orphan in Modena. is pitiless as regards its royal enemy. has recently chimed in to the same air in a most surprising manner. sayings repubphrase with which poor Lafayette is mocked.LAFAYETTE replied 149 J " Pity on Louis Philippe tempered Journal des Debats. a poor deathly-pale lady. and every day preaches the Republic. we desire the overthrow of this feeble Government. The National. and laughs and swings its light lash most effectually. we wish for a republic. Yes. It is inexhaustible in clever as to " the best that " la meilleure republique coute quinze millions. La Tribune. the organ of the openly declared Republican party. since we have seen the best. " This man asks for fifteen millions the Tribune. the Figaro flashes lightning. While on one side the serious Republicans draw the sword and growl with words of thunder. as is well known. Ah ! I really pity Louis Philippe." Such was the refrain of all their speeches before the tribunal. because they proved that they had in no way conspired. once embraced Louis Philippe before " Vous etes la meilleure the Hotel de Ville and cried. ! Did he have pity on Italy. 1 ! and our pity et cetera. having conspired against the existing Government in order to overthrow it and establish a repub" lic. but had simply uttered " their convictions publicly. since I saw Sefiora Luisa de Torrijos. in reference to the debates on the civil lic. because he. the most reckless and independent journal in France. They were acquitted by the jury. 7> . And it also said as cruelly. who quickly returned to Paris when she learned on the Spanish frontier the his fifty-two news of the execution of her husband and of companions in misfortune. repub" The remarked that we of course lique! Figaro recently now require no republic.

In their irritation at the lamentable turn which events fact. who does not think with this party. that he had known Louis Philippe long enough to be aware beforehand what was to be expected of him. had fought simply to maintain the Charter. 1830. has of late given them a good push forward. and his style. intelligence. this Goethe of politics. This indifferentist of the deepest dye. and on similar promises. I would here cite the bitter passages against Lafayette contained in this work. But he was out-cried by — — the doctrinaire gossips and chatterers. and. and that all their sacrifices and struggles had no other object than to replace the elder line of the Bourbons by the younger. in moderation to preserve illustration of with his pamphlet against Chateaubriand he well-nigh annihilated that Don Quixote of Legitimacy. How far a man can go astray in this direction is shown by the book of Belmontet. is certainly at present the most powerful defender of the system of Perier. who sat so pathetically on his winged Rosinante. have taken. and on the other connected with a .150 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The Republican party will never forgive Lafayette his blunder in advocating a king. who proved from the English history of 1688 that people in Paris in July. piercing. who knows so admirably how in the clearness. on the republican institutions with which the monarchy should be surrounded. just as all was finished in England by putting the House of Orange in place of the Stuarts. many of the enthusiasts for freedom go so far as to slander Lafayette. and who shot only with costly pearls instead of good. though he now acts as their spokesman. Ah! the greatest heart of two worlds must feel bitterly the royal deception. were they not on one side too spiteful. leaden bullets. They reproach him with this. Lafayette is now ill malade de chagrin heart-sick. It was all in vain that he in the very beginning continually insisted on the Programme de V Hotel de Ville. and in which the Republic is advocated with commendable freedom. which is also an attack on the well-known pamphlet by Chateaubriand. whose sword was more shining than sharp. Thiers.

Athens or of Sparta. and sweet-smelling industries ! The monotony. in France. to that of the United States. want of color. One may ally to a chapter in it entitled there see how evil fortune may make even the noblest men ' ' ' ' unjust. that sublimely bad kitchen of equality. And how could we put up with that of Sparta. exercise their smiling. and especiThe Republic. tion. and the petty domestic would be even more intolerable home and fashion. to revive it in our senile Europe. Indeed. Indeed. on his sword. novelties. or emigrated as soon as possible. and it would be mere folly to seek to introduce it in this our matured age. nor. royalist by inborn I have now. for then the last aristocrats would have died of terror. How and of Careme? This latter would certainly have thr&wn himself. in the fatherland of Very. of the " love of the spectacular. I will not here find fault with the brilliant delusion of the possibility of a republic in France. I therefore refer the reader to the work itself. become one from convicinclination. had Robespierre only introduced Spartan cookery. the guillotine would have been quite superfluous. The Athenians were the student-youths of mankind their constitution was a species of academic freedom. least of all." of vanity.LAFAYETTE 151 defense of the Republic which is not suitable to this journal. of Vefour. as a Brutus of cookery and as the last gastronome. in the the citizens' life of America. curling. that soldiers' barrack of republican virtue. A ate For I am convinced that the French could never tolerany republic. like Vatel. that great and tiresome manufactory of patriotism. and as many barbers and per- — fumers. the passion for decora- . neither according to the constitution of . in which black broth was so vilely cooked that Attic wits declared it made men despise life and defy death in battle ? could such a constitution flourish in the very foyer of gourmands. Poor Robespierre! you would introduce stern republicanism to Paris to a city in which one hundred and fifty thousand milliners and dressmakers.

I on this account doubt the success of a republic in Europe. since they regard it as a necessary phase which will enable them to reestablish game with royalty itself. therefore zealous republi- Republic. even the heroes of July. Marrast. with the exception of August Wilhelm Schlegel. after Robespierre. next to Napoleon. there is not a woman in Germany so fond of gay ribbons as the French. Such men as these now believe that they may insult Lafayette. which they must assume.152 THE GERMAN CLASSICS nowhere so much as in France. and. all the world. The they now bear themselves like the most cans. calls fraternizes with himself a Republican from inclination. But let deluded friends and hypocritical enemies say what they will. The may Carlists are aiding this movement. at least. Even Chateaubriand praises the Gazette — the hypocritical Gazette de France — now yearns for republican state forms. is now continuing the same and that consequently a republic be for a short time. primary meetings. the compulsory liberty. Lafayette is. yet are ever and anon afflicted with the thought that they might forgetfully have put on in its place the red cap of a prelate they take for an instant from their heads their borrowed covering and show the tonsure unto . . universal franchise. the purest character of the French Revolution. that the republican respect for law in place of veneration tions flourishes of royal personages is showing itself among the better classes. who fought for freedom and equality. it still cannot be denied that everything is leading to one . and it serves as an agreeable relaxation from the sour republicanism. Perhaps. et cetera. the absolute monarchy of the elder branch. It is amusing to see how these disguised priestlings now play the bully-braggart in the language of Sans-culottism. just as it played at comedy for fifteen years with a king. afterward wore blue ribbons to disYet. if tinguish themselves from the rest of the people. the end of the song. how fiercely they coquet with the red Jacobin cap. and that the Opposition. and receives the accolade from Beranger.

for the cause of peace in Europe. that of the Place humbled and healed of the vain and thus this colossal column of metal. the sight of which. every ambitious when he beholds him. So he has for forty years said the same thing. even as it would be absurd to set the statue of Lafayette on the Venthat monument made of the cannon condome column on so many fields of battle. or metal as firm as his fidelity? It is true that he was always one-sided. as was Napoleon. It would indeed be ridiculous . but then he — was never intimidated by eagles nor seduced by serpents. On this bronze column place Napoleon. which always points to the north. and pointed constantly to North America. the man of iron. The latter fought for peace. here. and put one on the pedestal of the other. earned by cannon. as .LAFAYETTE 153 its most popular hero. but onesided like the magnetic needle. as quered Barbier sings. He is indeed no genius. and a better monumental image than one of metal or marble. while the serpents of calculation entwined in his heart. Where is there marble as pure as the heart of old Lafayette. in whose head the eagles of inspiration built their nests. not victory the former rather for the laurel wreath than for that of oak leaves. He is the one who opened the Revolution with the declaration of the rights of man. so that soldier. to this hour he perseveres in this belief. rising in to — terrible isolation to the clouds. measure the greatness of the two heroes with the same metre. may have love of celebrity. Napoleon and Lafayette are the two names which now bloom most beautifully in France. the unattainable one. and never once veers to south or west. no French mother can endure. a lightning conductor of conquering heroism. Truly their fame is each of a different kind. as his heart w ill do much 7 Lafayette has raised for himself a better column than Vendome. as in life. without which there the oneis no salvation and no health to be hoped for sided man with his one-sided heavenly region of freedom. As a young man he was wise as a graybeard. standing on his fame. there on high.

I should be obliged to fight against him. a protector of the people against the wiles of the great.154 THE GERMAN CLASSICS a graybeard fiery as a youth. for the French. in metal and wood. who. and people speak of him as I'homme. as a trusty Eckart of liberty. equally firm and mild the unchangeable Lafayette and so. he has remained on the same spot from the days of Marie Antoinette to the present hour. Yesterday evenwho sing him the Man ing. and the Tuileries will tremble should these cannon once awake. in his one- — ! sidedness and equanimity. On all boulevards and carrefours are orators who praise and popular minstrels and his deeds." But his picture is seen everywhere. There sleep a thousand cannon in this name. warning the world against that seductive Venusberg. which is to me the most delightful thing connected with him. I came into a dark and lonely lane. lisped a song praising the Emperor. Napoleon is. so Napoleon is here very seldom called " by his. he still stands leaning on his sword before the entrance to the Tuileries. a protector of the great against the rage of the people. by a candle stuck into the earth. The world outside of France has no idea of the boundless devotion of the French people to Napoleon. when they deter- mine on a decided and daring course. in engravings and plaster casts. As I threw him a sou on the handkerchief — — spread out. compassionating yet combating. and from whose sweet snares the poor wretches who are once entangled in them can never escape. It is certainly true that the dead Napoleon is more beloved by the French than is the living Lafayette. while returning home. will begin by proclaiming the young Napoleon. whose magic tones sing so enticingly. a magic word which electrifies and benumbs them. the man. As the Jews never idly uttered the name of their God. This is perhaps because he is dead. for. begging for another. were he alive. never arrogant and never discouraged. something slid up to me. even as in the column of the Place Vendome. in order to secure the sympathy of the masses. Therefore the discontented. . in which there stood a child some three years old. And.

by and by. for this glory had cost him both The poor man did not beg in the name of God. acts even on children. is venerated more as a man or as a guardian angel. But he approached me all the more famili" Est-ce que vous connaissez le general arly with the words. its religion. " II est de mon pays/' for he naturally believed that any man who was generous enough to give him ten sous must of course. donnez-moi un sou. who could also sing a song of the glory of the great Emperor. — — I heard in the song of " La Parisienne the words — Lafayette aux clieveux blancs. And here I will tell a little story about a beggar which will show the characteristic contrast between the glory of Lafayette and that of Napoleon. stand his greatness better than do the grown people. the Lafayette? proudest satisfaction appeared on the na'ive and dirty face of the pretty boy. Lafayette. and had a comic effect on me when. like and this religion will. every other. and judged me be. but legs. his our hearts. " and as I assented to this strange question. worthy that he should present himself as a compatriot of that great man. and they perhaps underbonhomie. be that such a comic combination brings him humanly may His good-nature. Au nom de Napoleon. and as usual lost in thought in contemplating that beautiful building. the man was in his It right place.LAFAYETTE It 155 old soldier. but less heroically. last year. and I gave him half-a-f ranc to somewhat nearer to be rid of him. . too. but still I needs must laugh to myself. on the 28th July. It was the Place de la Bastille. on the contrary. an admirer of Lafayette." while I saw him in person standing near me in his brown wig. was an " implored with most believing fervor. He. its cult. become tiresome. and with serio-comic expression he said. I was lately standing at a street corner before the Pantheon. lives in picture and in it honorably confessed! song. when a little Auvergnat came begging for a sou. Napoleon is its god." So this name is the best word to conjure with among the people.

there is the court of the sovereign people. as a genius of freedom. be it of heart or of table. In this he is like one of those great Republicans of earlier days who planted their own cabbages. and after combat and victory returned to their rural work. of an idyll. is. their Napoleon of peace. the well-fed heroes in great bearskin caps into which small shopmen's heads are stuck. any and The name of this country place is Lagrange. From this. On ing. of those those uncle tailors brave folks who always pay their bills — and cousin glove-makers who are indeed too busy by day to think of Lafayette. but who in time of need hastened from the plough to the battle or the tribune. himself with agriculture. tradespeople and small shop-keepers. Truly he is the Napoleon of the small citizen. But that it is in the real middle-class more than any other. and it is very charming when the hero of two worlds relates to the young people his adventures then he appears like an epos surrounded by the garlands the master of ceremonies. The great army of public order. where Lafayette passes the pleasant portion by aspiring young men and pretty girls.. are drunk with delight when they speak of Lafayette. that there is the most veneration for Lafayette. there one may be presented who is the son of his own works has never made mesalliance with falsehood is — and Lafayette . the establisher of order. their old general. among an armed tutelary patron of public peace and security. but who praise him afterward in . he is generally surrounded . They adore him as a kind of Providence on horseback. as Casimir Perier called the National Guard. is their idol. who also takes care in the battle for freedom that nothing is stolen and that everybody keeps his little property. Lafayette. rules supreme there are much laughing and dancthe estate of the year. They simply worship him. There hospitality. result the freshness and simplicity which might be lost in constant city life.156 THE GERMAN CLASSICS folk also have for Lafayette the most affecand all the more because he chiefly busies The country tionate respect.

Lafayette is perhaps the most prominent and influential speaker in the Chamber of Deputies. so that one may say that it is about eleven o'clock at night. and solemn discourses which attended such occasions. Other less witty folk wrongly imagine that Lafayette is an old man who is kept for show or used as a machine. his delivery. and on the tribune. There is in it all so much that is winsome and yet so much delicate irony. Only the body is weak and tottering. addresses. broken by age and the battles of his time.LAFAYETTE 157 the evening with double enthusiasm. simplicity. he always hits the nail. like a hacked and humanity is it is touching when he totters tribune and has reached his old post. but that he is in person the gonfaloniere in whose hands is much the good banner. This smile. strange enigma. and of the deputations. when the shops are shut." I now recall that Wolfgang Menzel has in his witty trifling called Lafayette a master of ceremonies of Liberty. the oriflamme of the nations. " master of cereI have just before used the expression monies. When it is needed. are here wondrously fused with what is best in the modern bourgeoisie. only But they need hear him speak only once in public to learn that he is not a mere flag which is followed or sworn by. When he speaks. We know not if these are the refined manners of a French marquis or the straightforward simplicity All that is best in the ancien of an American citizen. when one of the great questions of discussed. a sweet. that his fame is in full bloom. and the whole being of the man while speaking dented old iron armor. to see under it to the how he draws a deep breath and smiles. and his nailed-up enemies. . regime. in the Chaminteresting than love of equality. the chivalresque courtesy and tact. Nothing is more when mention is made. and honesty. This was when the former spoke in the Literaturblatt of the triumphal march of Lafayette across the United States. that one is enchained as by a marvelous curiosity. then Lafayette ever rises. eager for strife as a youth. are indescribable. on the head.

and the great historiographer of the Revolution bows before the outburst of its great and living monument. in his time heard better than Mauguin. now. however. in the dull and lazy times of the juste milieu. but since he has wound the tricolored scarf round his His only trouble waist he finds himself well again. But when Lafayette speaks. is I once even saw him fall asleep while drowsiness. There sits in the Chamber. and some one in ber. then the old messenger awakes from his twilight drowsiness. qui a beaucoup connu ce bon Monsieur de Robespierre. of the first doctrinaire fashion tears some his historical fact from its true connection and turns it to own account in speech. he is the old messenger who has always filled that office in the Chamber since the beginning of the Revolution. During the Restoration the old man suffered from colic. one of the best orators of the Opposition. General Lafayette. with long silvery hair falling over his black clothing. though he is not found to be very startling or effective by one Maugnin was speaking. just before the tribune a very old man. trumpet he nods delightedly with his silver-white head. the man has. Then Lafayette destroys with a few words the erroneous deduction by illustrating or correcting the true sense of such an Even event by citing the circumstances relating to it. whom he calls le bon Monsieur Robespierre.158 THE GERMAN CLASSICS days of the Revolution. Indeed. and who in this post has witnessed the momentous events of the world's history from the days of the first National Assem- bly till the juste milieu. and — . His body is girted with a very broad tricolored scarf. doubtless. Thiers must in such a case strike sail. who is. I am told that he often speaks of Robespierre. he seems to be aroused like an old war-horse of hussars when he hears the sound of a there rise within him sweet memories of youth.

or whether popular legend attributes to it was nothing else but the the same mystical origin. But this poetry had risen from Christianity. I must specially preface that I speak only of the first latter. I speak of that religion in whose dogmas there is a damnation of all flesh. and which not only allows to the spirit power over the flesh. . * I speak of that re- by teaching the doctrine of the casting U59] away Permission William Heinemann. but will I speak of that religion also kill this to glorify the spirit. London. and because the impossibility of a man's becoming altogether spiritual naturally created hypocrisy. by whose unnatural requisitions sin and hypocrisy really came into the world. such as the hammer. colored blossom. ligion which. it was a passion-flower which had sprung from the blood of Christ. like the convulsively agreeable sensations which come from pain itself. and nails a flower which is not so much ugly as ghostly. the flower Though in France only Roman Catholicism is understood by the word Christianity.THE ROMANTIC SCHOOL* By Heinrich Heine (1833-35) translated by charles godfrey leland |UT what was It the Romantic School in Germany? reawakening of the of the Middle Ages. and architecture. in art and in life. and even whose sight awakens in our It is a strange. as it had shown poetry itself in its songs. itself. images. I do not know whether the melancholy passion-flower of Germany is known by that name in France. unpleasantly calyx we see set forth the imple- — soul a shuddering pleasure. in that by the condemnation of the flesh the most innocent sensuous pleasures became sins. From this view was indeed the fittest symbol for Christianity whose most thrilling chain was the luxury of pain. in whose ments which were used in the crucifixion of Christ. pincers.

which are to be regarded as the pieces justificatives of Christianity. such a that as lascivious old hunger-cure as Christianity was a necessity. As the lascivious memoirs of the last cen- tury form the pieces justificative s of the French Revolution. and is not all the devil's. our inalienable inheritance. so we recognize the wholesomeness of ascetic spiritualism when we read Petronius or Apuleius. Rome was devoured by the same Jewish as by the spiritual- . Or was it men seek by being of enjoyment. The flesh had become so arrogant in this Roman world that it required Christian discipline to chasten it. its last took from the body of the state of strength. After the banquet of a Trimalchion. And therefore. and they now defend the delights of this world. because we have grasped so entirely all the con- meaning (We sen) of . It was not by division into two it realms that Rome perished. as the terrorism of a comite du salut public seems to be necessary physic when we read the confessions of the aristocratic world of France. end. this beautiful garden of God. and do not now content themselves with promises of supping in Paradise they know that matter has also its merits. became the most approved support of despotism. abject humility and angelic patience. Men have found out the real life and this religion. sequences of that absolute spiritualism. we may believe that the Christian Catholic view of the world has reached its Every age is a sphinx. Yet we do in no wise deny the good results which this Christian Catholic view of the world established in Europe. so old Rome whipped endured monkish chastisement to find more exquisite delight in torture and voluptuous rapture in pain? Evil exto excite new power cess of stimulant! Rome Tiber.160 THE GERMAN CLASSICS of all earthly goods and of cultivating a dog-like. which casts itself into the abyss when man has guessed its riddle. On the Bosphorus. It was necessary as a wholesome reaction against the cruelly colossal materialism which had developed itself in the Roman realm and threatened to destroy all spiritual human power.

and imperial war-voice died away into the wailing cadences of monkish prayer and the soft trilling of castrated boys. and European civilization began. that helm and harness fell was so thoroughly devoured by Jewish poison from its withered limbs. The epic poems of this period may be easily classed according to the degree of this subjection or influence. and the former are as like in every age as are the songs of nightingales in spring. — of the time was reflected in profane poetry with its Christian views and action. of ablife Vol. for the latter did not exist. VI — 11 . in leaving to itself Rome its spiritualism. The flower of the religious poetic art in the German Middle Ages is perhaps Barlaam and Josaphat. But what weakens old age strengthens youth. and it is very often its only mission. the too full-blooded barbarous bodies were spiritualized by Christianity. The Catholic Church has in this respect the strongest claims on our regard and admiration. The Art-work of the Middle Ages manifests this mastery of mere material by mind. as did the dying centaur who left to the son of Hercules the deadly garment craftily Truly Rome. Roman history was that of a long dying agony which lasted for centuries. That spiritualism had a healthy action on the too sound and strong races of the Xorth. Did murdered Judea. in which the doctrine of abnegation. for it succeeded by subduing with its great genial institutions the bestiality of Northern barbarians and by mastering brutal matter. the Hercules steeped in his own blood? on the victorious among its races. and. or of the heroes and legends of the Old garded and New Testaments.THE ROMANTIC SCHOOL 161 ism. in brief. and here. for if sacred poesy sang of the the only race which was reas holy. Although the epic poetry of the Middle Ages was divided into sacred and profane. There can be no discussion here of lyrical and dra- matic poems. as there. both were altogether Christian according to their kind. wish to revenge foe. the Church still all the Jewish race and its history.

so that we know not whether fried. But little by little a light dawns in the old Teutonic forest the ancient idolatrous oak-trees are felled. the The Eulogium of St. in those . to admire in it the conception of a giant or the patience of a dwarf. chivalry. as if from a mellow gold ground. and the long. is which first the cycle of sagas of the Nibelungen and the Heldenbuch. statue-like forms and the idealistic serious faces come out strongly drawn. but this is of a far more secular character. This appears in the saga-cycle of Charlemagne. as I have already signified. the details are treated in the minutest manner. And now from the spiritualizing power of Christianity. notwithstanding the grandeur of the plan. the side-work or accessories are almost one. As the subject. and the gentle gleam and the more refined breath of Christianity have not as yet penetrated their iron armor. in the song of praise of St. differing from the first as the portrait of a Byzantine saint differs from an old German Byzantine pictures.162 THE GERMAN CLASSICS stinence. But the evangel-poem of Ott- generally praised as the masterpiece of sacred poetry. . and. and we see a . in them rude strength has not as yet been softened by chivalry. in which what we really see is the Crusades reflecting themselves with their religious influences. the teristic feature of the Middle Ages. Next to this I would class is set forth most consistently. and is This secular knighthood appears most attractively glorified in the saga- at last sublimed into a spiritual knighthood. or Book of Heroes. unfolds most characitself. Hanno. lean. and the denial and contempt of all worldly glory. In them prevails all the preChristian manner of thought and of feeling. is far less admirable than the two which I have mentioned. brighter field of battle where Christ wars with the heathen. so we see in Barlaam and Josaphat the utmost simplicity there is no perspective side-work. There the stern Kempe-warriors of the North stand like stone images. Hanno (Lobgesang auf den heili- gen Anno) as the best of the religious kind. In profane poetry we find. On the other hand.

and the Lohengrin. in which the and in this epoch we meet three of the grandest poems of the Middle Ages. very serious results did indeed ensue. unsuspectingly. and the most adventurous passion for combat prevail. among them And some the Lancelot. We are at last permitted to praise Gottfried unconditionally. towering far above all the splendor of Wolfram von Eschenbach. We look deeply into her great sorrowing eyes. the composer of this most beautiful poem of the Middle Ages. her fine scholastic nets. the most refined courtesy. and draws us down At into the bewildering. The fair Francesca da Polenta and her handsome friend had to pay dearly for the pleasure of reading on a summer day in such a book. the all-surpassing Lancelot du Lac. but from their suddenly ceasing to read. it is and it is not the worst poet. gallant. is perhaps also its greatest poet. were considered as dangerous. deluding depths of medieval mysticism. the Titurel. the Parsifal. whom we so admire in Parsifal and of glorified sensuousness . who has left us the principal work thus inany This is Tristan and Isolde. Wigalois. though in his own time his book was certainly regarded as godless. often indirectly reflected on. and similar works. and true. but somewhat tiresome. however. we come to poems of that age which are not unconditionally devoted to Christian spiritualism. . and the bold. spiritual knighthood Holy Grail. but the trouble came not from the reading. in which the sweetest gallantry. last. Among the charmingly eccentric arabesques and fantastic flower-pictures of this poem we are greeted by the admirable Iwain.THE ROMANTIC SCHOOL 163 cycle of King Arthur. she twines around us. that Gottfried von Strassburg. Here indeed we find ourselves face to face with Romantic Poetry. Nearly allied and interwoven with this cyclus of sagas is that of the is glorified . where the poet disentangles himself from the bonds of abstract Christian virtues and plunges delighted into the world of pleasure and nay. and I must declare spired. the fragments of Titurel. by means.

and kernel make one nut. in which the wild wanderings of a knight have ever an esoteric meaning. who was son of Laertes . of "Plastic. and a peculiar significance lies hidden under this . that the Bacchus which we see in the Louvre is nothing else than the graceful. be it Christian or heathen. the and have led hitherto to most discouraging. for. who. winsome son of Semele. as shell. symbolizing perhaps the erring course of life. for example. It is quite otherwise in Romantic art. justly. they should set it forth in clear outlines . to the traveler is the Trinity. and further. it is a good piece of work. God the Father. which become worse since we give to antique poetry the designation tions are only uncertain rubrics. . which are three in one. quite as much as in the ancient. with audacious melancholy in his eyes and sacred voluptuousness on his soft and arching lips. wearisome entanglements. We characterize this difference by calling the Yet these appellafirst Romantic and the other Classic. as. The dragon whom he overcomes is sin the almond which from afar casts comforting perfume seus. one may be sure that by this garb he means as many virtues." instead of "Classic. When Homer describes fibre. and God the Holy Ghost." From this arose much misunderstanding.164 THE GERMAN CLASSICS There is in all these poems of the Middle Ages a marked character which distinguishes them from those of Greece and Rome. all poets should work their material plastically. And are not the figures in the Divina Commedia of Dante or in the pictures of Raphael as plastic as those in Virgil? The difference lies in this. plastic form should be the main desideratum in modern Romantic art. God the Son. worth such and such a number of oxen but when a monk of the Middle Ages describes in his poems the garments of the Mother of God. that the wanderings of Ulysses mean nothing else than the journeyings of a man named Odys- and husband of Penelope. holy covering of the immaculate virginity of Maria. the armor of a hero. in short. that the plastic forms in ancient art are absolutely identical with the subject or the idea which the artist would set forth.

yet had to represent the victory of mind over matter. crucifixions. are given that classification. and invents colossal follies. appeared. Romantic art had to set forth. the almond-kernel. or rather signify. the infinite and purely spiritual. Hence the mysproblematic. are wanting. Such themes were martyrdom for sculpture. as ideas by tical. Hence we find in sculpture and painting those revolting subjects martyrdoms. long thin arms. and when I contemplate those distorted images in which Christian asceticism and renunciation of the senses are exit was less favorable to those of design. manner pure Christian spiritwhich are spiritual from their very nature. starveling . Christ himself had sought to render clear his spiritualistic all kinds of beautiful parables. for original documents.THE ROMANTIC SCHOOL as her son is 165 almond-flower. for as these — pressed by distorted. piling Pelion on Ossa and Parsifal on Titurel to attain to heaven. they had to solve a problem against Nature. which might have served for our guidance. or rather of parabolistic symbols. It was not till late in the sixteenth century that the masterpieces of Catholic church music. dying saints. pious heads. among the Scandinavians and Indians. These express in the most exquisite uality. The recitative arts. Classic art had only to represent the finite or determined. and it took refuge in a system of traditional. being romantic. and transcendental in the artof the Middle Ages. which cannot be too highly praised. and the flesh crushed in every form. as. could indeed flourish fairly in Christianity. Among other races where poetry attempted to display the infinite. in which fantasy makes her most work desperate efforts to depict the purely spiritual by means of sensible images. for instance. is naturally sung as the That is the character of the medieval call poetry which we Romantic. marvelous. and its forms could be one and the same with the idea of the artist. We cannot say much as to the music of the Middle Ages. we find poems which. and where monstrous fancies appeared. and yet must use matter as the means wherewith to work.

Architecture had in the Middle Ages the same character as the other arts. and in rising to that ideality which attained perfection in so many pictures of the Madonna. THE GERMAN CLASSICS and awkwardly fitting garments. only a general impression pierces our soul. for the material for their work. and yet they were obliged to load the sighing because of its canvas with the most repulsive forms of suffering. the variegated windows cast on us red and . as indeed all the manifestations of life then harmonized so marvelously with one another. we realize an elevation of feeling and mortification of the flesh.166 legs. The interior is a hollow cross. especially the barbarians of the North. with her beautiful eyes. as in poetry. As regards some late this subject the Catholic clergy always made concession to the physical. susceptivity to varied play of color. — especially. and beheading. But human genius can transform and glorify even the many painters solved this problem of making what was revolting beautiful and elevating the Italians. when we regard many galleries which contain nothing but scenes of bloodshed. attracted and held fast its customers. The painters were indeed more favored. did not antagonize spirituality so obstinately as the material of the sculptors. for it was a magnet which could attract the multitude to the lap of Christianity. This image of immacu- beauty which is glorified by maternal love and sufferhad the privilege of being made famous by poets and ing painters. and adorned with all charms of the sense. and we wander among the instruments of martyrdom itself. one might suppose that the old masters had painted for the collection of an executioner. we hardly suspect the esoteric sense of its stone symbolism. When we now enter a Gothic cathedral. who. scourging. unnatural. Madonna Maria was the beautiful dame du comptoir of the Catholic Church. In truth. The tendency to parable shows itself here. succeeding in paying tribute to beauty at the expense of spirituality. I feel an indescribable compassion for the artists of that time.

and the trees and flowers were in close pots. was as zealous a Protestant as Luther. and a glass canopy protected them from cold and northern winds. prose protest in Wittenberg. transparently. not of the sun. worn-out Catholicism? The painters of Italy waged a polemic against priestdom which of Giulio . color. and the joyous intoxication of nymphs life in the verses of Ludovico Ariosto form a protesting opposition to the old. which falls But when like a weary. tearing itself with pain from the body. funeral songs wail about us. But arts are only the mirror of died away. under our feet are mortuary tablets and decay. so in art. and. And do not the mighty marble images of Michelangelo. the laughing Romano. cut as it were into such open work that one might take them for Brabant lace in marble. like blood and corruption. and thus even the hardest material declares Christian spirituality. delicately. gloomy. as Catholicism its sounds grew fainter and its lights dimmer During the Reformation Catholic song gradually disappeared in Europe. life. then we feel truly the power of that age which could so master stone itself that it seems spectrally transfused with spiritual life. Leo X. worn-out garment to the ground. and ottaverime. It was by no means due only to the Greek scholars who emi- grated to Europe after the fall of Byzantium that a love for Grecian culture and the desire to imitate it became so general among us a similar Protestantism prevailed then in art as well as in life. and as there was a Latin . a work of the gardener..THE ROMANTIC SCHOOL 167 green light. and the soul soars with the colossal columns to a giddy height. so finely. and in its place we see the longslumbering poetry of Greece re-awakening to life. these enormous buildings which are wrought so aerially. But it was only an artificial spring. so they protested poetically in Rome in stone. we behold the exteriors of these Gothic cathedrals. that splendid Medici. all events rather exert a mutual influence. In the world's history no event is the direct result of another.

This man pursued with enthusiasm theatre and sincerity art. and thence the heroes of French tragedy went with the Anjous to Spain it passed with Henrietta Maria to England. He showed us the nothingness. built our clumsy temples to the powdered Olympus of Versailles. not only by his criticism. and we Germans. in a measure. an independent originality. and they threw themselves with enthu- siasm into the sea of Greek joyousness from whose foam Painters once more rose to them goddesses of beauty. with the joy of yore. The most famous high-priest of was Gottsched. and so the age new classic poetry began. The blooming rosy flesh in the pictures of Titian is all Protestantism. Through the political influence of that great king this poetry spread over Europe. it assumed a French color. sculptors carved.168 THE GERMAN CLASSICS was perhaps more effective than that of the Saxon theologian. As modern life was most perfectly developed in France under Louis XIV. again breathed freely as the nightmare of Christianity seemed to spin whirling from their breasts. the art of poetry.. most of all. Then it was that men felt as if suddenly freed from the force and pressure of a thousand years. which were in turn imitated from the Greek. the artists. theology. old heroes from the marble. the laughableness. But he became the founder of modern German literature. antiquity. history all with the same zeal and to the — . poets again sang the house of Atreus and Laius. and. and archaeology. but by his own works of art. the flat and faded folly of those imitations of the French theatre. so the new classic poetry received there of most finished perfection. its home. matter of course. in Italy. limned the ambrosial joys of Olympus. The limbs of his Venus are more thorough theses than those which the German monk pasted on the church door of Wittenberg. as a its . this religion oirs. that wonderful long wig whom our dear Goethe has so admirably described in his mem- Lessing was the literary Arminius who delivered our from this foreign rule.

The two critical works which exercised the most influence on art are his Hamburg Dramatic Art (Hamburgische Dramaturgic). and will last. This religion he always preached. or the Limits of Painting and Poetry. of all who are recorded in the whole history of literature. There lives and breathes in all his works same great social idea. the same religion of reason.THE ROMANTIC SCHOOL the 169 same purpose. till ended by political freedom. February 15. 1729. and so fought with one hand while with the other they worked at the house of God. Minna von Barnhelm. who. but I cannot refrain from remarking that he is. when he destroyed something old in a battle. and his Laokoon. I will here mention another author who worked in the . He was regarded then as a champion of freedom of thought and against clerical intolerance for his theological writings were better understood. which Eugene Rodrigue has translated into French. and died in Brunswick. may give an idea of the vast comprehensiveness of Lessing 's mind. 1781. January 22. and Nathan the Wise. "He was. "like those pious Jews. it may be. And there was one art only of which he knew nothing that of changing stones into bread. and we can now see for the first time what he meant in sketching the duodespotism in Emilia Galotti. the same progressive humanity. He was a thorough-going man who." says a Ger! — — . for he consumed the greatest part of his life in poverty and under hard pressure a curse which clings to nearly all great German geniuses. at the same time always created something new and better. The fragments On the Education of the Human Race. man author. but. during the second building of the Temple. the writer whom I love best. His most remarkable theatrical pieces are Emilia Galotti." This is not the place where I can say more of Lessing. and whose Messiah we await. were often troubled by attacks of the enemy. whose John he was. a peculiarity which by political feelings than we do not find among his contemporaries. alas too often alone and in the desert. Lessing was more inspired men supposed. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing was born at Camenz in Lausitz.

170 THE GERMAN CLASSICS same spirit. I cannot pass them by without hastily kissing their dead lips. and a unique relation to his time and to his contemporaries. Yet if Lessing did so much to destroy the habit of imitating French second-hand Greekdom. and who maybe regarded as his successor. to be sure but so. gave an impulse to a new kind of ridiculous imitations. began to show itself more repulsively than and flatness and insipidity blew themselves up like German Library the frog in the fable. It is true that his eulogy is here also out of place. In Werther the world saw the reproduction of a true story. was at once universally recognized as a writer of commanding genius. and who died at in the year 1803. which very few appreciated in these masterworks. were the works of common bunglers. among so many dead who were a Lessing or a Herder. When I see there. which had in the late blessed Nicolai its chief organ. and in the General able mediocrity ever. It is Johann Gottfried Herder. By his battling with religious superstition he advanced the sober search for clearer views which spread widely in Berlin. and such writings were then the rage. . too. As I have said. It is a great mistake to suppose that Goethe. His Gotz von Berlichingen and his Werther were received with a degree of enthusiasm. those whom he loves or to whom he is re' ' Weimar ' ' lated. with their noble. who had already come before the world. Literary history is the great Morgue where every one seeks his dead. who shot himself dead for love. born in 1744 at Mohrungen. The most deplorits arsenal. my heart throbs. that of young Jerusalem. . Gotz and Werther had a spirited reception. and Goethe had but a small niche in the temple of literature. attention to the true works of art of Greek antiquity. with the same object. manly countenances. but more on account of the subjectmatter than their artistic merits. since he occupies an altogether peculiar position in literature. he still. by calling of little interest. Gotz was a dramatized romance of chivalry. as Lessing. in East Prussia.

in descriptive criticism. with whom per- in those dead-calm days. either their faults and failures were indicated. and. I say doctrine. Wieland was honored idolatrously. for this school began with judgments of the artworks of the past and recipes for art-works of the future. it occurred to several fools on this occasion to make away with themselves. In controversy and in indicating artistic shortcomings. he was more famous than Wolfgang von Goethe. Wieland was the great poet then. far more at that time than Goethe. True. or their merits and beauties brought to light. read with tears his touching letters some shrewdly haps might be classed the ode-maker. but the arm of August William Schlegel was too tenderly weak and the eyes of his brother Friedrich too mystically clouded for the former to strike so strongly and the latter so keenly and accurately as Lessing. 171 People observed that the manner in which "Werther had been banished from aristocratic society had increased his weariness of life. where these and many other souls in like accord found themselves "off and on. the Schlegels were entirely imitators of old Lessing. Rambler of Berlin. and of which August Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel have presented themselves as managing agents. owing The novels of August to its subject. The discussion of suicide caused the book to be still more discussed. a school which we call the Romantic. they obtained possession of his great battle-blade. and in both directions the Schlegel school rendered great service to esthetic criticism. Iffland ruled the theatre with his dreary bourgeois dramas.THE ROMANTIC SCHOOL and thereby." was the centre from which the new esthetic doctrine spread. It was in opposition to this literature that there sprang up in Germany. at the end of the last century. Lafontaine were just as much read. Jena. where the beauties of a work of art are to be set forth — . . went off like a shot. By judging of such works of art as already existed. and Kotzebue with his flat and frivolously witty jests. and the book. made a great noise. as this author wrote incessantly.

what is not generally known in France. where the I is opposed to the not-I and annihilates it that the Romantic school took the doctrine of irony which the late Solger especially developed. compared to the Schlegels. he is. for the latter is as weak He rarely sucin affirming as he is strong in denying. And this is still more the case with the brothers Schlegel. It may be that it was from the Fichtean Idealism that deeply ironical system. on the other hand. also a bit of a poet and it is said that he was in doubt whether he should not deliver who then taught . Theory of Identity of Schelling. vacillating improvisation of poetical philosophemes. and because. all his form. had indeed a great personal influence on the Romantic school. . at the most. He wants the firm basis of a philoso- phy or of a philosophical system. which is even declared to have sprung from it. But what shall I say as to their recipes for preparing works of art? There we find in the Schlegels a weakness which we think — may also be detected in Lessing. and Fichte himself had made it lose its interest by a mingling of tenets and ideas from Schelling. still more seldom a correct one. sadly Much is fabled as to the influence of Fichtean Idealism and Schelling's Philosophy of Nature on the Romantic school. This may be explained on the simple ground that Fichte 's philosophy had lost its hold. Schelling had never set forth a philosophy. but which they subsequently found to be fruitless and exchanged for the more positive axioms of the Schelling. an unsteady. philosophical doctrines in a poetic or even metrical This doubt characterizes the man. old Lessing was nowhere. in Jena. ceeds in laying down a fundamental principle. only the influence of certain frag- ments of thoughts from Fichte and Schelling. but only a vague philosophizing. and not at all that of a philosophy. But I see here.172 THE GERMAN CLASSICS where it came to a delicate detection of its characteristics and bringing them home to our intelligence then. and which the Schle- — — gels at first regarded as the soul of art.

though the times which came after were very stormy. and its inhabitants. there did not always reign that dreary silence which only now and then is broken by the crying of children. This consisted of an alliance of separate * Lower Rhine. managed. where the hills and cliffs with their romantic ruined castles rise more defiantly. [173] . the Legend of the Rabbi of Bacharach to his friend Hexry Laube by the Author dedicated A Fragment TRANSLATED BY CHARLES GODFREY LELAND TRANSLATION REVISED BY PAUL BERNARD THOMAS Chapter 'N the I its banks begin to lose their smiling aspect. the gloomy and ancient town of Bacharach. in whose nooks and niches the winds whistle and the sparrows build their nests. there lies. and though they had to submit first to the Hohenstaufen. and the lowing of cows. and in these poverty-stricken. the scolding of women. much love and much hate. power and pomp. repulsive muddy lanes which one sees through the ruined gate. following the example of the other cities on the Rhine.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH* With kindly (1840) is greeting. London. These walls were once proud and strong. with their toothless battlements and blind turrets. joy and sorrow. sterner majesty prevails. and then to the Wittelsbach authority. But these walls. like a strange and fearful tale of olden times. where Permission William Heinemann. to maintain a tolerably free commonwealth. were not always so decayed and fallen. free life. and these lanes were alive with fresh. For Bacharach once belonged to those municipalities which were founded by the Romans during their rule on the Rhine. and a wilder.

One of the most forsaken and helpless of the social elements. There was another accusation which in earlier times and all through the Middle Ages.174 THE GERMAN CLASSICS social elements. recurring legend. his lofty castle of Sareck. little social intercourse. because people declared they had drawn down the wrath of God. called. . and much Consequently there was but mistrust. The enraged populace. was the little Jewish community. and often when not The clergy ruled in darkness by darkening the souls of others. had poisoned the wells. in which the patrician elders and those of the guilds. who. which had been gradually bound down by local laws. at the end of the great pestilence. and. whenever he was called. and during the later persecution of the Jews it had taken in many a flock of fugitive co-religionists. and to this it was added that at the feast of the Passover the Jews slew Christian children to use their blood in the night sacrifice. who were subdivided according to their different trades. and not infrequently The ruling governor sat in swooped down like his falcon. especially the hordes of Flagellants. actual outbursts of passion. and raged most furiously about the middle _ojL the fourteenth century. lashing themselves for penance and singing a mad hymn to the Virgin. This had first settled in Bacharach in the days of the Romans. cost much blood and suffering. like all other great public disasters. tortured others. The great oppression of the Jews began with the crusades. they were. and pierced it with knives till blood ran from it. or baptized them by force. murdered in those days many thousand Jews. in union to resist and guard against outside robber-nobles. swept over South Germany and the Rhenish provinces. with the help of the lepers. or half-naked men and women. nevertheless. both strove for power so that while they were bound . This was the ridiculous with disgusting frequency in chronicle and story. that the Jews stole the consecrated wafer. was attributed to the Jews. even to the beginning of the last century. which. constantly having domestic dissensions over disputed interests.

A w i—( o B u 2. X u .


Abraham. and innumerable Jews murdered and maltreated. their religion. and the deeper was the growth among them of piety and the fear of God. This command. who could easily bring about their destruction by spreading the report of such a child-murder. An ideal example of a life given to God was seen in their Rabbi . plunder. though they were continually subject to spite and threats. was famed far and wide for his learning. and his father. The latter is now one of the most beautiful ruins on the Rhine. left . and do not know the story of its origin. In Gothic grandeur of its honor of this saint there were also three great churches built on the Rhine. and perhaps even secretly put- ting a bloody infant's corpse in the house of a Jew thus accused. and the debts due to them. He was born in Bacharach.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 175 Consequently on the day of this festival the Jews. was all that his parent. Yet the more they were oppressed by hate from without. and baptize them and great miracles would be wrought by the dead child aforesaid. proud and lofty pillars. where one of these Saint Werner's churches stood. All this happened in the year 1287 and in Bacharach. and in his honor the magnifi. were* entirely in the hands of their enemies. and marvelous stone-carving. However. who had lived in poverty and learning. protected from such outbreaks of popular rage. who. it strangely enchants u-s when we wander by it on some bright. whom the Church would eventually canonize. the Jews suffered much misery and persecution. except for a cabinet full of rare books. and with the long ogival windows. they remained there for two centuries after. had charged him in his last will to devote his life to that office and never to leave the place unless for fear of life. hated for their wealth. cent abbey of Oberwesel was founded. and murder. who had been the rabbi there before him. Saint Werner is one of these holy beings. the more earnestly and tenderly did the Jews of Bacharach cherish their domestic life within. Then at night they would attack the Jews at their prayers. green summer's day. though still a young man.

he had already wedded her against the will of her father." and recalling how she had awaited his return for seven years. had nevertheless followed Christian customs and become imbued with habits of free thinking. his time was passed in prayer and study. A few gossips in the community hinted now and then that the Rabbi had married for money. The great hall in his house. His married life was childless. and every detail of all religious customs and ceremonies with painstaking conscientiousness. . however. or into the eves of Beautiful Sara. For every Jew can make a Jewish girl his lawful wife. he fasted every Monday and Thursday only on Sabbaths and feast days did he indulge in meat or wine. And yet in the bottom of their hearts these gossips put no faith in such reports.176 THE GERMAN CLASSICS him. was open to the whole community. and whose possessions he had inherited. all because of a vague rumor that Rabbi Abraham. by the betrothal-ring. long ere he went to Spain. according to the law of ' ' : Moses and Israel. who had been a prosperous dealer in jewelry. and even without her own consent. though he had studied the holy law industriously enough at the theological school in Toledo. as a matter of fact. earnest in every way. whom his fame had drawn to Bacharach and by night he gazed on the stars in heaven. for ever since his return from Spain the daily life of the Rabbi had been pure. But the women all denied this. and say at the same time I take thee for my wife. if he can succeed in putting a ring on her finger. while. He performed — . the same gossips were wont to smile in the same significant manner." And when Spain was mentioned. had been in love with " Beautiful Sara. by day he taught the Law to students. for he had married the only daughter of his father's brother. Rabbi Abraham. so that people went in and out without ceremony. declaring that the Rabbi. like many of the Spanish Jews who at that time had attained a very remarkable degree of culture. yet there was no lack of life or gaiety in his home. pious. was a very rich man. which stood near the synagogue. some to offer short prayers.

never failing to dine with him on all great festivals. with their wives and children. and mysteriously secret as some old dark legend. whose contents are a strange mixture of legends of their forefathers. first Vol. places in its midst three flat loaves of unleavened bread. Mournfully merry. in eternal remembrance of their deliverance : from Egyptian servitude. seriously gay. all of whom looked up to the Rabbi as the head of the family. wondrous tales of Egypt. During this feast there is a grand supper. This takes place as follows As soon as it is dark the matron of the family lights the lamps. and quarreled or others to gather news. here people met for wedding and funeral processions. vi this table the father of the family sits and friends. moreover. that is. lettuce. prayers. spreads the table-cloth. and places on them six little dishes containing symbolical food. a well-spread table. and those who were hungry. cinnamon. the Rabbi. covers them with a napkin. while four cups of red wine are drunk. here. And. or to hold a consultation when in Here the children played on Sabbath mornings were reconciled. a very ancient and remarkable feast which the Jews all over the world still hold every year in the month Nissen. and festival songs. is the character of this nocturnal festival. Special among these grand gatherings in the Rabbi's house was the annual celebration of the Passover. and an endless array of uncles and cousins. and warm so made themselves at home in his house. had a multitude of relatives. and reads to them from — 12 . and a brown mixture of raisins. as well as his wife. disputed questions of theology. and nuts. brothers and sisters. and even during the reading there is at specified times tasting of the symbolical food and nibbling of Passover bread. horse-radish. too. 177 while the weekly " section " was being read. and the traditional singing intonation with which the Agade is read by the father.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH trouble. those who "were cold found a stove. and now and then reechoed in chorus by the hearers. an egg. At with all his relatives a very curious book called the Agade. the bone of a lamb.

wore on their heads and necks ornaments of gold and pearls. higher than the others. while the silver Sabbath lamp cast its festive light on the cheerful. and again startles it so suddenly into waking that even those Jews who have long fallen away from the faith of their fathers and run after strange joys and honors. reclined. or answered in the appointed places. but somewhat severe features had a legends. milder expression than usual. in wonderful glittering hats. even as all Jewish beauty is of a — peculiarly moving kind. imparts to their lovely features an expression of soulful sadness and . his nobly-formed. as did the tall wine goblets. when by chance the old. devout faces of parents and children. as custom requires. the plates of symbolic food shone invitingly. the women. Rabbi Abraham once sat in his great hall surrounded by relatives. who sat on the high velvet cushion with her husband. his lips smiled through his dark-brown beard as if they would fain say something kind. while in his eyes one could see happy remembrances combined with some strange foreboding. then calms it as mother's lullaby. garments of Lombard stuffs. On the purple velvet cushions of a chair. Rabbi Abraham. had on none of her jewelry nothing but white linen enher slender form and innocent face. and the evil dangers amid which their kindred and friends dwell. and many other guests. the bitter ignominy. are moved to their very hearts.178 thrills the THE GERMAN CLASSICS inmost soul as with a shudder. while the gay assembly joined in. as hostess. who read and sang the Agade. canopy. adorned with embossed pictures of scenes in holy ered silk The men sat in their black cloaks and black low and white collars. This face was veloped touchingly beautiful. disciples. to so And celebrate the great feast of the Passover. Everything was unusually brilliant over the table hung the gaily embroid. for the consciousness of the deep wretchedness. well-known tones of the Passover songs ring in their ears. Beautiful Sara. whose gold fringes touched the floor. The Rabbi also wore the prescribed black festival garment.



and the Rabbi. Jerusalem. with their sheep. yet glancing ever and anon at the beautiful parchment book of the velvet. before Mount Sinai. finally. : 1 ' And the Rabbi replied promptly and kindly " Peace be with you! Sit ye down near me!" The two strangers immediately sat down at the table. with its towers and battlements. entered and said Peace be with you. It Agade which lay before was an old heirloom. The second wine-cup had been served. — the children of Israel cautiously crossing the praised! Red Sea. and had come down from the days of her grandfather and in it there were many boldly and brightly-colored pictures. Several times while the others were repeating a : . and the frogs giving him no peace the Lord be even at the table. and oxen. loving anxiety. which as a little girl she had often looked at so eagerly on Passover evenings. cows. and two tall. with her. We are men of your faith on a " journey. and. as he took a loaf of unleavened bread and raised it with a cheerful smile. wrapped in very loose cloaks. but in years to come in the land is the food which our fathers ate in Egypt ! This year we celebrate it as servants. pious King David — — playing the harp. but in the " years to come as sons of freedom! Then the hall door opened. which particularly charms our hearts. bound in gold and ancient wine stains on it. They . and the Rabbi read on. pale men. read these words from the Agade: "Behold! This Let every one who is hungry come and enjoy it! Let every one who is sorrowful come and share the joy of our Passover! This year we celebrate it here.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 179 watchful. . Abraham breakrepresented all kinds of Bible incidents with a hammer the idols of his father and the angels ing appearing to him Moses slaying Mizri Pharaoh sitting in state on his throne. So on this evening Beautiful Sara sat looking into the eyes of her husband. and wish to share the Passover-feast with you! of Israel. his death by drowning . shining in the splendor of the setting sun. the faces and voices of the guests were growing merrier. and then standing open-mouthed.

had strange. " Rejoice. "The Prince is wanting. she saw his face suddenly assume an expression of agony or horror. and his eyes harden like two balls of ice but almost immediately he regained his previous composure and cheerfulness. urged by feminine curiosity. on which was a pretty picture. who went on chanting the wonderful story how Rabbi Jesua. showing how the three angels came to Abraham. first on one ear." meaning by that a son. announcing that he would have a son by his wife Sara. and conversed all night long of the Exodus from Egypt. he said to her. — The Rabbi gradually developing into jubilant hilarity. his cheeks and lips grew ruddy. meanwhile. Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Asaria. . and Rabbi Tarphen sat reclining in Bona-Brak. what the meaning of the festival is? The Rabbi said nothing. cocked his cap comically. and which was now seized him. This little caused a threefold blush to color the cheeks of Beautisign ful Sara. who. is slyly listening to it all behind the tent-door. who first looked down. he said an endearing once. has to ask his father. who. and he looked about him gaily nay. but pointed with his finger to an opened page of the Agade. — Beautiful Sara was frightened as she had never been before in all her life. till their disciples came to tell them that it was daylight. While Beautiful Sara sat devoutly listening to and looking at her husband. it seemed as if a wild humor. oh my Queen! " But she replied with a sad smile. and that the great morning prayer was being read in the synagogue. and sang the Agade . than to the cheerfulness which followed it. pulled and twisted his beard ludicrously. alluding to the old ing a Hebrew father of a family regards himself as a king. Rabbi Eliezer. such as was foreign to his nature. then on the other. and then glanced pleasantly at her husband. sentence after him.180 THE GERMAN CLASSICS word to his wife humorous saying that on this even. with a certain formula of words. as a passage in the Agade requires. his cheeks and lips become deathly pale. and a cold shudder went due less to the momentary manifestation of through her dumb horror which she had seen in her husband's face.

while the Rabbi held her left. combined with loud laughter. or joyfully singing aloud. to be sure. out of the city gate to the highway which leads along the Rhine to Bingen. Beautiful Sara still had the silver basin in her right hand. hands. and quietly slipped out of the door. drinking wine. nibbling the thin Passover cakes. threatening giants' heads. Then came the time for supper. Every moment Beautiful Sara was near him with the red wine. yet which inspire the soul with strange. richly adorned with embossed gold figures. perhaps because she had become accustomed to obey her husband blindly and unquestioningly . As was one of those spring nights which. and in the greatest haste hurried her through the dark lanes of Bacharach. . he grasped her hand. he gave her a significant glance. the lofty banks of the Rhine looked like vague. the drops that adhere. and with it rang in jarring discord the funeral bell of Saint Werner's. and Beautiful Sara brought the large silver basin. which was held before all the guests in turn. There was something funereal in the odor of the flowers. and she was oppressed with nameless fears as she gazed on the buzzing swarm of gaily glittering guests who were comfortably enjoying themselves here and there. All rose to wash. he so becoming more amazed by this convulsive merriment of her husband. the moon cast malicious It yellow stripes of light over the dark murmuring stream. and she felt that his fingers were ice-cold. are mild and starry enough. When Beautiful Sara walked out after him.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH . and that his arm was trembling but still she went on with him in silence. gossiping. uncanny feelings. The watchman on the tower of Castle Strahleck blew a melancholy blast. the birds chirped spitefully and at the same time apprehensively. 181 texts as if they were tavern-songs and in the enumeration of the Egyptian plagues. where it is usual to dip the forefinger in the full wine-cup and flip off sprinkled the young girls that there was great wailing over spoiled collars. while water was poured over their she was doing this for the Rabbi.

Come with me. ! ! trembling with excitement. At first unable to speak. But we have escaped his sword. be merciful jured him to explain the dark mystery. the last of my possessions. Beautiful Sara looked at his pale face." continued the Rabbi. she could no longer endure the agony of uncertainty. anxiety. The God of our fathers will not ! . terror. — perhaps. but of the army of the godless. and seemed to express by turns pain. and they will be satisfied with my silver and gold. " that our two guests were not of the community of Israel. as an offering. and so that it may not follow us I have thrown to it the silver ewer. he told her that. while he was happily and comfortably singing the Agade. and gazed on the stars. and only by craft did I save our lives. Beautiful Sara. . Praised be God Grieve not. Beautiful Sara. opposite Lorch. he happened to glance under the table. Our relatives and friends shall also be saved it was only my blood which the wretches wanted. But when the Rabbi suddenly snatched from her hands the silver basin and threw it far out into the Rhine. as with the pain of death. who had plotted to bring that corpse into the house by stealth so as to accuse us of child-murder. Trembling and shivering. " Then I knew. and stir up the people to still in a voice plunder and murder us. and saw at his feet the bloody corpse of a little child. I have escaped them. and rage. because her lips were mute with fear and Below Castle Sonneck. which seemed ghastly in the moonlight. to another land. TVe will leave misfortune behind us.182 THE GERMAN CLASSICS too. the Rabbi moved his lips without " Dost thou see the uttering a sound. piety. looked around on every side. God be praised " Then. The Rabbi ascended this with his wife. Had I given a sign that I saw through that work of darkness I should have brought destruction on the instant down upon me and mine. about the place where the hamlet of Nieder Eheinbach now lies. but finally he cried. Angel of Death? There below he sweeps over Bacharach. and crying out " " threw herself at his feet and conSchadai. there rises a cliff which arches out over the Rhine bank.

and a rider came rushing down . . thou art weary. limpid waters of the Rhine. in the strange moonlight. The glance of the silent youth roused Beautiful Sara from her lethargy. ' very handsome youth. and as with deep meaning on Beautiful large blue eyes rested Sara. perhaps even the long-sunk Nibelungen hoard. old Father Rhine cannot bear to see his children weep. her favorite mountain and far up on its summit. There is Dumb William standing by his boat. and was waiting for him. and so. her extreme sorrow seemed to be washed away by the whispering waves. for on his silent his lips there was an expression of tender sympathy. or to the rocking of the boat. a weeping image of white marble. It seemed as if he had divined the intention of Abraham. while active little dwarfs swarmed out of their caverns in the rocks. she imagined she saw a lady with outstretched arms. caught and sold fish. old. But especially cordial seemed the farewell greeting of Kedrich. which were as white as her garment. drying their tears. 183 Come down. Whether it is due to the measured beat of the oars. to support his old foster-mother. who. A stream of bitter tears poured over her cheeks. Thus she sat in the boat. and tells promises them old. and beside her sat her husband and Dumb William. as he lifted her carefully into the boat. he rocks them on his trusty arm. while the hills about her home bade her the tenderest farewell. he will row us up the Rhine. and kept his boat in this place. kindhearted. and she realized at once that all which her husband had told her was not a mere dream. and as if every limb were broken. his them his most beautiful stories. and most golden treasures. or to the fresh perfume from those steep banks whereon joy grows. in truth. who slowly bore her There stood William. a deaf and dumb but to the bank. For.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH forsake us. who was busily rowing. it ever happens that even the most sorrowful heart is marvelously relieved when on a night in spring it is lightly borne along in a small boat on the dear. Beautiful Sara sank into the arms of the Rabbi.' Speechless. a neighbor of the Rabbi. Gradually the tears of Beautiful Sara ceased to flow.

child again. ' ' when he These memories stole like twilight shadows through the soul . Yes. the white-bearded usher sat beside her father. laughing water-fairies. for the flowered cover was spread on the table. and how he at last married and loved her for ever and ever. and of Gingerbread Land. crystal castles. how he had to serve seven fidingly years for her. singing trees." replied. * * * Then all at once Beautiful Sara remembered how her father cried with merry voice. she were a and were aunt from Lorch. who was knight who freed the stolen damsel from the dwarfs. in the midst of these pleasant tales. obedient children go. Then it seemed to her as if they set her on the little stool before her father's velvet-covered chair. and she shall wait seven years too. where good. and that he with a soft hand smoothed her long hair. scolding the poor aunt for putting such nonsense into the child's head. Sabbath dressing-gown of blue silk. eating raisins and talking in Hebrew even little Abraham came in with . Wilt thou not also marry thy " To which little Abraham cousin Sara like that? gravely " That I will. all the utensils in the room were polished like looking-glasses.184 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Beautiful Sara felt as sitting once if the side in full gallop. and modestly begged leave of his uncle to expound a portion of the Holy Scripture. it must be the Sabbath. while he rocked himself comfortably in his loose. and of enchanted princesses. which began to denly send forth notes of music and to gleam with lovely light. Beautiful Sara heard the voice of her father. and how quickly the time passed. and therefore deserved much praise and a corresponding — Then the lad laid the book on quantity of cakes. * * a very large book. how he talked so conwith her by the well. in the lap of her her brave tales of the bold telling more But sudgolden bridges. where the birds talk as sensibly as men. the broad arm of the chair. that he might prove that he had learned much during the past week. and set forth the history of how Jacob raised his voice and wept Jacob and Rachel * * — first saw his cousin Rachel. and many other true stories of the wonderful Wisperthal over there. smiling as if well pleased.

" and shortly after he died. Then the Rhine seemed to murmur the melodies of the Agade. flowers. Abraham to compel him to write a letter of divorce. and as pale as death. by little he began to grow larger and more self-interested. and from its waters the pictures. and cried. the images intermixing together again. and large flowers with marvelously spreading foliage. but wild and distorted. Mizri defending himself fiercely against the maddened Moses." he adds. and the father ' ' ' ' I ' ' silently returned to his house. saying that Abraham would return in seven years. with a of God and of Israel. Mount Sinai flashing and flaming. told the tale to her " Cut off father." With that he hurried away. years shalt thou be a beggar. and Sara. Suddenly the door flies open. strangely. half-strange bearded faces. he " Seven cursed. who roared and raged. enters. For seven years thou must wait for me. the moon shines in brightly. as large as life. * * * And now she sits in her room alone on a Saturday evening. and cousin Abraham. in traveling garb. and says. for thou Then he wanted to ride after art now a married woman. till little noticed her at all. Farewell trembling voice. holding his . mirrors. memories swept through her soul like a hurand blending while between them came and went half -familiar. how little Abraham caressed her more and more . and at last became a man and scarcely tenderly. King Pharaoh swimming in the Red Sea. weeping. I hereby take thee to be my wife. came forth one by one. solemnly.great so and she recalled how she and her little a man and her husband played — together as children in the leafy tabernacle how delighted they were with the gay carpets. There was Father Abraham anxiously breaking the idols into pieces which immediately flew so old And ried play of shadows. And when Beautiful Sara was helping him to draw off his boots. but Abraham was over the hills and far away. according to the laws "But now. grasps her hand. thy hair." now I must go to Spain. and trying to soothe him. puts a gold ring on her finger.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH of the 185 cousin young — now wife. and gilded apples.

as if at a deathbed. with its towers and gates. Then all at once the oppressive gloom and terror passed away. and . The high towers of a great city rose before her. smiling as if well pleased. Beautiful Sara awoke. roaring waves. shimmering in the moonlight. and Dumb William. right. as they. was beginning to rise. and the boat was just shooting through the Bingen Eddy. By this time Beautiful Sara had somewhat awakened from her dreams. with corpse-like faces shrouds. with his oar upright. on the summits of which lights of castles were gleaming. Chapter II As Beautiful Sara opened her eyes they were almost dazzled by the rays of the sun.186 THE GERMAN CLASSICS pointed gold crown tightly in his teeth. the dark curtain was torn from heaven. the Temple gleamed in golden splendor. ten thousand to the left. with his purple mantle and golden crown sweetly rang his song and the tones of his harp. The world grew dark before her eyes. and. whose crews were either gazing . and far above ' ' there appeared the holy city Jerusalem. and in its fore-court Sara saw her father in his yellow Sabbath dressing-gown. in the foaming. and a dark giant-hand rose up threatening from below. while frogs with human faces swam along behind. gay with pennons and streamers. to protect the king from the terrors of the night. and smiling happily. Yonder was the Mouse Tower of Bishop Hatto. she only heard the Rabbi repeating the night-prayer slowly and painfully. Suddenly she seemed to see her friends and * relatives. an icy cur- rent ran through her soul. Dreamily she stammered the " Ten thousand to the words. All her friends relatives were looking out from the round windows of the Temple. was standing in the boat. as if in sleep. in the Holy of Holies knelt pious King David. pushing and guiding it their through the lively confusion of many vessels. and at the foot of which the mist. cordially greeting her. passed in awful procession along * * and flowing the Rhine. and she gazed at the hills on the shore.

Beautiful Sara. casting a significant glance at the Rabbi. Beautiful Sara burst out Laughing. deep-blue eyes on hers. and then. who pays six farthings. in their red coats and with their white maces and white faces. taking his wife by the hand." At were obliged the thought of this war. and horses can safely pass." said Beautiful Sara. from which our lame Gumpert brings us the fine myrrh for the Feast of the Tabernacles. on account of the Jewish community. half cheerfully. for tribute. or else were busily loading with chests. free. Here you see the strong Main Bridge with its thirteen arches. wagons. jumped from boat 11 to boat. and the scolding of the custom-house officials who. where. Dumb William for a long time fixed his beautiful. as it was the time of the Easter Fair. sprang back into his boat and was soon out of sight. . Do you see those pleasantlooking houses up there. over which many men." said the Rabbi. half sadly. Yes. surrounded by green hills? That is Sachsenhausen. " Dumb William much resembles my brother who died. commercial city of Frankfort-on-the-Main. led her through the dense crowd on the shore. and as she was helped ashore from the boat by Dumb William and her husband. had driven all the terrors and horrors of the past night from her soul. "All the angels are alike. and casks the lighters which were to bear them to the shore. to every man who brings him a dead rat for the Jews are obliged to deliver annually to the State council five thousand rats' tails . Then passing through the gloomy . In the middle of it stands the little house where Aunty Taubchen says there lives a baptized Jew. The bright sunlight. And with it all was a deafening noise. the calling of traders from the shore." answered the Rabbi and. she felt inspired as with a sense of joyful safety. and ing to his wife. which the Frankfort Jews to wage with the rats. and we are now passing along the river Main. cheerfully smil" this is the famous. and the new gay world now before her. the constant halloh cry of steersmen. a great number of wooden booths had been erected by traders. imperial. bales.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 187 idly at passers-by.

said the Rabbi. such as she had never seen before! Here stood Venetians. and whether the green stockings would suit little Gottschalk. and the pictures of the previous night filled her soul with all their horror again. and Beautiful Sara was enchanted by the sight of the ornaments and gay caps and bodices. being to trade. The richly embroidered stuffs of velvet and silk seemed fairly to speak to Beautiful Sara. so that the passer-by. What a gay. But the gold-embroidered cloths glittered once more with a thousand roguish eyes. admire and love to wear. and bore its " Shut your eyes. or. they found themselves in quite as noisy a crowd. would prefer that blue silk girdle. who were loudly vying one another in offering bargains.188 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Main Gate. could see at a glance all there was for sale. There were no windows on but broad. in a narrow street. who at a dog-trot were jewels. Here. active throng! Most prominent were the tradesmen. and he led his wife on through the crowd. and yesterday they Ah. And how astonished Beautiful Sara was at the mass of magnificent wares. are all grown up now. and when she looked into her husband's face she saw that it was free from clouds. and she really felt as if she were a little girl again. But all at once it flashed on her. Sara!" habitual. open arches. and to flash and sparkle strange wonders back into her memory. looking in. as specially adapted the ground floor. or talking together and summing on their fingers. and at the splendor. Posy and Birdy. and which of her two little cousins. Lord they were slain She shuddered. following heavily loaded porters. the gold bangles and neckand the whole display of finery which women so laces. and drove the gloomy thoughts from her mind. With a secret joy she reflected what she should take back with her to Bacharach. serious gentleness. and as if she were now at last standing before the beautiful garments of which she had heard so much. the shops stood close beside one another. who offered cheaply all the luxuries of the Orient and Italy. the ' ' ! ' ' ! . and as if Aunty Taubchen had kept her promise and taken her to the Frankfort Fair. every house. was usual in Frankfort.

This is the great market-place of the city. standing among his upon the balcony. and how Lord Walter the Vagabond had knocked the Knight of the Bear out of his saddle so violently that the splinters of the lances flew high into the air. a black. Many idle men still stood on or about the scaffolding. fair-haired King Max. a yellow leather jerkin. swelling waistcoat betrayed the honorable and proud citizen.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 189 leading the way to their lodgings. while the tall. An iron spikehelmet. and its in his honor the day before there had been great tilting in the Romer. and before it tournaments were often held. who was passionately fond of this sport. expensive-looking. which was being removed by carpenters. Carried along by the crowd. showed that they were finished dandies by their saucily feathered caps. was then in Frankfort." which was bought by the magistracy and dedicated as the townhall. and their colored silk garments. like hunting-dogs on the scent. so that the mad youths looked if of as they were divided in the middle. and takes name from an immense building. By the faces of others one could see that they came from curiosity. the Rabbi and his wife arrived at the Romer. In it the German Emperor was elected. which came together in a point over the brow. or else striped like a rain- bow on the right and checkered with harlequin squares many colors on the left. The banners were still to be seen on the balconies and in golden the Gothic windows of the town-hall. rubbed his hands for joy. " the Romer. little black velvet caps. there was many a rosy girl-face. and rattling spurs. and the young fellow? who ran along after them. King Maximilian. The stout councilman was recognizable by his scarlet cloak and golden chain. telling how the Duke of Brunswick and the Margrave of Branden- burg had charged one another amid the sound of drums and of trumpets. some of which were green on one side and red on the other. The other houses of the market-place were still likewise festively bedecked and courtiers . their squeaking peaked shoes. indicated the heavy cavalry-man. weighUnder ing a pound. surrounded by houses with high gables.

Katherine. surged back and forth. met as if by accident and began to cut and pass with great apparent anger. or applied himself to pull a poor peasant's tooth. and these were followed by the constable. What a multitude of idlers of all ages and ranks were crowded together here to gratify their curiosity! There was laughing. who was carrying a red flag at the head of a flock of traveling " The strumpets. baring their bold. among whom were a few really beautiful girls. in wild groups and processions. Many knights and ladies standing on the balcony were engaged in animated conversation. in a red cloak and with his clown and monkey. but after a long bout each declared that the other was invincible. chaffing those who went by with shameless words. white breasts. on whose banner was painted a maiden with a sparrow-hawk in her hand. and took up a collection. Then the newlyorganized guild of archers marched by with drummers and pipers." . grumbling. the goat? Oh bring him quick! if there is no goat. singing in shrill tones the witch-song " — Where Where And the goat ? the hellish beast . while every now and then blared the trumpet of the mountebank. and a monkey holding out to her a mirror. at least is is We'll ride upon the stick. dancing about in gay ribbons and brandishing their rapiers." in Wiirzburg. or looking at the crowd below. " Shut your eyes. hurrahing. rib-poking. they rode down toward the gate of St. Two fencing-masters. ere he solemnly examined the glass of urine brought by some old woman. and using the latter as hobby-horses. especially the Limburg house. behaved in a most immodest manner. Sara. and altogether too scantily clad women. and bound for Rosendale. stealing." said the Rabbi. which. who. stood on a high stand loudly boasting of his own skill. For indeed these fantastic. and sounding the praises of his marvelous tinctures and salves. and swinging their long walking sticks. hailing from the brothel known as Ass. where the highly honorable authorities had assigned them quarters during the fair.190 THE GERMAN CLASSICS adorned with shields.

and during the internal dissensions of Frankfort. where they built their present quarter. from the bridge down as far as the Lumpenbrunnen. and accused the passing through Jews of the deed. silk stoles. Before that time the Jews dwelt between the Cathedral and the bank of the Main. that is. and he hastily drew her away through a labyrinth of narrow. and with far more vivid memories of previous suffering than they have at present. half-spoke in Latin when all at once a little bell rang. in the town. empty place which fell to their while he half-sang. under a beautiful canopy. For here. golden vessel. too. It was a solemn train of bare-headed and bare-footed monks. and large silver crucifixes. was finally drowned out by the long-drawn. marched priests in white robes adorned with costly lace. the gate of which was held by iron chains to keep out the rabble. sacred tones of a church procession. one of frankincense. " Shut " cried the Rabbi your eyes. on the market-corner. banners with pictures of the saints. which. becoming silent. especially during a dispute between . and from the Mehlwage as far as Saint Bartholomew's. Sara! again. which rang afar. — separated the new Jewish quarter from the rest of the city. set fire to it. for which reason the magistrates assigned them a place on the Wollgraben. and all the people around. In 1240 the unrestrained populace had caused awful bloodshed among them. But the Catholic priests obtained a Papal bull forbidding the Jews to live so near the high church. the Jews lived in misery and anxiety. In 1349. by knees and made the sign of the cross. . them held in his hand a arriving at a shrine sun-like. the latter were nearly all murdered or burned alive in their own houses this was called the second Jewish massacre. who carried burning wax tapers. After this the Jews were often threatened with similar slaughter. and at last over the desolate. Before it ran boys clad in red and white gowns.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 191 This wild sing-song. when the Flagellants. bearing censers of smoking In the middle of the procession. crooked streets. which people called the first Jewish massacre. he raised on high. or in bright-colored. This was surrounded by high walls.

against which hung his drum. beery voice " — Our dear Lady true Walked in the morning dew. the soldiers. while out before the door in the sunshine sat the He was capriciously on his large drum. His breast and back were padded with cushions of black cloth. with a tone which alternated between mild softness and harsh hoarseness. drum-Jacky boy — I'm a lone man — and " the Star. spotted with red pimples. a heavy. Hans. was surrounded by a wall. the Nose Star — then stop Star. " Yes. greatly puffed out at his arms and thighs. the all if a terrible tune. Jacky. and a bad song too doesn't suit the drum. as has been had two gates in it. as one could see through the open windows. in a drummer beating coarse. now in hasty anxiety. Kyrie eleison " ! — — by my soul — not the day of the fair and on Easter morning — bad song — dangerous song — Jack. thou lovest me. which in roundness and flatness was equaled by his face. When the Rabbi with his wife came to the entrance to the Jewish quarter. which on Catholic holidays were closed from without and on Jewish holidays from within. which looked as if innumerable tongues were protruding from him. now in a sighing drawl. that is little tall tall it! These words were uttered by the unseen speaker. wearing a jerkin and hose of fiery yellow. He had on his head a flat. and profusely dotted with small red tufts. lay on the wooden bench inside the watchsaid. which. and distorted into a gaping grin. fat fellow. round black cap. The latter house. while he gurgled.192 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the council and the guilds. the mob was often on the point of breaking into the Jewish quarter. sewed on. and before each gate was a watch-house with city soldiers. So the fellow sat and drummed to the melody of a song which the Flagellants had sung at the Jewish massacre." cried a voice from behind the closed gate of the Jewish quarter. and the latter was also in keeping with his dress. doesn't suit it at " Hans. . being an orange-yellow.

and went on drumming and singing — " There came a little youth. The people have been standing and waiting a long time. " The devil take the Jews But thou. art my friend. I have my reasons for it. and I don't like it. and. Yes. His beard had run away. ! again cried the voice of the invisible speaker. one can't tell and I'm a lone man. for here are two strangers who singing. thou mayest yet become something great. The drummer was not moved. Halleluja!" and said in friendly tone. But now open the gate. and if thou hast genius and wilt study industriously under me. VI — 13 . but he is making water. nasal. and he must not be interrupted. I'm a lone man. >> 1 ' ' ' ! — Vol. and when thou art baptized thou shalt be eternally happy. Jack. And Jakel the Fool is here too. and if you love me." cried the drummer. and so unlock the gate. and his voice almost " That can't be done in such a hurry. I shall be thy godfather." " the Open gate? deserted him. Nose Star. sing something else. he trudged laughing loudly off to the guard-room and lay down on the bench. and that is a dangerous song.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 193 such as one hears in consumptive people. and if we drink together often enough I shall have thee converted. Starry keys from Oxheady's coat pockets. dear Nose Star. I will drum the whole catechism into thee when we drink together tomorrow. I'm a lone man. Veitel Oxhead has the key. and he is — — now standing in the corner mumbling his eighteen-prayer. The devil take the Jews at this. somewhat " don't groan so much. or else go stick your nose in the keyhole. While the Rabbi stood with his wife before the locked gate. thou mayest even become a drummer. his one and only joke. in truth. there rose from behind it a snarling. I protect thee. you know dear Jack. ' ' 11 ' ' wish to enter. Yea. and tomorrow we will drink together. " cried Nose Star. At the word "drink" Jack ceased his drumming and 1 ' Jack. Take the mocking voice. my one can never tell.

" "A man and a woman! when and become a 11 " groaned Nose Star. but cautious. but the gate's opened the man and ." Fool dear Jakel Fool A small. and rub his belly. and — — it a yellow cap with two horns. Courage! I was not put here to be courageous. Courage! and brave fellow. " Yes. thinking they would not know him because he wore a frock of violet velvet three florins a yard covered with fox-tails and embroidered with gold quite magnificent. look out and see who is there. I have a seton. and he it is only a man and a cried angrily. then there '11 be two men. and the and twisted jest-maker's face of Jakel the funny.194 THE GERMAN CLASSICS cried the anxious voice of the "People!" man called Nose Star. Mendel Reiss. are onlv three of us! " woman will take her skirt off. wrinkled. laughing with bitter vexa"Courage! " Hare! Hare is a bad tion. but all at once " tone. The hare is an unclean animal. and wipe the raisin-sauce from his mouth. But I alone cannot keep them back. and I'm a lone man. " Tall Nose Star was a brave fellow after all if it had not been for him. When too many come I am to give the alarm. and yesterday went to the Romer to see the tilting. Fool. " Open the gate there appeared in — woman. "I thought there was only one! I beg you. The window was immediately shut again. would sit on the Sabbath at his table. dead!" Here the voice became tender and it so that the rich rose to a hasty and almost angry Mendel Reiss may wipe away the raisinsauce from his mouth. and rub his belly. and they dusted his violet frock ! — — — . I 'm to let myself be shot Be a Courage man! Little Strauss was a man. He was a brave fellow. and perhaps say." replied Jakel the Fool. If one were to shoot at me. I should be a dead man. too bad that he's . and there Don't be a hare. comparison. and call me a ! tearful. perhaps they would have burst open the gate. Then that rich man. well-grated window in the gate opened. My arm is weak. "Bea man and show courage! " " cried Nose Star. He let himself be shot for us.

and called our scoundrel of a magistrate a blackguard. "and your mother got from her father. sighing. the gate grated and creaked and opened. and feeling cautiously it — . and they hung him up by the feet beDon 't tween two dogs. without saying a word he sank into a corner. laughing face. in his pocket. and so all thy ancestors one from the other. and an enormous leg-of-mutton hand. back to the forefather who marched under King Saul against the Philistines. and the Rabbi led his wife into the empty Jews' The man who opened it was a little fellow with a good-naturedly sour face. and was the first to take to his heels. empty and quiet just now. and I am really afraid. and after he had carefully closed the gate again. indeed! The crippled Leser was courageous. yes." " That I'll swear to. Courage. Holy. Behind him a tall. a short. I'm a lone man. and you have come just in time to hear the history . which he now stretched out Street. who nodded dreamily. But look! Oxheady is all ready he has bowed his head for the fourth time now he is jumping like a flea at the Holy. and he from his. All our people are in the synagogue. constantly mumbling his prayers. I have fear. while Jack drummed. lean figure showed." replied Nose Star. and his own back became and did not look human. know that it runs in my blood. white cambric ruff thin. Less taciturn was Jakel the Fool. " God's welcome to a " cried Jakel pleasant feast-day! " Do not be astonished that our street is so the Fool. Holy. and I got it from my dear mother " ! "Yes." cried Jakel. somewhat bowlegged fellow.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH for 195 violet him till it lost its color. Courage be a hare! Among many dogs the hare is helpless. which peered with anxious curiosity in every fine . of the wide sleeve of his gaily-chequered jacket in welcome. hid itself — the slender neck feathered with a and the direction. red. with a large. like one who did not like to be disturbed in his thoughts. "I "Yes." interrupted Jakel. or rather. pale face strangely adorned with an incredibly long nose." In fact the keys rattled.

who drank the water. who bit the cat. which beat the dog. A kid! A kid! " There came an ox. N. who bit the cat. ." And then with goats in the world now ing story. A A ! A ! A fire. And it is an important history. which burnt the stick. " There came a fire. which beat the dog. 28. who slew the ox. who bit the cat. merry grimaces. the dog the Babylonians. p. who ate the kid. which burnt the stick. know it — 'tis an interest- if I had not already heard it thirty-three would willingly listen to it again this year. which beat the dog.196 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I of the sacrifice of Isaac re^d. too. 23. the butcher that killed the ox denotes the crusaders by whom the Holy Land Roman was taken from the Saracens the Angel of Death the Turkish power to which Palestine is still subject. the The water betokens the fire the Grecian Empire under Alexander the Great. fol. denotes Israel. A kid A kid ! ! kid " There ! A kid ! came the water. The kid. which pieces of money. says Mrs. which quenched the fire. The original is in Chaldee. which my father bought for two pieces of money. who ate the kid. were subjected. who bit the cat. which beat the dog. which beat the dog. which my father bought for two pieces of money. who bit the cat. which burnt the stick. the staff the Persians. who has reproduced it in her Nursery Rhyme9. A kid! kid! " my father bought for two " There came a dog. who drank the water. The cat means the Assyrians. which my father bought for two pieces of money. I — mad. and restore the Jews to their own land. xvii. who ate the kid. which quenched the fire. who bit the cat. The historical interpretation. who ate the kid. who subdued Palestine. " There came a stick. that ate the kid. and times. a kid. which my father bought for two pieces of money. to sing the following which A my father bought for two pieces of money. . It is throughout an allegory. The Father by whom it was purchased is Jehovah the two pieces of money signify Moses and Aaron. and is printed in the Christian Reformer. vol. which my father bought for two pieces of money. one of the pure animals. A kid * ! A kid ! This prototype of " The House that Jack Built " is presumed to he a hymn in Seder Hagadah. . which my father kid! bought for two pieces of money. Jakel began * song from the Agade: "A kid. for if Abraham had really killed Isaac and not the goat. then there would be more and fewer Jews. which quenched the " There came the butcher. A kid ! There came a cat which ate the kid. Leberecht at Leipzig in 1731. or the fourth of the great monarchies to whose dominion the Jews The ox is a symbol of the Saracens. The tenth stanza is designed to show that God will take signal vengeance on the Turks. which burnt the stick. who ate the kid kid kid. Valentine. was first given by P.

197 who slew the butcher. dred years hence.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH " Then came the Angel of Death. which beat the dog. casting aside with a violent effort the seriousness into which he had involuntarily fallen. she is madly in love with him. which my father " * kid kid bought for two pieces of money. He is only dangerous to old Schnapper-Elle. who killed the the water. But. who. — " Then came the a concluding verse which Heine has omitted. far and wide as a bigger fool than he himself has any idea "Yes — A of. beautiful lady. but It bloometh in summer and in winter it is frozen up in summer and winter it is petted and pulled by the white hands of Schnapper-Elle." added the singer." "Ah. with comical modesty. I have often heard " yes. man is often known Yes. She has fallen in love with his nose which. She nurses him. When he is fat enough. she means to and whoever comes to Frankfort. three hunmarry him." " I mark it the Fool. Outwardly it gleameth like gold leaf and syrup. and went on in his all But harsh jester tones. of you. at once. and jump and shake myself to make the bells ring. by your words. and for her age she is young enough. will come when the Angel of Death will slay the slayer. Rabbi. tell me. which burnt the stick. I take great pains to be a fool. will not be able to see the heavens for — Nose Stars." blessed be he — — . who ate the kid. others have an easier " time." replied Jakel. ox. that is what reputation does. and all our blood come over Edom. why do you journey on a holiday? * There is Holy One of Israel etc. However. and as lofty as a cedar of Lebanon. you are Jakel laughing. for God is a God of " ' ' vengeance." exclaimed the Rabbi. for it is as beautiful as the tower which looketh forth toward Damascus. and inwardly it is all music and loveliness. Tkan. and slew the Angel of Death. Nose Star will not harm you. Yea. who bit the cat. Yes. who drank A ! A ! " and the dayYes. faith ! — deserves it. Jakel plunged again into his mad buffoonery. and feeds him. " Don't be afraid. which quenched the fire. beautiful lady.

But say. and were thus stunted both in body and soul. Sara! " he how badly guarded is our Israel. That's the third time today that you've roused me out of a sound sleep. drum. cried Jakel the Fool. friends guard its gates without. and much lower than they now are. pressing his face against the wall. . and which is called the Old Lane. But the Rabbi impatiently broke loose from them. and trembling and murmuring prayers in this position. " is in the replied the Rabbi. " Danger drives away the Sabbath. is a horrible relic of the Middle Ages. The older synagogue exists no more it was less capacious than ." wailed — piteously. against the polished panes of which the sun was brilliantly reflected. as their number greatly increased. where only here and there the head of some young girl showed itself in a window. beery voice of Drum- "Danger!" screamed ! — mer ' ' Jack. what has happened ? Nose Star 1 ' ' ' with which was even then charFrankfort Jews. Nose Star! Don't make me mad! For when I am mad I'm the very devil himself. where says.' ! the tall Nose Star. Death and destruction ! The devil take the Jews. and went his way along the Jews' Street. I'll up with my gun and and then shoot through the grated window in your gate " fellow. in mortal " terror. drum. those high blackened houses. where a grinning. " See. False exclaimed. Danger danger Drummer Jack! Danger! danger! Drummer Jack!" From without resounded the deep. let everybody look put for his nose! " Don't shoot! don't shoot! I'm a lonely man." all the impatient curiosity acteristic of the ' ' They wandered slowly through the long empty street.198 THE GERMAN CLASSICS My justification. since it was only later on that the Jews. That part of the Jewish quarter which remained standing after the great fire. At that time the houses in the Jewish quarter were still neat and new." it ' " Talmud. squeezed themselves together like sardines. and then as sure as I'm a Christian. and within its watchers are Folly and Fear. sweaty race of people bargains and chaffers. built one story over another. while they could not enlarge their quarter.

and in some instances also adorned with gold lace. by the voices of his two The Jews have assistants. The latter was a kind of gallery with three rows of seats painted a reddish brown. The Rabbi had no need to ask where it was.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 199 the present one. which held the prayerbooks. . pearls. and which could be raised and lowered. after the Nuremberg exiles were taken into the community. through the thin. whose backs were fitted with a hanging board. the bass and the treble. their pointed beards shooting out over white ruffs. and the holy ark. The walls of the synagogue were uniformly white-washed. stood the men in their black cloaks. In the court of the House of God he parted from his wife. furnished with the prescribed tassels. on which a pious inscription was worked in gold spangles. They often went and peered with curiosity through the large grating on the eastern side. green lattice of which one could look down on the lower floor of the synagogue. on whose crossed iron bars were all kinds of sacred utensils. while Sara ascended a flight of stairs and entered the place reserved for women. Before the latter. and their skull-capped heads more or less concealed by a four-cornered scarf of white wool or silk. and after washing his hands at the fountain there. and lay more to the north. among them the sevenbranched candlestick. and many colored gems. whose flower. behind high praying-desks. which was built later. Here hung the silver memorial-lamp. There. as if instrumentally. his countenance toward the ark. and there also rose a trellised dais. he entered the lower part of the synagogue where the men pray. stood the choir-leader.and leaf -work shot up in beautiful profusion. whose song was accompanied. He recognized it from afar by the buzz of many loud voices. apparently supported by marble columns with gorgeous capitals. where extracts from the Law were read. a costly embossed chest. and covered with a curtain of purple velvet. Here the women either sat gossiping or stood up in deep prayer. and no ornament was to be seen other than the gilded iron grating around the square stage.

and in his forced effort to do so. solemn melodies. in the pauses. in which small bells jingled and rang while before. drew Beautiful Sara to the grating.200 THE GERMAN CLASSICS all banished instrumental music from their church. mainhymns in praise of God are more edifying when they rise from the warm breast of man. the treble's voice trilled sweetly and daintily. raised his voice and sounded forth the ancient. a child for whom one and. sense of pious satisfaction. an admirable tenor. on both wooden rollers. on a silver chain. The choir-leader took the Book. This Book death — — great roll of parchment — was — wrapped like a princely . Such singing Beautiful Sara had never heard in the syna- David Levi. thought. in a fresher loveliness than she had ever dreamed of. raised the lid. with many colored gems. child in a gaily embroidered scarlet cloak of velvet above. bleating voice. and. which she knew so well. She had never before seen so many of her faith together. and it cheered her heart to be in such a A multitude of those so closely allied by race. And her soul was still more deeply moved when three old men reverentially approached the sacred ark. devotion. was the leader for when this elderly. hung gold shields prettily. disgrace and a a thousand years' martyrdom. shook his limp and drooping arm feverishly. drew aside the glittering curtain. where she could look down on the lower floor. and for the maintenance of which Jews have suffered so much so much misery and hate. dark notes. and sufferings. not unmingled with feminine curiosity. as if it really were a child many pomegranates and — has greatly suffered. elder. trembling man. where the presiding . or the so-called men's division. were two little silver shrines. and whom one loves all the more . with his broken. than from the cold pipes of an organ. Beautiful Sara felt a childish delight when the choirleader. while taining that the bass sang in harmony the deep. it inspired laughter rather than gogue of Bacharach. and very carefully brought forth the Book which God wrote with His own hand. tried to trill like a young girl.

On the platform. in the peculiar intonation which in the Passover service is still more peculiarly modulated. for as she mumbled to herself the prayers as the women do. much ornamented woman of middle age. and. that it seemed to Beautiful Sara as if the pillars under the holy ark began to bloom. and in a voice which she strove to make " He Sara. and a stout. But after a while the watery blue eyes of the good woman were languidly raised. and the strange and lovely flowers and leaves on the capitals shot ever higher. thrilled by its holy touch. skipped about on that account with it here and there. the velvet cover. You are a stranger. with a forward. she said to Beautiful well. sings very as genteel as possible. and that they will keep him here if he will be content with four hun- dred florins a year. sang in God shone down from the blue was a beautiful psalm. and his hands . and the choir-leader. Beautiful Sara had modestly withdrawn from the grating. as well as the wrappings covered with illuminated letters. This lady was evidently no great scholar. chorus the concluding verse. an insipid smile spread over her red and white porcelain face. read the edifying narrative of the temptation of Abraham. and skipped several good lines altogether. and perhaps do not know that the choir-leader is from Worms.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 201 he rocked it in his arms. while men and boys crowded about him. and then the choirit leader walked slowly to the raised platform in the middle of the synagogue bearing the holy Book. But I have heard far better singing in Holland. The congregation Yes. He is a charming man. Sara observed that she made the best she could of many words. eager to kiss its velvet covering. but benevolent manner. broke forth into such a devout hymn of praise and thanksgiving. the tones of the treble were converted into the notes of the nightingale. the vaulted ceiling of the synagogue resounded with the tremendous tones of the bass singer. or even to touch it. were removed. pressed it to his breast. not being allowed to take part in the singing. had with a nod invited her to share her prayer-book. while the glory of — heavens.

on the shelf before her. Several times she glanced aside with a contemptuous air. much worn Star out. they make one altogether beautiful. on which all the animals of Noah's Ark were embroidered in gaudy colors. yellow slashed. with a mighty ruff of stiff white linen chain hung with around her neck. like a — cuirass. and diamonds as to look like a wandering jeweler's shop. and how hard it was to carry on the restaurant business and keep one's hands nice. a jacket of gold cloth. among them a large picture of the city of Amsterdam. and to distinguish them from Christians the men had to wear yellow able. whereupon Schnapper-Elle proceeded to narrate in detail how she had once been in Amsterdam. . with sleeves of red velvet. who seemed to be eyeing her clothes. a very high cap on her head. which rested on her bosom. It is true that there was at that time a fashion of dress prescribed by law to the Frankfort Jews. how he had died. and with a polite nod which intimated that she did not like to be interrupted while The little singer is a mere child. cameos. how she had come to Frankfort three days before Whitsuntide and married Schnapper. she added. and speaking. are as white as alabaster. how she had been subjected to the advances of men on account of her beauty. apparently at some giggling girls.202 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I admire beautiful hands. which also had around it a silver all kinds of coins. and curiosities. But the dresses of the other women were no less remark- They consisted of a variety of fashions of different and many a woman there was so covered with gold ages. and what touching things he had finally said on his deathbed. which was really a fine one. ' ' looks very thing. the good lady laid her own hand." Having said this. The basso the is too ugly for any' The witty remark: bass singer is a bigger fool than even a basso is expected All three eat in my restaurant to be perhaps you don 't know that I'm Elle Schnapper? " our once ' ! made — Beautiful Sara expressed thanks for this information. And the latter were indeed remarkable enough a very loose skirt of white satin.

— While passages from the Books of Moses are being read on the lower floor of the synagogue. The usual butt of her pointed sayings was poor Schnapper-Elle. and there. and she could mock right well the affected genteel airs and languishing manner with which And so the latter accepted the insincere compliments of young men. and here worship is still more loosely observed. noting that this was all at her expense. just as there was a choir-leader on the floor below. especially on festival days. Many make themselves comfortable and sit down. and the latter censure the light-headedness of the girls and the general degeneracy of the age. whispering perhaps business affairs with a friend. arid Then there was loud tittering. the young quizz the old. and always had a scandal on her tongue. the devotion is usually somewhat lulled. chattering. on their caps. Small boys take the liberty of visiting their mothers in the women's balcony. the women put on as much magnificent apparel as they could partly to arouse envy of others. " " Do you know. generous soul. and sailed away. as always happens. " I had rather not be alive. or go out into the court to get a little fresh air. in the Jewish quarter the law was little observed. and partly to advertise the wealth and credit of their husbands. but that she was an honest.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH rings on their cloaks. who found out about everybody's troubles." snapped Puppy Reiss. remarked compassionately that Schnapper-Elle might be a little vain and small of mind. to some remote corner. "Particularly Nose Star. while. Schnapper-Elle If I were not beautiful said yesterday." cried Puppy Reiss. in the synagogue. as there is gossiping. a plump galley. . and laughing. and somewhat awkward lady.' beloved. This was Puppy Reiss. like a proud Then Birdie Ochs. However. greenish woman. and the veils 203 blue-striped women very stiff. and Schnapper-Elle. ' and clever. was there a gossip-leader in the balcony above. a vulgar. lifted her nose in scorn. and did much good to many to folk in need. who was not far distant.

" many pledges and a good business. Puppy Reiss crept up and listened to the two women bewailing to each other how they had worked all the past week to clean up the house and scour the kitchen things. you dear souls. where." " servants replied the other. and the maids had rolled it too thin. " Don't " that Nose you know." in baking. Florsheim. wearing the necklace which Flasch 's wife is Daniel Flasch pawned to her husband! vexed about it And now she is talking to that is plain. and complaining about all they had to do before Passover. and so." interrupted Mrs. Flasch. with " you were a little to gracious friendliness most insincere. and Dame Florsheim had turned as red as a . so that not a crumb of leavened bread should stick to anything. Star now sleeps in Schnapper-EUe 's house! But just look at Susy Florsheim clown there." said Mrs. Florsheim. she could not bake till the afternoon of the very last day. I know. wet and weary. just before Passover Eve. and then old Hannah so." added Puppy spitefully.204 THE GERMAN CLASSICS all And who knew of this tender relation laughed all the louder. and necklaces And a bitter word was just about to slip from the lips of " — the speaker. And such troubles as they had baking the unleavened bread Mrs. with cutting " I know that you have much to do irony in her speech. blame for help that. and worst of all. and Mrs. Flasch. goods for the fair had to be packed My — my — were Yes. * because you did not send your people to so busy — the husband " — me "Ah! pardon. and half of it was scorched in baking. rain came pouring through the bake-house roof. my dear Mrs. Flasch had special cause for complaint for she had had no end of trouble over it in the public bakery. like a And — ! had kneaded the dough badly. "And. don't eat each other up out of pure love! I'll just steal up and listen to — — ! them!" sneaking wildcat. according to the ticket she drew. they had had to work till late in the night. Hoiv amiably they shake hands! How sweetly they hate each other like Midian and Moab smile on each other! Oh.

It is a custom in the synagogue that any one who has escaped a great danger shall. eighteen-prayer. another her arm. kinsfolk. and the busy women hurried back to their places and offered the prayer as the rite ordains. his prayer. while some old women sprinkled her with the glasses of water which hung behind their prayer desks for washing the hands in case they should by Others held under her accident touch their own bodies. 205 ' ' sake! — the when Puppy Reiss strange lady cried out loudly. for it was torn by the certainty that those dear ones had really been slain. which no one dared neglect. when strengthening the nerves. — fainted so suddenly. Beautiful Sara at last opened her eyes. one holding her head. standing up with their faces turned toward the east. after the reading of the extracts from the Law. lies — water! dying For God 's water!" Beautiful Sara lay in a faint. and the last hope vanished from her soul. appear in public and return thanks for his divine deliverance. that is. the other the last feast-day. and with mute But now the glances thanked them for their kind care. had not a kind swoon poured for- murmur of a prayer for the dead. nose an old lemon full of spices. while a swarm of excited women crowded around her. she noticed that his voice gradually subsided into the mournful the She heard accompanied by the words which convey the blessing on the departed. too. that her little niece was dead. Birdie Ochs. would agony of this realization. that her little cousins Posy and Birdy were all murdered dead. as pale as death. . which is that part of the heavens where Jerusalem lies. was being solemnly chanted below. As Rabbi Abraham rose to his feet to make and Beautiful Sara recognized her husband's voice. and Puppy Reiss stayed to the first two to aid her as the last with Beautiful Sara two to find out why she had much as possible. it which was left over from had served for smelling and Exhausted and sighing deeply. that little Gottschalk too was dead have succumbed to the and dead! And she. Beautiful Sara had swooned from a singular cause. names of her dear — getfulness over her senses.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH lobster. Schnapper-Elle.

but every time had seemed to be repelled by her commanding look. after divine service was ended. had in it. women gleaming and fluttering like gold-chafers. betrayed the most careful arrangement of the folds. It was like a swarm of ants coats. which he bore on his A white arm. because they could not enter the syna- gogue. to a very fortunate love affair. partly with an air of a connoisseur. cavalier's cloak enveloped his slender limbs in an apparently careless manner. but. His gait. bowing their all gay and merry. a somewhat affected daintiness. went down into the courtyard of the synagogue. rattled rather more than was necessary. Passing and repassing. and the jeweled hilt of his sword. whose youthful features bore that fascinating pallor which ladies generally attribute to an unfortunate and men. in reality. curly heads to receive their blessing — and walking up and down the street in the happy anticipacausing good dinner. or else by the enigmatical .206 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Chapter III When Beautiful Sara. The feathers in his cap were agitated more by the aristocratic motion of his head than by the wind and his golden spurs. although naturally carefree. In this multitude particularly conspicuous was the form of a Spanish cavalier. partly he approached the women walking by. looked calmly at them. on the contrary. girls who. — — . the savory odor of which rose from many black pots. He had met Beautiful to Sara more than once. gave his many a pretty girl a passing compliment. marked their mouths to water with chalk. and accompanied her out into the street. now came bounding to their parents. and went way heedless as to its effect. and carried by smiling girls from the large comtion of a — — munity kitchens. paused when he thought a face was worth the trouble. cheerful expression. boys — in new young clothes carrying prayer-books after their parents. where there was no longer silence but a noisy multibearded men in black tude. the Rabbi He nodded to her with a stood there waiting for her. however. with curiosity.

and if you will wear my colors. an inexpressible confusion seemed to have seized him as he ' ' deeply hurt: My noble lord. mountains. he-goats. then you must sew yellow rings on your cloak. perhaps even my father. however. no scorn of Israel. forests. and Old Christians by the canopy of heaven. sprung from that house my grandfather was a Jew. and with a tone such as is bitterest coming from a beautiful voice. proudly conquering all diffidence. the lady answered. onions. Senor. by God. I myself am but. grace. and leave to call myself your knight and bear your colors henceforth in jest or earnest! " illumines all ! ! ! — A flush of pain rose in the face of Beautiful Sara. are the fairest dame whom I have seen in all the German realm. he boldly faced both. as one knight you must fight whole races. the House of Israel. mules. . and if you please to accept my service. or bind yourself with a blue-striped scarf. on which this sun is merely a golden tassel and by the God who abides in heaven and meditates day and night over the creation of new forms of lovely women I swear that you. and with one of those glances which cut the deeper when they come from gentle eyes." " And it is very certain. which is wretched indeed. then I pray of you the favor. the following speech : " Sefiora! — list to me! — I swear — by the roses of both ! the kingdoms of Castile. and with foppish confidence made." Sefiora. if you will be my — stammered " — an innocent jest you misunderstood me no mockery. that your uncle is one. — — . by the Aragonese hyacinths and the pomegranate blossoms of Andalusia by the sun which Spain. with its flowers. in a tenderly gallant tone. one mocked in the streets by the sons of fortune.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH smile of her husband. Sefiora. for such are my colors the colors of my house." A sudden purple red shot into the cheeks of the Spaniard. pea-soups. 207 Finally. and in the battle there will be little thanks to win and less honor.

is sprung from the best blood of Israel. casts aside his princely coat and goes about disguised in the scaly armor of the crocodile. thou wert not made for the element of the crocodile. ice-cold.208 THE GERMAN CLASSICS this scene. the weakest trout can live in it better than the king of the forest. and drew him to dry land. leapt with jingling spurs high into the air. For water thou knowest well what I mean is thy evil fortune. and grasp by the hair thy friend. his cheeks became deadly white. didst leap from the Alcantara bridge into the water. you know also who I am. Well. nephew of the great Rabbi. And if the fox knows that I belong to the blood of the lion. keen voice he said Seiior Rabbi. Hast thou forgotten how the " current of the Tagus was about to draw thee under f Bursting into loud laughter. Don Isaac suddenly threw his arms round the Rabbi's neck. greedy crocodile the lesser beasts to be when the lion denies his nature? But beware. let him beware and not bring his fox-beard into danger of death. in Toledo. Don Isaac. out of pride. if not from the royal race of David! " The chain of the sword rattled under the Spaniard's cloak. his upper lip twitched as with scorn in which there was pain. I : ' ' ' ' ! — — — — . and more than that. when thou. and angry death grinned in his eyes. then. I understand it well. because it is the fashion to be a What can you expect grinning. and thou shalt drown. covered his mouth with kisses. 11 Oh. as in an utterly changed. he added. you know me. Only he who feels like the lion can understand his weakness. nor provoke my anger. how the proud lion. so that the passing Jews shrank back in alarm. Water is not thy element. suddenly exclaimed the Rabbi. "And I myself will vouch that Don Isaac Abarbanel. a friendly act. cunning. who could drink better than he could swim." answered the Rabbi. quizzical glance. who had calmly witnessed and with a merry. stand it well. and a " I undermelancholy seriousness came over his brow. and in his own natural hearty and joyous voice cried " Truly thou art Abraham of Bacharach! And it was a good joke.

my wife will starve. and Hush. "It is seven years now since we met. hush! the Dona hears us thou thyself hast given her today proof of thy taste and — ' ' — poetic skill. I will take you to the best restaurant of Israel. for she has eaten nothing since yesterday. When the star of evening reflects its golden light in the azure flood " ment — If to cease interrupted the Rabbi. didst 'thou but how this odor appeals to me. saying every time I am indeed glad." said Don Isaac. "to the house of my friend Schnapper-Elle. who amiably regretted that she. I assure you that I shiver even now at the mere thought of that water-party.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 209 came very near making a really deep investigation as to whether there is actually gold in the bed of the Tagus. has so often lured the savory odors ! Vol." I ! ! 1 ' beg of you ' ' ' ' Well. had pained a friend of her husband." answered the other. am I. since I have dwelt in this city. and thou staid and serious man. which is not far away." Saying this the Spaniard made a gesture as if he were shaking water from his garments. Senora. Abraham." replied Don Isaac. But whatever became of the beautiful Dona who in those days cost thee so many sighs. — ' ' ' ' "And so. we wait till the star of evening reflects its golden light in the azure flood. then. and when we parted I was thou wert already a as yet a mere greenhorn. "Ah. which thou didst accompany with the lute ? " she is my wife. is which. by expressing herself so plainly." It was not without some trace of his former embarrass- that the Spaniard greeted the beautiful lady. and suffered much in the meanwhile. vi — 14 . I already smell ' ' from the kitchen Oh. "he who grasps too clumsily at a rose must not complain if the thorns scratch. indeed. This it know. The countenance of the Rabbi expressed great joy as he again and again pressed his friend's hand. and whether the Romans were right in calling it the golden river.

and the well-known savory odors of the Jewish kitchen rose to my nose. who was king over Judah and Israel. holy Astarte. . a servant of idols. ' ' Meanwhile they had arrived at this highly lauded place. I was seized with the same yearning which our fathers felt for the fleshpots of Egypt pleasant tasting memories of youth came back to me. which might have raised the dead. and certainly I should some fine morning have run away from Mount Zion and emigrated to Phoenicia or Babylon. me " I like your food much Well. When — radish. Isaac. but to eat. ing Nazarenes are quite as little to my taste as the dry and joyless Hebrews. I better than your creed never could rightly digest you. which wants the right sauce." " Thou hast never loved us. But do not look so sourly. In imagination I saw again the carp with brown raisin sauce which my aunt prepared so sustainingly for Friday eve. blasphemest the one God." Thou art much worse than murmured the Rabbi grimly. where the joys " Intercourse with God's people is not a hobby of mine. that I kneel before the many sorrowed Mother of the Crucified and pray.210 THE GERMAN CLASSICS to the tents of Jacob." — life foamed in the temple of the gods." continued the Spaniard. Don Isaac. " Do not look at me with disdain. May our dear Lady of Sidon. forgive me." " I am a heathen. and truly it is not to pray. I never could have held out. self -tormentYes. Even in your best days. I saw once more the steamed mutton with garlic and horse- a renegade. and the soup with dreamily swimming dumplings in it and my soul and melted like the notes of an enamored nightingale in the restaurant of my friend since then I have been eating — — Dona Schnapper-Elle. as he saw what little gratification his words seemed to give the Rabbi." continued the Spaniard. that I visit the Jews' Street. Only my knee and my tongue worship death my heart remains true to life. a Christian thou art a heathen. and the melancholy. " Thou blasphemest. nose is not of ' ' ' ' — — My once by chance I came into this street at dinner time. under the rule of my ancestor David.

all but inaudible. wherewith shall I compare that bosom? For in all the world there is no It is the one thing of its flower. wrapped it. What use is my beauty to me? My youth is anyhow. he passing away. From the yolk of my heart flies up the winged god Amor and seeks a confiding nest in your bosom. " cavalier spoke these last words with affected earnestand squinted longingly at the large medallion which ness. Nose Star sighed behind her. Nose Star looked down with inquisitive eyes. anxiously and inquisitively observing them. the ground on which it rests is far lovelier still. led by hunger. And oh. Though the sour lemon. saying: " Senora! your eyes rival the brilliancy of the sun! But as eggs. the longer they are boiled the harder they become. hung from Schnapper-Elle's neck.THE RABBI OF BACHARACH 211 where Sclinapper-Elle stood at the door cordially greeting the strangers who had come to the fair. Senora. and every day. Thereupon he drew the glove from his right hand. Behind her. and like an echo. The "Ah!" sighed Schnapper-Elle. "virtue is worth more than beauty. Senora. the hand. was the tall Nose Star. so vice versa my heart grows softer the longer it is cooked your eyes. — — . in the fold of his cloak. slowly drew it over his moustache. and the day before. and since Schnapper is gone had handsome hands what avails beauty? " With that she sighed again. your bosom is still a winter rose which defies all storms. and who. who returned his satirical reverence with endless curtsies. which is like to it kind! Though the wind tears away the leaves from the tenderest rose. the older it grows the and more wrinkled it becomes. Oh. Don Isaac with an exaggerated air of dignity approached the landlady. no fruit. sticking his head out over her shoulder. if the city of Amsterdam be as beautiful as you told me in the flaming flashes of ! yesterday. and the much-bepraised bosom heaved so that the whole city of Amsterdam rocked from side to side. your bosom rivals yellower in color and softness the sweetest pineapple. and grasping Schnapper-Elle's hand. were now streaming in.

or she will reap most terrible revenge. and related with more prolixity than discretion the awful story of how she herself had almost fainted with horror when she. Squint- ing Aaron Hirschkuh from Homburg-on-the-Lahn came with a white napkin on his arm. Those blessed. but that the landlady was missing. as she said. fortunately. " on account of my virtue. Thereupon she plunged into lively chatter. horrors! to an infamous brothel! She — — was the moment she entered. who carried her trunk. 11 1 dared not. and that the boarders were seated at table. And all that was owing to my beauty But virtue will stay when good looks pass away. She was delighted to see Beautiful Sara appear at this instant. in which she fully developed her sham gentility. " Oh. and the rascally not to a respectporter. and bitterly bewailed that the soup was already served." she added.212 THE GERMAN CLASSICS is " Of what avail creative Nature! your beauty? " cried Don Isaac.) . mingled with real kindness of heart. and sought to escape the uncanny compliments of the cavalier. (The conclusion and the chapters which follow are lost. Dona Schnapper-Elle." Thus he sketched piece by piece the appearance of Schnapper-Elle. will become glassy balls. not from any fault of the author. would. led her able hotel. as innocent and inexperienced as could be. arrived in a canal boat at Amsterdam. but oh." — ! Don light on the Isaac was on the point of throwing some critical details of this story when. if it had not been that during the six weeks she stayed in the disorderly house could tell what it 3he only once ventured to close her eyes. those winsome lips blessing eyes grow flat and unattractive. so that the poor woman was bewildered. do not sin against the goodness of Do not scorn her most charming gifts. by the and by the immoral sights! And she brandy-drinking. and the city of Amsterdam at last rest on a spongy bog. as it gave her an opportunity to inquire whether she had quite recovered from her swoon. that chaste and charming form be changed into an unwieldy barrel of tallow. really have swooned.

their many occasions sang the praises of their wholesome naturalness. and innumerable studies and autobiographical papers are a man's work entitling their author to a high place in Eu- — . to the keener and more enterprising North Gercherish the memory of a wont mans. literature. and their sound But even from the point of view of the critical instinct. ropean. however. as an Austrian that Grillparzer is primarAgain and again he insisted upon his ily to be judged.m. He was never happy when away from his native city. two eminently characteristic short stories. German. not merely German. upon the Viennese atmosphere of his plays and his poems. and the edition of Goethe's works instituted by the Grand Duchess Sophie of Weimar is paralleled by an edition of Grillparzer 's works now in process of publication by the^city of Vienna.THE LIFE OF FRANZ GRILLPARZER By William Guild Howard. They would be ungrateful if they did not the among the Austrians. and who on sociability. man who during his life-time was with all their imperfections upon their to prefer them. Assistant Professor of a. numerous lyrical poems. and though his pieces are now acceptably performed wherever [213] German . the Grillparzer Society at Vienna holds its meetings and issues its annual. heads. national quality as a man and as a poet. North German or of the non-German foreigner. Not without a sense of local pride and jealousy do the Viennese extol their fellow-countryman and hold him up to their kinsmen of the north as worthy to stand beside Goethe and Schiller. Harvard University [RANZ GRILLPARZER dramatist ing to is the greatest poet and CorrespondGoethe Society at "Weimar. Grillparzer abundantly deserves his local fame and more than local fame for a dozen dramas of the first class. It is.

are more sensuous. only the gentle tendencies of such a congenial spirit as Eichendorff found a sympathetic echo on the Schubert. fonder of artistic enjoyment. Schumann. and partake of South European characteristics less prominent among the purer blooded Teutons of the north. we have and Johann Strauss. 1791. sense and reliable intuition. Wenzel Grillparzer. in The literary taste no less than in politics and religion. they are most successful in Vienna. however. but also after the time of Schiller. frankness. The is most germane to the Austrian spirit. too scrupulous to seize the opportunities for profit that lawyers easily come upon. the Austrians are in all respects conservative. modest contentment with being while others are up and doing. then. and a ready key to the peculiarities of the Austrian disposition in the difference between Haydn. generosity. were manifest there even before the time when they became strong upon Grillparzer. His father. but. Wieland was a favorite long before Goethe began to be appreciated. the distinguishing features of the Aust and of Grillparzer as one of them? Grillparzer said these features are an open heart and a single mind. and some of them are to be seen only on the Viennese stage. and Handel. Moreover.214 is THE GERMAN CLASSICS spoken. Romance influences. art of music contrast to form. and Wagner on the other. and as to the romantic movement. naivete. The Austrians are of mixed blood. Mozart. Beethoven. on the one hand. he lived a comparatively poor man in 1809 died in straitened circumstances. Franz Grillparzer was born in Vienna on the fifteenth of January. They have life on easier terms. pseudo-classicism of Gottsched maintained its authority in Austria not merely after the time of Lessing. was a lawyer of the strictest probity." by tional. more particularly Spanish. a self- made man. good trians. are less intellectual. who oc- cupied a respectable position in his profession. in other arts than that of painting. more sensitive to color and to those effects called "color. At home he and was . shores of the Danube. emo- more fanciful. What are.



A_-G_ 7 MUNIC .


who was given to mysticism and was feverishly devoted to music. however. belonged to a substantial middle-class family. but with ominously pathological over-development in one direction. character and incident in them are unmistakably enriched by being often con- ceived in the light of personal experience. and it is equally clear that he needed a . her brothers became men of note in the history of the Viennese operatic stage and she herself shared in the artistic temperament of the family. His own hobbies. Outwardly. Her father was a friend of Haydn and Mozart and was himself a composer of music. It is with novels. That Franz Grillparzer was destined to no happy childhood is obvious. born Sonnleithner. . some surprise that we find him married to a woman of —strangely enough — the abnormal nervousness. Marianne Grillparzer. The father and the mother were at war in his breast. Both his legal habit of mind and also his true discipleship of the age of enlightenment in which he grew up disposed him to intellectual tyranny over everything that looked like sentimentality or foolish fantasy in wife or children. She took her own life in 1819 and transmitted to her sons a tendency to moodiness and melancholy which led to the suicide of one and the haunting fear of insanity in that other who is the subject of this sketch. he was the son of his father in a stern censoriousness that was quick to ridicule what appeared to be nonsense in others and in himself. strong will to overcome not merely material obstacles to progress but also inherited dispositions of such antithetical sort. such as long walks in the country and the cultivation of flowers or reading of highly romantic he indulged in as matters of course.FRANZ GRILLPARZER 215 stern and repressive. but he was the son of his father also in clearness of understanding and devotion to duty as he saw it. and though many of their themes seem remote from him in time and place. Grillparzer once said that his works were detached fragments of his life. Like the mother in sensitiveness and imaginativeness.

his life was comparatively uneventful. In 1819 he expressed in a poem The Ruins of Campo Vaccino esthetic abhorrence of the cross most inappropriately placed over the portal of the Coliseum in Rome. and in spite of loyalty to the monarchy. and was theretirely out of after never free of the suspicion of heresy.216 THE GERMAN CLASSICS however. full of disappointments and undeserved setbacks. Little things. Grillparzer firmly disapproved the disintegrating tendencies of the revolution of 1848. the made Hofrat and received grand cross of the order of Franz Josef upon the celebration of his eightieth birthday in 1871. the cross of the order of Leopold in 1849. 1872. To Field-Marshal Count Radetzky. magnified by pusillanimous apprehension. but throughout this time he was regarded. stood in his way. and regarded himself. and uttered his sense of the duty of loyal cooperation under the Habsburgs in a spirited poem. His latter years were indeed years of honor but the honor came too late. and in 1813 began in the Austrian civil service the humdrum career which. during the first half of the century. For the moment he became a national hero. Grillparzer led for the most part a solitary life for the and he was last third of his life he was almost a hermit — — rather an observer than an actor in the affairs of men but . After irregular studies with private tutors and at school. culminated in his appointment in 1832 to the directorship of the Hofkammerarcliiv and lasted until his honorable retirement in 1856. He was given . . He died on the twenty-first of January. Only once do we find him. especially in the army. gave instruction from 1810 to 1813 to the sons of various noblemen. primarily as Grillparzer the poet. Grillparzer studied law from 1807 to 1811 at the University of Vienna. wr as and a member of the House of Lords in 1856. He was a conscientious official. persona gratissima with the powers that be. In 1825 membership in a social club raided by the police subjected him to the absurd suspicion of plotting treason. sympathy with the antediluvian administration of Metternich and his successors. he was en.

except perthe first. Besides making the trip to Italy. seeing Goethe in Weimar. Chamisso. From the days when he knew that he was in love. for Grillparzer in 1816 the friendship of this practical theatre manager. too. to the time of final renuncia- we find him irresolute. and Heine. even in Vienna. No one of these trips gave him any particular poetic impetus. He was not a handsome man. alalluded to. in 1843 down the Danube to Athens. He dined with Goethe. in 1837 to London. but was too bashful to accept an indirect invitation to spend an evening with Goethe alone. He. Indeed. whom he esteemed as the greatest German poet of that time (1837) but Uhland was then no longer productive and was never a magnetic personality. who exerted a strong personal influence upon Grillparzer. and under Schreyvogel's auspices he prepared his first drama for the stage. A happy chance gained . and the circle of his friends was not inconsiderable. and this was Josef Schreyvogel. in 1836 to Paris. On another side. Nor did he derive much profit from the men of letters whom he visited in various places. from 1814 to 1831 secretary of the Burgtheater. he journeyed in 1826 to North ready Germany. on which he found in the classical atmosphere haps of Rome a refreshing antidote to the romantic miasma which he hated. critic. but tall. but did not yet know with whom. with an abundance of blond hair. in 1819. and bewitching blue eyes that made him very attractive to the other sex. journalist. there was hardly more than one man.FRANZ GRILLPARZER 217 nevertheless he saw more of the world than a mere dreamer would have cared to see. ardent. Grillparzer 's character is illumined for us by the strange story of his relations with four Viennese women. such as Fouque. but apparently selfish in the inability to hazard the discovery that the real might prove inferior to his ideal. He paid his respects to Uhland. was exceedingly sensitive to sexual attraction and in early youth suffered torments from the pangs of unsatisfied longing. Thus his critical disposition tion . and in 1847 again to Berlin and to Hamburg. playwright.

confessed in her last will and testament to such a devotion to him as she was sure no other woman could ever attain. Marie Daffinger. but also with himself. History. like her sisters. while Gesner's idyls charm him. one of four daughters of a Viennese manufacturer who had seen better days. finally. until Grillparzer as an old man of sixty takes lodgings with the Frohlich sisters and. Katharina Frohlich. makes Katharina his sole heir. Marie Piquot. was never consummated and for years was never definitely abandoned. but too well and a young Prussian girl. operetta. Even as a boy he began the voluminous reading which.218 THE GERMAN CLASSICS invaded even the realm of his affections and embroiled him not merely with the object of them. they made preparations for a marriage which They became engaged. mutual devotion is ever and anon interrupted by serious or trivial quarrels. and fairy drama gave the earliest impulse to his juvenile imagination. . continued throughout his life. and she had been less like him . the wife of a cousin of Grillparzer 's. opera. a fleeting interest in Marie Piquot so much the more only lasting was the attachment which bound him to her successful rival. loved him not wisely. and Schiller. Katharina. Grillparzer 's development as a poet and dramatist follows the bent of his Austrian genius. the wife of a painter. Goethe. and the imperfect relation drags on to the vexation of both. made him one of the best informed men of his time in European literature. Charlotte von Paurngarten. natural history. and. might have proved the salvation of Grillparzer 's existence as a man if he had been more capable of manly resolution. wherefore she commended "her Tasso" to the fosGrillparzer had experienced tering care of her mother. and books of travel are followed by the plays of Shakespeare. One of the first books that he ever read was the text to Mozart's Magic Flute. In 1808 he reads the early works of Schiller and admires . Lessing. in impetuosity and stubbornness. and he absorbs the stories and romances of Wieland. Music. endowed with great artistic talent and practical energy.

Greek. unoriginal as most of them are. both as to the plot and as to the literary Carlos style though of course the young man's imitation seems The fragments 8part amis (1810) and like a caricature. In all three of these pieces. inspired by patriotic grief for Alfred Austria humiliated by Napoleon. the Great (1812). that as a child he was fond of improvising dramatic performances with his playmates. the constant reference to inscrut- We Castile — able fate proves that Grillparzer and a son of his time.FKANZ GRILLPAEZER the ideal enthusiasm of Schiller 219 In 1810 he revolts In the enhe learns English. When he reached adolescence he experimented with a large number of historical and fantastic subjects. continuing in the direc- There — tion foreshadowed by its predecessors. therefore. Grillparzer 's first completed drama of any magnitude. his. as of Goethe. Blanca of (1807-09). Don from and swears allegiance to Goethe. are Shakespearean in many scenes. give earnest of a talent for scenic manipulation and for the representation of character. he discovers the dramatic spirit most closely akin to Carlos. These juvenile pieces are full of reminiscences of Schiller and Shakespeare. but are in their general disposition strongly influenced by Schiller's Robbers and Maid of Orleans. . The play Ancestress (1816) first. it takes its place beside the popular dramas of fate written by Werner and Milliner. Occasionally he was privileged to attend an operetta or a spectacular play at one of the minor theatres. a double significance in the earliest of Grillparzer 's to be performed on the stage. now yielding more to the congenial impulse of Spanish influences. in that. and he left plans and fragments that. and secondly. because at the same time the poet. read of Grillparzer. is a disciple of Schiller is. is almost to be called Schiller's Don over again. and he is attracted first to Calderon and then to Lope de Vega in whom. and Spanish Shakesuing years speare supplants Goethe in his esteem. ere long. established his independence even in the treatment .

published in 1816 by an enemy of Schreyvogel's who wished to discredit the adaptation which Schreyvogel had made for the Burgtheater. But Grillparzer nevertheless resolved that his next play should dispense with all adventitious aids and should take as simple a form and style as he could give it. for even though we regard the play as but the scenic representation of the in- — cidents of a night. the representation is of absorbing interest and is entirely free from the crudities which make Milliner's dramas more gruesome than dramatic. 1817. A friend chanced to suggest to him tliat the story of Sappho would furnish a text for an opera. Critics. The play was performed on the thirty-first of January. and in a revised version in five acts Grillparzer so far . adopted his suggestions as to knit up the plot more closely and thus to give greater prominence to the idea of fate and retribution. The idea took hold of him.220 THE GERMAN CLASSICS of a more or less conventional theme. were not slow to point out that the effectiveness of The Ancestress was due less to poetical qualities than to theatrical unjustly. but he criticized the dramatic structure. Sappho the Hofburgtheater on April 21. was ready for was produced at . Furthermore. to be sure. and scored a tremendous success. and his interest once again aroused and soon mounting to enthusiasm. served only to bring the two men together for Schreyvogel was generous and Grillparzer innocent of any hostile As early as 1813 Grillparzer had thought of intention. Schreyvogel encouraged him to complete the play. Grillparzer replied that the subject would perhaps yield a tragedy. The Ancestress. 1817. Schreyvogel was delighted. 1818. he wrote in less than a month the torrent of Spanish short trochaic verses which sweeps through the four acts of this romantic drama. Written in July. Grillparzer had translated some scenes of Calderon's Life is a Dream which. The Ancestress marks the beginning of Grillparzer's friendship with Schreyvogel. and in three weeks his second play the stage. without delay or pause for investigation he made his plan .

it is the essential situation in Mme. This situation occurs again and again in the voluminous works of Wieland most obviously perhaps in the novelette Menander and Glycerion (1803). and it is so constantly found in his dramas that it may be called the characteristic situation for the dramatist as well as for the man. nor yet by anything more than the example of Goethe. was . He was received in audience by Prince Metternich. and the influence strongest upon him in the writing of it was that of Wieland. de StaePs Corinne (1807). but also in — in the epistolary novel Aristippus (1800-1802). and the dramatist became the lion of the hour. 's finally. this situation was Grillparzer 's own.FRANZ GRILLPARZER Grillparzer said that in creating 221 pretty much with Goethe's steer. but upon closer examination Sappho appears to be neither a classical play of the serene. his play is almost to be called a ro- mantic love story. In the third the novel Agathon (1766-1767). he took only the outline of the story of Sappho and Phaon. we have a demonstration of profound conviction that the artistic temGrillparzer is ill suited to the demands of practical life. poetry Sappho was as successful on the stage as The Ancestress had been. thereby unfitting herself for the priesthood of as well as forfeiting her life. and perament in the solitary sphere to which it is doomed must fail to find that contentment is which only life can afford. In this drama. womanhood. and who is undeceived when a naive maiden awakens in him sentiments that really are those of love. Sappho he had plowed In form his play resem- bles Iphigenia and in substance it is not unlike Tasso. typical quality of Iphigenia nor a Kiinstlerdrama in the sense in which Tasso is one. The situation out of which the tragedy of Sappho develops is that of a young man who deceives himself into believing that admiration for a superior woman is love. and place. Sappho not assailed by life on all sides as Tasso is but she makes an egregious mistake in her search for the satisfactions of . Moreover. Grillparzer was not inspired by the meagre tradition of the Lesbian poetess.

the king of that land. is determined with all her arts to aid her father in repulsing the invaders. who coveted the precious token. he chanced upon the article Medea in His plan was soon formed and a mythological lexicon. not only in the tragedies of Euripides and Seneca. obedient to what his fault "His camp alone explains — he believed to be the will of the gods." so that the explanation to modGrillparzer rightly perceived ern minds of so incredible a crime as Medea's must be sought and presented in the untoward circumstances under which her relations with Jason began. with great enthusiasm and confidence that he set to work upon his next subject. The Golden Fleece. For so comprehensive a matter Grillparzer. The story of Jason and Medea had long been familiar to him. but also in German dramas and operas of the eighteenth century which during The imhis youth were frequently produced in Vienna. When. he showed in The Guest Friend how Phryxus. for she shares her father's desire for the treasure and is appalled only by the sense of outraged hospitality. still an Amazon and an enchantress. and was granted an annual pension of 1000 florins for five years. on condition that the Hofburgtheater should have the right to first production of his forthcoming plays. in The Argonauts.222 THE GERMAN CLASSICS lauded in high social circles in Vienna. vainly tries to prevent the crime. bore the Golden Fleece to Colchis. and as Schiller said of Wallenstein — and crime. therefore. mediate impulse to treat this story came to him when. like Schiller in Wallenstein. even to a haughty intruder. It was. only to meet death at the hands of iEetes. but sees herself included in the dying man's curse. was made to embrace the whole history of the relations of Jason and Medea. Medea. the king's daughter. Accordingly. found the limits of a single drama too narrow. Against her will she saves the life and furthers the enter- . But the sight of the handsome stranger soon touches her with an unwonted feeling. Medea. Jason comes to recover the Fleece. in the summer of 1818.



they become partners in the theft of the Fleece whereupon Jason. of crimes the cupidity of human nature and the helplessness of the individual who allows the forces of evil to gain sway over curse attached to . Then the barbarian in Medea reasserts herself and the passion of a just revenge. without her aid his Medea expedition would have been fruitless. as a husband and father he returns to Greece with the object of his quest. Jason strives to overcome a growing repugnance and loyally makes common cause with her. has sacrificed all to serve him. moves her to the destruction of all her enemies and a final divorce from her heartless husband. but the is this cause it is not the cause. like the hoard of the Nibelungen. Ostracism and banish- ment accentuate the humiliation of marriage to a barbarian. barian and gratified with the sense of subjugating an Amazon. stifling all.FRANZ GRILLPARZER 223 prise of Jason. doing from beginning to end what it is not . in too confident self-sufficiency. assures her of his love and takes her and the Fleece in triumph away from Colchis. Medea. nor appreciate the feelings of the wife who sees him about to marry Creusa. in overweening self-indulgence. attaches hima woman to whom he cannot be true. but with her he cannot live in the civilized community where she has no place. Jason. or of the mother who sees her children prefer Creusa to herself. To Jason she can give no other words of comfort than that he may be stronger in suffering than he had been in acting. Four years elapse before the action of Medea commences.other feeling. Such an eminently personal tragedy Grillparzer constructed on the basis of a mythological story. But he is now received rather as the husband of a sorceress than as the winner of the Fleece. fascinated by the dark-eyed bar. is not proof against the blandishself to ments of an unscrupulous adventurer and progresses from crime to crime. but he cannot follow her in banishment from Corinth. is the occasion. Medea has borne two sons to Jason. The Fleece. but to no purpose. him. She frantically endeavors to become a Greek.

made. In the first two decades of the nineteenth century vigorous efforts were . home to him the tragedy of violence and interrupted his work in the midst of The Argonauts. to stir up Austrian poets to emulate their NorthGerman colleagues in the treatment of Austrian subjects." A few stanzas of a ballad on this hero were written. An unnatural and unholy bond cannot be severed even to make way for a natural and holy one. Grillparzer never again wrote with such tumultuous passion as swayed him at the time of his work on the first half of The Golden Fleece. "I am going to write an historical drama on Frederick the Warlike. and . His illicit love of Charlotte Paumgarten gave him many a tone which thrills in the narrative of Jason and Medea the death of his mother brought . In 1809 he wrote in his diary. With these efforts Grillparzer was in hearty sympathy. Ottocar) planned as a cycle on the house of Babenberg. and recovered. And the paths of glory lead not to the grave but to a living death in the consciousness of guilt and the remorse for misdeeds. probably at this time dramatic fragments have survived from 1818 and 1821. The Hanoverian A. in the fall and early winter of 1819-20. In 1817 Matthaus von Collin's play Frederick the Warlike was published. Duke of Austria. his visit to Rome enabled him to regain composure and increase his sense of the local color of ancient civilization so that when he completed . Frederick the Warlike.224 THE GERMAN CLASSICS her will to do. In his own person he had experienced the dangers of the vita activa against which The Golden Fleece is a warning. suffered. Medea. he wrote with the mastery of one who had ventured. . especially by Baron von Hormayr and his collaborators. W. Schlegel declared in a lecture delivered at Vienna in 1808 that the worthiest form of the romantic drama was the historical and made special mention of the house of Habsburg. observed. as one of three (Leopold the Glorious. Mention has already been made of Grillparzer 's pride in the history of Austria.

appealed to him as a promising character for dramatic treatment. and the imperial court sugVol. and it gives an impressive picture of the dawn of the Habsburg monarchy. In September of that year the empress was to be . Ottocar is the tragedy of an individual unequal to superhuman tasks it does not represent an idea. crowned as queen of Hungary. middle and end. composed is in 1823. may well have stimulated him to do for the first of the Habsburgs. what Kleist had done for the greatest of the early Hohenzollerns and par. indulgent when stern measures are requisite. Ottocar was finally freed by order of the emperor himself." is the theme. lest Bohemian sensibilities should be offended. a performance of Kleist's Prince Frederick of Homburg. which Grillparzer witnessed in 1821. and was performed amid great enthusiasm on February nineteenth. a strong man whom success makes too sure of the adequacy of his individual strength. ruthless when he should be politic. Ottocar 's successful rival. but was far from wishing either to demonstrate or Grillparzer illustrate that truth. in spite of careful study of historical sources of informa" Pride tion.FRANZ GRILLPARZER 225 Collin's Frederick interested Grillparzer. and our interest centres more in Rudolf the triumphant than in Ottocar the defeated and penitent. Ottocar a parvenu. remarkable for the amount of matter included in the space of a single drama. but without superabundance of antiquarian minutiae. but only The in the first two acts can it be said to be dramatic. 1825. goeth before destruction. but a man. After having been retained by the censors for two years. an egotist even when he acts for the public weal. are rather epic than dramatic. Ottocar. ticularly the likeness of Ottocar 's career to that of Napoleon gave him the point of view for King Ottocar's Fortune and Fall. though spectacular. The Ottocar is play is essentially the tragedy of a personality. VI — 15 . who married Frederick's sister and whose fate closely resembled Frederick's. Grillparzer treated his case with great fulness of sensuous detail.

doing good deeds for the first time and unconsciously. thought of Byron's Marino Faliero he had early experimented with this hero himself and this was the time of his first thorough study of Lope de Vega. not merely with a we have a highly spe. 1826. and had recently been treated in Hungarian by Joseph Katona. pedantic old man. He cannot bear disregard. and a sense of disgrace which would drive a moral being to insanity reduces him to a state of stupidity in which. brilliant We example of unselfish loyalty cial case of individualized persons. resourceful. contempt makes him furious. Grillparzer knew neither of the plays of In connection with this subject he his predecessors. his wife. they think. almost ridiculous in his personal appearance and in his over-conscientiousness. proud as a peacock and. had been recommended to Schiller. but his attention was attracted to the story of the palatin Bancbanus. is a childlike creature. not displeased by flattery. acquires consciousness of right and wrong. he gradually — . a national hero who had found his way to the dramatic workshop of Hans Sachs in Nuremberg.226 THE GERMAN CLASSICS gested to Grillparzer that he write a play on a Hungarian subject in celebration of this event. he wrote A Faithful Servant of His Master. In November and December. promises to preserve peace in the kingdom. his when has killed her. but utterly irresponsible crafty. ap- — — pointed regent while his sovereign goes to war. like a monkey in the forest. Bancbanus. He did not immediately find a suitable subject. It is Banc- banus who brings about this transformation in the char- . Bancbanus is a little. Erny. the princely profligate. is one of Grillparzer 's boldest creations not bad by nature. have to do. wishing always to be noticed. rather of Shakespeare's King Lear and Othello. This is a drama of character triumphant in the severest test to which the sense of duty can be put. And Otto von Meran. and keeps his promise even own relatives rise in arms against the queen's brother who has insulted Bancbanus' wife and. but faithful unto death. too innocent to be circumspect. however.

1-1 X O PS PS w H u: 55 W O w P O — > 2 o c PS 'Si < h-1 PS P. hJ 5 o .


own This account. therefore. he kept pottering along with compositions long since started." real hero. wherefore the dramatist would please at his own price! Dynastic considerations probably moved the emperor to this preposterous demand. 1828. points may forward to the better day when feudalism shall give way to unselfish enlightened monarchy.FRANZ GRILLPARZER 227 acter of Otto. in spite of the self-repressive character of the hero. a glorification of patriotic devotion and. as full of State. apprehension that his powers of imagination were declining. Grillparzer was at this time depressed enough on his Tristia ex Ponto bear witness. and who. by saving the heir ing that he stirring action as any German historical play whatever. and by 1831 he had completed two more plays. the president of police summoned him and informed him that the emperor was it all so well pleased with the play that he wished to have to himself. How great was Grillparzer's astonishment. — copies of the manuscript had already been made. and was received with applause by high and low. This play. on the following day. when. was presented on the twenty-eighth of February. "ought to be esteemed above all The man who does not lose heart under such cir- Grillparzer was not a really a kind of hero. "An Austrian poet. and one or the other was sure to escape seizure — a good example is of the trials to which the patience of Austrian poets was subjected during the old regime. The emperor caused a special word of appreciation to be conveyed to the poet. personal tribulations. The very futility of it since a number of hand over the manuscript. who holds rebellious nobles and populace in check. A Dream is Life and Waves of the Sea and of Love. who teaches his master how to be a servant of the to the throne and praydeserve the loyalty shown his father. and petulant surrenders to discouragement. made him despair of his fatherland. But in the midst of public frictions." he cumstances is said. . as his poems new attempt at inter- ference almost others.

VolIn the psytaire's narrative entitled White and Black. was. The idea was conceived early. There is profound it is by no means merely theatrical. for A Dream is Life represents in the dream of a harmless but ambitious young man such a career of con- quest as Napoleon was thought to have exemplified. suggests the connection with that Spanish drama. they reveal them. and the hero. actions. and the title. truth in the theory upon which it is constructed a dream is the awakening of the soul. the first act was written at the time of The Ancestress.228 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Like The Ancestress. of dreams he had long been interested. and the most fascinating quality in the drama is the skill with which the transformation is made in accor- dance with the irrational logic of dreams. Grillparzer's principal source for the plot. and the beginning of Grillparzer's friendship with Katharina Frohlich shortly before. A particular flavor was doubtless given to the plot by the death of Napoleon on May fifth. however. the quietistic potentialities of his character. Accompanied by the weird music of Gyrowetz and exquisitely staged. waking after a nightmare of deceits and crimes that were the stepping stones to success. he wrote for Beethoven. A Dream is Life is written in short trochaic verses of irregular length and with occasional rhyme. in 1821-23. dreams do not create wishes. this But is the most popular of Grillparzer's plays in Vienna. . being a reversal of Calderon's Life is a Dream. corresponding to the waking and sleeping states. and life in chology the dream state formed a large part of the opera text Melusina which. and the actions of a dreamer are the : Moreover. though chosen late. 1821. transformed but there . is warned of the dangers that beset enterprise and taught to prefer the sim- There are two ple life in union with a rustic maiden. the actors in the latter being those of real life fantastically is no magic or anything else super- natural. note of renunciation for the sake of peace to the soul and integrity of personality is the final note of The Golden Fleece no less than of this fantasmagoria.

and his capacity for tracing the incalculable course of feminine instincts attains to the utmost of refinement and The theme is the conflict between duty to a delicacy. In it Grillparzer 's experiences with Charlotte von Paumgarten and Marie Damnger are poetically fructified. Hero the beginning a Greek counterpart to the barbarian Medea. Only a poet of the unprecedented naivete of Grillparzer could so completely obliterate the insurgency of moral scruples against this establishment of the absolute monarchy of love. In spite of admirable dramatic qualities and the most exquisite poetry even in the less dramatic passages. although its main action is internal. This external collision is. far from supplying the chief interest in a drama unquestionis at ably dramatic. The play really centres in the character of Hero and might much better be called by her name. But Grillparzer has represented no such conflict in the breast of Hero. Her antagonist is not her own conscience but the representative of divine law in the temple of which she is priestess. When worldliness presents itself to her in the attractive form of Leander. She has the same pride of station and self-assurance.FRANZ GRILLPARZER Waves timental title 229 of the Sea and of Love is a far-fetched and senfor a dramatization of the story of Hero and Leander. Foreordained to asceticism. she is first curious. only soon to apprehend nothing but interruption of the new rapture to which she yields in oblivion of everything else in the world. Grillparzer chose the title. then offended. she is ready to embrace it because she thinks it superior to the worldliness of which she has no knowledge. this play on Hero and Leander disappointed both audience and . he said. however. apprehensive of danger to herself and to him. solemn vow of sacerdotal chastity and the disposition to satisfy the natural desire for love. because he wished to suggest a romantic treatment that should humanize the matter. The action of the play therefore takes the form of an intrigue on the part of this representative to thwart the intrigue of Hero and Leander.

But he had become an historical figure long before he ceased to be seen on the streets of his beloved Vienna. — 1838. accordingly. the brutal behavior of an unappreciative audience so wounded the sensitive poet that he re- solved never again to subject himself to such ignominy and kept his word. as it were. he seemed on the point of beginning a new epoch of ready production for he now succeeded. and Woe to the Liar. in the quick conception and uninterrupted com. But he put away his desires for the unattainable. productive and more Grillparzer or less in the public eye the second. sharply divides the life of into two parts the first. they are rich in the ripest wisdom of their creator. To be sure. contemplative and in The year — . Indeed. A Dream is Life. instituted a kind of Grillparzer revival and belated honors brought some solace to his old age. Other disappointments were rife for Grillparzer at this time. 1831. . in 1851 Heinrich Laube. on the sixth of March. and the three completed manuscripts of plays that in 1872 he bequeathed to posterity had lain untouched for . position of an eminently characteristic play. the poet became conspicuous once more with his poem to Radetzky in 1848. 1838. but the plays which he wrote after that time he kept in his desk. It was the more lamentable that when the play was enacted. Woe to the Liar. complete retirement from the stage. Brothers' Quarrels in the House of Habsburg and Libussa. Two of these posthumous pieces. in a good and in a They lack the theatrical self-evidence of the But on the other hand.230 THE GERMAN CLASSICS playwright when it was put upon the stage in April. recently appointed director of the Hofburgtheater. undoubtedly reveal the advancing years of their author. bad earlier dramas. for the first time since 1818. and in significance of characterization as well as in profundity of idea they amsense. In 1840 he published Waves of the Sea and of Love. took. nearly twenty years. and with the publication of Tristia ex Ponto in 1835. the most artistic of German comedies. formal leave of the past and its sorrow.

o FRANZ GRILLPARZER In His Sixtieth Year .


Even to personal predilec- parzer 's productive activity. The genis uine dramatic collision of antithetical forces produces. Servant of his Master. in 1848-49 perhaps with Lola Montez and the of Bavaria in mind he worked further on it. The play is properly called The Jewess of Toledo. colorless but nevertheless thorPrimislaus a somewhat oughly masculine representative of practical cooperation and progress. Grillparzer noted the subject as early as 1813. though — relatively passive. drama is taught the duty of In doctrine comparable to Hebbel's is a companion piece to A Faithful Agnes Benauer. the effect of which is to make us wish morality less austere and the sense of obligation stronger than they at first are in two persons good by nature but caused to err by circumstances. In 1824 he read Lope de Vega's play on it. the heroine. morality and personal sacrifice to and in inner form this it to the state. nothing but her sex". In the series of dramas thus passed in review there is a . he is a replica Libussa presents in of the mature Grillparzer himself. and wrote in trochees two scenes of his own. the Jewess.FRANZ GRILLPARZER 231 ply atone for absence of the more superficial qualities. and is a marvelous creation "a mere woman. a new synthesis. a typical feminine martyr to duty. in Brothers' Quarrels is one of the most human of the men who have pursued a Fabian tions. however. and the sensuality of Rachel contrasts instructively with the spirituality of Hero. but the king. after an error forcoldly givable because made comprehensible. may perhaps be said to mark the climax of Grill- in the face of inevitable calamitypolicy. and in Libussa. and. for Rachel. It is an eminently modern drama of passion in classical dignity of form. furthermore. The Jewess of Toledo. The third of the posthumous pieces. Kaiser Rudolf II. He is charm that he has never known in virtuous English consort. and king — — about 1855 brought the work to an end. is at the centre of the action. like fondness for the dramas of Lope. is the attracted to Rachel by a his most important character.

too. and an abundance of dramatic motifs that show Grillparzer to have been one of the most opulent of playwrights. Grillparzer himself lacked the specifically masculine qualities of courageous enterprise and tenacity of purpose. accoutrement. Being. or. The greatest richness is found in the characters of women. the lyre in Sappho. He abcall a book drama. and their contact with conditions as they are leaves them with the scars of battle instead of the joy of victory. horred what the Germans Grillparzer 's plays were written for the stage. existence in a definite place amid the tangible sur- roundings of personal life. The range of characters. however. and upon closer examination would be seen to be more considerable still. Grillparzer gives us with exThe drama traordinary abundance of sensuous details. it must be said that the study of reaction is no less instructive than the study of action and that being is at least as high an ideal as doing. and had. Everything is welcome to him. the highest respect for the judgment of a popular audience as to the fact whether a play were fit for the stage or not. like the Golden Fleece in Medea. him what Goethe said it should always be. could attribute a feministic spirit to Grillparzer. a preswas for ent reality and for the greater impressiveness of this realhe is fond of the use of visible objects whether they be ity symbols. is seen to be considerable. on the other hand. the medallion in The Jewess of Toledo. His men are rather affected by the world than active creators of new conditions. No one. and apparel. The popular audience was a jury . Unusually sensuous language and comparative fulness of sententious passages go hand in hand with a laconic habit which indulges in many ellipses and is content to leave to the actor the task of making a single word convey the meaning of a sen. each presented with due regard for milieu. or characteristic weapons. if so. gesture or inarticulate sound expressive reinforces the spoken word or replaces it. — tence.232 THE GERMAN CLASSICS great variety of setting and incident.

feeling of the understanding. should be created with concentrated attention upon the attainment of its perfection as an individual this perfection full man who was . Racine." In its comprehensive appeal to all of these faculties a work of art commends itself and carries its reality. and like the plays of his French prototype. whether of art or of nature. A passage in The Poor Musician gives eloquent expression regard for the sure esthetic instinct of the masses and. they are all in verse. symbolical connotation into the bargain. It was no play upon words.FRANZ GRILLPARZER 233 from which there was no appeal on this question of fact. spiritualization of the body. to his own poetic naivete. they reveal their to Grillparzer 's merit only to connoisseurs. like the meaning through its existence as an objective phenomena of nature herself. It is in the strictest sense complementary and coordinate to that of Goethe and Schiller. A compre- hensive sensitiveness io such an appeal. His art is not forward-looking. that a work of art. but the expression of conviction when he wrote. like that of Kleist. From anything like the gro- tesqueness of exaggerated characterization Grillparzer was saved by his sense of form. was Grillparzer 's ideal of individual nature and culture. They are the work of a better able than most men of his generation to prove all things. the artist would attain to typical. say. He thought the North Germans had cultivated their understanding at the expense of their feeling. indirectly. nor backward-looking. and who held fast to that which he found good. being something individual. of Theodor Korner. He did not aim at the typical. He thought the active life in general inevitably destroyed the harmony of . and he excelled Kleist in the reliability of his common sense. attained. and had thereby impaired their esthetic sense. in 1836: " Poetry is incorporation of the spirit. a classicism modified by romantic tendencies toward individuation and localization. He had as fertile an imagination and as penetrating an intellect as Kleist. But his plays are also poems. and rightly. like that. He felt. and thought of the feeling.

But if I now venture a cast. They come. Of a sudden the playground is empty. frolicking fishes glide to and fro o'er the sands. and they tarry. But then I must also give over My The sight of the fishes at play. . As my basket remains to the last. Mayhap if I stirred up the water.234 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the faculties and substituted an extrinsic for an intrinsic good. In the mad rush of our own time after material wealth and power we may profitably contemplate the picture which Grillparzer drew of himself in the following characteristic verses : THE ANGLER Below lies the lake hushed and tranquil. and they go. And I sit here And gaze at the Which with idle hands. angling might lure the shy prey.

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his daughter A A herald of the Atnphictyons Jason Medea Goba.FRANZ GRILLPARZER MEDEA A TRAGEDY IN FIVE ACTS DRAMATIS PERSONS Ckeon. [235] . attendants of the King. Medea's aged nurse peasant Medea's children Slaves and slave-women. King of Corinth Greusa. etc.

MEDEA ACT Before the walls of Corinth. PH. on the opposite side of the pit stands Medea. my mistress. Come Dark First the veil. I shall not need them more here let them rest. in this chest she keeps laying various utensils during the following dialogue. Slave.] . before a black chest which is strangely decorated with gold. in the . beamy — consume the wretch who. with sudden death.D. [Gora comes out of the tent and stands at a distance. And this other here. or good or ill. is gone by. Must happen That will This casket next light of day. many a stone of magic power obscure. Medea. Shall dare unlock Full-filled And it. I halfway up stage. ' ! . And night. with a point of land jutting out into it. [She rises. secret flames it hides dire. in the background lies the sea. the time for magic. on which is built a part of the city. then. Is it. and then the goddess staff. knowing not. before daybreak. The time is early morning.'] Medea. is At the right in the foreground a slave seen standing in a pit digging and throwing up shovelfuls of earth. with many an herb. done? A moment yet. a tent is pitched. what is yet to come. Unto that earth they sprang from [236] I commit. (1822) A. TRANSLATED BY THEODORE MILLER. At the left. it is still dark.


MEDEA age. a tent ie ling A D t a From the PM .

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it saved me not. That saved thee. Now for the last and mightiest thing of all [The slave. who has meanwhile climbed out of the pit and taken his stand behind the princess awaiting the conclusion of her enterprise.MEDEA So ! 237 Kest ye here in peace for evermore. Medea sco rnfully) . ! ! Thou witness of the downfall of my house. bury The symbol of thy service to the gods. revealing the banner. brother's blood. now turns to help her. Bespattered with my father's. with the Golden Fleece glowing ! radiantly through the darkness. Goka. I am safe enough. does my mistress here? Thou seest. then. [She lays the broken standard in the chest with the other objects and shuts down the cover. fatal gift Of trusting guest-friend Shine for one last time.] Goea (comes down). Sign of Medea 's shame and hateful crime [She stamps upon the lance-haft and breaks ! it in two. the veil falls. hold thy hand (Addressing the Fleece. whence.] So do I rend thee now.) Once more let me behold thee. Thou sprang 'st. and grasps at an object covered with a veil and hanging from a lance that has been resting against a tree behind Medea. and shall save thee yet again? ( in the earth that Fleece. . 'Tis this? Medea. so sink thee deep In earth's dark bosom.] Slave (grasping the Fleece). Nay. What Medea. Wilt thou. a bane to men. Unveil it not. That saved me? That here I lay 'Tis because it.

Medea kneels at one side of the pit as he works. daughter of a king! Medea. Come ! [She grasps one handle of the chest.) Hast finished? ! Medea. now.] Gora (observing them from a distance). let in the foreground). prepared? Yea. Gora Thanks to thy Medea Slave. — I charge thee. Gora. the earth about close. At last I am at peace ! The Fleece. (calling after If thou shalt tell thy master. why dost not help? Gora. woe to you both (To Medea. [The slave lets the chest down into the pit and shovels in the earth upon it. Now lay it in. didst thou bury? .] Gora (standing Oh.] him with grim scorn). if it seem so hard. Nay. then slay me too ! Medea (to the slave). Lord Jason's handmaid am I and not thine! Nor is it meet one slave another serve. Ay. — Medea (to the slave). mistress. Oh. Upon this traitor who hath wrought us woe. [The slave departs. I That look no more on such Let me but see him die .238 THE GERMAN CLASSICS (ironically). guard my secret it 'Tis finished. (to the slave. husband's love? ignoring Gora's taunt). ye gods of Colchis. what a task is this For a proud princess. and together they carry it to the pit. well. and heap the earth upon it. Is all Medea. Stamp And go. Thou Gora art a Colchian. too. ! a sight may first hurl down your lightning-stroke of wrath Yet. and I know thee true. the slave the other. me die.

Through the long. Be silent. hast buried now thou saw'st it here. And horror follows wheresoe'er thou goest. then. Cheat thyself To dream Lord Jason loves thee yet. Thou hadst it still — andNay. 239 Even the Fleece. troubled nights.MEDEA Medea. and thou shalt listen. gone! And naught is left. thou art not wretched. upon my couch lie and weep each morn. all thy past life Vanished. But I will speak. seducer and seduced. and naught has been. All scorn me. Gora. lo. yet see mine arms are chained ! ! — Medea. The people shudder at the Colchian witch . Thou didst not leave it in Iolcos. — 'Tis scarce one moon since the revolted sea Cast you ashore. All I foretold has come to pass. I curse my gray hairs and my weight Of years. All I had Is gone. with Thine husband's uncle? Medea. it never happened! Think. woman! Nay ! Let her who knows her guilty lock her lips. . and ! all seest is but this present fleeting hour There was no Colchis All the gods are dead Thou hadst no father. To be Freeborn I thine haughty paramour's meek slave. Gora. never slew thy brother Thou think 'st not of it. save heavy heart and scalding tears. flout me. I will speak. as the bright sun Returns. Forth from my peaceful home There in far Colchis. like wreaths of vapor in the breeze And naught's to come. And yet e 'en now these folk flee from thy face. Nay. Gora. am I. Perchance It may come true ! Thou ! ! ! — ! Medea Gora. too! Say on. (angrily). it! Gone. thou hast lured me here.

Gora. I'll comfort thee. Only presume not rashly to deny To men Medea. Gora. the Colchian princess' spouse. Medea. To follow him Ay. . Gora. Let us go. Medea. toy not so with words Is he the same impetuous lover still Who wooed thee once. too. there all shrink back And As curse thee. Ha ! — And thy husband — f Medea. because thou dost deny This punishment they send. thou shalt not escape my questioning Nay. Where thou dost show thyself. nor where To lay his head. Weep for thy bitter lot. and all this woe. need and death! ^Eetes' daughter in a beggar's hut! Let us pray Heaven for a simple heart So shall our humble lot be easier borne. and mete out guilty requital.240 THE GERMAN CLASSICS With fearful whispers of her magic dark. late or soon. they hate. What canst thou hope from him 1 I am his wife Did not Was ! And hop'st — ! Medea. Gora. Day breaks. In need and unto death. who braved a hundred swords — — — ! . we must see it clear. and for thine. all! — May the same curse smite them for thy lord. Him. none knows how? Home hath he none. And only one our wretched plight shows clear ! — : That gods still rule in Heaven. his uncle drive him from his palace ? he not banished from his fatherland What time that uncle perished. Thy husband tell me is he still the same? What should he be ? 0. for his sake. nor resting-place. The gods are just. One comfort still is left me in my grief. To cure an evil. Goba.

. dame. crime thou canst Never ! of crime Be silent! Medea (grasping her by the arm). . upon that weary voyage. all too soon thee with his passionate. Goea. Is he thy lover still? I see thee tremble. fiercely ! Not bid it hasten. shalt thou be betrayed and by thy lover. no future when a deed . face honestly The thing I — it. Laughed at thy fears and kissed away thy grief. Rather is there need Clearly to know myself. — Is done. if this Now may cradle a dim future. And stranger folk a god hath driven us And what seemed right in Colchis.MEDEA . Why may it not entomb the misty past? — My past Would God that I could change it now ! Say. Yet. Thou didst say but now There is no past. Silence. Here to these foreign shores . 241 To win thee who. bitterer far am. here . when thou wouldst neither eat nor drink. flees thee. is named Vol. — Deep Medea. thou hast need. VI — 16 Win Evil and wickedness our wonted ways hatred here in Corinth. 'tis done for all time we can know Only this one brief present instant. stormy love. and distrust. I say! What is this madness? Cease these frantic cries 'Tis our part to await whate'er may come. But only pray to die? Ay. But shudders thee! at thee. Now. He won — Ay. hates And So as thou didst betray thy fatherland. ! And bitter tears I weep for Than thou dost dream of. dreads thee. — but the symbols thy not hide. Poor maid. in the earth the Lie buried. thou knowest he loves thee not. that is no cause To seek destruction.

Rustic.] Jason. thee. Yet so hedged round is he with traitorous foes. weak. least. Together The happy future beckons Thou. husband's open arms! He shuddered at the Colchian witch But now I am his true. Rustic. my lord. How went thy tale ! I said. in I throw me my ! . to him). the day breaks. Jason. that in thy bosom lies. Soon in festal train They come with garlands and fair gifts. but a woman. that he will speak with Thou hast done well. Let us at be e'en what we can. Leading Jason. " One waits without. Lo. dares not enter. his the king daughter by the hand. defenseless. shelt'ring arms. If we may be no longer what we would. The ties that bound me to my fatherland Here in earth's bosom I have buried deep. and followed by a slave.242 THE GERMAN CLASSICS So. The kind and gentle mother of us all. Now. 'Tis then. Thou saw'st the king himself? I did. ere thou promise him Peace and protection. then. fair sign of our new life The dark past has ceased to be. As they pass by. my lord. it opens. I thank thee. A guest-friend of thy house. All this folk Make pious offering to Poseidon here Upon the seashore. dear wife and surely he Will take me to his loving. And his answer I — Speak ! Rustic He comes. all Back to the Night that bare them I have given. to meet thee. talking with a Corinthian rustic. hail! . — ! ! — Guard well my trust. Earth. and Jason appears." He Jason. — The magic rites my mother taught me. Medea (coming up Jason. alone. it is meet we change our ways and speech . well-known to thee. [As she and Gora approach the tent.

Medea. Even Shun friendship with know the kindest men thou dost the accurst. go. And I love the night . and all the others. Jason. whom some god In devilish sport caused to be strangled. — . Jason.) Go. 243 Hail to thee. full. Jason. Pelias. from that land of magic come. Yea. peaceful mien.MEDEA Jason. He is thy friend ? He was. Jason. since the death Of my false uncle. Thy husband. Jason.] full of Thou'rt thought? Ay. Medea. And How all the world doth flee us. hear. Medea. Thyself no rest. [They depart. I. And keep a quiet. Will he receive us kindly? my That I wait To Medea. Then sure His heart will soften. Thou givest A fugitive — and rest? Medea. the sunlight hurts eyes. Last night thou didst not close thine eyes in sleep. Thus The people whisper that I slew him. But wand'redst forth in the murky night. alone. Here's cause enough To wake and wander all the dark night through. but only flight. Dost thou not know this? Medea. 'Tis the custom here. Jason. thou hast sent a message to the king. Jason. Dost hear? And Now Medea. too ! (To the slave. There is no rest for such. branches from the budding trees pluck green To mark you suppliants. thou.

Pluck no more herbs. henceforth. let dead men's bones Better for thee if in their graves at peace Such magic arts This folk here love not. Speak truth I say. What Art thou here. Be thou a Greek. thou ancient beldame ? Ha I hate thee most of all this Colchian crew. wilt not wear our country's wonted dress? was a Colchian on thy Colchian soil.244 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Is But what bath brought thee forth. I hate them. and I know thee true. Nor commune with the moon. Come. Jason. Why call it back to life? Alas It haunts us yet. thou forget all such. am not. too and This is not Colchis dark. And I say to thee. And lo before my troubled sight there swims The dusky shore of Colchis Why must thou ! ! ! Be ever hovering Begone ! close beside my wife? . before the sun up? What seek'st thou in this darkling hour? Calling old friends from Colchis? Nay. That crimson wimple bound about thy hair — Why I Calls long-forgotten scenes to memory. Jason. The past is dead. Rot — — ! ! Thou wilt give o'er these rites and magic spells. now I have brought thee home. Scorn 'st thou thy homeland thus him? ! — and all for Jason (catching sight of Gora). I know.] Gora (whispering). but sunny Greece. Not hideous monsters. I ! Medea. One glance at thy dim eyes and wrinkled brow. but our fellow-men Dwell round about us. do what we will — ! ! [Medea silently removes the veil and gives it to Gora. I have thy promise. brew no more poison-drinks. Medea.

then ? Do I find myself Husband and father of a savage brood? . Jason. that thou shouldst speak So lordly? Go Is on ! My hand. gilded by the selfsame sun As then. ! time Often ere this I have thought to make essay If that stern brow be softer than it seems my sword ! Go. give your your little hands. 'Tis I am altered. [The children draw back. burst And drink the air ! — from thy prison-house.] Jason (stretching out his hands yearningly toward the little group. while there yet ! [Medea leads the reluctant Gora away. Ay. there they lie.] 0. Jason throws himself on a grass-hank. his breast. heart of mine. children. 245 Why Jason. and stand shyly at one side. ! . and strikes Jason.] Medea. and now leads them by the hand to Jason. ! Medea.) Is this the end. I pray. wherefore my life was bright my eventide ! So dark and gloomy ? Would that it were night [Medea has brought the two children out of the tent. See. Come. should I? Go Jason). Gora (sullenly to Am Jason. The cradle of my happy. Ye gods ! The morning of is And sunny. Marshalled so richly on the ocean-strand.MEDEA Gora (grumblingly). I thy purchased slave. golden youth Unchanging. fair Corinth's lofty towers. Begone. thy two babes. who come sire to greet thee. of its own is will. whispering words of comfort as they go. and not they.

One Child. I am cold and hard. Medea. go. I will not. I know . hers. whispering in the ear now of one. Child. leave the babes awhile. Jason. Now Jason. Thou'rt a brave comrade. true thou art A Greek? Jason. What names. — rises of the other. Mark them heard. is it Medea. I say. now Jason. [He clasps her hands in one of his. and cowards. and with the other lovingly strokes her brow. And why? And calls the Old Gora says thou Greeks bad names. Or I. and come to me. it well. and dost toil as truly As away this heavy stone ever falling backwards. [She kneels beside the two children. blocks all paths. Child.] tale of thine .] Think not. Dost hear? . [He There she kneels unhappy fate! Bearing two burdens. Have 'Tis Gora 's foolish tales that they and treasured. and be good children. (to Jason Medea. [He paces up and down. [The children go. What's done is done. child-like. Father. and mine as well. then addresses Medea/] There.] I to roll Thou lov 'st me still. my boy? Traitors she says they are.246 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Go. All roads to hope. And whether thou'rt to blame. In thine own way. Go. Medea).] from the grass. 'tis true but yet thou lov'st me. Medea. And not this fond glance only all thy deeds — Tell the same unending love. That. [Medea hides her face on his shoulder. not. children. art. it matters not.] — Medea (to the children). too. I feel thy grief as deeply as mine own.

unreasoning rage is raised to strike. pity in thy bosom sit let us counsel now together lies How we may 'scape this onward-pressing fate . have no If he take them. A dark barbarian from a stranger-land? — true wife — homekeepers they. But thee — Me he will shelter safe too. I hope to find a refuge with this king. on Colchis' magic strand . One fear I have. — Medea. long years agone. — A guest-friend was he of my father's house And cherished me ev'n as a well-loved son. And Creon. king of Corinth. Jason. Jason. safe and happy. — fear. a lonely youth. That threatens us so near. — Full many And now — a year I dwelt here. Jason. And what is that? That I hold certain — and my children. and no idle one. took me in. the black distrust In each Greek visage when it looked on thee. then me. Nor e'er As I. now.MEDEA I 247 know how many love and How Enthroned. They cannot know set foot thee as I do. Medea. when each man's hand In blind. I wandered. "When first I brought thee from dark Colchis' shores? Hast thou forgot the scorn. he will not cast away. Who am thine as well. Here Corinth Hither. Hast thou forgotten all that lately chanced There in my home-land. griefs bow this dear head. Thou 'rt silent! Now. avoids me. Medea. fleeing my uncle's wrath and hate. when all the world Flouts me. in my uncle's house. For they are mine. Nay. as being thine. though. — Come. And mother of my babes.

and to clear away storm. Such folly we will none of.] . thou and I? But no My spirit is not broken yet All that I was. Ah. Jason. the breaking of the storm. all that I had. Jason.248 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Medea. is gone. thou and I. take thou the babes and get thee hence Without the city walls. bewailing one's sad lot. To whine and cringe. What is the end? : The worst misfortune of mankind is this Calm and serene and unconcerned to court Fate 's heaviest blows. watching anxiously all that passes. Why To a false twist my meaning that I never kindly words dreamed of? I'll Medea. wait we here Medea and [Gora comes out of the dren-. For now I seek King Creon. Save this I am thy wife To that I '11 cling Whereof ! father warned We — : ! ! Even Jason. There wait. A bitter speech. when these have fallen. and then. thank thee Quick. at places herself between the chilfirst waits in the distance. — Let thy Jason. say no more that bitter fate ! me Said he not my should torment each other. tent with the two chil- dren. quick! heart speak! The king draws nigh. to death. So. until — Medea. Prove that I twist thy words! for it. — These clouds of dark distrust that threaten — Meanwhile. The King enters with his daughter and attended by youths and maidens who carry the vessels for the sacrifice. to proclaim My right as guest-friend. Till when? Until ! — Why hidest thou thy face? This is Medea.

and Whether to greet me kindly. Is he wroth At me. King. the stranger? Here. King. A suppliant I. Ay. Grant me my prayer. my heart. mayhap E'en guilty of those crimes men charge him with. till thou — Rise. Upon my face. not a stranger. and beseech In confidence the shelter of thy roof.] [Jason So. . By its wild beating. 'tis Prince Jason [She takes a step toward him. is. father. And Crowned with a yet more gentle. rises to his feet. I say. 'tis fixing his steady gaze dallies with his doubt Prince Jason ! King. Never. it is I. radiant grace. nay. or at my guilt.] is this thou. and come to pray thine aid. Jason. my lord. King. Thrust forth from house and home. warns me wanderer. King! a poor suppliant wretch! Receive and shelter Rise.MEDEA King. which all men cry? Creusa (taking Jason's hand and leading him to her father). Look. — is Where Jason. 249 Where is this stranger? — Who he . though estranged. Jason. I fly to thee. See. Yea. it is he ! ! But still the same f 0. father. Jason. me by the hand where he stands With thoughtful brow. Jason. Thy distant greeting shows me clear what place Now best beseems me. Here at thy feet I fall And clasp thy knees. He is welcome. And banished from his homeland. bowed low Before thee. guest-friend. Jason. by all men shunned. take And lead me to thy father. 'Tis scarce from thine Argo-quest thou art returned t one moon since I set foot on land. and stretch a timid hand To touch thy chin. my Creusa. Creusa.

Jason. King. Nay. of strangers. — Is 't it won? now.) For I the moment know enough. I will believe thee worthy while . Surely not true? cannot be ! King. Then Rumor lies. I must see this clear. then. Jason. This is no tale For gentle ears. A false charge By the gods I swear. but why banished ? They charged me with a foul. Jason. hold. then when all The world Jason. and I will tell thee how it chanced. how fell the king? The children of his Horror of horrors! It flesh. Jason. We '11 hear the rest anon. and the word at ! ! hands As Through all the land is blown. Thou knowest well. accursed crime. Yea. forward). 'tis King. Jason. I fain would shield the maid From knowledge of such horror. ! ! King. Thine uncle perished? Jason. 'Twas his own blood. Jason. 'tis false King (swiftly grasping Jason's hand and leading him Jason. he died. Give ear. that did the deed. The gods know it is truth. Creusa comes. Why art thou banished They drove me forth — Ay. King. ' ' cries. Jason. all that vile land with it ! Dream 'st thou I can believe thy single tale. I can. against the word Say.250 THE GERMAN CLASSICS What The king who of the golden prize ye sought ? set the task he hath King. from thy fatherland? homeless I wander now. But how ? Not I King. Liar ' ' ! 'Tis the word of one King. Truly or falsely? Answer me this first. (Aloud. I do live and breathe. my swear that bloody deed was none of mine Yet Bumor names thee Murderer. King. And King.

false. — And. as I will. For thou hadst scarce set sail. That I am skilled to mix such magic potions As shall bring death or healing. to think our fellow-men could be So bitter. Show him so base and cruel? Couldst thou know How they have slandered thee. Yet. thou took'st to wife. What was her name ? It had a barbarous sound — Medea (stepping forward with Medea! Here am I. Jason (dully). no. I never did My heart told me these tales were never true. ! If 'twas my Creusa. so they said. dreadful. Is't she? It is. doing. 0. true . King. see I am no monster. all men's talk throughout the land "Was of wild deeds and hideous midnight crimes last. Creusa (pressing close to her father). King. Thou'rt wrong. horrible. take his hand. Didst doubt him. slayer of her sire. Gentle he was. My brother died. father ! Nay. Oh. sudden. — The fruit of witchcraft on far Colchis' shores — Which thou hadst done. These hideous stories that men tell of him. fair maid.] True it is. dark And dreadful.MEDEA 251 Cbeusa (coming up to King Creon). I know. but ask my lord [She points to Jason. the children). I never slew 'tis my sire. Thou canst without disgrace. then. a woman. . Hast heard his tale? He's innocent. Go. nor murderess. Brewer of poisons. heaped curse on ! . And many a secret else I know. curse ! I've wept. When. Creusa. horror! Medea (to Creusa). and kind how could he.

poor. They are not orphans. Unhappy man ! Yea. And while Medea lives. Creusa. Those children there? They are mine own. snatched from out your nest! Creusa (kneeling compassionately beside the children). ! Thou canst not spurn them One Child King (holding out a bough timidly to the King). and yet misfortune bows you down So soon! So young. and pray [He leads them him for up his help. here it is. how this one has his father's mien! — [She kisses the smaller boy. the hand. sister.) Come to me — come here.] by my lord. at her father). Run To mother. and oh! so innocent! And look. they have no need To seek a mother! (To the children. bring your hands. Poor tiny birdlings. King. Medea (to children). Jason.] here with me. and reach Those green boughs them out in To our Behold. See. little orphans I So young. Jason. sooth ! — Come. King. Jason. lord the King. children. Come here to me. I'll be your mother. Stay Medea (with sudden fierceness). children. Creusa (glancing King.252 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And is King. (laying his hands gently on the children's heads). Shall I let them go? She is their mother. Come! Why stand ye there And wait? . homeless. these babes. she thy — wife? My wife. do not need thy tears Of pity! For Prince Jason is their father.

help. Now follow on. I pray. not thine. thee I said. I We grieved thee. Then may'st thou find some tender. But none e 'er paused. Why does she not follow? [She comes back. Where is turning as they go). but my father promised shelter. 253 neck). forgot Eun here and clasp me close. First to the altar. to our palace then. many a time they've stabbed me to the quick. Who spake that gentle word ? Ah. — thou wilt receive? Jason (as he follows the king. but stands at a distance from Medea. asked himself Thanks to thee. closer.MEDEA Creusa (to the children. ! Creusa. pitying soul To whisper soft and gracious words to thee. Nay. what is Thou hast I have said promise. tighter ! Creusa (to herself. King. Jason. gracious sound Ay.] thy will! Bun Jason King. but [Medea — the princess draws back timidly. Creusa. King. Jason. me ! Medea. They am left. to Creusa).] . lord. My my it. thy hand. when thou art thyself in sore distress. Thy words and his betokened no such aid Creusa (approaching nearer). who are clasping her about the Your mother calls. go. Nay. then home Medea? With us? Medea. [The children go to Medea. pitying. (to the to her quick! King). — and I ! Oh. Give Creusa. children. Medea. Forgive. Medea. Thou wilt keep me safe ? Me and mine Nay. my little ones. as of yore Thou canst not take it as of old thou didst. Unbidden guests must wait without. sweet If the wound smarted! thee ! ! wounded maid! Oh.] Com'st thou not to the sacrifice. and. as thou to me! To give one gentle glance tries to grasp Creusa 's hand.

— Creusa. shining waves. For me the path of life stretched smooth and ! — As now days straight for thee . even as thou. but to my loving eyes a shining shore Ckeusa (taking her hand). from a far land come. Poor. I a stranger. At thought of such a thing as I'm become [She hides her face on Creusa's neck. as thou stand 'st before me. But oh. is thy skill so ! sure I Beyond To quit thee roars the sea Oh. Advance upon the pause. and mild. One step may mean thy They name Thine is ! I * — ! fall ! Light is the skiff that bears thee down the stream. . see. where ! seemed right. Gentle art thou. 1 read it in thy face. even as thou. all Content. gentle pilot. and gracious too. that fixed gaze? Dost shudder at me still? There was a time when I had shuddered. Colchis my and of his folk. silvery. she weeps Why ! ! ! Medea. so I stood beside my father. — Ah. happy For I And And The princess. lonely soul Medea. Else will the current seize thy slender craft And sweep thee out upon the great gray sea. beware The way seems smooth. untamed animal. where thou would 'st — Ah. look at me askance am As at some savage. Naught knowing of this country's ancient ways. Nay.254 THE GERMAN CLASSICS 'Tis no plague-spotted hand. And so they flout me. too. Dark and dread homeland ! thee here. venture not ' these flowery banks secure embrace. fair and bright happy.] She is no wild thing Father. blindly thereon I fared. ! was born a idol of his heart. Past gaily-flowered banks. shudder not Oh. I was born a princess.

But I will learn of thee! Thou hast the skill to know what pleases him. Creusa. O'er distant seas. ye children. Will tame me. 'Tis but the — I sailed away. sad. King. meanest of mankind. Thy Creusa. the proud child of Colchis mighty king ' ! — Teach me what I must do. when She is still less easy. unfriended. Now may'st thou gaze thy My fears are E 'en while I know thy musings bode me ill. Have pity on me. nor those steps By which alone the climber guides his feet. and not angry scorn. bring her with thee. That thou But I believed Belief And so.] I have. impetuous youth. 255 am the lowest. lone. a hot. mountain's peak thou seest. And hide me from the king's stern. not harm thee. Medea? whereso'er thou goest. Wilt thou come. too. and not The toilsome climb to reach it. my father ! Ay. Medea. for thou art gentle. I will learn Gladly from thee.) fill.MEDEA I I. "What makes him glad. [Creusa leads Medea and the children away. pitiless eyes! (To the King. thank thee! And Creusa. Come! He would King. Come. Oh. Jason. — thy wife? I have seen. 'Tis patient teaching. thy wife ! since cried. teach me how I may Once more find favor in my husband's sight. Is 't thy wont to be so calm — And so serene ? To me that happy gift The gods denied. Jason. upon the boldest quest . that is wert wedded. Oh. Look. I will thank thee. mild. I'll follow gladly. child is tenderer than her father. Hast heard? King. Rumor long not. Now. fled.

as we strove with her. Its folk more dreadful even than the night.256 THE GERMAN CLASSICS That e'er within the memory of man Was ventured. but one and all. . And there I found her. And. now seemed gentle. and we set foot On Colchis' distant and mysterious strand. in that black land Like some lone. we sailed away. As though the hour that saw the trophy won Should be their last. of e'en the mildest turned to Lost were those standards whereby men at home Judge all things calmly each became a law Unto himself amid these savage sights. strained every nerve to win. the world well forgot. hadst thou seen it. And so. through storm and night and rocks. a star in the storm. mild. wrapped in murky clouds There day is night. Boastful and thirsting deep for daring deeds. In sooth. — ! — Pierce through the crannies of his lonely cell! Dark though she seem to thee. And what at other times we had thought full Of terror. But that which all men deemed could never be Came finally to pass. a valorous band. who so hateful seems To thee. and night a horror black. Death beckoning us before. Oh. and good. flint. through the night. king. O'er sea and land. I fixed my gaze Solely upon that radiant Golden Fleece That. And. King. she shone on me Like the stray sunbeam that some prisoner sees . And none thought on return. Death at our heels. For Nature was more awful than the worst That man could do. nor evil good. radiant star she gleamed on me. To this life I said farewell. shone out. And with barbarian The hearts hordes that blocked our path. Yet wrong is never right.

guardian of the prize. More dreadful King. ' For all our days to come. Ay. with bleeding nails Dug grave. Dread beginning Together ! of your life Jason. Since then I see. for a new ! And warlike venture then I girded me. And shudder when I call her wife! — At last We King sailed away. and. VI still. — — But mine she was. like Her to a rushing wind. I saw how in her bosom love was born. Which yet her royal pride bade firm restrain No word she spake betrayed her 'twas her looks. 'Twas she that won me that mysterious Fleece She was my guide to that dank horror-cave . Then on me — . each time I search her eyes. Her deeds that told the secret. Thine uncle what of him? For four long years some god made sport of us And kept us wandering far from hearth and home — — 17 . (quickly). as the days wore on. A madness came. For love I struggled with her and I won Mine she became. That hideous serpent blinking back at me. Vol. Her father cursed his child. whether I would or no. The which I slew. It 257 was some god that turned her heart to me. silence but inflamed me . With curses on his lips for her. passion. (Jason. Jason. So goes the tale grim victim of his own his own — Rash King. Fast friend was she in many a dangerous pass. Her brother fell. "Where dwelt the dragon. She slew him? The gods hand smote him down. for me.MEDEA Jason. and laid him down to die. and bore the Fleece away. Her aged father.

Jason. stolen by him King. By Heaven. what befell thee there? Time passed the memory of those ghastly days In Colchis dimmer grew and mistier. When home thou earnest. Companioned by my wife. had he named some easier behest. keep her safe? was he not then my foe ? Who challenged her. My fatherland. I had dreamed. — . the proud Greek. I had obeyed not even that! my arm Then how grant this ? I laughed at his command. heaped insults on my wife — ! Mine she was. the busy streets grew still as death When And Back Of all that chanced ! I approached. Of joyfuller greetings now. he made reply That I must put away this foreign wife. Meanwhile. The past was past. . This evil talk too . Sought once again my home-land. shrank in dismay The tale. Jason. For she was hateful in his eyes. The edge of my first shuddering fear grew blunt. Seeing her face each moment of the day. in Colchis had bred fear hatred in this foolish people's hearts. So she became my wife. now half barbarian grown. I must flee. King. And thou — ? What could That trusted to I? to Was she not my wife. When I returned a victor. barbarian too. I. ! that he yield up fathers.258 THE GERMAN CLASSICS O'er land and sea. Her dark and dreadful deeds his kingdom. who flouted her. he feared If I refused. and whoso met me. struck slily me my uncle fed . They fled my face. And when I made demand The kingdom of my And kept from me by craft. Joyfully The people cried Godspeed as forth I fared Long years agone. grown big with horrors. pent np with her Within the narrow confines of our bark. ! But lo. Why.

But vainly. How the aged king. Storming Calling my me portal with loud. Am my I to save the man " Who And plotted certain death for me and mine? those proud maidens turned again in tears. . whom he slew : — By guile. he said. In search of which. Ay. else that passed. Aught And yet again each time I said them nay. slayer of his sire ! That night the aged king had passed from life. Gazed without ceasing on that golden prize. Then one among them cast . in hope that I should perish! At last. Forth from Iolcos on that selfsame day We must depart. my false uncle's son. and sought to speak. And oft would cry that thence his brother's face Looked down on him. To me for succor his proud daughters came. false man ! he sent me forth To distant lands. house. 259 And he— 1 Spake doom of banishment for both. they came again. for the people's howls of rage Drowned my weak cries. that dead face peered down upon him now From every glittering lock of that bright Fleece. murderer. Begging my wife But I cried. frenzied blows. my father's.MEDEA King. I shut me up within And A then one night. No ' ' to heal ! him by her skill. unheeding Weeping. came I waked dreadful cry before my door ! To find Acastus. But I would not. whereon They had hung the Fleece in honor of the god. Jason. Up from my couch I sprang. Whisp'ring strange tidings Seated before his household shrine. as I lay sleeping. disputing of the Argo-quest. Forthwith a grievous illness seized and through the town a murmur ran king. when all the king's house saw their need. And The stayed.

these strange. or none at all! I will keep I And my oath. And. king. hound her forth. me. Our fathers formed.260 THE GERMAN CLASSICS A stone. against judgment. and meet denial. thine In Corinth here. lest in like evil pass — Thou make King. the same request. Since then I've wandered all fair Hellas o'er. . suspicious deeds of hers These are not all her guilt. These magic arts she knows 'tis them I fear. The god of strangers ay. look you. if she show my sign that those wild ways are not forgot. till that time. On that long-vanished day They dreamed there might fall need of such a tie. refuse to succor me. no I must protect her for she trusted me. And. where I found thee first. now that need is here. a torment to myself. 'Tis the gods' will . the mob my blade my Reviled of men. then others. Nay. Then am I lost indeed ! King. Hunt she stay not quiet. — Jason. if Yet. And she shall stay. I pray thee let her try If she can live at peace with this thy folk. Give her one chance. mine in lolcos. spells the will to do it. were a happy man. But this — King. But no. ay. The power to injure. I yield. if thou. ! — — — — Besides. I have sworn Jason. and slay her. Then. born anew Were she but gone forever. This boon I crave of thee by mightiest Zeus. and these my babes. do thou thy part And succor me. before thou end that speech! Needs must thou take us both. and call upon The ancient bond of friendship that. long since. But. I drive her forth from out this city straight And yield her up to those who seek her life ! One Here in this meadow. But I drew And through to safety cut way. her. thy wife Hear me. too.

to Zeus. and holds a lyre clad in the Greek fashion. Perverse one Medea. this way ? Nay. thou art right. Now to my royal city follow swift. I cannot. thy fingers more relaxed.] See my behests are faithfully obeyed. who approach. Medea. 'Tis not hard. [He turns to his attendants.] To send — ACT A chamber in Creon's royal palace seated. Medea. patiently but 'tis no use [She lays the lyre aside and .MEDEA A sacred altar shall be raised. Creusa. with joy At thinking how 'twould gladden Jason's heart To hear this song from thee Ay. consecrate and to Thy murdered uncle Pelias' bloody shades. 261 The god of strangers. turn to mercy that which bodes us ill. occupies a low stool before her. Here will we kneel together and pray the gods And their blessing on thy coming here. I had forgot that. it [She raises her right hand and gazes at proachfully. So. Creusa. think 'st please him? thou. Let me try once more. I have tried. Now pluck this string — the second — this one here. if thou 'It but try.] Rebellious fingers ! it re- I would punish them filled ! Creusa. while II at Corinth. Medea. ! ! When my heart was The song will please him. the curtain falls. [As they turn to depart.] "Were a spear-haft. or the weapons fierce Of the bloody hunt. these hands were quick enough. ! rises. truly . Ceeusa. Creusa is discovered Medea She is in her arm.

And rest and joy and peace to ashes burned all fair . fled until at last those flames. Each time I heard it. and drew his victim hero. I pray. Creusa. Anoint [She sings. listen. strong my Right kingly in the fray. almost scorn! — — " Ye gods above. So long hid deep within her heart. Before his burning glance our warriors cringed. of which the song doth tell. In one fierce holocaust of smoky flame. 'Twas so he stood. Creusa. ye mighty gods. ay. smite all foes. These gifts. never doubt it.] my Make To Medea. To smite all foes. then.262 THE GERMAN CLASSICS When 'Tis the song he sang Nay. for it meant he was come home. yea. such lordly pride Such joy. burst forth. and there was none would take it up. Creusa. joyfully I sprang To greet him. nay. But then he knew to sing it with such grace. and steal the heart head. until the victim came To its own doom and then he flung it down A — . all shining strength and grace. a god And drew and drew. nor so passing sweet. Medea. . And that same glance kindled a fatal fire In the soft breast of one unhappy maid She struggled. 'Twas so he stood on Colchis' hostile strand. he dwelt here with us in boyhood days. — . Creusa. heart to bear my part Of Yea. ! Come. 'Tis but a short one. and steal the heart maids away! " Is 't so ? I never thought on that before I did but sing the words I heard him sing. Careless. Medea (eagerly). What Of gifts ? ' ' Medea. All what? all all fair maids away these the gods bestowed on him ! ' ' ! Medea. Teach me the song again Creusa.

I know his inmost soul. he does naught That is — not right — but right is what he wants! Thou knowest him not. And mine is such an one as I have said. and laugh the while ! Medea. he will slay a man And do it gaily.MEDEA Creusa. I could see him Farewell I think on all that he has wrought. And though hearts should break And lives be wasted so he have his will. Will he have a wife? He goes and takes one. and speak 'st such things of Medea. an easy task To Creusa. slay me ! Ay. He harbors no mean thoughts Of paltry gain. Creusa. Thou To list goest? such words ? — Ye gods ! Can ! I longer stay to hear a wife Revile her husband thus Medea. And yet. the wide world there is none but he. By Heaven. Creusa. die. — And all things else are naught to him but tools To shape his deeds. ! Oh. • set. each bearing in his little face His father's likeness. . 263 Art thou him? In all his wife. I would love them dear. oh. What matters it to him? Oh. but hard to do. methinks. — — Though they should Medea. Thou know'st him not. Though Jason is not so His gift. E'en one so base and vile as thou hast named and had I babes. soul. and now another's. He plays a game With Fortune now his own. — If bright Fame beckon. I've probed his inmost And when Creusa. not he yet all his thoughts Are of himself alone. if I were wedded to a man. . She should speak truth.

Come. but a moment since. [She seats herself. Creusa. ! . Thou.264 THE GERMAN CLASSICS If easier. thou wilt not give me up. Creusa. come Why tarriest there ? I gaze on thee. and show thee means Whereby thou mayst regain his love. if thou truly lov'st him. First thou dost charm my but I must go. thou 'It see lyre . f Thou wilt not leave me ? Be my help. Yet. but only love for him! Dost thou love Jason? Should I else be here Medea. swift his Sing that song to him. Creusa. How I will brow will clear. with a heart as white and pure As are thy snowy draperies Like a dove. ! Medea. And say whate 'er thou wilt — Have thou thy way . my kind protector ! Now thou 'rt gentle. fare thee well Learn to be better. Yet. But worst of all these do I count a heart That knows not to forgive. My Creusa. Hate for myself. and have a charm To scatter the dark clouds. thou breakest forth in hate and scorn. so full of hate ! Medea. truer! Art thou angry? Almost. to our task I marked this morning how his face was sad — ! And gloomy. through. friend. but cannot understand. I will take thee — ? Back to my heart again. heart with noble words And seek'st But now aid to win his love again. Here is the not lay it down till thou canst sing all Medea.] Nay. Medea. as fair in soul As body. And cannot have my fill of thy sweet face. So. 'twere less sweet. and gaze on thee again. too Alas. ! The song Thou gentle. virtuous maid. I've pondered that. my I have seen many evils among men. I know Those bitter moods of his.

. Nay. Thou hoverest o 'er this life. And all those ugly scars that grief and hate And evil fortune e'er have written there. Oh. And leave thine own dear picture in their place ! That strength. I'll forget My My was Colchis' king. and I'll forget ancestors were gods. that ever was my proudest boast From youth. once tested. as but fit for toiling serfs. noisome slough Wherein we wallow. And thou shalt teach me all that I must do. outspread wings. to fall in pity Upon my bleeding breast.] Here to thy feet for refuge will I fly. white dove with shining. Send down one kindly beam From out thy shining heaven. cleanse thou these away with thy soft hands. Will pace before the loom from early morn. and I'll forget The past. nor yet so much As dipp'st thy wing in this vile. proved but craven weakness. and all that threatens still sire ! ! [She springs up and leaves Creusa's side. Like some meek handmaid will I follow thee.] But no That can I not forget ! Creusa (following her). set my hand to all those lowly tasks Which maids of noble blood would scorn to touch In Colchis. And pour my tale of suffering in thine ear.MEDEA 265 A pure. Yet here they grace a queen. struggling to get free. Oh. ay. distraught with pain. Each from himself. even the gods themselves Eemember not past sorrows. Oh. Why so distressed? Men have forgotten many an evil deed That chanced long since. teach me how to make my weakness strong! [She seats herself on the low stool at Creusa's feet.

and teacher she would be. am just come from them. Medea's friend — Creusa. 'Tis well. Creusa (turning to him). A moment since They are well and happy. Look I to them again ! Medea. sharing 'twixt my sire and you my love Arid tender care.266 THE GERMAN CLASSICS her). Hast seen the children late? What my lord? Medea. Jason. See. Jason. ! ! My Creusa. Who was Do it told me. Jason. Medea (embracing Oh. Heaven speed her task But why these sober looks ? "We shall enjoy here many happy days! I. And all that bitter hate. Jason. and I can breathe again Her glance doth shrivel up my very heart. it. Creusa. Jason. I say! Medea. while thou and she. Medea ! — ! Medea. we are friends ! Medea. Medea. wife and husband ever love each other? .] Why dost thou bid her go Ah . Medea. Go. hid deep within . Jason. well nigh strangles me to death Oh. Jason. She is so good. my lord. What words are these ? He speaks now even as bosom. Jason. that I could believe Say'st thou so? could believe it ! Jason enters. Then I obey. Greetings. a mighty weight is rolled away From off my soul. [She departs. If 'tis thy wish — It is. ye all-righteous gods ! ! she a moment since. go. are thy commands. ? The babes are safe. . Here is thy wife. Jason. ho.

His curse alone lives My . Timidly He seeks her eyes. my own in plighted troth ? Thou didst not woo thy wife as others. 267 When some Upon fair. Of maiden shyness born. Richly decked with wreaths . And dainty blossoms. — ! still — Or so it seems. ye gods To be denied what ye are wont to give Alas. ay. whom straightway he doth The goddess of his worship. to learn if haply she . it ! ! Even to the poorest? Why have I alone there. in truth. . own. refuge from the buffets of the world At mine own hearth. Then to her father straight And to her mother goes he. Jason. — dreamed. And begs their treasure. I had a swift and sweet revenge But I His only son is dead. as is meet. and they give consent. no dear companion No Creusa. then? Her father did not raise his hand to bless ? He raised it. and he himself Lies dumb in the grave. but armed with a sword And 'twas no blessing. . stalwart vouth hath cast his glance a maid. Ay. plays on her cheek The while she trembles with a holy fear At what is none the less her dearest wish. . and so they do. make Seek his as well and when their glances meet. His soul is glad. but a curse he spake. Comes then the bridal day from far and near Their kinsmen gather all the town has part In their rejoicing. Upon her head her father lays his hands And blesses her and all her seed to come. to the altar then He leads his bride and there a rosy flush. came not What have I done.MEDEA Jason. Such happy wooing breeds undying love 'Twas of such I 'Twixt wife and husband.

And cannot say. — Naught have I done that in itself was bad. blest Forgetfulness. Ceeusa. and his own self-respect is dead. : The Here one must show him master. And Fancy flees away. Set out upon that journey. Cleaving the mighty waves with stalwart breast But manhood comes. But I am still the selfsame maid As then. forgetful how one wicked deed . " My hand hath wrong happy Youth. and. Time when each moment cradles some great deed And buries it How. And looked in silence. cannot think blameless now. there must cringe And bow the knee here Justice moves a hair. A sea of evils breaking all about. yet joined hands "With sin. And what I then thought right. with slow and sober steps. Yet have had evil hopes.268 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Alas. And his loss for the world has passed him by Is twofold In scorn. Ay. how strange to think ! Of all the change a few brief years have wrought Thou wert so soft and gentle. while naked Truth Creeps soft to fill its place and brood upon Full many a care. in a swelling tide ! Of high adventure. Begets another. Now at last I stand. couldst thou forever ! ' — done stay! no '- joyous Fancy. Unholy aspirations and have stood . ay. I disported me. I think right still. — ! thou art changed. No more the present seems ! . have still the selfsame hopes and fears. and art now So stern. And there a grain. But Jason. He stands another man than he who late . thou hast hit the truth real misfortune in a hapless lot Is this that man is to himself untrue. bad wishes. What then I blamed. at his journey's end. while another sinned Or here have willed no evil.

praying pity From each I meet? My sire was once a king. [He seats himself. — And fought for places as they would for gold? . Jason. And Creusa. and bear a future of its own. men Of color? How the eager gazers climbed Up on the house-tops. Spells not that enough Of sorrow? Must I ever henceforth sit at am my way. surging. But become a tiny seedling which. swarmed on every tower. babes about me. 'Neath whose cool shadows rest and joy are found. some begging wretch! I Prince Jason.MEDEA A 269 fair tree. What shall thy task in life be f Where thy home? What of thy wife and babes? What thine own is When fate. chariots. as when Over the threshold one thrusts forth a bowl Of broken meats.] I passed but now Meek some stranger's board. or beg My little . ere sailed the Argo ? How the folk Came thronging.'] What should 'st thou care for such? 'Tis all decreed. laden down with luscious fruits. to feed. Yon wide-waved Dost remember how my young pride through those same What time I came to take farewell of thee Long since. And so am I yet who would care to boast He is like Jason? Still [He rises. will sprout and bud And bloom. how each street was choked a dazzling blaze With horses. buried in the earth. — Down through I strode in streets the busy market-place and through city. All ordered for thee. theirs? — Such constant musings tantalize the soul. Ordered? Ay.

greeting heard I none Only. more. and stand and stare. Jason. I have a . as though it ne'er had been. all my hopes are dead and I am down. I trod these selfsame streets an hour ago. And I will be a man again. I heard one rudely grumbling that I had No right to block the way. I mean. Ay. charm will save thee yet. simple heart. I know before Undo the past. Cause her to take with her all memory That she was ever here. But no eye sought me. was the man that captained them. . I . "Hail. And in their midst the leader they adored. that brought Them safe to Greece again and it was I That all this folk did greet with loud acclaim. My No Creusa. nor stepped on Colchis' strand. air ' The Creusa. Do thou but this. Their shining armor gleaming in the sun. but stayed With thee and thine in Corinth. A Is that thy charm? I know a better . all that thou would 'st say. If thou but choose. Jason!" Thick they crowded round That gallant band attired in rich array. The least of them a hero and a king. fight is Nay.270 THE GERMAN CLASSICS rang with the cymbals brazen crash And with the shouts of all that mighty throng Crying. Jason. and dwell — With men. : I never left my fatherland. — . the while I stood and gazed about. to rise fought. never saw The Golden Fleece. Creusa. Thou wilt regain thy proud place once again. a mind at peace. Ne 'er saw that woman that I now call wife ! Send thou her home to her accursed land.

Once again. what matters it? We mean to be no less good friends. Didst give I set thy helm upon Jason. Dost mind thee how my father Was Jason. me gentler. thy tiny hands Did hold it up. filled with joy to see it. Did name us bride and bridegroom? Ay — but that Was not to be. many a time.) All those fair spots our happy youth once knew. and. They are safe. Jason. my chariot through the market-place. (Continuing his r every. — Dost remember how courage. those Creusa. Creusa. the gods will give Thou hadst it once. my All these I sought once more. . one soul? I were thou Creusa.] — I've seen the children. made thee my head ? And how Because it was too large. and canst have yet again. Guiding my fiery steeds where'er I would.MEDEA Jason. methought. Creusa. thou art good ! Would I Of thee Creusa. I trust! [Medea reenters. Still. and I cooled my breast And dipped my burning Of I lips in that bright spring my lost childhood. drove Or. in jest. 'Tis well. Dost thou think often on our happy youth? Ay. wrestling with some fellow of the crowd. 271 could learn this peace it. How we One heart. Medea. the while it rested soft Upon thy golden curls? Were happy days ! Creusa. Jason (absently). and gladly. when first I came Again to Corinth. Like many another hope That disappoints us. Ah. Linked to memory with slender threads. ! To all that choose. Jason.

and taken up again the discarded lyre). Dost thou remember all these things so well? They are the cup from which. now. Lo. for my sake. Jason. think how many years Are gone since then. there came a breeze That loosed the wimple bound about thy locks And dropped sprang on the waves. Blown far by some stray breeze. made one by bonds of love. all who raised a hand Against me. thy token. to sail On that far journey? For thy falling tears I had no eyes. Where by thy father thou didst stand and weep. Jason. to keep In memory of thee when far away. and caught it up. Hating. and there alone. know a song! Then didst " brother! thou cry to me. Hast thou it still? Nay. while thou didst stand to Creusa. I know a song! And then the tower! Jason (not noticing her). there. forgetful Each of the other. my . where we knelt Together. What time I climbed the Argo 's side. I drink the only comfort left silently up-stag e in me Medea (who has gone greedy draughts. filled with angry fears. Straightway I Into the sea. ' ' Farewell. Struck dumb with terror. I Medea.272 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Gave blow for blow. Creusa. and with them this. Know'st thou that tower upon the sea-strand there. Jason. Or again I seemed to be Within the solemn temple. my it heart but thirsted deep For deeds of prowess. watch. Jason (ignoring her). our soft-moving lips Up-sending to the gods from our two breasts A single heart.

and babble foolishly Of things that were not and could never be.MEDEA Creusa. we know not how to live Within the present. and much Goodly possessions. then ? From childhood I was wont To dream and dream. . childish tune? as things have chanced But let me hear no word of foolish songs Or suchlike nonsense Let her sing. and mopks me now. That habit clung to me. I pray. In my dreams I was girded for great deeds. is it thou Wouldst have with me? She asks to sing a song That thou in youth wert wont to sing to us. Creusa. and gold. VI it o 'er and o 'er. Medea). Jason. ! Give o'er! That is our We will not part. but live together. young or old.) What Creusa. fate. — A song? Well. Jason Medea. And had a loving wife. welcome home! Medea (plaintively). So the grown man looks alway to the past. I pray thee. Jason. And. to know it well. and a peaceful home Wherein slept babes of mine. I know a song. By singing me some paltry. 273 And now my cry " is. well! A mighty hero. " Brother. She hath conned Indeed she hath Vol. Where was I. Go to Dost think to give me back my youth. it seems. Creusa. listen. (To Medea. And Jason. For. she will sing it thee. That thou wert wont to She knows a song sing. Or happiness to win again for me. (to And thou hast learned it? I have done ! my best. as the youth lives ever in the future. ! — 18 .

still? Thou know'st as if it Medea (drawing her hand across her brow I have forgotten ! in pain). hadst thou seen her in the dragon 's cave. with her magic arts. that he fell asleep. exorcise the hateful demon here ! That strangles. she sang Unto the dragon. pluck the second string. That reacheth her e'en here. sing (to it. Seen how she leaped to meet that serpent grim. what we are A child. and clasps ! Creusa.274 Jason. THE GERMAN CLASSICS Well. sweet strain. " Ye gods above. Creusa. both hands before her eyes. mighty gods [She lets the lyre fall to the ground. [She stoops to take Ay. Jason.] Canst be so stern and hard ? She weeps ! ! Thou art Jason (holding Creusa back from Medea). sing it. that I will. That was no pure. So. 0. righteous. with bloody gripe Then strive not thou to balk the gods' just doom. though she cannot. then ! Creusa Medea). " " Ye gods above — gods in heaven. Ay. Thou canst sing the Mayhap.] . sing thou to me that song. like this of thine ! Creusa (whispering in Medea's ear). Shot forth the poisonous arrows of her tongue. ye mighty gods . And darted hate and death from blazing eyes. and canst not The hand she feels upon her is the gods'. up the lyre. know us." — — Medea (repeating it after her). Like that which. said I not so! She cannot sing it. Then were thy bosom steeled against her tears ! ! — Take thou And the lyre. Other songs are hers. chokes me song.

trumpet-blast without? I do. Jason. it.] know full well The King ap! Jason (hurrying King. to meet him). Not 1 1 Thou wilt not give it her? Medea. if thou 'It play. cracking sound ) Broken Thy fair lyre is broken Here. take it . but drawing the it No! Give me ! Medea (crushing the lyre. A trumpet-blast sounds without. No ! ! Nor to to me ? Medea. canst ask? my lord ! . then ! Medea (without moving from her lyre away from him).) Why Thou 'It rue this standest silent there? I moment. so that it breaks with a loud. Right gladly. No Jason (striding up I will take her and grasping at the lyre). Jason. Dead ? Who speaks of death f I am alive ! [She stands there violently agitated and staring dazedly before her. Jason. Jason. ! Let be Medea. while with the other she herself picks up Creusa. What means that warlike Unhappy man. the lyre). Ha. pears suddenly at the door.] (starting back in horror). what is that f (To Medea.] Jason. place.MEDEA 275 Medea {gripping Creusa 's arm with one hand and holding her back. that [Another trumpet-blast without. Dead! Medea (looking swiftly about her as in a daze). ! ! ! Creusa [She flings the pieces down in front of Creusa.

and she. at a little distance. A lie! Naught know I of mine uncle 's death Jason. So — I King (solemnly). too? Herald. art thou? A From herald of the ancient council of the Amphictyons That speaks its judgments in that holy town Of freedom.276 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The stroke that I so feared is fall'n at last. Who King. thou. Then ask thy wife. For. doors swing open and a Herald [The palace enters. Seeking for news of thee and of thy wife. Sent hither from the Amphictyons holy seat. for the signs of his disease . by a numerous suite. Jason. — Before my palace gates a herald stands. followed by two trumpeters and. Herald. sent forth Of those false kinsmen of King Pelias. And I follow close. but not 'Mongst his own children seek them — here! Herald. Was't she that slew him? Jason. perchance. Thy wife With evil magic are ye charged. ere he fell in death. he comes. land. on the guilty tracks On what errand art thou come? the gods am I. Peace. those magic arts ye know so well. Thou seek'st the guilty? Seek in his own house. Crying to Heaven the doom of banishment On Jason. ruled Iolcos. Not with her own hand. Herald. there she will know. when the king fell sick — perchance e'en then A victim. Wherewith thine uncle darkly ye did slay. Who Herald. But by Which ye have brought here from that foreign ! ! . ' King. both! This. charge : Here I'll speak my Thou art accursed. Delphi.] The blessing of the gods upon this house is it . King. Here have I found them. With cries of vengeance.

where he lay asleep. He lay beside the altar. promised. And she Gave swift consent. on a sudden. And those sad maids were glad to think him healed. . unknown to thee. his blood came welling forth. But. So she came with them To the king's chamber. She went not Herald. and followed them. in a black And sluggish stream. grew ever deep bad blood out. I The first time. then the gaping wounds were bound. The Golden Fleece in payment for her aid It . and oh.MEDEA Were 277 to Medea then strange and dreadful His daughters came. They came again. ghastly. And Forth went Medea then. — Jason. yes. and begged for healing balms Prom her who knew so well to heal. and his sleep And She even this They did. as she hath said His daughters. whereat his panting breath grew still And tranquil. — ! — From off his gaping wounds. where the Fleece For long was wont to hang — and that was gone! But. Straightway she muttered strange and secret words Above him. whence. thy wife was seen. to let the bade them ope his veins. hold and she stayed. too. horrible! There on the pavement lay the aged king. she said . Only demanding. if she healed the king. But when. Next. to her. came a fearful cry From out his chamber Swift his daughters sped To aid him. in that selfsame hour. Nay. His body twisted in a hideous knot. And boded And those foolish maids. she companied them back. ! I forbade it. was a hateful thing evil. for he slept. The cloths that bound his veins all torn away . All joyful. deeper. departed.

his wife. Henceforth rood of this. be his. old man 's furious rage Now. Of death. Upon that man if . The which I here proclaim. Spouse of a wicked witch-wife. The blessing of the gods upon this house! [He turns — to depart. his fatherland. On out this land of Greece. then war shall be proclaimed. wherein the gods Are wont to walk with men to exile hence. Or city-state. ay. From And No No with him. and so beware. or gives him aid. staring straight before her).] . .278 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The golden gaud upon her shoulder Swift hasting through the night. of his marriage-bed.] Banished are Jason and Medea Medea and Jason are banished Banished are Jason and Medea And whoso harbors him. The offspring this. turning to different quarters. the Thessalian. share in her protection or her rights ! [He raises his hand and three times makes solemn proclamation. That each may know its terms. that no longer Such horrors bide here. as is most meet. Medea (dully. Aeson's son. I here proclaim The solemn doom of utter banishment Jason. ! ! ! I here declare the doom he be burgher if a king. and his babes. flung. and himself An arrant villain and I drive him forth . So runs the Amphictyons' reverend decree. To flight and wandering I drive him forth. 'Twas I shudder still. my reward ! — when 'er I think ! upon The Herald. poisoning this land With their destructive breath. After three days and nights are come and gone.

when the king Hath sworn him free from blame.] will cry ! ! King (turning to Medea).] promise I have made? If I could think thee guilty. wert thou very son. whose innocence Stands pledged by mine own words? Who dares. when Fortune smiled Now. when he's compassed round by stormy ! . 'Twas my dearest wish Of this my daughter In happy days long past. and given him The hand of his own daughter? (To the Herald. I'd give thee up to these My That seek thee. ay. To lay a hand upon waves Of evil fortune. and crash not down To save this king the pains of slaying me? moment yet. Death shall be her lot . too.MEDEA Jason. ye walls. — my son to be? on my son to be. Her do I banish forth from out this land And all its borders. whom the wilderness spewed up To be a bane to thee and all good men. Hear this. shall be thy wife. And I will myself Here. and thou shalt stay with thy father. Stay thou here. I say. Her that hath wrought the crimes men lay to thee. the spouse Yea. dares To question Creon's friend. she it shall come to pass. Go in peace The blessing of the gods be on thy head [The Herald goes. Make answer for it to the Amphictyons. Ay. But thou art not ! Wherefore. Who now him guilty. I Who Will give thee shelter. [He turns Think 'st thou I rue the to Jason. sir Herald. 279 Why King.) Take my words To those that sent thee hither. Herald. A stand ye there. This woman.

! us bear ' The punishment as well Dost thou not know None shall die alone ? The ancient proverb and one death! One home for both. ' ' : ' — Jason. the signs of rash and foolish love. Say. In very thought and deed But. who hast robbed me of my life And happiness. back to me? ! ! Was't I that in thy homeland sought thee out? Was't I that lured thee from thy father's house? Was't I that forced. ! Away with thee from out it my house and town ! Medea (turning to Jason). .) Depart from out my fathers ' pious town. one body Long since. on me. forced my love on thee? Was 't I that wrenched thee from thy fatherland. ! to that wilderness that cradled thee Back to that bloody folk whose ! child thou art Medea. ! Medea. Give back to me what thou hast stol'n away. from whom. Now keep it from me. And make . Thou wanton Give Prince Jason back to me Is't Jason thou desirest? Take him. then! But who shall give Medea. I shrank and shuddered. ere thou go.And me alone ? And yet I say king.280 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And portion. ay. I did it to thee. thou hast done Enough of evil since he saw thee first. then. thou curse touch me not Begone Nay. when first mine eyes Met thine. Nay. when Death stared grimly in our eyes. though I ! ! We ! thought Those fearful struggles in my very soul Were but Hence. Made thee the butt of strangers' haughty scorn. Of all my days. must I go? So be — but follow me let We bear the blame together. the air thou poisonest pure again Is that thy sentence f Falls it. not! King. Follow me sware that oath. if the morrow find her here ! (To Medea.

and to myself ! A deep abyss of evil. Before thine uncle died. drive me forth and slay me Because I am in truth a dreadful thing And hateful unto them. look not on me on that very day So haughtily how.] Dost thou remember Nay. thou shalt not 'Twas thou inspiredst all these horrid deeds. Yet thou. ! — — alone. though I sooner far had slain myself. his daughters went So sorrowful and hopeless forth from me. Because I sent them back at thy behest. — but I fear thee not! Then come ! Medea. I hate thee. Save only thee alone Nay. faint to death ! ! ! From Until he tore him low. Dost remember how I held My brother in my bosom. commandedst me To take it. with chilly scorn. And would not aid them? Then thou cam'st. . and leaped that fierce stroke of thine that laid him from his sister's swift Into the sea. Yea. to find a kinder death i Beneath waves ? Dost thou remember ? Nay. Ay.MEDEA 281 Or dragged thee into wantonness and crime ? Woe is me I am Thou nam 'st me Wanton f how have I been wanton. terrible Let all the world heap curses on my head. arms To 'scape thy frenzied vengeance. Come here to me. and shrink not so away To shelter thee behind that maiden there! its — Jason (coming forward). and for whom? Yet — — ! ! Let these pursue me with their venomous hate. thou alone. Dost thou not call to mind How I did clasp my hands about thy knees That day thou bad 'st me steal the Golden Fleece ? And. 'Tis their right. [She addresses him earnestly in low tones.

Jason. sick father? 'Twas thy wish That I should brew a cool. Why hold say These shadows of my dreams and make them a mirror up to me wherein thine Naught but own vile thoughts do show. nevermore My name. would search my soul To find its like therein? And how thou saidst That they were come to me for healing balms To cure their old. e 'en as all the world Doth curse thee! Medea (throwing Jason (roughly). Begone Medea. I hate thee Come Come. nevermore Now keep thy word Thine own rash deeds have made that promise ! That day ! Medea. look at me. and therefrom ? Why call my thoughts out the past to charge me with thy crimes? Naught know I of thy plans and plottings. naught. eye straight Dost dare! Jason. to eye. naught From the beginning I have hated thee. I've cursed the day when first I saw thy face. herself at his feet with a cry of agony). as though some purpose grim. To leave me. here I give thee to thy father's curse. 'Tis I that look From ! 'Tis pity only held me at thy side ! But now I cast thee off forevermore With bitter curses. refreshing draught To cure him of his ills forevermore And thee as well! Hast thou forgotten that? — Nay. Why recall to life real. my husband And ! — ! ! Back! . my husband ! No ! Jason.282 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Unto my chamber. gray father cursed thou gav'st thy promise. if thou This rage against Thou demon me? ! Why these frantic words. Deep hidden in thy heart. No ! ! My love. my old. looking in mine eyes So earnestly.

Unless thou yield. 283 Come Back! to my loving arms ! 'Twas once thy wish I'll strike ! See. King. I draw my sword. Medea. (to strike me. who hast spurned The holy claims of an unhappy wife Give me my children now. to play the lyre. thou miscreant. Jason. They may not go With their own mother? With a wanton. didst thou show thyself so soft And smooth-caressing. for this only wind Thy snaky coils so close about my neck? Oh. hast thou sung those winsome songs. Pressing one part upon my throbbing breast. thou snow-white. the common tie That bound us each to each. if I had a dagger.] Off with you Away With the vile gifts of that accursed jade! [She turns to Jason. 1 See As I tear this mantle here in twain. So do I rend my love. I would smite Hold — ! ! For Thee. and thy father. nor shoot thy forked tongue With honied words upon it Thou hast got What thou didst wish a husband at the last For this. then. silvery snake ? Oh. Taught me ! ! cast the other from me at thy feet. too. and let me go And ! — ! King. hiss no more. then. strike ! ! Jason). ! Let her go in peace.MEDEA Medea. and harm her not Ha! Thou here. that so righteous king! this. Then Creusa Medea. thee dead. and tricked me out In these rich garments? [She suddenly rends her mantle in twain. and go! Medea (approaching him fearlessly). The children stay with us. What follows now I cast on thee. no ! .

give me back Enough for now (Turning to my babes ! Creusa. my babes thy will it ! That I go forth alone f I say but this. tremble not. whether what we do Be right? If so. Hard though it seemeth now How dar'st thou? ! Jason. thou wilt wring those soft. King. thou never saw'st a blacker one! Make way I go. Medea. at least. Medea Jason. Come Back ! forth. she should bear herself before a king Stand back Who dares to block Medea's path ? ! How ! Mark well. Our punishment. I go. Your mother calls you! King. — 'Tis 'Tis. too ? Ay ! Medea (hastening to the door). I tell thee. this hour when I depart.] King. Is it thy will. to take What is mine own. Medea. king ! : well. and take with me revenge ! — [She goes out. will follow thee ! Creusa. white hands In agony. ! Trust me. but I will Hence come again. so be Before the gray Of evening darken.) . and envy me my lot. Nay.') We'll keep thee safe from her I wonder only. (To Creusa.284 THE GERMAN CLASSICS (to Jason).) Then teach ye her Medea. who standest there In glistering raiment. no power can work us harm! ! (The curtain falls. cloaking thy delight.) But thou. then. and bring what ye deserve. King. In thy false purity disdaining me. O king. Ha! Wouldst thou threaten us before our face? If words will not suffice ! — (To his attendants.

ensnared. Taming thy hate. even until now ! Medea. to soften. The wise and skilful daughter of a wise And skilful mother. forgetting thy The fools! Or wilt thou go? Wilt thou? revenge. deign to hear him. borne their gibes So long.] (Gora comes forward and addresses Medea. I could almost believe thou wilt. . whereof I warned thee first. Perchance she'll slave. I bid thee stay! They Heap shall not laugh to scorn this Colchian wife. ! ! ! ! ! But. The heavy stroke had not yet fallen. on the right at the side a colonnade leading to Medea is standing in the foreground. For thou no longer art the proud Medea. Say to the king: Medea takes no message from a Hath he aught to say to her. now that it is fall'n. behind her at a distance seen speaking to a servant of the king. insult on the blood of our proud kings ! Let them give back thy babes. But thou wert blind. Gora is Gora. 285 III In the background the entrance to palace. Else hadst thou not been patient.) They think that thou wilt go. Which I foresaw. He must e'en come himself. even until now I counseled thee to yield. Gora. [The slave departs.MEDEA ACT The outer court of Creon's Medea's apartments. When thou didst seek to tarry yet awhile. the royal apartments . The royal seed of Colchis' mighty king. Ye gods Borne Been patient hear her So long.

These Greeks. Medea. 'Gainst himself. First I will have my children. us. ! Colchis. Laugh at Then they me? No! will laugh at thee! is What thy purpose. says the tale. now felled. plain. fell Medea. Gora. then whither? Medea Gora. how thy father died When thou wentest forth. (sorrowfully). ! too. I will be made Then thou wilt flee? know not. For the rest. Or hast thou other plans! Medea. then? all. Nay. I have no heart to plan or think at Over the silent abyss Gora. too Nay. Medea. But methinks 'twas not grief. and didst leave thy home. and.286 THE GERMAN CLASSICS The offshoots of that royal Or perish. and they will slay thee ! Medea. join my foes? Wilt thou slay me? . Colchis! my fatherland! Thou hast heard the tale. They hate thee sore. yet. And thy brother fell? He so ? died. My way Medea. raging 'gainst Fate. whither? Here in this stranger-land There is no place for us. fall themselves. Gora. on death Dost thou. Slay me ? Me ? at home. Gora. he gripped his Sharper far than a sword. Whither? Ah. Gora. In darkness and in night! Is all prepared for flight? oak. Let dark night brood If thou wouldst ! flee. it is I will slay them ! And There in far Colchis. Gora. danger waits Medea.

" "Smooth-tongued. That maid whom I hate. Our fatherland and our gods. hark ! warned thee. I said : "Flee these strangers. mine. thy sire. Medea crash down at his feet and lie there. dread. And I would not believe f Thou wouldst not but into the deadly net Didst haste. Medea. from the roof of the palace above him. What hidden in night. new-come. I had known in time But thou namedst him foe to us. Gora. the dissembler. If. 287 I Nay. the dissembler. A Gora. fair. I? Love? and shudder at him As Gora. Medea. then? Medea. Gora. most of all flee this man. treachery. ghastly corpse? 'Twere a sweet revenge ! . the traitor ! Medea. Gora. that is the word! Hadst thou said but that.MEDEA Gora. While friendly he seemed and him not. ' ' Their leader smooth-tongued. as at myself! — Then punish him. and . . hateful. "A smooth-tongued traitor!" Yea. Black horrors at falsehood. the traitor were these thy words? — Even these. Our shame yea. and I hated Thou I hate lovest him. First I will have All else is my babes . strike him low! Avenge thy brother. and thine! — Medea. that now closes over thine head. think 'st thou of this? — When he comes Treading proud to his bridal with her.

I lay her at the bridal-chamber's door. whence ye came. into silence. dead in her blood. ye evil But what of ! ! thoughts ! Back Goea. Death and disgrace have seized them Save one — how long all shall he go free? Each day I listen greedily. That I might slay myself.] [She covers her face with her Those heroes all. Thracian maids Rent limb from limb sweet Orpheus' frame. And Hylas found Pirithoiis Even to To rob that mighty a watery grave. The gods above have recompensed With just requital. Great Heracles forsook his wife.288 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Or if. Persephone But then he seized. Medea. How these glorious sons of Greece. nay. swift revenge. Gora. ! — — Goea. The robber-band that fought their way Back from far Colchis. and make him groan that maid. and not him. less! Gora. into darkest night! veil. And joy to fell hear how they have died. Because they came to steal his wife? Good! Good! 'Twas Jason's crime. . peace! Back. Medea (swiftly snatching her veil from before her face). and Theseus pierced Hades' darksome realm lord of shades . so false. Medea. Medea. For he was snared by other charms. I would that he loved me still. Ah. Beside her the children Jason's children dead? But thyself such revenge would hurt. who made with him The wanton Argo-voyage hence. so pure? Ha There thou strikest nearer to the mark Peace. and holds them there For aye in chains and endless night. Of his radiant spouse.

I know not. and Oeta's wooded heights Were witness how he died in flames She wove it. he had slain her brother. the king. Like that — and To do a deed live! Oh. Medea. ay. He sank To earth. Gora. For. I mean. my bitter foe. see — — ! Medea. So fain to grant time for the sinner to feel remorse! Remorse? Ask thy lord if he rue his deed! He draws nigh with hasty steps. Gora. Gora. Medea. VI And — 19 with him. thus much I see Not unavenged shall I suffer wrong. Althea herself. Vol. horrible! clear : Thus much do I know. For she had smeared it secretly With poison and swift death. he deserves. then. slew the Calydonian boar. Whatso'er I can do. And when She the deed was done. — Gora. her son. 'twas — his mother — smote Herself ! The mighty Meleager down Who Medea. Medea. that tunic dire ! That slew him? Ay. Gora.MEDEA And 289 A in revenge she sent to him linen tunic. she died? liveth yet. child. she Medea. . Gora. To earth in hideous agonies. the worst! But mankind are so weak. too? Nay. Who? The husband? Nay. which he took And clad himself therewith — and sank Medea. What that vengeance shall be. The mother slew her Was Forsaken by her husband. would not know.

That she would speak with. Gora. Him must cannot tame My hatred. Lest I see a smile on the lips of these strangers here. Gora. she went. Away And I am [She disappears into the palace.] if lord Jason wish To speak with me. in thyself If thou dost dare. Then go thou She shall! and call her forth. Nay. Summon her forth! She will not come. Gora. King. it to pass I lay my hide head on a foreign And must my tears of bitter woe. not here But — By the side of the man who ! is my foe. Why hath thy mistress fled? Fled ! 'Twill serve her not. [She goes swiftly toward the palace. who hath brought soil.290 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Whose counsel hath led I flee. There stands the man Let him go within — If he hath courage for . King. That this mad woman dares to spite me thus? The servant mirrors forth the mistress' soul Servant and mistress mirror forth that land Of darkness that begat them! Once again — I tell thee. To my side in the innermost chambers there I would parley with him. for I my lord astray. she is gone! left to deal with the man Who That is killing my child. it. They come. King Where am I. (angrily). and who. call her forth! Gora (pointing to Jason). then. The King and Jason enter. because she hates thy face. then bid him come in.] Lo. Gora. King.

Ay. but I know Full well she will not come. are laid to rest at last? King. Thy She can no longer tarry where I am.MEDEA Jason. have hated from the first! who so like thee. harder far than hers. . This old dame but now Gave utterance to the dark and fell designs On which yon woman secretly doth brood. burdened with the scorn And scoffing of mankind. she must come. Go thou within if And Gora. if she were like me. but . Jason. and I'll [She goes into the palace. Gora. To rid me of the sight of you. So. grim wilderness like She but returns to that Where she was born. Not one day longer will I suffer her To stay in Corinth. my lords bear your summons. am less to blame than she. for she is weak And feels her sickness all too grievously. Gora. whom is I Get thee gone. thy sentence on my wife ! Fulfil. though I My lot is bitt'rer. the sentence is not harsh. Here must I sit In meek inaction. well. Jason. I go. and to thy dole I would have speech with her. I hope. doubts. Will rush to freedom. and become once more Untamed and stubborn. mine only task But my place is here and while away the days . Ah. a restive colt From whom the galling yoke is just removed. tell her so ! Well. let her go .] King. Jason. ! ! Go 'Tis she that shall in ! Not I ! come forth. 291 Old witch. thou wouldst not speak I promise thee In such imperious wise That she shall know of it. and. Methinks her presence is a constant threat. Forsooth. Tell her.

King. Jason. Like the bow which. might I trust thy words. Who did those horrid deeds wherewith thou'rt charged. my fame I am no more ! . And prove that it was she alone. now purged . and to the breeze Unfurl the glorious banner of pure gold Which thou didst bring from earth 's most distant off all land. The youth's. my son. I could be 0. then thou shalt rise thy stubborn strength. not that prince himself.292 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Dully to muse upon my vanished past. doth speed the arrow swift And straight unto its mark. All thy deeds In Colchis. And. rally 'round thee. is not so harsh as thou : An older man's misstep is sin and crime. when thou wert a hot-head boy. King. and mend his error. But leave thy side. like a rushing torrent. Thou wilt be great and famous yet again. Naught feel I in my breast to feed such hopes Lost is my name. which he may Retrace. If not. Before the Amphictyons' judgment-seat I'll go And speak for thee. a misstep only. her the darksome witch. if thou wilt show thyself Henceforth a man. whenso the hand Is loosed that bent it. Medea. The world. all the youth Greece will stream to serve thee once again Of And rally 'round thy standard to oppose All foes that come. once set free From the fierce strain. Will be forgot. so wilt thou spring back And be thyself again. Jason. Believe me. Prove her the wanton. once she is gone. Than Jason's shadow. defend thy righteous cause. happy once again! Let her King. Lifted shall be the doom of banishment From In thy brow. and thou wilt say I'm right.

For I. Who still doth ! Medea comes out of the palace. Medea. then she King. King. thou shalt yet be strong and great again. starting life anew. It is of thy power to come. Thou only son of my old friend king it ! A Am I. What Some wouldst thou with slaves to speak me ? I did send thee late will. What my commands and what thou hadst to Medea. am rich. I will go to claim the heritage fathers left me.MEDEA 293 Jason. I would but speak once . not I. attended by Gora. And My King. King. Peace Look. and have both wealth and power. But our task is brief. Shall straightway yield up. do. And yet thy wife Bore it away from old King Pelias' house. the which With mine own daughter's spouse share. The pledge and symbol Ay. Of all suspicion. perforce. If so. more the doom I set and add thereto that thou Upon thy head. The glorious hope of Greece. too. Say on! Naught strange or new have I to tell. my whom thou didst to drive With harsh words hear forth. Must forth today. Jason. Then she must have it still. Nay. she comes vex us. King. and didst demand From mine own lips whate 'er I had to say. Jason. and of the Fleece Thou hast got it still? The mighty hero! Fleece? The — Ay. Could I but have my due. King. I'll gladly Jason. of that false man's son That keeps it from me.

294 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And why That thou hast uttered life Medea. ! My King. Jason. I pray thee. it. Be contented with the first. Then I must go? Go ! Medea. are thy plans. King. but all thy secret thoughts I know not. Say first. And today? . Give babes.] No stranger now feel. Wherefore. What Jason. Leave King. All these do warn me how thy presence here Bodes ill. today thou must begone! Medea. today? The threats — 'gainst my daughter's : For those against mine own I do not care The savage moods that thou of late hast shown. that thou may'st see I have fear of any words of thine to me. let me speak with thee ! Well. Nay. husband. I go. Let me have speech with him. thy wishes? Thou dost know. and I will go perhaps no " Perhaps " Thou goest! But the babes Nay. none to come between Husband and wife. he 's gone ! [He departs. Is here to vex us. my lord but I am fearful. what our hearts do That we can speak out clear. hear her not (to Jason). Stay here! Howl Mine own babes ? But I forget ! ! me my — To whom I speak. She is sly ! And Medea.) I'll hear what she would say. my — lord. standing there. Medea. Medea. So be No then. and. (To the King. well. us. Medea Jason. For they are what decide. I guess thy will. Jason. King. Medea. cunning! So.

Thou richly hast deserved! Who is this man. then? But what of thee? Methinks the Herald's sentence named thee. pious man? And now thou wouldst Desert the wife whom thou didst steal away Mild? No. nay. to their judgment ! 'Tis a fate. idle feigning when thou speak 'st Dost call my dread of horrid deeds Which thou hast done. a sham. I am banished. Thou knowest now what thou must do. . This pious. Nor drop thine eyes for shame. I know not Stay until I learn and I will be quiet even as thou. Jason. gentle. was it not hands mine aged father fell. thou wouldst clear thyself in others' eyes. — too. brother. Medea. then the ban it is all Will be removed from me. in sooth. and idle. Stay. monstrous man! ! 0. and win The daughter of its king? Didst thou not slay in bloody fight At thine own Thou gentle. mild and gentle one. didst thou not come To Colchis' strand. too? Thou art condemned by men the very gods Have damned thee And I give thee up to them . 295 Today! Medea. So calm before me and speak such a word. virtuous man with whom I speak? Is it not Jason? Strives he to seem mild? 0.MEDEA Jason. say rather hateful. And thou canst stand Jason. nor even blush? I must needs blush. Nay. my Jason. if I should say aught else Ha Good Well done Speak ever words like ! ! ! ! these When But leave such With me! Jason. ! And Medea. Such wild abuse I will not stay to hear. When Of known that I am innocent these horrid deeds. So. mild. and had no hand In murdering mine uncle. well! ! Fare! Medea.

at least! husband. thou wilt live Peaceful and happy. impetuous threats . How. for long years to cornel become of Unhappy men Medea. (quickly). Jason. Didst never pray thine uncle 's death Might speedily be compassed? No command At least I gave.296 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And I shall live quietly. Listen. Jason. It is the 'Tis not the thought Of such a deed that merits punishment. the me? harvest thine own hands Medea. Hadst thou no part therein ? Medea. Jason. like me. . Ne'er sought to learn heart and courage for the deed? if I Thou know'st A Medea. And what Thou dost but reap Have sown. As I stood at the chamber door. Which calm reflection never would fulfil. none. And lo I saw the aged king Leap from his couch with frightful ! shrieks. Jason. deed itself. Medea. My hands ? Nay. in the first mad burst of rage and hate. Medea Jason. man speaks many hot. Twisting and writhing. I did guilty? it not! Who. and be thou the first to enter To do me justice. and he cried. The king lay there on his couch. is Medea. Once thou didst blame thyself for that mad deed Now thou hast found a victim who can bear The guilt in place of thee ! Jason. Sudden I heard a cry! I turned. as doth Medea. then. my Not myself. And steal away the Fleece. Had Jason.

and an arrant fool Medea. ! 297 ' ' ! at me. but hearts are pure What boys ! 0. Jason. he madly tore At the clothes that bound his aged veins I held. I shook with fear. step to that fair time in our fresh. Medea. 0. How frank and clear Thy heart was then. brother. I skilled in witchcraft. first thou saw'st me at from that day my magic arts. at my very feet. say no word against the golden days Of youth. when heads are hot. hands I held the Fleece. are pleased with. there he lay. the blood gushed forth in streams. and leered at me Then.MEDEA " Com'st thou. aghast And. He sprang For in my The Fleece before me like a shield His face was twisted swift To maniac grins. and mine how closely sealed And sad But thou with thy soft. ! . Thou shalt die on me % Ha Revenge And straight and yet again Again. men oft cast away. to grip me fast. and cried aloud For help to those dark gods I know. And full of horror. green youth. The king. They rent . Thou hateful witch wife ? Get thee gone from me Away I shudder at thee Would that I Had ne'er beheld thy face! Thou knewest well — ! ! ! That I was When And still Jason. we strayed together Phasis' flowery marge. if thou wert but I little Then were Only a now what once thou wast. gentle light By ! . Come back with me happier far ! When. with a shriek. didst yearn and long to call me ! thine ! was a youth then. to take revenge. all bathed In his own blood lay cold and dead! And thou canst stand and tell me such a tale. even as I looked.

not thou! For all my deeds were done for love of thee. . than I myself. how today Can she be dread and hateful? What I was Thou knewest. Jason. in sooth. Thine I was. Jason. and didst seek me none the less. keep me. whither should we flee? Whither ! Thou 'rt mad. that I do not choose No Our life together share thy raving ! ! Is done! The gods have cursed our union of cruelty begun. happy time? Or hath And the bitter struggle for a hearth home. for name and fame. as I am! Thou hast forgot the dreadful deeds that since Have come to pass. And To dost revile me. — ! Jason. Ay.298 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Didst pierce my darkness. drive away the clouds. nay. forever killed The blooms of fairest promise on the tree Of thy green youth? Oh. Thou took'st me as I was. that far. Jason. Medea. 0. Come. compassed though I be With woe and heavy sorrows all about. once again Made one in heart and soul Some distant land Will take us to its bosom. And I confess it ! 'Gainst mine aged sire I sinned most deeply. Yet I think often on that springtime sweet Whence soft and balmy breezes o'er the years Are wafted to me! If Medea then Seemed fair to thee and lovely. then? And Medea. 'gainst my brother. long. too. I'll welcome punishment. is it then Vanished forever. dread they are. And make me bright and And thou wert mine 0. and I'll repent In joy and gladness only thou shalt not Pronounce the doom upon me. And none condemns me more . let us flee together. What land. happy. As one with deeds .

No longer. for what is real and sure. E'en granting thou didst not Thyself slay Pelias. And suffer our just doom. Come.MEDEA 299 Medea. Is it so easy. Subsisting on a stranger's pitying gifts? Nay. Jason. like a wanton. in a stranger's house. more. who was there to see? Or who would trust thy tale ! Thou! What can I ! do. why dost not choose To fly with me? But whither? Ay. but have no place where they . how clear thee? — Even It then. a stranger. sportive child. Gambols amid bright flow'rs. when thou earnest first To Colchis from the city of thy sires. There was a time thou hadst not shown thyself So over-prudent. Jason. not what I was. then. thou fleeing forth Because thou may'st not stay. Seeking the glitter of an empty fame In distant lands. and how? Medea. live. not stubbornly Defy it Let us each repentance seek. if it seem so hard. the courage in my breast dead thing. am A For such misfortune! Bitter memories Of days long past lie like a weight of lead Upon my anxious soul. Jason. That since hath waxed and found its nourishment In horrid crimes. were vain! Medea. let us yield to Fate. And 'tis thou I have to thank I Jason. Babes I have got. I tarrying here When I would flee. Broken my strength. Methinks thou dost not choose The harder lot! To Medea. The boy of those far days is grown a man. I cannot raise Mine eyes for heaviness of heart. And. but reaches out For ripened fruit.

And hard and Medea. I have thee there ! Creusa. And husband ! of his daughter ! thee. And Medea. My task to thwart thee.300 THE GERMAN CLASSICS May lay their heads my task it is to make An heritage for these. Thou'rt unjust. tarrying at each step In sweet remembrance. will not! And I. with the help of heaven Thou canst not speak with calmness. I must go stood beside you there and wept As thou didst trace with her your happy days Of youth together. Am I not right? Jason. rest. What else will come. never hadst me. Be but a withered weed beside the road. forsooth ! What Have I not heard idle talk is this? Medea. if I e'er was dear To thee. And in this Same homeland a new marriage-bed. so. oh. give me proof thereof. and it shall be Ay. restore Myself to me again. then. Thou hast me not. hold thee fast In Corinth 'Tis for her that thou wouldst stay ! Confess. Jason. thy Away? — I — Jason. If thou e 'er By all men spurned and trampled f Hast truly loved me. no. I do not know but I know full well. that doth charm Jason. I will not go. to wife? but seek a place to lay me down I do Thou dost not seek Say no ! Medea. So.] And ! ! ! . and yield a grave To me in this. wild as ever! I unjust! Jason. how Creon named She thee son. wife Medea. my homeland ! Medea. her. Shall Jason's stock . farewell [He takes a step toward the door. till thou didst become Naught but an echo of that distant past. it is. thou wilt repent.

Of my dear father and wouldst Mine husband? Jason. Nothing! It is past . I even hate myself Wilt thou forsake me still? Jason. 'Tis. for thy sake. Him Thou hast taken from me. Hast robbed me. Thy fate seems hard. and now wouldst fly And leave me? He was innocent. Wouldst thou now Flee from Jason. I And damned by all the world accurst. Gladly would I. he fell. Medea. we shall speak together Last time that True Jason. Thou mad'st me love thee deeply. Jason! Jason. .MEDEA ! 301 Medea. . But what of mine? And yet. perchance. ! my Medea. I left fatherland to follow thee Thou didst but follow thine own will. Then let us without hate or rancor part. too but I must flee thee. Jason Jason (turning back). not me. — and for thee all ! am ! And. Jason. Have sent thee back again. but a higher bidding tells me plain Nay. At thy hands brother met his death untimely. What wouldst thou? Medea. That I must leave thy side. And I am blameless. if thou hadst rued thy deed. too. My Jason. my face? I must ! Medea. the last. too. Medea. ! . Well? What wouldst thou further? ! Medea (rising suddenly). I steal away am helpless ! Medea. If that be any comfort Medea (falling upon her knees to him). I pity thee. 'Tis not my will.

302 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And done Of with ! proud sires. since that is all Can soften thy hard fate. Hard heart! Thou tak'st the husband from the me my I cannot. shall I say? no man who breaks his solemn oath! Pah It is a traitor 's name Lord Jason that thou never wert! He is ! — ! How Give Jason. to be Greeks! Here in Greece Medea. babes. And Jason. Hope not that thou canst soften me Give me back never think I wished it Nay. take with thee when thou go est One of the babes. shall I name thee 1 Devil ! ! Good ! ! Medea. have a care. that thou may'st know how I have yet Some kindness left. My babes ! ! Thy ( children ? Never ! Medea Jason. and let me go in peace have told thee. Men call them by their father 's ! They are mine name and that . I needs ! To prayers and must humble me For that thou art no more husband ! ! — No. To be despised And Jason. and herself as well) needs must do it. grant forgiveness to thy child hath so humbled and dishonored you. mighty gods Who And Colchis. . My Beloved! — No. wildly ) . Lest thou shouldst turn my pity unto hate And keep a quiet mien. scorned by I tell thee. ! Medea. Now. cannot do it. then. they are mine offspring of thy later bed? ! Nay. robb'st the mother of her babes as well? Nay. receive me back! [Jason turns to leave her. Medea. for I was pressed (Ay. I wife. Jason.] ! ! — Jason Jason. ! Shall never grace barbarians I'll rear them. — Gentle ! tears For Man.

! ! ! Medea. but they see the cause That drove us to such deeds 'Tis wicked thoughts. and whichsoever will. [The King appears at the door. Beware thou ask too much The little I Have just now granted. oversteps the right. (To one of the slaves who has accompanied the King. both of them Medea. my lord! King. King. thou dost commit worse thyself! . She goes and I have granted her Is't settled. Yea. Which shall it be ? We'll leave the choice to them.MEDEA Medea. Jason. seemeth it So great a boon to thee? Hast thou no fear Of Heaven's fell anger. As thou hast done Medea. Thou gentle. A Of punishing my In the act crimes. ay. kindly man ! He lies who calls Thee traitor! Jason. Jason. thanks a thousand times. Deep in the heart. King. iron justice mine so. judge others. 303 Say. The babes themselves. own self I rule. beget such crimes as thine All causes else thou count 'st for naught? ! With stern And And Medea. This gift That in mine eyes so small is. Him Medea. with right. What is this? Here they shall stay. . to take then? One of the children with her.] Come.) Hasten swift And bring the babes before us! King. thou shalt take. only one? But one? ! Medea. Jason. harsh and violent man? The gods deal harshly with such wanton crimes King.

Creusa. 'tis they. One of the babes goes with me What ! . E'en so. The babes My children Ay. wherefore I One of the babes have promised her. weakling fingers. rend and tear That soft and tender form. silent there And cling upon the breast of false foe? Ah. Yea. ivho stands in deep meditation. ! What Leaves us? is this? King. One told me that these babes were summoned here. to be His mother's dearest comfort in her woe. whereto ye cling . curve into claws Those little. for. Ye would arm your tiny hands. Creusa. in sooth The one thing left me in this bitter world Ye gods. will ye have? What deeds are now afoot? Behold how they do love me. though they were 'Tis as if But now brought here to Corinth Long years already we had seen and known Each one the other. 'Twas my gentle words That won them. Medea. could ye know how she hath humbled me. poor babes. both. My husband there. my babes ! —Why stand ye Come to me. Their loneliness did straightway win my heart. Praising your mercy! Yea. and her nor Jason. Let them make their choice ! Medea (wildly). forget those dark and wicked thoughts That late I harbored grant me both my babes.304 Jason.) Here are thy children. they were not used To loving treatment and their sore distress. either! Forgive — — No! my I'll e'en forgive Her I'll not Come here. It is their father's will! (To Medea. THE GERMAN CLASSICS She shall not say of me That I am all hard-hearted. and I'll go forth from out this land ! ! ! ! . Creusa enters with the children.

Let that one come to join me. for I may Not have you both. to wander wide O'er sea and land. that seems all love. I Medea. king. Vol. restrain I them not! Not with thy hand. so much kind of heart As just! How do thy bidding? Yet will I Strive to do both. Now may the gods chastise me if I had of laughing! In insults and in anger! Hast yet to do. List to me Hark. Unhappy woman. the other here must stay ! Beside his father. have said That I may take. Medea. A thought King. and with that false king's Still falser daughter! Hear ye what I say? — Why King. VI linger there? Thou Thou seest they will not come ! liest. to share my lonely fate. and that just gentle king that standeth there. and one alone Now. Thy false. too! Thou I laugh 'st? promise thee thou 'It weep hot tears in days To come! Creusa. whichsoever of you loves me more. One of my babes. ! 305 — Wouldst hold my children back to From coming me ? Let them go ! In sooth. false and wicked king! They would. but only one. Who knows where she shall Most just of kings ! Not ! ! come! These kindly And folk. And holds my husband from me. children They send your mother forth. Hear ye this sentence ? One. Ye gods. Thou'rt right. Save that thy daughter hath enchanted them — 20 . but with thy glance. thy father. or go ! Woman. know. break not Do what thou forth Medea.MEDEA So lovingly Ceeusa. deceitful face.

shalt be Most precious in mine eyes. come My son! Come not her prayers to me. my elder son. seest. Like him in each false feature. Medea. thy mother ! calls ! Come to her Nay. the children fly to Creusa for protection. in mine eyes Hateful. children [She advances toward them threateningly . ! Come Come O viper brood me. I deserve not thy suspicious hate. calls thee Be all in little vain! Absyrtus. Absyrtus. and mild and gentle as was he. bane and curse — — Jason. so. Of your poor mother. ! Though Medea. nod to them. It cannot be! — Aeson. What? to thy mother! ! let — . not true.306 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And Heard ye not. The children will not come — get thee gone! not? These my babes do fear come They Unto their mother? — No. and Them further from me ! draw I will go away. no more will I be Thou No more enangered with thee ! ! harsh. weeping. They fly from me ! They fly ! Medea. King. love me I not their mother? Look They Am How Creusa. my keeps them from me! babes? Accurst and monstrous children. — But thou. See how thy mother kneels upon the ground And.] to ! — — Medea. then. Thou will to it is My best beloved ! ! See. where thou art! child Of Of my my lost sore travail. with the merry face brother whom with bitter tears I mourn. thou image of thy sire. and will not ! Thou thankless child. as he is! I know thee not! Stay. she doth beckon. image of your They will not come ! ! sire ! Medea Let her but go away! (pointing to Creusa). the one thing left Hark to thy mother Come I call mine own ! — He turns his face away.

Permission August Stauda From the Grillparzer Monument at Vienna .


Gora my babes. made nothing worth. thev hearken not! ! Medea. hear me! See. they tarry here. Come. turned their hearts Unto that mild and gentle maid they love. [Creusa moves away with the children. and then myself! [She springs up. Come we away Is fruitless! To weep for what must be [They depart. too? Thou. but the babes. children. ! ! ! Medea.] Medea. children King (to Creusa). Jason. Medea. My little babes! . quick. They do but echo what the gods decree ! — Depart now. my little babes ! enters quickly.] Medea. ! Lead them back again 'Tis not meet they hate Into the palace The mother that did bear them. Have startled them.MEDEA He tarries 307 where he is ! Thou. children. Trampled beneath my foes' triumphant feet! They flee me. Nay. Thou must not die Gora. These whelps. Conquered I am.] thou must thank thyself that thy wild ways Nay. calm thyself. too? slay Give me a dagger. that I may Jason. flee me Mine own children flee me Gora (bending over her). They flee ! My ! children flee Woe is me! before my face ! King (to Jason). estranged them. let me die ! My babes. nor grant to these thy foes The joy of seeing how they've conquered thee! Medea (flinging herself upon the ground). at last.

me with thy cries of woe Hadst thou but heeded when I warned. Medea lies prone upon the steps that lead to her apartments. Gora. 'twas so I lay And To mine own hands for pity out children. 'Twas so I knelt. Still should we be at home In Colchis. Rouse thee.308 THE GERMAN CLASSICS ACT IV The outer court of Creon's palace. and speak Blindly 0. thou there so silent. begged and wept And prayed for one. Gora. unhappy one. up I say. . Gora is standing before her. staring before thee ? Rise. comfort to the breast . for only one Of my dear children Death itself stretched my ! not so bitter. steps. speak ! Medea. help our sore distress! My babes My babes liest ! Why ! ! Forth must we flee ere night shall fall. It is twilight. as to leave But to have none One of them here! came They turned away And neither Were — — ! ! With And fled for terror on their baby lips. and gird thee for flight! ! Swiftly they come to slay my ! children ! Nay.] Medea. Alas. as in the preceding act. And Up! Medea. safe thy kinsmen yet Were living all were well with us. Medea. rise! [Medea drags herself half up and kneels on the Nor kill ! . Rise up! What use are tears? Come. Gora. already the twilight draweth down. Up.

What fear is this That makes thy heart so craven-soft? First thou wert grim and savage. — retribution? Call ye these Thou didst leave thine own — justice. I that slew him ? No lord. Of fears and trembling ! now art full Gora. Your retribution? All for love I followed him. is this your vengeance. ! My My brother fell. Nay. — Thine own desert thee now ! Medea. I've my hand wept for them With heavy mourning. woe woe and heavy sorrow! 0. spak'st Fierce threats of vengeance. ! 0. punishment On them. gods above! think how thou mayst save thyself. then. as Heaven on me There shall no deed of wickedness In all the wide world scathless go Leave vengeance to my hand. poured hot tears That dealt the stroke? To serve as sad libation for Their resting-place so far away! Ye gods! These woes so measureless That I have suffered at your hands Gora. Did laugh as well Goea. Flee from the arms of her that bare . Was't. as wife should e'er Follow her But was it father died. Then Gora. Let me be ! That moment when I saw thy babes Flee their own mother's yearning arms. — my bitterest enemy! — he laughed [She springs up suddenly. gods. ! ! ! will I visit All else forget Medea. is me ! Medea.] and she to see.MEDEA Of her 309 But he. then.

Cruel mother. thyself. had been the last Of all On whom the royal Colchian line. all the line Of princely Colchians. so. my love for thee was dead . What hopes have they. — They have repaid thy love Gora. in these my far fatherland. in heart. and one Swift stroke sufficed to slay them. my courage sank! These babes. and in As My bitter hate Their life ! If I could hold them here. all my thought was how to shield And rear these babes I guarded them E 'en as the apple of mine eye. — — ! .310 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And reared them. thanklessness doth e'er repay! Chide not the babes! They're innocent! How. or death depending on my hand. babes I seemed to see homeland. As once thou wert. whom it was all my joy To tend and rear. 0. woe little to thee. Look they should be no more — ! ! Gora. That sire so base and infamous. who canst hate those Thyself didst bear ! babes Medea. E 'en on this hand I reach out. what hopes ? If here they tarry with their sire. Like him in form. or e'er can be. bring to naught All that they were. Medea. ay. I still could lavish all My But love for Long since. What shall their lot be then? . then I knew at last 'Twas the gods' hand had struck thee down! Then brake my heart. and art no more So. or are. Again my Thy murdered brother. thy dear sire. innocent? And flee their mother! Innocent? They are Jason's babes. And now Medea.

Come Wouldst tarry here? within Nay. save bitter memories and grief! . Or else their anger. long years agone When I was small. more often far are wicked deeds What have they The offspring of misfortune To live for. revenge ! And glows with ! fierce No deed So dread or awful but I would Put hand to it — loves these babes. when I recall foul injustice I have borne. Forsooth. Himself his idol! Nay. Until they grow to hate themselves. and had not yet Drunk deep Gora. heart leaps up. he ne'er Nor will Shall have them. Will make them bitter. I cannot see. as now I do ! — Thought heavy thoughts. hard. do despite to them And to their mother. .MEDEA The children of this latest bed 311 Will scorn them. because he sees in them He His own self mirrored back again. why Medea. and all is dead Within. And all deserted Upon those silent ! All empty is that house. Thou tremblest! What dost think to do! That I must forth. For. as now Medea. of woe. gnawing deep And ever deeper at their hearts. that wild thing From distant Colchis' strand! Their lot will be to serve as slaves . Desolation broods walls. then? I would my sire — Had slain me long. shall not! I hate them! — — — ! I! Gora. is sure what else May My The chance ere that. if misfortune often is begot ! By crime.

Lack courage for the venture ? By the high gods. when her son lay dead — — ! — Gora. The wages of their treachery and sin? Gora. she called. He Ay. Doth end. he shall. Medea. her own son! And she She was a Greek Althea was her name. . at his own behest. thrust her from him. — . yet she struck him dead Grim Meleager. The very same ! How came it. indeed Hylas was swallowed in a watery grave The gloomy King of Shades holds Theseus bound And how was that Greek woman called the one That on her own blood bloody vengeance took? ! ! . Doth end! Thou'rt right. Her Nor Him alone? He did not slay too? Nor fled his mother's arms. I promise thee. then? Gora. father. They are coming who would drive us within ! hence. if he had giv'n me both My babes But no! If I could take them hence ! Dost think that Hark I swear I — To journey with me. Gora. ? "Well. thou dost mean. Unwitting.312 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Look! GORA. Nay. How was Goea. there the tale Medea. then? Speak! I do not know ! What Medea. in the chase. he had struck down Her Medea. spurned her scornfully? And that mighty man. and such a grave shall Jason find shall. Come thou Medea. Althea was her name She who did slay her son? Medea. Thou saidst the Argonauts Found each and every one a grave unblest. Gora. sooth. for death ends talk? all ! Why stand we here and Medea. Tell me the tale once more. brother.

And And Gora. why spurn my love. Come to me! Medea. Is vanished. now in all this lone. I flung away for thee Why wilt thou cast me off. But no It may not be ! ! They name me And wanton. and dead! stood And he. hither ! What wouldst thou? ! — — Medea. Saved thee. ! and the bride. at Nay. were I Medea still But no. Within my soul.MEDEA If I could love 313 as deep as them still. My old. Why drive the kindly spirits from my heart ! ! — . fierce will yet lives. ha! Thou'rt struck with terror then. I am no more Jason. Ha.vengeance in the hands of Heaven. wide world One single thing were left me that was not Poisoned. I shudder yet rejoice Thereat When all is finished Gora. Why hast thou used me so? I sheltered thee. why. ! And set fierce thoughts of vengeance in their place? . Bleeding. 'tis but empty words that I did speak. the bridegroom. if — cruel And Perchance I might go forth e'en now in peace leave my. selves Gora. or brought in ruin on my head I hate them. the babes — ay. See! And why? Come hither There they lay. and gave thee all my heart to keep All that was mine. looked and tore his hair ghastly ! ! A fearful sight last? Heaven f orf end ! What mean these words ? Medea. Gora. but I was not ever so Though I can feel how one may learn to be. but all my strength Oh. For dread and awful thoughts do shape them.

and cursing loud His daughter? But lord Jason swung the Fleece How High o'er ! his head. triumphant shouts 'Twas then I swore revenge upon this traitor did slay my best-beloved. Dost thou recall on the pavement lay my old. away a little mold. for I fear Lest. I dare not fetch them. to my foes — — No more Gora. that grim Colchian From Hecate. a thing of terror. that bound dark gods to me To do my bidding. And on that blood-stained Fleece. I Then speak not of them if they'll serve thee not! know well where they lie For yonder on the plashy ocean-strand I coffined them and sank them deep in earth. Mine eyes should see my father's ghostly face Stare forth at me — and oh ! I should go mad ! Gora. gray sire Weeping for his dead son. with fierce. Gone! and I stand here helpless. too Had I my bloody charms And secret magic here. are mine But in my inmost soul they I shudder when I think on such a venture. then? . now Would slay me. In the dim bosom of our mother Earth. The ebon wand. I have buried them. will And not let them brood upon their grave go. What wilt thou do.314 I THE GERMAN CLASSICS dream of vengeance. brother. From my own mother. and for love of thee! have sunk them deep Ay. . but of scorn ! Medea. when I have no more The power to wreak revenge! The charms I had queen. the veil of bloody hue. shining through the Fleece's golden blaze. Methinks the 'Tis but to toss And ! ghosts Of father. I'd keep that vow! first ! Who But no.

! I the less go forth? My heart is To find thee glad minded so. 'Twill make thee think : Less bitterly upon thy sorry fate. Alas And ! What say 'st thou? On happy days Naught I did but think long vanished. Medea. King. Nay. dearest wish lying dead. where bring them to the shores they'll find thee once again. grown soft and gentle now. The King Night I falls apace. hours of grace are fled ! know Thou Must tauntest Art thou ready to go forth? me If I were not prepared. let him have his will! enters. thine it. Medea. And for thy children it doth spell great good For now they may remember who she was That bare them. Medea. with fond love will press thee to their hearts. and forgot ! . King. King. . must be my care. death ! And when ! he sees mayhap he'll follow me. Medea. King. Deep-smitten with remorse The King draws nigh Look to thyself ! Medea. May remember? Thou meanest! If they will. Medea. And Not slay me. then And — who knows? — on some far-distant day Their hero-deeds may Of Colchis. What can I do? Beneath his feet King. rear them to be mighty heroes both. — If he would trample me well. Older in years. I'll That they shall. 315 Even if let them come .MEDEA Medea (wearily). all my strength is gone. they will ! I can no more ! one step will I stir from where I stand is My Me Goba.

shouting threats King. hath it. From Medea. King. Medea. then? Ha ! I understand ! . treasure far when he fled to Corinth here Iolcos. King. Thy husband brought Much From Medea.316 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Was this the All that hath happened since. it lies. — ! Where is it? Nay. Who The earth doth hold it. chamber it must needs be true he said so. I know not. But I will speak Nay. then? Where? know not. And that trinket fair the gleaming prize Of dazzling gold. King. or hast thou aught to sayBesides? — King. when his uncle died. bear it Didst thou not seize with thee from Iolcos? And now — Yea ? ! I have it not. thou shouldst not stand . Medea. Pelias' if Yet thyself didst bear it forth so the Herald said. ! And Medea. if I had it here. as well? Why turnest thou away. the Fleece The Argo brought is that within. Medea. King. King. Medea. King. No I ! Where. Never think To I cheat us thus ! If thou wouldst give it me. Nay. Before me. cause That brought thee here. Medea. it now. would requite thee even with my life For. I forgot one other word. still There in the house Go in and take it! guarded safe . and wouldst depart? Is it there ? Give answer — — ! Medea. King. King.

Medea. and harken! Yonder there the seashore. Medea. and give the Fleece Medea. look not away Look here at me. Medea. in sooth? [He turns That which I bade you. Therein? Yea. is the Fleece Medea. Then give Almost it me ! I will! I do regret I pitied thee. King. ! to his attendants. [The attendants bring in the chest. marked with curious signs. King. thou palest! They found freshly buried there — — An ebon casket. Since thou hast sought to cozen us ! Fear not For thou shalt have thy due Once more I am Medea Thanks to thee. where last night ye lay. to me ! Not yet ! But when? Right soon. ye know [The attendants go out. quick. mine! And It is. as my henchmen toiled. King. King. all too soon! Send it to where Creusa waits. and.MEDEA So it 317 was there. Unlock Thy casket. kind gods ! ! ! ! King. fetch me here I mean. ay. I will Holdeth this casket aught besides the Fleece? ! . King. To her? This Fleece to thy fair daughter? Ay.] Go. Medea {rushing eagerly King.] Ha Didst thou think to cheat us with thy words Of double meaning? Earth doth hold it! Now I understand thee Nay.] Look! Is it thine? to the chest). Medea. Upon I ! What — ! I gave command to raise a sacred fane To Pelias' shades.

Medea. how she loves thee. I said her nay. Thou knowest Only. [She turns toward the chest. King. King. Thou hast given me back myself Ay. and take A last farewell before thou settest forth Upon thy weary way. Oh.] to his doom! Fool! Didst Tremble and shudder when thou took'st away Her last possession from the woman thou Hadst robbed already? Yet. Do even as thou wilt. and so shalt have that grace. Nay.318 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Yea. And she will be a mother to my babes. The key is kept by friends I know full well. Now thou art Quiet again. bethink thee of thy needs. ! . Nay. gift I'd send her. Agone she begged to send thy Medea. thanks to thee. many things ! Thine own? Medea. I fain would win her love Thou dost desire Naught but the Fleece perchance some trinkets rare Would please her eyes. thou good and pious King! Wait here. I forgot how I did lock it up Medea. I'll send the children to thee straight. I would demand Keep that which is thine own. Gora (fumbling at it). I thank thee for it.] — ! ! ! ! . For I had seen thy fury. thank thee Unlock the casket That I cannot do. But an hour Already babes to thee That thou might 'st see them once again. so good. else of thee. Mine own. ! Surely thou wilt permit me one small gift Thy daughter was so mild to me. From these A King. Naught Medea. King. Medea. He's gone thou not — and [He departs.

banded for your doom Yonder flares a light Look ! ! ! Medea. 'Twill soon be Nay.MEDEA Up from below Down from o 'erhead ! ! 319 Open. as she steadies it with her right hand. [She veils herself. if Ah. and I am no more A weak and powerless woman! There they lie. I? I would send to her. and through heart and limbs Unfailing strength streams forth from thee to me And thee. ! Banded against me. beloved wimple. My staff. thou mighty staff Of mine own mother. first. Bring her Medea's greetings. speak soft and honied words. thou secretest Tomb of the dead The lid springs open. she slightly jars the cover open. my veil of crimson Mine Ah. and her gifts! [She takes the gifts out of the chest one by one. on my brow I bind once more ! ! ! ! ! ! How How dost thou pour new life through all my frame Now come. quenched in blood! — let it flare ! Here are the presents And Gora.] . mine [She takes them out of the casket. Gora. that doth treasure up Most precious ointments. Thou ! Go quickly to the chamber where Creusa sits.] warm. thou shalt be the "bearer of my gifts ! Medea. how soft thou art. and a blinding flame leaps forth. the bride will shine its lid ! Like blazing But bear it heedf ully.] This golden box. and shake Gora. come all my foes in close-set ranks. she will ope it not ! Woe's me! [She has grasped the ointment-box firmly in her left hand. stars.] I take thee in my hands.

! ! late! (To the slave-woman.] . The thing her heart most craves the Golden Fleece Go hence and do thine errand. they come early to the marriage feast And when an hour Now And thy mistress lead my servant here She takes a message from me. and o'er it lay the best of all. Sooth. (She turns to Gora. fool ! Now Gora. thou slave darest thou presume to answer me? Nay. made to grace a queen To cover all from sight and keep them hid. Medea. Thou shalt not wait in vain clasp it tightly. that foe doth send to foe [A slave-woman enters with the children. gone I take them back. Medea. thou. So! Thou wouldst warn me? crone And I must bear it? ! 'Tis a wise old Medea. Serpent with forked tongue Wait till the knell hath rung. I set this jeweled chalice. to . My take these gifts. go. but fair Spread o'er these gifts this mantle ! — — — first And richly broidered. — — ! it is And Slave.) Away! And bring her to thy mistress. How Be Yea Obey. Nay. Gora. high-embossed with gold.320 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I warned thee not to shake it.) remember what I told thee not a word It is my will Nay. thou shalt. bears rich gifts. carry it with heed to ! ! Back ! I fear some dreadful thing ! will come of this ! Medea. Now. [Gora and the slave-woman depart together. rich and fair To see. thy house again. ! silent! thou must! And Here on next this salver. and do what I commanded thee.] lord the king hath sent these children hither is ! .

But not yet ended! Easy is my path. thou wilt hurt here. When I bethink me 'tis my very self That turns against me.MEDEA Well begun. We would rather stay would we not. Thou. because I looked . Medea. better so! sick too. Now I see clearly what I have to do [The children. Wait. and shut us up Within thy boat again. where we were both steal us To So and dizzy. Thou dost seek both away. low the slave-woman. Boy. Medea. the babes I bore so long my own womb. Come Boy. I say! me ! ! Hurt thee? Thou hast done Naught to deserve it Once thou flung 'st me down Upon Vol. hard. I say When I bethink me how they are my blood. and nourished at my breast. hand in hand. in my inmost soul Fierce anger stabs me knife-like. my brother? Here. Thy mother bids you tarry. Boy. Medea. VI — 21 the pavement. hither! I'm afraid! Come Nay. Medea. To make you flee her sight and run away To hide in strangers' bosoms? Boy. Boy.) What hath mother done. Absyrtus? But 'tis better. Medea. make as if to ! 321 fol- Boy. bloody thoughts Eise fast within me ! — (To the children. Yea! Younger Boy. In — My very flesh.] Where go ye? In the house! What seek ye there? ! Our father told us we should stay with her.

] children. Dost want us? What would [The boy Nay. fleeting When . his mien I'm sleepy! Boy. wraps it warm lies And close about his shoulders. stars are climbing high. Medea Medea. see How watchfully he guides the younger one. and go to sleep I give. Ah. syllabled like — How How his words — Patience! Wait! Jason's! lie shalt go to her. It's late. Ye '11 have your fill of sleep ere long! Go. Medea. And yet 'twixt now and yesterday there yawns A gulf. Let's down and go to sleep. Beside him. lie down. naughty child ! — — He never was now down mine ! children. clasping hands! A Boy Medea. the traitor's! Are Youngeb Boy. While I take counsel with myself. as wide as that which sunders joy Made perfect and grim death! How changeless e'er — Is Nature — and man's ! life and happiness I tell the tale How fitful. children (starting up). Shedding their kindly beams on all below The same that shone there yestere'en. gentle lady! Thou E'en to that gentle lady! Is like to his. if I could sleep as sound! ! lies down again. The night is falling. seats herself on a bench opposite the It groivs darker and darker. I'd rather stay with him. — Takes off his little mantle. and both go to sleep. as though All things today were as they were before. lay you down upon those steps to rest.322 THE GERMAN CLASSICS So like my father. But he loves me for it and with that good ! And Medea.

] Good? Ha. and names them both His joy. Welcome. 'neath these very stars. nearer yet I fain would look Into your eyes! Dear brother. Like twin-stars shining through the forest-gloom. he — ! ! My heart's best treasure ! But my father's face Is sober. Together then they wend Homeward their way along the well-known path. on Colchis strand Trod. yet he loves me Yea. free and happy. She will betray thee. his brow is crowned is the King. Their royal father. that harbors dark And murderous thoughts how can she be the I listened. hath betrayed thee. Nay. dost thou smile So friendly on me? Ah. then. it is me. ! . whose little crops "Were trampled by her father's huntsmen late. then? She seeks the peasant's ' hut the poor serf. thee. his dearest treasure. My friend This woman here.MEDEA Of 323 as though it ' ' : my unhappy life. how fair thou art. And brings him gold to ease his bitter heart. and he lays his hand In blessing on their heads. To comfort Another draweth nigh. loveth his good daughter! still. while another told And now would ! stop him — same That once. as mild. gray man. As pure. long years agone. Why trips she down the forest-path? She hastes To meet her brother who is waiting there In some green copse. Most dear and friendly faces Are ye come To comfort me in this my loneliness? Draw nearer. that cannot be. With coronet of gold. [She springs up suddenly. earnest. good? 'Tis a false lie For know. as free from any sin As new-born child upon its mother's breast! " Where goes she. thou old.

could ye ? And there ye shall find rest.324 THE GERMAN CLASSICS " But thou didst curse her sore Ay. Must I aught the less How am I bettered? . thy words were For here I stand. What wouldst thou? fiercely to her). ye. now they're gone. for whom ! Like a beast of the wilderness." thou saidst. me close ! Slept? How could ye sleep? thought here. first To leave thee. indeed! [The children sleepily mount the steps and disYour mother. with no place To lay thy head And he. did ye hear f Awake ! lie Boy (waking). Medea (pressing them Boy. and shakes them violently.] They're gone. ! Go within. near ? appear down the colonnade into the palace. and herself thou shalt be thrust forth Know ! : " Friendless and homeless. ' ' ! true ! all men like a monster shunned. .] My children. thrust thee forth. because your mother watched you That ye were safe? Ye ne'er were in the hands Of any foe more dangerous Sleep? With me. and with no place To lay me down alas not dead Black thoughts of murder in my heart! Dost thou rejoice at thy revenge? Com'st closer? Children! my babes! By ! . Clasp your arms about I slept so soundly. — — [She rushes across to where the children sleeping. and first To slay thee See. thrust forth indeed. he will be First to take vengeance on thee. Deserted by the wretch for whom I gave thee up. Medea. Thou hast betrayed me. How — And all is well again ! — Yet.

repent Let come what must Set forward ! ! ! [Gora bursts out of the palace in a frenzy. Too late to grant forgiveness? Hath not Creusa even now the robes. The world a desert waste for me. and leave them in the hands Of these my bitter foes? Is Jason less Will the bride make aught the less traitor? Of feasting on her bridal day. forsooth? A wand'rer I Tomorrow.MEDEA 325 A Flee forth. know no more ! My My And foes stay here and make a joyous feast. So the deed is done? Gora. then? — . when the sun shall rise. Then shall I be alone. horror Medea {hurrying to her). horror. and the chalice. today. My babes. Oh. ! With mounting flames ! . Estranged from me forever. Ay. woe! Creusa dead. Nor spare the babes! Hark! What a cry was that! Ha! of flame ! Tongues ! It is done Leap curling from the palace No more may I retreat. that fierce-flaming cup? Hark! Nay.'] Gora. laugh to think me gone babes cling tightly to a stranger's breast. And bound for exile! Whither. my husband gone! — I. with weary feet All torn and bleeding sore. not yet! But soon enough Will come the shriek of agony — Ringing through all the palace halls ! Then they will come and slay me. far away From where I needs must come! And wilt thou suffer that? Is it not even now too late. the palace red Woe.

such dark deeds To take revenge but such revenge oh. not to thee thou done? Look. gods Where are the babes? 'Twas here I left them ! : — ! late. What have — silence. Where [She.326 THE GERMAN CLASSICS So.] . to the gods I give them now. Medea.] I seen? Oh. where are they? disappears the colonnade. art thou gone at last. in her left hand she brandishes a dagger. art thou. Creusa! Creusa! King's Voice {from within). Gora. still Thou snow-white. nay. so old and gray. she raises her right hand to command Gora. And not to What hast thee.] [The curtain falls.] Alas that I. my daughter! [Gora bursts out of the palace and falls upon her knees in the middle of the stage. I counseled her Unknowing. look. horror! [Medea appears at the entrance to the colonnade. too. should aid. covering her face with her hands. they come! — ! Medea. They come? Too late! Too late! [She vanishes down the colonnade. windows of the palace in the Through the rapidly mounting flames now background burst forth.'] Jason's Voice. Gora. Medea? And down thy babes the — Ah. spotless bride ? Or seek 'st thou To charm my children from me? Wouldst thou? Wouldst thou? Wouldst take them whither thou art gone? Nay.

the court-yard is filled with various palace attendants busied in various ways. Away That with thee to ! It was thy wicked hand daughter brought those bloody gifts Which were her doom! My daughter! Oh. Gora. All other horrors are to me but jest ! King. Creusa my ! My Gora.] 'Twas she? Yea. The dawn as just breaking. Gora.MEDEA ACT V The outer court of Creon's still 327 apartments in the background palace. true child! ! ! Why I would she seek to snatch away Possession of my most unhappy mistress? the last weep for these my babes. Medea's very hand! And after that. and whom I saw but now . [He turns to the slave-women. When to her side thou broughtest death? She had her due I shed no tears for her Creusa! pure. it was I I knew not that my hands bore doom of death Within thy dwelling. as in the preceding act. my Say. child. a train of Creusa's • The King appears. King. dragging Gora out of slave-women follows him. the palace. did thy hand not shake. the royal lie in blackened ruins whence smoke is curling up. my child. Knew'st not. ay. thou grisly dame. whom I did love So tenderly. Oh. Slain by the hand of her that bore them. Never think To 'scape my wrath on this wise! Dost thou think I shudder at thy wrath? Mine eyes have seen the children weltering in their Woe's me! ! — — blood. my child! King.

Roll not thine eyes in horror! Tell thy tale. glide in safety to me here Through those black. When thou shalt feel my heavy hand of doom But is it certain that my child is dead? So many cry her dead.328 THE GERMAN CLASSICS and by their mother Ah. seen your faces. Slave-woman. or your city here. indeed? A Slave-woman. or now at least. And thou saw'st it? With the flames leaped forth flesh my very eyes ! Saw how from out that box Of gold. she must — ! Appear And in all her stainless purity beauty. Whereon this grievous fate so justly falls! These insults thou wilt soon enough put by. and caught her — . speak! — — — — Nay. and by your side That traitor that doth call himself Lord Jason I would I were in Colchis with Medea And these poor babes in safety Would I ne 'er ! — ! ! Had King. and cannot but believe That now. I cannot believe. though I can find None that did see her fall Is there no way ! ! To 'scape the fire 1 And can the flames wax strong ! So quickly? See how slow they lick and curl Along the fallen rafters of my house Do ye not see? And yet ye say she's dead? An hour ago she stood before mine eyes A blooming flower. And will not 'Gainst my will I turn mine eyes Now here. Dead! King. then. E'en though it kill me! Is she dead. now there. smoldering ruins! Who was by? Who saw her perish? Thou? Quick. instinct with happy life And now she's dead! Nay. or now. I would Butchered Ye all were in your graves.

that hath robbed me of my child ? I'll shake an answer straight from out thy mouth. blowing hard . softly sobbing. Ay. And cried aloud with pain. have thy answer! ! ! Where's Medea? Jason (behind the scenes). many years agone. I rushed to her And caught her in my arms. and to my lips I put her poor scorched fingers. Let Why dost thou tarry? Slay me For I have No wish to live me know not — and I care no whit ! this instant ! King. — [He turns if I upon Gora. up to the hilt. The little maid E'en through her bitter tears smiled up at me To And. then? (To Gora. And as for thee. ease the burning pain.] Nay. my daughter. whispered in my " It is not much I do not mind the ! ear. Medea Bring her before my face [He enters suddenly with drawn sword.] should plunge my sword fiercely Ten. They told me she was caught Where is ! she. if thou 'It not — ! Declare to Gora. would that bring my daughter back? Stay Or. though thy soul come with it. she burnt her hand woman saw ! it ! ! ! Against the altar she was but a child. I where she's gone! to know! her go forth alone to her sure doom. But first I'll We'll speak of that anon. my dear child Once.) Ha! Thou here? Where's thy mistress? . twenty times. could I find that hideous witch-wife Where went she.MEDEA King. This 329 Hold! Hold! Enough! Creusa is no more Creusa Oh. ! Gods! gods! pain That she should be burned to death? " Oh. clean through Thy body.

then. stand aghast. Gora. why. she o'erleaped your snares. glads my heart indeed Was it not thou that drove her to this crime. Jason. say! Dead ! Yea. If thou didst never love her? If thou didst Right truly love her. dead. THE GERMAN CLASSICS Fled away ! Hath she the children? Nay ! Then they are — ? Gora. And stare upon the pavement! Thou canst ne'er Recall thy babes to life They 're gone for aye for their sake. she hid them. to be the awful tool Of her unnatural crime Ay. till. I'm glad! No. Take joy No To in them again but. Jason.) Why must thou steal her. dead! thou smooth-tongued traitor. in wild despair. bring her here to Greece.) (Turning child another woman's bed? Why sought thy (Turning to Jason. And. thrust her forth? Though others cry her murderess. knowing well spot on earth so sacred was but thou find them wouldst break in. false King. yet none the less to the . I She sought ne'er to put them where thine eyes could . smooth-tongued traitor. but because thou dost despair. wring your hands. I am not. with thine hypocrisy? ! but ye drew She was a noble creature Your nets of shameful treachery too close About her. the kingly ornament Of royal heads. safe ! Ay. For their sake Forever. But wring them for your own most grievous fate ! ! King. though I Myself must name her so. in the grave ! ! — That. And made thy crown.330 Gora. And thou. yea. cut off — From all escape else.

] King. who lend a helping hand? my head is wounded sore All silent. of justice in that other world. had I never seen. thou took'st My daughter from me! Go. Nay. For.) of the King's attend- ants. ye will last. if I wronged her. that we may lay broken. then? By . see bleeding. Ne'er acted friendship's part and welcomed thee Within my palace And. lead me hence ! my babes if And At Fair hopes I have slay me. ne'er rescued thee. I swear I meant it not ! — by the gods in Heaven — Now haste we all To search these smoking ruins for what trace Remains of my poor girl. where'er thy feet may choose To carry thee Pollution such as thine Spells woe for all about thee. have no wish of to live another day ! Two Must are dead. my sight. Wouldst thou thrust me forth? I banish thee King. lest thou shouldst ! take As well the onlv comfort To weep her memory ! left me now — Jason. Oh. as I've proved. bruised frame to rest at last Her In Earth's kind bosom! [He turns But. Jason. ! Now I have seen Heaven's vengeance on you ! hurled [She is led away by some (Pause. for thanks.MEDEA Ye have but met your I 331 just deserts! — For me. the third I needs hate forever Take me. falling firebrands! How? ! then. for thee ! Jason. What Some god will shall I do? answer that ! Who. King. Jason. will guide My wandering steps.] — straightway to Thou must go forth.

and. famed far and wide. After the storm and fury of the night.] Who knocks? Poor man. lead ye The way. The hero of the wondrous Golden Fleece! . and then a place To lay me down and die [The peasant comes out of the house.) Jason. Yon's the very hut Rustic. How fair the morning dawns Oh. water! Give me but to drink! See.] work And after that. discloses a wild and lonely region surrounded by forest and by lofty crags. the blood how boil within ! ! My And tongue cleaves to the roof of ! my parched mouth all Is none within there? alone? — Ha! Must I die of thirst.332 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And none will guide me. none companion me. a rich man still. whom once so many joyed To follow ? Spirits of my babes. when it rises again. That gave me shelter when I came this way Before. he 's faint to death ! — ! Jason.] 'Tis but a drink I crave. to [He goes sloivly aivay. ! Mourning that hath no end! [He goes away in the other direction. Your sun doth rise more glorious than before ! [He goes into the hut. Oh. kindly gods. and guide your father to the grave That waits him ! King (to his attendants). None follow me. A rustic enters. at the foot of which lies a mean hut. water.] (Jason comes stumbling out of the forest and leaning heavily on his sword. ! Rustic. Jason is my name.'] The curtain falls for a moment. Who art thou ? Ah. poor soul. a happy father. I can go no farther How my head Nay. My bosom filled with newly-wakened hopes! [He knocks at the door. Quick. Doth burn and throb.

prince 333 — a king — and of the Argonauts leader. then.] A Medea. Bowed in the dust. ! Medea. My limbs refuse their service ! ! Woe's me! Here I lie.MEDEA A Eustic. for I am reserved the victim of another's hand. cease thy mad attempts Thou canst not harm me. Jason. Or I shall ever be ! . here to lie upon the earth. The mighty Jason ! Art thou. on thee I call Have pity on me Take me to my babes leaves me ! — ! ! ! [He sinks down upon Medea makes her the ground. of his subjects ! goes into the hut again and shuts the door behind him. Lord Jason? Get thee gone In very sooth And quickly! Thou shalt not so much as set A upon my threshold. they are mine Where hast thou them. and stands suddenly before him. Jason Jason (half raising himself). ! — Medea. to pollute humble dwelling Thou didst bring but now My Death to the daughter of my lord the King Then seek not shelter at the meanest door foot ! ! Of any [He Jason. ! me? Ha What spectral form Is this before me? Is it thou. the Golden Fleece flung over her shoulders like a mantle. not of thine Where has thou them ? My babes Nay. Medea? Ha! Dost thou dare to show thyself again calls ! Who — Before mine eyes? My sword! My sword! [He tries to rise. broken wreck Nay.] And He is gone.] way among some tumbled rocks. Medea. but falls weakly back. for any that may pass To trample on Death. I say? where they are happier far than thou They're gone To be And ! Jason.

sweeps it forth O'er boundless ocean-wastes! I sorrow not Because the babes are dead my only grief Is that they ever lived. thou sayst. ! — — " Upon the golden prize. So lay I once in Colchis at thy feet And craved protection but thou wouldst not hear! Nay. quiet. that grief. for thy deeds ! Yet these our babes Are spared Jason. . rather didst thou stretch thine eager hands In blind unreason forth. Medea. now there. that thou and I Must still live on Alas Bear thou the lot sends thee for. THE GERMAN CLASSICS Dead Dead My babes Thou deemest death the worst of mortal woes? I know a far more wretched one to be Hadst thou not prized mere life Alone. — ! Of sorrow. That prize that thou so stubbornly didst seek. Even Death ! I leave thee now. to lay them swift . now here. ever swelling Tosses. patient. smarting pain Which. forevermore.334 Jason. the laboring wreck That is my grief. " Take 'Tis Death that thou dost grasp at! — it. and patient! Were my heart Not closed to thee e'en now. Then couldst thou see the bitter. unloved Far. But we must bear our weight ! ! ! Medea. although I cried. then. and speak such words ? Quiet. there. and. we were not now In such a pass. veiling it from sight Jason. to say the truth. That fortune Even as thou Thou richly hast deserved it Before me liest on the naked earth. far above its worth. at least! And So thou canst stand Medea. ! ! . as e'er it was. like an angry sea. In awful desolation.

'Mid all the bitter woes that hem us in ! ! — — for eternity On 1 ' every side. my husband ! thee A life of heavy sorrows . Now there dawns for Farewell. Doth make me before I stooped to sin. A dagger-stroke were blest release indeed. before the altar of the god. Restore to that dark god what is his own The Golden Fleece the only thing the flames Have left unharmed. abide it firmly. To the priests I'll go. though they take my life to expiate My grievous sins. . I'll hang it up again. — I go steal the prize. wide world. to which thou only gav'st assent.MEDEA "lis the last time 335 all that I shall speak with thee. then think on me. I go my ! ! My earlier life. and take my heavy weight Of sorrow with me through the wide. happy youth. after all My The joys that blessed our happy. And it shall comfort thee to know how mine ! hand Is bitterer far. It were not meet But no it may not be Medea perish at Medea's hands. and I'll submit me to their will. there. The very spot whence Phrixus long ago I could be. or though they send me forth To wander still through some far desert-waste. let come What may. fiery death that slew — — fair Corinthian princess. because I set To deeds. show thyself Stronger in suffering than in doing deeds Men named heroic If thy bitter woe Shall make thee yearn for death. That — Ay. the only thing that 'scaped Safe from the bloody. my way. still I say. in face of all the grief ' ' That threatens for the future. worthy of a better judge Than And Did to Delphi's shrine. The very last Fare thee well husband Ay. but.

a heavier weight I ever yet have known holds up the gleaming Fleece before his eyes. Jason. patient Let me die ! Medea. 'mid heavier sorrows. ! Farewell Jason. Endure ! Lost! Lost! Medea. and nevermore thine eyes ! shall see My face again [As she departs. ! Deserted ! All alone ! My ! babes ! Medea. But not the long. black Night for I go That was a day My husband. we must part ! ! — ! . the curtain falls. Jason.] [She My very life.] .336 THE GERMAN CLASSICS prolonged. winding her way among the tumbled rocks. Farewell to thee. Be I go. Of heavy sorrows when we first did meet Today. Of sorrow than ! Know'st thou the golden prize which thou didst strive So eagely to win. which seemed to thee The shining crown of all thy famous deeds? What is the happiness the world can give ? A shadow! What the fame it can bestow? An empty dream Poor man Thy dreams were — — ! ! all Of shadows And the dreams are ended now.

Rachel. . Daughter of Castile. hi^&on. The Prince. their Son.. and Other People. of Henry II. Court Ladies. Go3)srnor--ofJ2a stile. Toledo and Vicinity. </ J „ Reinebo. %j [337] Vol.. VI— 22 .. the Noble. Manbique. the Jew. Dona Clara.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO AN HISTORICAL TRAGEDY IN FIVE ACTS By Franz Grillparzer DRAMATIS PERSONS Alfonso VIII. yhts Daughters. \/ Time. King Eleanor of England. The Queen' 8 Waiting Maid> Isaac. v Estheb. his Wife. CounJLof_Lara. ! Don-Gabceba^J. Servants. Petitioners.' Place. Lady in Waiting to the Queen. about 1195 A J). _ 1 . the King's Page. «/ Nobles.

Hear. Don't you hear me? Yes. I just wish to see the King and Ow Why All the court and All their gold and all their all doings. I White and want [338] . Nay Rachel (to ! And yet God tries me thus. Isaac. I hear thee. Isaac. go back. Rachel. He is young. In the Eoyal Garden Enter Isaac.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO ACT (1873) TRANSLATED BY GEORGE HENRY DANTON AND ANNINA PERIAM DANTON I at Toledo. and handsome. to see him. Esthee). yet linger! Oh. they say. and Esther. Isaac. (singing). Oh! Why doth God try me? To the poor I've given my portion. La-la-la-la. Oh. and leave the garden Know ye not it is forbidden? When the King here takes his pleasure ! Dares no Jew Dares no Jew — ah. ! dost thou pull my arm so ? I will stay. their jewels. Rachel. I am not going. red. God will damn them ! ! to tread the earth here Rachel Isaac. Unclean things I've never tasted: Rachel. Back. and linger? Hear. I have prayed and I have fasted.

base Christians. Though not wealthy. it See their vexation. I should deem — well. for Egyptian flesh-pots. If they're lost. beg until they free me! Yes. . Of the second Did the riches aught avail me? Nay. looked at handsome Christians. — There she goes with handsome shoes on. he will take them. matter? "Wears them out — what does And I don't care la.THE JEWESS OP TOLEDO Isaac. Ah ! I praise my first wife. good like thee. she spent them as she pleasured. Now for feasts and now for banquets. How they shine and how they shimmer! Yet how little I regard them. If a thief comes. Lo! I take them off and hold them. just like thy mother. too. 339 And suppose Then I'll the servants catch thee? Rachel. God forgive me — ! Had I not so closely watched her That thy madness came that way. too. eh? She. Sighed. Look! This is indeed her daughter! she not bedeckt herself.) Praise thy mother. Am I not lovely. la. who'll find them ever? Every step costs me a Rachel {taking off an earring). Shines she not in fine apparel Like a Babel in her pride? Has Rachel {singing). Heritage of mean. Am I not rich ? Isaac. Now for finery and jewels. la. Isaac. la. farthing! Richest jewels are her earrings. noble ! {To Esther.

Father come. And now. ah woe! Esther. Father ! What? Lord of life. how — ' * ! What Esther. . come Thus to tease me Anything but this I '11 grant thee. M that lovely Jewess? ' ' Rachel. I Isaac. The court approaches.340 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Haply.) Or I throw them in the bushes. me. so foolish As to throw away possessions? See. Oh. is she. yes. I prithee is ! recovered. too. too. what's going to happen? Rehoboam. I have it in my hand here.] Isaac (running in the direction of the throw). Beauteous Rachel then they'll call me. sire hight you ? Isaac's Rachel! " I shall answer. Isaac. I must see his Royal Highness. Esther. was jesting. And If he << << he me. Rachel. Who Say. Then he '11 pinch my cheek so softly. Woe. father. Hang it in my ear again and Isaac. On my cheek it Woe! Lost! See the jewel ! rests in contrast. listen! 'Tis the tribe of Wilt thou go? Rachel. if envy bursts it Shall I worry if to hear vexes? it. I to thee present them (to Estheb. Rachel. yes. How find them ever? These fine jewels? What can ail thee ? Dost believe me. [She makes a motion as if throwing it away. ah woe! Where did they go to? Woe. Isaac. Then may God ! — ! Rachel. comes and if he asks them. then.

no tree. Let the unclean-handed see her. And (Turning to the Queen. tarry Hasten. father ! — ! Enter the King. come! ! Eachel. Allow the folk For he who harms me not King denotes It .] Queen. come. let him kill her. Art welcome here in this my ancient home. let thy heart beat high. the [She hastens after them. Ah they come Oh. Esther! [Exit with Esther. Isaac Rachel. — — And hid me from my uncle of Leon.) no meager portion of myself. There is no square. father. no stone. thou. As highest The people among many me. Well then stay Leave the fool here to her folly. Gaze all about thee. I fled my uncle's wrath. then. a don who long . Then Estevan Ulan. That is not witness of my childhood lot. Through hostile land The brave Castilians me from place to place. 341 But come thou. Esther. She herself hath idly willed it. Art welcome in Toledo's faithful walls. then fatherless. Like shelterers of villainy did lead. know! thou standest at my spirit's fount. Esther.] Not alone will I remain here Listen Stay Alas. Let him touch her. they leave me. Since death did threaten host as well as guest. sister. An orphan child. and so is a part of my own self. Bereft of mother first. hasten. Manrique de Lara and suite.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Isaac. But everywhere they tracked me up and down. no house. ! ! ! ! Not alone will I remain here. For. it was my own I fled. to stay ! calleth me a King (entering). Oh.

' ' The heir — A single word from thousand bearded A thousand swords as in a single hand. And mother's milk flowed from their wounds for me. among you. And on And of ancient princes . throats. Which there you see high o 'er Toledo 's roofs. But God the vict'ry gave. If all that now thou art. " Here in your midst. in the And hid me tower of St. rejoice our teachings and our nurture. this man here. . . is your King. I am son. Then gladly we accept If these the thanks. while other princes call themselves The fathers of their people. Roman. There lay I but they began to strew in the civic ear. Should really. The people's hand. led me this. thus Are mirrored in thy fame and in thy deeds. of their rights of your rights the willing guardian. Manrique. as they said. A standard rather than a warrior. The Leonese did flee and on and on. The seed of rumor Ascension Day. For what I am. Then we and thou are equally in debt. (To the Queen. still. Manrique Lara.342 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Hath And To slept beneath the greensward of the grave. And won my vict'ries with my baby smile. And so. spring from thence. when all the folk Was gathered at the gate of yonder fane. as thou sayest. I with my army compassed all the land. calling down. I was a child and wept then. the stronghold of the enemy. They led me to the tower-balcony And showed me to the people.) Pray gaze on him with these thy gracious eyes . But still I hear it ever that wild cry. These taught and nurtured me with loving care. most noble Sire. I owe their loyalty.

But as for me. high on my steed I sat. Forsooth that royal word should weigh so much. And sought some evil witness 'gainst my King. A teacher. is all too wont to blame. void of wrong. My eye turned ever to some threat 'ning foe. and a flatt'rer. And where no struggle was. Unmindful of the joys and sweets of life. better. — — — . and his the spotlessness. in truth. I fear me. Not one compares with him in nobleness. Old age. is oft not strong enough. truly faultless if a human is. What we call virtue is but conquered sin. And far and strange lay all that charms and lures. then. That there are women. A youth with lance. So draws the trunk called wisdom.^ Was ever a just man who ne'er was hard? And who is mild. wrath have ofttimes nursed not long.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO 343 Howe'er so many kings have ruled in Spain. And gladly had I harmed his good repute. A child the helm upon my puny head. But always I returned in deepest shame The envy mine. And when I secret confuted in the council-hall King. For as the tree with sun-despising roots. no time was given to err. for you. The brave become too venturesome in war. c Its strength and being from the murky soil Of our mortality allied to sin. which indeed Belongs to heaven itself in towering branch. And I am old and cavil much and oft. Were also void of excellence as well. too? But we will not dispute you this and that If I'm not evil. Lara. . there is no power. Sucks up its murky nurture from the earth. ~s — — — She. Although the man. first I learned to know When in the church my wife was given me.

Ben Jussuf and his army. Queen. noble sirs. I thank you. Almirante! We have not hit upon though we tried. So give these worthy men a word of thanks God knows how long they may have toiled for us. This orange-bearing. They stare. But did I then forget? Is there no news? You do not look about you. although They say the Moor will soon renew the fight. And take deep breath of unaccustomed joy. bred in strife. And If she but smiles and smiling says me nay! Thus are they all. what little respite we may have. I said it but in jest The outcome we must The devil on the wall. it. nay. . . not praise. — ! But now. Let us not waste in idle argument. Leonore. Th' intention. and will have none of it. and smile. (To the Queen. And war renewed will bring distress anew. all . was good. Britannia 's children. fear not. all nor paint await lest he appear. at least. any custom is not quite their own. for weeks. — Queen.) Nay. For days. I'd warmer love If sometimes need to pardon were. What ought I see ? Alas. Leonore. King. shaded garden grove. we dig and dig and dig. I frankly say. Till then we'll open this our breast to peace. To see what we have done to please you here. The feuds within our land are stilled. And hope that we could so transform this spot. The austere country of my austere wife. To have it seem like such as England loves.344 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And whom. And hopes from Africa his kinsman 's aid.

perhaps. ! To something else wrong. My The Queen in everything shares with the King. more than is The message King. A messenger — Has come? to the pray? What then? Manrique (pointing King. love and let us think of it no more. methinks. from the boundary still no messenger? Toledo did we choose. The messenger himself. still — What is it. Ah. And Manrique. although both young and rash. used to council and to war.) indeed. wife Queen). 345 You The day has started houses. when he Disguised. slipped in the kemenate to spy The youth. I hoped to show ! We missed our aim. — ! Well. Dissemble not. The man is brave. meadows. King. he's done enough . most grossly erred. bow your head — Do not. King. too. What. To be at hand for tidings of the there are none? Sire foe. Ere Spanish wine spice high our Spanish fare. in the English taste. King. Manrique. To duty we devote what time remains. And penance. who is't? Manrique. Stay thou ! (To the Queen. Manrique. Not now. My comrade from my early boyhood days And now implacability were worse Than frivolous condoning of the fault.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO King. Garceran It is my son. 'Tis so. with wise intent. Through which we tried to make this garden please. in shame. . Pray let him come. Upon the darling of his heart Dona Clara.

king leads them. soon Will join with forces gathered over seas. King. If there's a God. if they strike. once more. ! A so. my Garceran. 'Tis true of righteous wrath And do not think That I with custom and propriety Am less severe and serious than my wife. doughty soldier. we must return the blow. like all else. as if in play. What of the border? Are they all out there So shy with maiden-modesty as you! Then poorly guarded is our realm indeed! Garceran. Well. one of the ladies of her suite withdraws. such as we know there is. Garceran.] yet she goes Modesty More chaste than chastity itself! And : Enter Garceran. King. And On this side of the boundary and that We fought. But now the foe 'Tis A King. ne'er fears a foe. Sire. Which Jussuf. bad! We too. With bloody wounds. And then the threat 'ning blow will fall on us.346 THE GERMAN CLASSICS For months an exile on our kingdom's bounds. And justice be the utt 'ranee of his tongue. short time holdeth peace. ruler of Morocco. [At a nod from the Queen. yet ever peace resembled So to a hair. And rumor hath it that his ships convey From Africa to Cadiz men and food. Yet anger has its limits. that perfidy alone war Made all the difference. My friend. and that he plans a mightier blow. A . But noble women's righteous wrath is hard. what cheer ! Gives you the foe concern in spite of peace? Garceran. think So Where secretly a mighty army forms. and so a king leads you. Sire.

ye. Myself. ] Woe. ye suffer this? Now. Expends Whom King. is there. Two maidens King. Is fleeing hither. Only. let each pray. The bells sound far through all the borderland. Hence. its zeal. as highest. alas. I hope to win. their conduct mine. here I say ! Rachel comes in flight . pursued by garden churls. on those of other faith. methinks. (Calling behind the scenes. Gabceean. trade and gain have scattered through itself the land. 'Tis said they're spies and hirelings of the Moors. King. But I alone.) Hither. behold. Gaeceban. What is 't? A Jew. woe! King. Their faith is their affair. God with us. I urge — [A woman's voice without. no one betrays more than he knows. And in the temples gathereth the folk. and the right I grieve but for the peasants' bitter need. who goeth to the fight. Good! Protection's here. Gaeceran. one of them. come And the sacred relics be exposed. should the heaviest bear. this is done. by your heads. erring as oft. by the Lord. I will protect each one who trusts in me. And since I always have despised their gold.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO d. Sire. I never yet have asked for their advice. Be sure. An old with him. Without thy proclamation. Let Let all And pray all the people to the churches unto the God of victory. And thunder strike who harms one hair of hers. And Mistreated have they here and there a Jew. 347 ! . man. Not Christian and not Jew knows what shall be.

I'll give that too if you my — Will leave me but my life : I will not die ! [She sinks back to her former position. too! [She sees the Rachel.348 THE GERMAN CLASSICS My father. (taking off her bracelet) this bracelet here.] Sublime one. thy maid. Oh! They're killing me! is there none to help? Queen and kneels before her. thou wilt! I will not die. (sits up). What crime has he committed? Sire. Not Jewess I to serve thee then. And Rachel as she shudders. And everything I have. too. thou know'st. Let be! Her senses have ta'en flight through fear. King. [She tries to take the hand of the Queen turns away. I will not. Stretch out Thy hand and hold it over me.] who Rachel (rising). and oh. no safety! Terror everywhere? Where shall I flee to? Here there stands a man Whose moonbeam peace. no [She throws herself on the ground before the King and seizes his right foot. This necklace and this costly piece of cloth. Sire. Here. too. to the royal Manrique. Thou canst protect me. (taking a shawl-like cloth from her neck) It cost father well-nigh forty pounds. makes me tremble.] Isaac and Esther are led in. but slave. . shelter me from these. The entrance Denied gardens is is this people when the court here.] King (to several who approach). no. Real Indian stuff. glances flood the soul with And everything about him proves him King. no. bending her ! s head to the ground.

King. (Laying her cheek against the King's knee. In spite of us. I doubt it not. And I permit He is no spy. Queen. you are caught. a merchant he. (Pointing to Rachel. back). No. 349 Esther. if it is forbidden. I cannot.) my ransom. . Rachel (as Esther approaches her). I still am free. Will you not go! You If see that I am go ! caught. King. Not in the Moorish tongue. it. for.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO King. limbs are lamed. I [Exit with her women. Sire. Sire. let her go. Me? She has paid it dear. (Sternly to Rachel.) And Esther.] King (stepping And Esther. Here will I Remain a while and take a Here safety Queen. King. Arise. so timorous? Nay. a little while. King.) Give her back her shawl. I tell thee And Rachel. In Hebrew are the letters that he bears. presumptuous. My her elbow on her knee and rests [She props — her head in her hand. is .) and here 'tis good to rest. she ever thus. is King. too! That which they would They bring to pass with their false chastity. not Arabic. little sleep. cannot walk. she wished to see thee.] And now prevent that. Sire. — 0. a while ago. she? My sister ! Take her and carry her away. (Pointing to her discarded finery. no! They're seizing me. 'Tis well. they're leading me away kill To me! See.

then. What I think. Well. Sire? King. King. pushing up her ! sleeve). which she adds to the other jewels). that still hangs here. — ! King. however grave we be. and jokes with man or dog. Oh you hurt me so. Esther. The kerchief keep. Dissemble not! You are a connoisseur. Rachel {who stands in the middle of the stage with trembling knees and bent head. King. a royal word protection is. for you shall accomp'ny her. Convey her home Garceran. Although 'Tis better that we give no cause to wrong. And give. But. so be it then. as well. you are right. Be strong then. Myself have never looked at women much But she seems beautiful. what thou hast. Ay. where things are dull enough A little fun might stand us in good stead. Put on my bracelet. . I would. Stand up Stand up Rachel {rising and taking off Esther's ! ! : necklace. Esther {fixing Rachel's dress at the neck). Garceran. Garceran.350 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Esther. It is my ransom. She plays her pranks. And makes us laugh. At home. Sire She is. too. — Thy dress is all disturbed and all awry. Well. What think you of all this ? King. indeed. Garceran! Garceran. she were a Christian. Ho. what? Garceran. The people are aroused. I fear King. King. Illustrious Sire and King! Esther {busy with Rachel). too indeed. And here at court. Sire. The necklace. I feel so hot and choked.

Then lead her home and that will make an end. who prepares grace? to go).] . — ! Now go. whom I protect Should be insulted by improper jests. The world is ill Do thou protect thy hoard. Stuff and nonsense ! Esther (to Rachel. And Rachel (still thankst thou not the King for so much exhausted. At evening when the people all have gone. lovely heathen! Heathen? King. made short by hangman's hand.— Garceran. Come. (more softly) 1 do not wish that she. your arm? The woman can assist. Garceran.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO King. We are. 351 Take her at first to one of those kiosks There scattered through the garden. led by Garceran. turning to the King). King. [Exeunt Rachel and her kin. and eve — at Garceran. ! watch thy daughter well. for all thy mighty care ! (with a motion of her hand across her neck) That this my neck. my lord. That this my breast. I hear. A charming shield Or any way disturbed — Rachel (with her hand on her brow). King. gaffer. My were I not a poor and wretched thing — thanks. I cannot walk. Sire. and God be with you. about to offer his arm). King (as Garceran is And why And do thou. my liege ! What was I saying? Oh! Are you not ready yet! Esther. a shield against thy foe But that thou wishest not! King.

At the right. with justice is despised woman shows her strength when she is weak. I'll save myself! The girl is beautiful. The punishment? To guard this common trash. And so before I'm caught. No ceremony! Forward! Hasten! On! [As the court arranges itself on both sides and the King goes through the centre. But now. noble Sire. Garceran. Myself have never toyed with women much. I think. King (watching them). think otherwise than you. with the first glad draught this festal day. a garden-house with a balcony and a door. the punishment you gave my son. and is a fool. Methinks the punishment is not so hard. Gabceran enters through the door. to which several steps lead up. (Pointing to his suite.'] ACT A II drop scene showing part of the garden. avaunt all pictures so confused ! And And dine we. what say you to this? Manrique. All her soul sea of fear in e'er-renewing waves. the curtain ' falls. Let each one think — of what he wants to think. — Ah.) But these. Strange it is. perchance. a man "When cowardly. Is. both subtle and severe. But love is folly. A A (Putting down his foot) She held my foot so tightly in her grasp. wherefore such a fool Is more to fear than e'er the slyest was. Manrique. Almirante. King. It almost pains me. King. for my body needs new strength. .352 THE GERMAN CLASSICS She totters still in walking.

If I am here? Why. perhaps. Soon cheerfulness. Gaeceean. commanded me to see If still you were with her entrusted you friend Gaeceean. he commanded — — — I You were Just tell And I. And so. did you not yourself command That only with the evening's first approach Yes. The King. Methinks thou honorest the royal word King. Still Exit Well. and my love for Doiia Clara. Sir Garceran Page. But time brings comfort. Eobert. my good repute again To honor. victory. — 23 Then there was pleasure . The wise man counts escape a A page of the King enters.] I [The King comes wrapped in a cloak. But custom is the master of mankind Our wills will often only what they must. . what's a-foot? Page. my lord. So you believe. King. Why. yea jest. there 's time. Ah. Most silent she of all that never talk While still . — — .THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Besides. VI banished all her former abject fear. Which would unharmed know what it protects. yes. depart. Had Vol. what doth she? Gaeceean. Gaeceean. but now on second thought it seems — Far better that you travel while 'tis day They say thou'rt brave. friend! here? Gaeceean. in the shining toys. upstairs? that the girl is in the house. But tell me. Sire Gaeceean. That answer will suffice. Your majesty Page. At first. I outside. there was a weeping without end. to see were him The King himself! Page. as the saying is And so 'twas here. King. 'tis 353 necessary that I bring.

Sire. gawk Lady A yellow pander. Not badly. to which the moon. thou takest up thy lute. Of course thou didst not hesitate to throw To her the bait of words. as is thy wont ? How did she take it. And canst adjust thyself at the first glance. It sometimes seems she does. dost gaze? Does then Squire Gander ! And And Goose-quill gawks again? Is't so? next. King. Thou liest! But in truth thou 'rt lucky. Yet I. as here. Till . am a novice in such arts as these. sparkles through the trees The flowers sweet intoxicate the sense. Till now we've settled down and feel at home. "We measured every curtained stuff by yards. A And swoopest down wherever berries lure. . And nothing better than a grown-up Dost sigh? Garceran. I am a King my very word brings fear. Thou singst a croaking song. how sadly out of date King. Well then. I ween. Pst ' ' ! Takes hold of yours and leads you through the . Garceran. ' ' : per- Has And now the handmaid calls you gently You enter in. boy! And hover 'st like a bird in cheerful skies. fear should know dost begin! Pray. Till now the proper opportunity Arrives — the — haps left the father. pray? Garceran. were in I the first time in my life ! . and then does not. Sire. Oh. and then a soft. brother — spouse. shallow mind ne'er worries for the morrow.354 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And wonder at the satin tapestries. King. house on similar errand bent. teach me what to do child. To stand How I woman's presence. turning towards the balcony. warm hand halls. And does she seem desirous to return? King.

but their line Runs from Creation's cradle. Her snow-white arm enwrapped in ropes pearls. Garceran. King. I know his not. Do tell you that your charming goal is reached. in candle gleam. Jewess. And yet. who hand . but the Jewess. if the maiden there above Had given thee but a glance. this wandering shepherd race Has something great about it. we others. In human form. of Rebecca's craft. And cherubim were guests of patriarchs.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO 355 Which. The door is ope'd. the musk. — — — ! And Garceran. thou'dst be aflame. Within this fairy world there is the truth Of Cain and Abel.Pretend thou not to pick and choose thy fare I wager. and are angry when they limp. Fair Moorish women.. for lack of choice. Garceran. where our God. And God alone was judge. and bright. is our own work We lame them. of Your darling leans with gently drooping head. and yet I know That what disfigures it. until. spur on The heightened wish. hight this maiden? Sire. frontier warriors prize. who by Jacob's service wooed — Oh ! How Garceran. 1 King. I learn right well. I love it not. endless as the gloomy grave. and was the law. 'tis the same. We Christian. Of Rachel. still walked in Paradise. Of great King Ahasuerus. We are today's. with limbs all loosed in love. The golden locks no. no. ! . The softened lights that come through curtains' folds. I say they're black Her raven locks and so on to the end Thou seest. this folk. Mooress. at last. On velvet dark. withal. Sire.

We ten times daily crucify our God By grievous sins and by our vile misdeeds The Jews have crucified him only once Now let us go Or. Isaac. Perhaps some time. Christian and Moslem both their lineage trace Back to this folk. — ! ! . likes you. this — ! Who is this lord? Garceran. Garceran. rather. To the point. makes no Speak What is the cause of all that noise above? . when worn by weary cares.) (About I'll visit What Garceran. was His wife. My She King. and risk your heads. preserved her race. her. and mark well where she . and there enjoy her thanks. lives. My good man. tell. like Esau. though Jewess. then you. Ask what he means. And though. to the house). You've nearly lost them once. It What babbling difference. it seems Almost as if they bring thy praise to Among King (going themselves they quarrel — naught . and. not we of them.356 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Stretched out o'er Esther. if so ye will. like a god. to go. I'll save myself. Sir. she. it is little Isaac (to Garceran). What Isaac comes from the garden-house. King. stay thou here Conduct her hence. how now? Ah. he hears a noise in the house and stops. is 't? Confusion in the house . as oldest and as first Thus they have doubts of us. about! Isaac (speaking back into the house). Stay then. it has sold its right. our guardian Rachel speaks of you so oft ! .

you're going to catch it — now look out! {To Garceran. carnival costumes. the doors along the wall. Hangs from her girdle not a chatelaine? Her keys she tries in every closet lock. if half crazed. thou fool ! A picture She takes it in the ante-chamber next.) Oh Then yes. — Our Isaac. — . There hang within all sorts of things to wear. [King goes hastily toward the garden house. whom God preserve ! it from the wall. She chose. bears it about. ! life - Of course you have. a plumed crown from It was not gold. and sang.] . it And Calling holds to her breast. half mad She shoved awry the sacred furniture By dead men watched.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Isaac {speaking up to the window). And says she is the queen — {Speaking back.) Yourself have seen my little Rachel-girl. and raves as now you — hear. beggars vie with kings And opens all In gay attire King {aside to Garceran). husband with endearing words. 357 Look out. but only gilded tin One tells it by the weight. worth twenty pence About her shoulders throws a trained robe — these. herself. devils. And how she wept and groaned and beat her As breasts. She laughed. there hangs of the King. And angels. and danced. my When back again her old again She hardly knew the danger had been passed high spirits came $-.

with a plumed crown on her head and gold embroidered mantle about her shoulders. Rachel. [He pushes the hesitating Isaac into the gar- den house and follows him. Was that the King? Garceran. In the background to the left a door. That game 'twill What's more.] Room in the pavilion. is trying to drag an armchair from the neighboring room. in the foreground to the right. Esther Rachel. And as for being afraid. old man. But you. quietly). Nor unobserved would I approach your children. The armchair should stand middle. Rachel. I need just one thing more — I'll get it — wait! [Goes back through the side door. For Heaven's sake. For not alone. on the right. here in the Rachel. Esther. The King has given this vacant house to us As long as we inhabit it. 'tis not For you nor for your daughter that I fear. Go in.] Rachel (looking at herself): Now don't you think my train becomes me well? And when I nod. . [Goes into the house. [They have dragged the chair to the centre. mighty Sire ! Garceran.] Oh. soon be time for you to go You should not miss the favorable hour. pray look out. Isaac.358 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Oh. here. is worth a nearer look.] . we all are doomed Garceran. Isaac. Alas! King (standing on the steps. it's ours. another door. woe! Proceed within. these feathers also nod. Your madness else will bring us all to grief. must come. has come in through the principal entrance. . ! If he should draw his sword. Isaac (stepping back).

Thus he may look at mine. Just see how fine The picture pleases I'll hang it in my room. ! Nor But lest they think that I have stolen it what need have I to steal ? I who am rich My portrait which you wear about your neck We '11 hang up where the other used to be. that witches They say who compel to love Stick needles. were we only far from here. How Rachel. comes not. me.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Esther. no less beautiful than dumb. Esther. footstool bring me hither.] Oh. Rachel. — — — And The And think of me. Oh. too. in images of wax. thus. And To hinder or every prick goes to a human heart to quicken life that's real. I am Queen. take my . [She fastens the picture by the four corners to the back of the chair. whom she drove ! 359 off. I shall fasten to the chair this King. Art thou mad again? Esther. At morn and eventide I '11 gaze at it. I could drink it with my thirsty lips. no ! will I heed you now. close by my bed. would that blood could flow with every \\i That prick. And think such thoughts as one may think when one Has shaken off the burden of one's clothes And feels quite free from every onerous weight. Rachel (comes back with an unframed picture). at home My father. as I at his. ! And pleasure in the ill I'd done It hangs there. often I have warned thee ! Did I heed? By Heaven. if he perchance forgot. The royal image taken from its frame I'll bear it with me.

. Well. watching her. looks at the picture. violently. Confess! You liked her? Answer. Yes! King. hypocrite.360 THE GERMAN CLASSICS But I will speak to it as were I Queen. For know that I am jealous as a cat. With crown and mantle which become me the picture:] well.] ! King. thou art in friendly hands [He stretches his hand toward her. recognizes the King. Is she so shy? Not King. pretending piety. yes [Rachel starts. followed by Garceran and Isaac. and remains transfixed ! on the footstool.) I seem so grim? Rachel shakes her head ! Well then. by my mighty word. I pray be calm Yes. has entered and placed himself behind the chair. Compose thyself. your Queen. Full well I know your each and every wile The Jewess struck your fancy don't deny! — ! And. Not always. dearest child. gracious Sire but timid. Your silence only makes your guilt seem more. ! Do {Approaching her. I repeat it.] (Rachel continues) But I. and I say 't. she leaps from the stool and flees to the door at the right where she stands panting and with bowed head. thou hast pleased me well my . then up. shy. and leans upon the back of the chair. And only with myself to be compared. I will not suffer it.] King {stepping forward). Art frightened? Thou hast willed it. [She has seated herself on the footstool before Oh. [The King. Esther. she's beautiful.

Noble Sire. Sire — Ben Mathes' Esther. Then in Toledo I may ask for thee — Where Isaac (quickly). . right in the heart! King. and a wanton girl. The picture touch not. nor the pins therein. I'll pass the time away. child? it It must frame where belongs. My picture now return to where it was. If not. Or I shall fix it with a deeper thrust (Making a motion toward the picture with a — pin. We're driven King. you come. The picture's mine! King. Garceran but. out. That I should feel in my own breast the thrust Thou aimedst at the picture? Esther. before Street. Rachel Garceran). the time has long since come. Rachel (rushing to the chair). dwell you in this city f 361 Jew house.) Behold. — And draw a breath far from the fogs of court. She's but a spoiled child. as now. Go with them. But now depart. shall not be. at home you are as talkative And Not cheerful as I hear you erstwhile were shy. Who stop art thou. ! Art mistress of the black and criminal arts. Thou almost girl? frightenedst me.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO When from this Holy War I home return To which my honor and my duty call. My And So if word ! That I can keep a promise to protect. What Go back into the (to ails thee. By Heaven. And has no knowledge of forbidden arts It happened to occur to her that's all! — ! . ere you go.

Enter the Queen accompanied by Manrique de Lara and several others. Garceran (at the King. Queen. And still I see the world all in a haze. Garceran. [Exit into the side room. Comes here? Accursed! Is here no other door? Let not the prying crew find here false cause — To prattle! to the side door).'] I told you so! It is misfortune's road. Well. these. Queen. then. in the name of and Thou God ! He will prevent that any ! ill befall. King. . He was. Garceran. I myself believe. The Queen herself leads on her retinue. Sire. The folk's aroused. And so I save it See to my troubled majesty.) Is she not beautiful? Garceran. rolled it up. but went away. Esther. then. The road that down behind the garden leads. The Jewess here. See how the waves of light glow o'er her form! [Rachel has meanwhile taken off the picture King. this chamber Before And Think you. (to Esther).362 THE GERMAN CLASSICS One ought not boldly play with things like It drove my blood up to my very eyes.] absolutely wilt not give it up? I'll take it. Rachel King. She is. that she very soon depart. To test that weakness on some weaker one. window). But only go Take. because it's weak. Garceran (pointing King. Behold. They told me that the King was in this place. (To Garceran. my lord. Sire. King. it loves. where comes th' entire court. servants I should hide myself? my yet I fear the pain 'twould give the Queen She might believe — what .

But there be duties Which even a father's rights do not outweigh. It is my own.) Will you not go? Queen. If nothing missing. I would. But first we '11 see Esther. for I must. or perhaps if greed With impudence itself as here. Garceran. I surely can. I thank you that you do it faithfully 'Twere death to see but I can go and suffer If you should meet your master ere the eve. for it befits thee not.) Although your office an unknightly one. all in jest . ! With Lay Even the tinsel-state of puppet-play off the crown. He cannot bear to do it Manrique. to Toledo I returned — alone. Nay. Garceran (barring the way). And. Manrique. Garceran. call I halt! Know'st thou me not? Manrique. Woe [The Queen and her suite go out. ! ! ! (To the Queen.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Manrique. — . father. the mantle also doff ! [Esther has taken both What has she in her hand ? ! off. and myself as well. has joined. we are not so poor That we should stretch our hands for others' goods Manrique (going toward the side door). Here. by Heaven.'] worth the chance that chose this day of all. but cannot. To bring me home from war to worse than war! — . Look in my eye Two sons I lose on this unhappy day. Arrayed like 363 madness freed from every bond. Yes. in yonder chamber let us look. (To Garceran. Yes. too. — Say.] Rachel.

And every stumbling makes a butt for jest. If you had only always waited it. eager wish to please the mob. I pray you now Garceran. Must I. ask the King his royal will. King. you still here? Garceran. our worth. let me (Knocking at the side door. First. Simple and forward. Not such a one am I. Garceran. Garceran. but yesterday all virtues' model.364 THE GERMAN CLASSICS (to Rachel Esther Esther.) ! What.) Let be But first this picture lay aside. (to busied with her). Today shun every slave's inquiring glance? Begone then. too. ' On which a misstep plunges from the heights. (As he sees Rachel approaching. is And had my life been forfeit.) Sire! to bring us quickly home. immune. The goal. What? No sign of life within? Perchance An I'll ope! Whate'er it be [The King steps out and remains standing the foreground as the others withdraw accident? — in to the back of the stage. He's prone to vent his wrath on others' heads. ! . A righteous prince will punish every fault. His own as well as others but. We wait your high command. take these away. ! . in princes. my friend. And had remained upon the boundary Examples are contagious. sin. So honor and repute hrthis our world Are not an even path on which the pace. forever. I'd have stayed.~\ King. And now. is. who Garceran). What's whim in others. shows the tendency. Henceforth determine we ourselves our path (Turning to the others. Be calm We are as ever much inclined to thee ! ' . King. They're like a juggler's rope.

I know better. straight I'll follow thee. as is thy wont. What wilt? My will — and should the worst betide — [They go to the side door. thankless go for never ! ! I say. Sire? fetch. And there we '11 wash in Moorish blood away The equal shame that we have shared this day. That we may bear once more the gaze of men. King. (As both approach the side door). ! [Enter a servant. girls return.] And high time was it that she went in sooth. Alonzo Servant. Isaac bowing deeply. Sire ! Not mine. Come thou. King. Hast thou.) [They go. Servant. my will Delay not Eachel (to Esther). Come. I did it. King. (To Esther.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO And It is 365 put it in the place ! from whence you took ! 't.'] Now Our thanks So be That it . . King. Rachel. I'll is. Rachel. Esther. Rachel.] Then to the border. And one does well to watch what one begins. save it up. King. too. away. accompanied by Garceran. [The Rachel. The boredom of a royal court at times Makes recreation a necessity.] Mighty Sire? The horses Toledo. without farewell! to thee. King. Although this girl has beauty and has charm Yet seems she overbold and violent. . my picture on ? Esther. Rachel.

We're for the border. She would not leave my picture here behind. and so Make ready only what we need the most. the clothes which holds the crown in his hand. for while I think of her just repugnance. for the war. that's all. Whom. within her hands my picture rests They talk of magic. this her painted image in up the burning passion my breast. Two full of tears. of fire. A pause as one of the servants takes up from the chair Since I all . King. And yet there needed but my stern command To make her put it back where it belonged. But did she put it in the frame again? Let am leaving here for many moons be undisturbed as 'twas before Of this affair let every trace be gone. pick this Thou overtake them. the other two. King. and Garceran this picture to the girls and ask — . to Alarcos. ! Then. . too. and burns within my hand {Throwing the picture on the floor. but The King King. comes back holding Rachel's picture.] My picture gone and this one in its place! It is her own. — {To the servant. I mean. She tried her actress arts on me. friend. [He goes into the ante-chamber. my The liege? Whom? Whom? Return girls of course. Rachel had worn. Which this folk practises with such-like things And something as of magic o'er me comes Here. And bade defiance unto death itself. For in Toledo four eyes threaten me.) up and spur thee on until Servant.) Avaunt! Avaunt! Can boldness go so far? — — This may With Stirs not be. unallowed arts.366 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Nay.

there may some harm. their worth. royal escort were the safest guide. all concealed. King.] . where. follow me My ! [He has looked at the picture.] Hide it in your breast but nay. Thou. at the The Castle Retiro. Sancho. 'tis true My maid — ? ! We'll imitate Our forebears in their bravery.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Servant. The task is. We'll overtake them yet! But I surmise. Since follow me — ! now suspicion's rife. If there. Come [Exit with servant. it in his bosom. 367 What. clumsy ! . King. first of all to conquer self — And then against the foreign conqueror! Retiro hight the castle ? Let me see ! Oh yes. myself will take it. then has put side. it would be warmed by other 's glow Give 't here. How [The servant has picked up the picture. Servant. away And be discreet But then — ! ! — ! Thou knowest nothing ! All the better. forebear. with a Moorish Your Majesty. if it I will touch Take up the picture — must be! it not! King. Some accident befall them unawares. Not when they stumble in their weaker hours.] Stands there not. Sire? Shall The sharers I'll in the my own servants then become knowledge of my shame? force th' exchange myself.

So tremble and depart. —recognize piasters in with ten Well. and your requests Take to the King's advisers in Toledo. I it! 't! Twenty? my eye is good. Petitionee. several suppliants in a row. . Yea. from time to time This sheet. upside down. which I herewith restore to you. very weak. 2d Petit. 2d Petit. I say not who. You were — [He takes Let's see! the petition from one of it them. Isaac. Disturb no more depart. Nay. no doubt. A roomy arbor toward the front at the right. Isaac. The purse I lost? silk 'Twas greenish 2d Petit. though. already told to linger not. In these last days my eyes Isaac. My mem'ry fails me. and how. There is no further need that this report Should go on file. explains the circumstance Just where you found the purse. Isaac stands near them.368 THE GERMAN CLASSICS ACT HI Garden in the royal villa. just let me have 't! — ! We will convey it to the proper place. My daughter soon will come to take the air. twenty. I know you not. your answer's there. Sir Isaac. with petitions in their hands. perhaps. You hold Because the whole request is And you are. Have suddenly grown very. in Toledo me you knew. he takes one in each hand and throws them to ! the ground. In the background flows the Tagus. too. But I know you Here is the purse of gold You lost.~\ 'Twon't do. And he is with her he. That every one may know your honesty [The petitioners present their petitions. topsy-turvy — — ! Isaac. Isaac. At the left.] No matter what it be. And yet.

Garceban. he does not wish to be. What. on mine ? I thought I'd given it back. ! ! Keep it. all of you Have I no club ? Must I be bothered with this Christian pack? [Garcebaist has meanwhile entered. That is the way with Christians ? They 're so direct of speech is — but patient waiting. of course. foresight. He speaks to me of State and of finance. Isaac The King's not here. When he is bored and flees his inner self. I'll take them both in memory of you. so I have Why It is so tight I cannot get it off. bring it me.) 369 I see you have a ring upon your hand. of course. let's see! [The suppliant hands over the ring. I think . Your back could use Isaac. Isaac (busy with the ring). my lord. humble cleverness.] I see you sitting in the reeds. The King shall weigh the ring I mean. You've put it on your own hand! Isaac. — — although the flaw evident — Your words The flaw that's in the stone — vou understand. You sought a while ago to find a club And when you find it. 3d Petit.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO (To a third. lack. VI The King pleased much — 24 . its perfect water Destroys the ring on his own finger. pray. Isaac Vol. but. take my petition too. Good luck But find you 're pitching high the pipes you cut. And who disturbs him even you. is ! Begone now.] [He puts 3d Petit. The royal privacy's entrusted me. they to converse with me. I must bid you begone Those his commands. The stone is good. ! — ! Gaeceran. it How And you flare up! better than your hand. E'en such a bore as you were less a bore. Gaeceran. Take it back.] That flaw.

and that for cash. the A woman. And The time in his but her sex. But this shall not endure. Would that the King. which the oft deceived Gains through experience. yes It is their faults that make a man — them woman-kind. if And so an end. You eat and drink your money what you eat Is bought. like many another one. the King has not. him ! hence. perhaps. knowing only men. the father of the new Decree that makes a threepence worth but two? Isaac. Nourished with wisdom's fruits before his time. Taking his marriage as a thing of course. is sold. . Which to the utmost strains my loyalty. my friend. Myself Isaac.370 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Garceran. and the King him where long since he ought to be shall lead . Isaac. Brought up by men and tended but by men. In jest and play had worn youth's wildness off! ! — But he. Are you. and if yourself — — . The enemy is threat 'ning buy you arms! The soldier. I warrant thee ! / The Shall hie foe is at the borders. then are against us. ^A light disport he takes for bitter earn'st. In harmony with you? It is my curse That chance and the accursed seeming so Have mixed me in this wretched piece of folly. life. The King now meets. A noble And woman's half. female. Try what you can You not with us. sure. 's the root of everything. Would keep in harmony with Isaac's luck Garceran. too I'm councilor to the King. Money. My little Rachel daily mounts in grace Garceran. and will break your neck And . that resistance. The time will come when every human soul Will be a sight-draft and a short one. folly of too staid. ascetic youth. nothing she avenges on this prodigy first all. from childhood. and buying 's money nothing else.

Garceran. oh. Rachel and suite.) in the arbor violently No.) — Permit me. then. and not with sand. And must I walk to shore upon this board ! ^ — — So thin and weak? King. take away your aid And. no. how hard they are With stones. For men to walk on.) But hark! With cymbals and with horns they come. noble feel Sire. these garden walks. ye. lest I fall.] Rachel. Rachel. no. Rachel. my hand. that we have peace. I'm Garceran (to himself). beats! my heart. no! . (The sound of flutes. No. Rachel. Pray fev'rishly To fear. this mighty task! accomplished now never will I enter more a ship. No. I feel it well — I merely burden you! sister only here with Oh. no. Rachel. not for women's feet.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO In vain attempt to clear the wide abyss. And be ashamed for both of us at once! [A boat upon which are the King. (Taking the King's arm. they're roughly ! how ! strewn King. Put down a carpet. I am so weak it ! King. Here. For I am sick and tired unto death! Naught but these pillows here? (Throwing the pillows about. Who raised the Jews to fame and high estate. is woman's right. Must I.'] King. hard-hearted. You now. Here is the place the arbor here. As Esther with King Ahasuerus came. were my me. but you abuse it. The skiff is rocking hold me. Lay to Rachel. I pray ! Dizzy are you? Humph! King (who has conducted her It is to the shore). [The King has jumped to the shore. appears on the river. see in this my King's debauch A picture of myself from early days. take dizzy.

A few days more. 'gainst me. Garceran Garceran. Rachel. arming. and I shall put away . too And that one there is plotting.) Behold. Garceran. And A there needeth but a nod. King. — . Who straightway rues each loving word he 's said. simple word. So shall we. surely It suits her well! ! Yes. and I know of what Of blood. And yet. You are not like the King. When And tenderest. (Catching sight of Garceran. I see your weakness happily abates. they all are that. Of deeds performed within the lists of love. your master. King Ah. yet I know — — And because I've need. who. and f orevermore Then time and counsel shall be found again. Garceran. of heathen slaughter. I hear them speaking. so I suffer it How is Garceran. the army? As you The enemy is long have known. to make it all dissolve This dream into the nothing that it is. In this confusion which myself have caused. Sir You know maids. See. He lures his master to the distant camp And frees the pathway of my foes to me. of war. . Garceran According to one 's tastes ! ! I feel how wrong I am . in whose love I feel a secret hate. King. With deeds we shall regain the ground that 's lost.372 THE GERMAN CLASSICS (laughing). too. is e'er a little rough. I like you well how one should treat with tender — They tell me of your love's bold wooing. she 's but a child ! ! A spoiled child. but the time slips by! King. Garceran. King. much. Mayhap the counsel. This toying from me.

They hold me here. confess Garceran. Were not the color which her face doth lack Give me your ! Replaced by e'er renewing blush of shame. a knight without a flaw.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO 373 Come here. in slavery. Are wont to practise as a native gift. What those. Go. Sit down by me. Go thou to her! — the outcast of contempt. I love you. Till enthrall me. Would I were home again in father's house. indeed. And not be lonesome in this concourse loud. I say! so Rachel. What? Shall I? King. No. Suppose I ask the question now of you? I've never loved. You are. But many other rings I see you have How many sweethearts have you ! Come. with delicate and clever art. as they it learn Those iron. and know The pleasing manners of a gentler life. I wish to talk. — — — hand. nearer Once more I say. nor joy. Rachel. But these Castilians imitate In manner borrowed. Instead of here. how soft it is And yet you wield a sword as well as they. . I see you come not. were my own heart then I follow custom's empty show. they hold you back. apart. Garceran. Garceran. too. King. The Moors. [Weeping. if e'er In any breast that madness I should find — ! Which could touched. WTiere every one is at my beck and call. sit down by me. Just see. but nearer. From Dona Clara cometh not this ring? She's far too pale for rosy-cheeked love. therefore rough and crude. proud Castilians from their foes. — ! Not merely knight in name. But you 're at home in boudoirs.'] Not any comfort give they me. But I could love.

With good economy. at ev'n. Out on you! You are all alike — you. May I now go back Once more unto the army and the camp? King (as above). when in her breast — will and resolution falls. Myself let [She lays her head on her arm and her arm on her pillows. He fills his garish day with business. And posts his ledger. flashes out in flames. Of what? Of me. beside the garden-house.374 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Traditional in love's idolatry. left and speaks Bring me my arms. of that which here took place. she 'd be a hero. Garceran. Yet when I speak to you and press your hand. And there you'll talk. prate King. — — .] see your King He thinks he loves beg you. King (who meanwhile has been pacing up and down. Garceran. with innuendo. for I am but the dreaming of a night. like unto mine. Ye Before her courage and her gaze should flinch. Well? Garceran. ! . satisfied. Rachel. Were she a man. too. Most noble Sire — King (still gazing). As in the fanes of stranger-creeds one kneels. too. The army left the camp ? Pray tell me why. now stands in the foreground at the in an aside to a servant). I [Exit servant. and And wait for me I will to camp full accoutrements. King.] Garceran (steps to the King who stands watching the reclining Rachel). Now me sleep until she comes. I wish to go. You hear me not myself. were my sister here! ! Far cleverer The spark of She She's wise than I Yet. where they have need of me. He worries not.

King. now! That's right! You other fellow. in sooth 'Tis crude. Quickly. but in a pinch 'twill do. my lord it ! but recently. returning with the lance and helmet. are ye deaf? [The servant. I pray ? Respect. Show me the shield A mirror 'tis.] Rachel. Believest thou in sorcery? Since recently I almost do. perhaps. Thou may'st to camp. Thus it throws A broader shadow. Who props for me the curtain on yon side? . the marvel is a little old. like a snail. you bear Your house upon your back. (They hold the shield before her. of course. Garceran. (Calling off stage. Garceran. but not alone: with me. King.) . And yet he closed the breast when it was done. (Looking off stage at the right. I thought the wonted mate of love. For it began that day in Paradise When God from Adam's rib created Eve. 375 For that I'd need I see! to understand it more. A house for some one else.) There go two men. my lord " " King. and stick the point and then the roof will be Here in the ground. both bearing heavy arms The lance would serve my purpose very well. ! ! me your As all is. Held up in that direction. The sun is creeping into my retreat. King. But love together with contempt. nathless marvelous! Garceran. Contempt were far too hard a word. good man. — (sitting up). accompanied by a second servant bearing the King's shield and cuirass. here. enters. perhaps " An unregard " yet. And why is — — — And Rachel placed the will to guard the entering in. unless.) Come here! This way! Come quick! What. In sooth.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Garceran. Give lance.

I ordered them? . satisfies. ! — — — Down with the visor ! (Letting it He But should he dare. Put me the helm upon my head. my little sister! Welcome. with thee now. no. down. You hurt And if one 's love rebels and shows his pride. My ointments and my As from Toledo's shops perfumes. Then up (She does it. go from us. This mirror's curve distorts me Heaven help ! ! What puffy cheeks are these ! No. thou sister mine How I have long'd to have thee here with me And hast thou brought my bracelets and my ! jewels. the visor goes. but quick! Don't take my head off. back! lance! Give me the shield. Back. Ah thou. But quite adapted to the strife of love. but can defend myself. give me the I am attacked.) Let there be light! The sun. Rachel.) Enter Esther from the left rear. my friend. What roundness nature gives us. — — For it conceals what oft 'nest wins the eyes.376 THE GERMAN CLASSICS One brings one 's hair in order. playing.) ! ye! Once more be welcome. too! How clumsy. wisely-foolish child ! Rachel. And now the helmet useless in a fight. pushes back Whatever may have ventured all too far. And praises God who made one passing fair. Lay down thy arms No ill approacheth thee ! (Taking both of her hands. King (going to her). And send for arms. ! King.) in darkness stands to ! mayhap. (Running to her. drives away the fog. victorious. Thou silly. to leave us here alone. here! Away with all this mummery.

Don Manrique Lara. What Becomes of us? . indeed. She ten times contradicts what she has said. and now remains In yonder castle where ill-fortune first Decreed that you and we should meet. I'm ready. I bring 377 them and more weighty things besides Unwelcome news. Garceran! Garceran. I will to court but there I need no arms . — . King. as if the land Were masterless and you had died. They threaten her. I am awake. The Queen has Most mighty Sire and Prince from Toledo 's walls withdrawn. I'll gather them — King (to Esther).) With her. She'll be the sacrifice I Did I not long ago woe is me Adjure you to return unto the court ! And bring to naught the plotting of my foes ? But you remain 'd. its But that the morning brings Thou follow 'st. a bitter ornament. ' my hand without a sword. in open letters. The helm. I cannot do 't. ! — (To Gaeceran. With every breath . Your noble father. rays anew. Who summons all the kingdom's high grandees From everywhere. the shield.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Esther. Esther. With open I in breast. and there the mighty spear but Oh. to Discuss the common good. King. I think you dream ! And must Rachel. Now tend the little girl. Behold here are your arms. Esther. ' ' And And subjects' midst will boldly step ' Who is there here that dares rebel 1 ask my : They soon shall know their that the sun dies not King is still alive when evening comes. keep watch to save my sister's life.

He was so hot and ardent at the first ! sister. mighty Prince King. Garceran! Or. Not called by me. and what the future brings. nor rightfully convened. ye shall be safe. But I who trusted. King. useless is too And now makes up ! in coolness for his haste. But come what may. Esther. Esther. For if the estates were in assembly still. Ye '11 hear from me when I have done my work . I Rachel.378 THE GERMAN CLASSICS stay. Esther. The For though I feel that I have sinned full sore. against no matter whom. Rachel. And so I then must die and am so young? . Rachel. but thou wouldst not ever heed. Come. ! ! No parting words shall cripple my resolve. farewell ! Rachel (approaching). too . is still Enwrapt in night and gloom.'] He loves me not 0. When injury I warned thee. tool Thy father tell Although protector he And regent for me in my boyhood days. [Exeunt King and Garceran at the left. And he will guard you with his very life. what shall be my fate ? Come. tardy knowledge. Let no one suffer who has trusted me And who with me has shared my guilt and sin. take the lead. I then much against my will. But how. beg you. He be with you With God Garceran Come. stay! castle 's safe. I now know how to guard my right myself Against him. let us flee The streets are occupied. rather. has made us sadly wise. too. 1 have known it long! I give ! my princely word ! ! Rachel. No more I need my strength and steadfast will. the keeper faithful. — — : — Come on ! And ye. — Rachel. Against us all the land is in revolt. must punish Command them to disperse and quickly.

enters from the left. And I'll carry I my gold that and corse and soul will save bury From poverty and death. it Not look But only at at all — at least not now. armed cap-a-pie [Isaac. I'll try And shall adorn myself unto my death. who nears? Ha.) And is the necklace set with amethysts. my notes of 'Tis I. wayward brood. And pearls it has as bright as are thy tears. In harness. what's more. with a voice broken by sobs. indeed an unexpected death! die. and then the skull is split This harness hides. lost! (After a pause. I would It is. ha. our father. it is. What And now noise? The drawbridge has been raised our refuge is a prison too. Thou broughtst? Esther.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO And But I should like to live ! 379 Not live. Esther. In sooth. And many. — — .] But ! Isaac. in my pockets . with voices like ! — The voice of Jacob. 'Tis but the moment of our death that shocks (At Esther's neck. a helmet on his head. — ! Unhappy am hopeless. under his long coat a cuirass. my care ! ! Hark! Eachel. ha. Invert the law of primogeniture What care I more for you Myself. unwarned. but with Esau's hands. my When murder stalks abroad. Eachel. see. I'll curse you with a patriarchal curse With Isaac's curse! ye. And if ye mock. if our prison lasts too long. ha.) I. the father of a Who ere ! A ! 'change. yes Will one 's bare body save one from the steel 1 blow by chance. divert eternal wretchedness. sister. time are shortening my days. too.

) And yet I loved him truly. Here to convene with us and take her place. But. And so. Nor The feel 'tis usurpation brought us here. in natural gifts. But few of us. our mighty sov 'reign not alone In rank. subject of our council at this time is known to all too well. delaying not. universal need. — We scarce again can find his equal there Except that strength. estate. That we may know we are not masterless. too. Commands us count ourselves as competent.380 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Rachel. loved him well ! ACT IV A large straight row to the left. several chairs upon which eight or ten Castilian grandees are sitting. throne. Before all others. Stern. Next to the Maxrique de Lara. in our earnest group. There will be more to join us presently. I took the care To ask her royal majesty. A token that the King has left these walls. and dignity he's high. — . I hope I fear — — The King. Is missing he to whom belongs the right To call this parliament and here preside . the lever of all good. Close to the throne. Will he return again! I fear the very worst I fear me no — — ! (Sinking on Esther's breast. room with a throne and running in a in the foreground to the right. who has arisen. my noble lords. Manrique. We Although our business much concerns herself. whom close proximity Allowed to gather in so short a time. In sadness we are now assembled here. then are half illegal at the start. the Queen. that when we gaze Behind us in the past's wide-open book. So hastes he forth.

[The Queen. Your pardon? [The Queen signs him First of to continue.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO 381 "When wandered from her wonted path of good. Full many Some are there here who wish to buy her off. The King has money. first as last.] ! ! Pardon. Proceed. noble Queen You are too mild for this our business drear . that A third proposal — You know power can find whate 'er it seeks. "A thing in no wise seeming us to judge. withdraws himself from court. too. And. Wills e 'er to do her will with equal strength The King. But if the cause remains that keeps him hence. the girl must go. Have I permission. if only So now angry that we called Of our own power and will this parliament. the King is missing! He will come. to A thing in no wise The Queen ! seeming us judge — The Queen. Majesty? Manrique." : But at the bound 'ries arms him now the Moor. propositions are at hand. and though she's far. has arisen. I say. prisoner in some far distant clime. and duty of the King Is straight to ward this danger from us all. Queen. I know. we be an orphan land. at these words. But see. What I just said. And threats with the right war the hard-oppressed land. after she has indicated to the grandees who have arisen that they are to resume their seats. and seats herself on the throne. I shall repeat Manrique. enters from the right. Unto his former bonds he will return. — Lured by a woman's too lascivious charm. With forces he has called and raised himself.] all. accompanied by Dona Clara and several ladies. And A others wish to send her from the land.

But if my husband's wrong continueth. . a shame Unto himself. Queen. since only his caprice. lacking vigorous will which to draw renewal of its strength. although A man. in all my married years. And that. Ye hear. Is suited to the sin this drab has done! Death. Has most of all. to all the chaste. perhaps. Then purify your King and all his land. Yes. If ye in me see guilt. I blame you not. And not what is allowed. can govern him. estranged our King. Manrique. I say but what is true. Queen (more firmly). then speak ! What Queen (softly). In truth? Maneique. then. then kill me. and sore disgrace to us. A sinner was and not a wife. pleasing unto God? Other commandments of our God most high Give added strength to our regard for right. which. my lords ! This was the third proposal. pray ! I will not live if I be flecked with sin. death. flow'ry fate. Against that law this woman now has sinned.382 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Your very From kindness. I did not earlier dare to speak. I pray you. Is marriage not the very it Since makes right what which horrible holiest. to waive your own desire. But what so strong that it ennobles sin Must be the strongest of commandments all. Then I myself. else forbidden is. But if it please you otherwise. But if she is the vilest of this earth. our son Is but a misborn bastard-spawn. Then may he from the princesses about A spouse him choose. what flatt'ring punishment. Exalts to duty.

And first of all strike me and this. The noblest in the battle meet their doom To die a bitter. If he refuse. Queen. A servant comes. farewell. And ye besides. blood's law be on the land. sublime. my breast. yea. His holy law. that he who sins shall die f Together then. too. Garceran. sickness daily takes our best away. and thou my father. when speaks he for the King. Enter Garceran. Until the law and prince be one again. At once your message give us then. Then on the murd'rers he can take revenge. where his command. because he ought and must. Manrique. Don Garceran! And does the traitor dare? Manrique. Manrique. And we may serve them both by serving one. how % He will.'] no hope of any other way. He has my ear. indeed. bitt'rer meed of pain the gallows-tree. then. That's The message is his Majesty's. am ashamed It scarce Manrique. we will request the King To move from out his path this stumbling-block Which keeps him from his own.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO I 383 to speak like this to men. There [She sits down. Demands. Servant. his own from him. Tell him— diff'rent. but I needs must speak. and under horses' hoofs. which he himself has giv'n. But will the King endure this ? If so. Manrique. Queen. . the best of all the land ! . An' he were my deadly foe. For God is prodigal with human life Should we be timid. is — — A doubler. becomes me. Servant. . And Than ever sinner on sharper. a cruel death Tortured with thirst. as here.

! The King through me dissolves this parliament. Of For youthful heedlessness that passed for wrong. Hot-foot he f olloweth. One error is condoned at last. though free of guilt. But list Ye to my wish and my advice Return Ye not at once unto your homes. today. till it appears Whether the King will take the task we leave. I say No tort have I in this mad escapade. as ne 'er before I felt. Or we must still perform it in his name. before you all. another time Garceran. I admit. I beg you tell your King what I advised. If spying be your office 'mongst us here. Your message now that. but wait Ye rather. Ye are dismissed. So chanced it that the King selected me To guard this maiden from the people 's rage . That to be trusted is the highest good. And what with warning. As it was chance that brought me from the camp. Garceran.384 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I feel today. you. although 'Twas fruitless. But yet are ready to unite for deeds. And that th' estates in truth have been dissolved. his hand. And so. reason. A man may do to ward off ill.) However. Destroys and paralyzes more than sin Itself. . That is enough ! So in the royal name I now dissolve This parliament. And since he sent frivolity itself He surely gave some token from Some Manrique. Frivolity is ever prone to err. round about. in princely service skilled. and atone Manrique. And that frivolity. argument. Then once again. though conscious of no fault. ! ! Manrique. — that have I tried. I stand before you sullied. written word as pledge and surety? Garceran. : (To Garceran.

Manrique. VI off at the right. they separate. Thou art acquainted in the castle there The captain opes the gates if thou demand. And ye. Naught shall remind him that we gathered here. doubly destined mine.] Servant. jr . virtue still abides. Queen (who has stepped down from the throne). where she was Strength stayed with youth wont to be — — And virtue fled to gray and ancient heads. take my arm Though tottering the step. The out — 25 estates. And strength be lacking. Manrique. But latterly. Virtue abode with strength in days of yore. — — you here and swear: 'Tis and thou art still a man.) arrange these chairs along the wall. Manrique. pointing to the Manrique This middle door). I Not less am worthy now than e'er before. estranged. with Garceran. Garceran. You need not hang your noble head. Perhaps we soon shall need to enter thus. yet there 's none to aid. ! — [He leads the Queen Vol.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO I should deserve your scorn were this not so. By parents both and by my wish as well. our noble lord. If deaf the King. way withdraw! — {To the servants. 385 And Dona Clara. Here. The outcome may be better than we think. have gone . my ! [Servant entering from the left. master Thine the choice! But follow for the nonce these other lords. Be a Castilian now and join with us I stand before If this is so. for though Unworthy of you never worthy. No word Against the King. so. To serve thy country's cause as we it serve. the King! (to the estates. His Majesty. My knees are trembling.

"Where rest will soon restore him. in there! The It is. Say. King. Announce to her and this my summons is back. herself. [He approaches the side door at the right.] Does no one come to meet? Naught but bare walls and silent furniture It is but recently that they have met.] . I. in her own coach sorrel. I no further need shall have of him. barred the door! Hallo. I'll — enter on this most unwelcome path. your Majesty Waiting Woman. these ! dwell. have him led. I [The page goes. rather. So to Toledo. am alone. The But say you. limps ? The pace was fast. Return from here. (As the King is about to enter rapidly.] Ye bar yourselves? The Queen.] King. Here goes the way to where my wife doth oh. behind him his page. my — [Exit waiting-woman. Will at my spouse's side. no lock. and know That discord and dissension are removed. I will not force — That — as now I say. King who 's master is in this house to shut ! For me There King. myself. That what they see they may believe. [A waiting-woman enters through the door. ! And empty chairs much louder speak Than those who sat upon them e'er have done What use to chew the bitter cud of thought? I must begin to remedy the ill.) The inner door she. in sight of all the folk.386 THE GERMAN CLASSICS through the centre door. too. no door me out.] What. pray you. my request I am way. The King comes from the left. has locked.

gracious God! This hand is not pest-stricken. Which takes the guilt away. Thou lofty seat. how gladly ! No. Take it as I do give it true and whole! — — Queen King. If wishing better things. as Christian. help me. Go I to battle. if glad resolve — Are any hostage-bond for now and then. thou ! And And not thy hand? Queen King. I greet thee. And for thy welcome I shall bring it pure. as I ought It will and must. King. (holding out both hands). 387 And We even unexalted by these steps yet may hold just measure of the good. King. be smeared and drenched with hostile will ' ' blood . not thy hand? (bursting into tears). Enter the Queen. but not the harm Yes. Are not inclined to modest means like this.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO King (standing opposite the throne). strong enough in faith To know repentance hath a such-like might. remove the noisome slime. half but is the fear of some new sin. though farther from the heart. o'ertopping others all. Is giv'n as pledge of contract and of bond. King (going toward her with outstretched hands). Leonore. Like water for the gross and earthly stain There is a cleanser for our sullied souls. Grant that we may no lower be than thou. ' ' Pure water Thou art. We others. not both thy hands ! The right alone. Be welcome. Perhaps to indicate that not alone . God. I'm glad to see thee here. Queen. wont to live a life of deeds. Leonore ! Queen.

Nor honor less the kindness of thy heart. and . 1 know less well how great has been my fault. it How it could be. Believe not that. Must give endurance to the plighted word. a wider orbit gains. but now passed And through saying we. warning us diff'rent fitting It stretches out.388 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Emotion. And then as guileless children lived we on. As such our hands were joined in marriage vows. Let's not. too. then. 'Tis easy to forgive . And ev'ry stage of our development By some discomfort doth proclaim itself. Queen {offering him her right hand). in the same. Such sickness have we. to comprehend Is much more difficult. pass the warning by! In future let us live as kings should live For kings we are. Trembleth thy hand . Emotion 's tide is swift of change as time That which is pondered. I mean that thou as well Art not a stranger to such inner growth. That too Myself entire King. And other things are with our inmost soul as well — So That we are is it Often it is a sickness. unheeding. I understand not ! King. — other. Described about the selfsame centre still. all that's good and great . My wife We lived as children till and queen. but recently. though the same. has abiding strength. I would not treat thee ill.) noble wife. the person's whole intent. . But reason. which is rooted in our hearts. ! ! ! {Dropping her hand. Nor let us shut ourselves — From out this world. with the increase of years. Queen. But children grow. because I speak less mild.

at each close of day. added sweets. and all that like them are. We '11 find within the circle of our home. a thought brings . As common grossness or vain weakness is. so much the Thou feel'st the human duty to forgive. me believe what keeps and comforts me : The Moorish folk. King. nor avenge ourselves . Queen. When thou hast that whereby one judges worth. Magic devices round about us are. I do absolve myself from all my sins. when starting on a course. will not punish. if thou knew'st What black and mischief -bringing thoughts have found Their way into my sad and trembling heart . But thou wilt miss them then in retrospect. evil draughts. Which merely struggles not.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO And 389 Queen. yes for me. Eeturn unto their hives with lading sweet. Perhaps of vengeance? better ! Why. For she. but limply yields. And We know'st that e'en the best of us may err. signs and sayings. she is guiltless quite. myself alone. But we are the magicians. And make his will obedient to their own. is far removed. By any hindrance thus to bar the way With rubbish from an earlier estate. Thou hast no need thou. King. in thy purity! Not so! Not so! Mv husband. I miss them not. — ! King. If thou desirest. Which turn a mortal's heart within his breast. With pictures. Do practise secret and nefarious arts. believe me. So much the richer by their daily gain. Let I only bear the guilt. like the bees which. Queen. But let us now forget what's past and gone! I like it not. we ourselves. Through hours of deprivation. That which near.

thyself. % And for Queen. thou ne'er hast girl! known or seen this Take all the faults that on this broad earth dwell. she has to better ones belonged. Hath once forgot his office and his duty. coquetry and greed Put them together and thou hast this woman — .390 THE GERMAN CLASSICS What we have scorned. But thou. dost wear about thy neck A my children's children write beneath: — Oh yes ! Her picture ? So you knew that. but the men With dirty hands and narrow greed of gain — Queen. and lays it on the table in the foreground to the right. King. now the thunder's past.'] So then I lay it down. too. If near or far they may look after that! Wilt thou. King. Cunning and boldness. stay thus strong? — — King (standing still). another time seems And in this world so full of miracles. not that The women of this race ! — — Are passable. Don Alfonso. Indeed. not so evil in himself. We Queen. fair . King. and weakness. This girl shall not be touched by such a one.] But no. Forsooth. what's that to me? If thus or thus. who. . Folly and vanity. Thank God that he did find himself again. good even. and may it lie — The bolt not harmful. and stopping short now and then. let her be ta'en away! girl herself — She then may have a man from out her race {Walking fitfully back and forth from the rear to the front of the stage. But then. In are the greatest miracle ourselves ! ! She has thy picture full And view I shall nail it she shall return to the wall. too f A [He takes the picture with the chain from his neck. then.

) The empty spaces make me shake with I'll cold.) For do but see these eyes see the eyes. then. And not destroy what he so wisely built. Magic there Which Its name is custom. too Queen (walks up and down). Queen. hide The face that 'frights you in my bosom — . a thing continued.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO And if. Sloughs off the first impression of disgust. King. God made them verily with master hand . call her power to charm me. thus about (Doing it. choose myself another chain forthwith. were 't not but natural. appalled. in truth. God's own work. 'Twas she herself the image did distort. Shouldst Believe me. Let us revere in her. to a need Is this not of our very bodies true? This chain I wore which now here idly lies. To this impression have become so used — — — — (Shaking himself. neck. The body jests not when it warning sends. 391 enigma thou. of this ! And now enough But that you could Avenge yourselves in blood on That was not well! this poor fool — — (Stepping to the table. not potent. then? I wind the chain if my jest.) my neck. Ta'en off forever breast and neck alike. Oh. first . (He has taken the picture in his hand) I another. I '11 agree. to mock you. And were ashamed. not magic art. later holds us fast So that which at the outset shocked. is. 'twas not natural! ! King (standing still). husband. and form! Yes. And grows. the body. touch it not ! This nonsense now again ! And Am In I really take it in hand.

To take your cheerfulness at last away. If joyous is your mood.) — here is then to his was foolish. then. for me. Leonore. good wife Be sensible Repeat not evermore the selfsame thing! It doth remind me of the difference. Who not yet knows the compass of his place? They share with me the kingdom's care and toil. of your nonsense let this be who doth see and who the fault condemns? ! Only — enough draws away from the table. of course now shebreast. it I will just doff the chain reminds me — now from my neck.392 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Am I the less Alfonso. But I the man Alfonso. therefore. And equal care is duty. King. not the King. Nor claimed that she was pious. They reckon always with If their virtue thus. virtue again. If thou art — angry with me. thou art right . is't? God ! in heav 'n ! ! Be frighted not. then ? I a child. chaste. these men. as occasion doth demand Virtue 's a It is — And For no empty image without fault. too.] [He King (wildly looking at her). And. was neither wise nor just. and And this is ever virtuous women's way — wise. But dependents. foolish she would be. subjects all What want they. sin. — no. And diff 'rent. a boy. That with the vassals thou didst join thyself That was not well. without all excellence. you are sad. too. name for virtues manifold. (Pointing This girl there If she to the table. err'd. And show you as your sole salvation. my — Am . What Queen. with virtue comfort they. That he has Then Queen.

] I'll take by storm. went she ? Leave they me alone ? I a fool within mine own abode? [He approaches the door at the right. The nearer that the guilty stand to me. my domestic bliss. And if there be a trace here of offense. and desp 'rate deed (Walking back and forth diagonally across — the stage) I will investigate this case as judge. To show that they with neither blame nor praise Shall dare to judgment over me.] [Don Manrique and Garceran appear at the centre door. the Queen has quietly withdrawn through the door at the right. The more shall boldness pay the penalty.] I'll go to her What. I quickly would return from whence I came. The Queen points to the King. The latter takes a step across the threshold.] Am Whither. Of insolent intent or wrongful act. was once my guardian.] And If he finally this dotard. then. is he still? [Don Manrique appears at the centre door. then. rash.] . Leonore. Manrique withdraws with a reassuring gesture. and wrings her hand. Don Manrique.] King. my person. barred? [Bursting open the door with a kick. thou art excused ! [During the last speech. and my life — Must I accounting render to these men ? Not so And gave I ear but to my wrath. is it bolted. no. [Stepping forward and stamping sit in on the floor. Presumes he to his sov 'reign to prescribe The rustic precepts of senility! Would he with secret. Not thou.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Within ! 393 my house. — [He goes in.

or yours! Well. right. then. What! Rather the way which you yourself did come. — — But. ! returns. quiet all Listen again the chambers of the Queen. us ? Manrique. [They withdraw. King. as you know. Am King. illustrious Sire. In the attitude of one ! listening intently. King. the estates.'] Illustrious Sire. Wilt thou Garceran. I alone? Ramiro! Garceran! [The page comes from the door at the Report! What goes on here? . now fall the scales From these my seeing and yet blinded eyes ! Murder this is. — . and. I heard the noise of carriages and steeds. door closes. Back to Toledo then? The King. The King King. The castle is deserted you and I Are at this hour its sole inhabitants. horse! My Was lame. in the turret room. Page. lords. on returning. Who King. hurrying away. howe'er — I know not. Empty. Page. rest are — wilt follow them? the Wilt thou not? I will. Manrique. My gone father! The Garceran. Page.'] 'Tis nothing. They go horse! to slay her there ! My Page. all upon their horses swung themselves They did not to Toledo take their way — . They've Your horse. King. To Retiro? Ah. Page. What lords? Sire. forlorn. Page.394 THE GERMAN CLASSICS with. The Queen? The castle in her carriage left. Pause. In rushing gallop. Sire. at your command — Garceran 's. another taken every horse from here away.

But yes (Stepping back. It is From without. will outstrip me. another overturned table.) All! [He hastens away. I May punish both the guilty and the guilt. then grant That as a man. dark. Pause. behind the middle wall. steps die out. a chair. above it a picture large room one at each side. * It is footsteps.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO 395 Perhaps with them. the sound of voices. Else art thou in their league. I hid myself. In the at the left. an overturned toilet table with scattered utensils. In the centre of the room. No. God above. finally.] ACT V A in the castle at Retiro. perhaps but driv'n afar. In the foreground. Isaac. half torn from its frame. King. . And if 'tis done? Then. were't only some old nag. as all shall (Standing at the door. And on the ground all doubled up I lay. Are they then gone? — I hear no sound. at the left. Revenge shall lend him wings. a robber band. not as a tyrant. This cover here was roof and shield alike. a carpet. Get me a horse And payest with thy head. But away a horse. As empty as the castle are the stalls. and which he dragging along later drops. from without — enough! The signal sounds! To horse!" Sounds of voices and footThen Isaac comes from the door at the right. 'tis naught Searched all the castle through. background. with a gesture of They think they Get ! me ! — violence. But whither now? Long since I hid full well Here in the garden what I saved and gained . which is pulled over his head. with one door in the centre and Everywhere signs of destruction.) ! — When they. and the clatter of weapons. that he may fly. no.

leaning his head against it. then. remote. she dost thou try me Why me. Isaac. then could I tear my hair. the door? from How Is't this noise is past. Nay. Then could I weep. my — Esther. Esther. because the best. a poor old man. And coward. and vain My Isaac. Aged man. Isaac. Yet call I others what I was myself. at the very least. What mean 'st thou? Rachel? Only Esther. But 'tis not true ! . When Or. The best because the only. Nor upon whom they meant to vent their wrath? I do not know. and inmost room.396 I'll THE GERMAN CLASSICS fetch is it later when Where Isaac. a woman 's. rather say. ! I. And I went hurrying to my sister's aid. to safety gone? God of my fathers Oh. For has not Rachel flown. thou say 'st? Thou art Only. Isaac. true cowardice. when I should have stood And offered up my life to save my sister. I fall a-swooning. I! only child Only. And speak to me from out my children's mouths? But I believe it not 'Tis false No. Into the last. One of them seizes me with powerful hand. then. shall I save left. They tell me this and that. nor do I wish to know. That is. For when their coming roused me from my sleep. have died with her I awoke.] So then be strong through coward f earsomeness. Dost thou. indeed. nothing know of this attack. [He sinks down beside the chair in the centre. — soul? my Esther enters the door at the Who's there? Woe's me! thou? Is't thou. wild attempt to bring her back to life. the deed was done. she is clever. Rachel? Esther. no ! ! ! ! — — ! Esther. And hurls me to the ground.

they. 397 Lend me thy chair to sit upon. From hot and unslaked passion for revenge Come.THE JEWESS OF TOLEDO Esther. will I sit and here will I keep watch. [She sits down. old man ! [She pulls the chair forward. who carries a torch. to the town. with his page. I weep for rage.] My Here limbs grow weak and tremble under me.] [He I like a mother will protect thee now. then childless shalt thou ! I following Rachel in advance of thee The King appears at the centre door. Not me ! ! ! — — — ! ! And. at my command Children of toil and hard endeavor. forsooth. Hark Not me I flee to thee Save me No. and cowers on the floor. die — if death comes. as chance may put within their reach And I. Will bring the people here. The second childhood of the gray old man. now the harvest's o'er. Esther. though still it is unseen? a-wreck. a party to the deed But no. And bid them straight unto this castle come With arms. As an avenger at their head I'll go. many come runs to her chair. thou weepst. from ev'ry corner cries to me Shrieking It is too late. cursed dallier. with written word.] Mayhap To burn that one will think it worth his while And the stubble. when morning comes. will return and kill what still is left. . I also weep. ! assemble all the folk. If not. the horror has been done all ! And thou the blame must bear. Shall I go farther. and tears no lies can tell. Isaac (from the floor). laid bare and waste. Go — . or content myself With what This castle I know. ! Behold. Some one is coming. King. here's a ring to set your torch within.

strike root within For was not mine the hand that murdered her? Had she not come to me. and I. happy child. not that! No. Avenging. I say! Perhaps No other man should ever touch her hand. will wipe out that hybrid throng. Who. ' ! [The servant puts his torch into the ring beside the door and withdraws. she ne'er shall leave this her picture. King. the cup is full an added drop Would overflow.398 THE GERMAN CLASSICS And break down all the strongholds of the great. old man? Remind me not that Rachel was your child. no plaints For know. — A — .] King (taking a step forward). So. half as servants. Or dripping on their swords from others wounds. Serve but themselves and overrule their master. King. Esther. Esther. I knew it well. a joy to look upon. ! Gracious Lord 0. While she still lived I was resolved upon to leave her. It would deface her image in my soul. draught. 0. spare us. I am. she still would play. good assassin ! ill-doer. And is it done? — It is. King. I'll stay alone Thy light here leave and go And hatch the progeny of my revenge. no. but no. make weak the poisonous . Ruler and ruled. You. thus shall it be. my breast. Now And dead. Will 'grave its image there. half again as lords. So proud of blood. here my side again. or flowing in their veins. What moves there ! Can it be there still is life ? Give answer Isaac. And thou art thou not Esther? Sire. ! Since I the castle entered.

No No



other lips approach her rosy mouth, shameless arm she to the King belonged, Though now unseen, she still would be my own. To royal might belongs such might of charms Speaks he of Rachel?



Of thy daughter,


Though grief increase the value of the loss, Yet must I say Too high you rate her worth.
Think'st thou?



tell thee,

naught but shadows


thou, and others of the common crowd if thou'rt good, why then, thou'st learned

If I


honest, I but

saw naught

as they do they murder, Well, so their fathers did, came time and need The world is but one great reechoing, And all its harvest is but seed from seed. But she was truth itself, ev'n though deformed, And all she did proceeded from herself, A-sudden, unexpected, and unlearned. Since her I saw I felt myself alive, And to the dreary sameness of my life 'T was only she gave character and form. They tell that in Arab desert wastes The wand'rer, long tormented in the sands, Long tortured with the sun's relentless glare, Some time may find a blooming island's green,

Those others,



Surrounded by the surge of arid waves There flowers bloom, there trees bestow their


The breath of herbs mounts soothing

in the

And forms

a second heav'n, arched 'neath the

Forsooth the serpent coils among the brush A famished beast, tormented by like thirst,



Perchance comes, too, to slake it at this spring; Yet, tired and worn, the wand'rer doth rejoice, Sucks in with greedy lips the cooling draught, And sinks down in the rank luxuriant growth. Luxuriant growth In faith I '11 see her now See once again that proud and beauteous form, That mouth which drew in breath and breathed







silenced ever, evermore,


of guarding her so ill. Sire Now that the deed is done, Go not, Let it be done. The mourning be for us



Estrange thyself not from thy people, Sire. thou know'st Think 'st thou? The King I am

full well.

She suffered outrage, but myself no less. and punishment of ev'ry wrong I swore upon my coronation day,

To For

I will keep my oath until the death. do this, I must make me strong and hard,

All that the

anger they will sure oppose human breast holds high and dear Mem'ries from out my boyhood's early days, My manhood's first sweet taste of woman's love, Friendship and gratitude and mercy, too My whole life, roughly bundled into one, Will stand, as 't were against me, fully armed, And challenge me to combat with myself.




Her image,

therefore, from myself must first take leave. as I see it here ana there, On every wall, in this and every corner

Shows her to me but in her early bloom, With all her weaknesses, with all her charm.

see her now, mistreated, wounded, torn; Will lose myself in horror at the sight, Compare each bloody mark upon her form With this, her image, here upon my breast.

learn to deal with monsters, like to


(As Esther has risen.) This torch I will Speak not a word to me like myself, inflamed, illume the way; Shall,

Gleaming, because destructive and destroyed. She is in yonder last and inmost room,


I so oft

She was, and there remains.
seized the torch).

King (has

It is the


blood I see upon
to blood.

my way.



fearful night out at the side door to the [He goes in the dark.




And round

Yes, dark is round about, about the horror's horrid night.

But daylight comes apace. So let me try If I can thither bear my weary limbs. [She goes to the window, and draws


The day already dawns,

to see the terrors


difference 'twixt

gleam wrought this night yesterday and now.
its pallid

— The tawdry baubles, for the sake of which We, we — not he who takes the blame — but we

(Pointing to the scattered jewels on the floor.) There, there it lies, our fortune's scattered

A sister sacrificed, thy foolish child


Yea, all that comes is right. Whoe 'er complains, Accuses his own folly and himself. Isaac (who has seated himself on the chair). Here will I sit. Now that the King is here I fear them not, nor all that yet may come.
The centre door opens. Enter Manrique and Garceran, behind them Queen, leading her child by the hand, and other nobles. 26 Vol. VI



Manrique. Come, enter here, arrange yourselves the while. We have offended 'gainst his Majesty, Seeking the good, but not within the law. We will not try now to evade the law. Esther (on the other side, raising the overturned table
with a quick movement). Order thyself, disorder! Lest they think That we are terrified, or cowards prove. Here are those others, here. Queen. Manrique. Nay, let them be What mayhap threatens us, struck them ere now. I beg you, stand you here, in rank and file. Let me come first, I am the guiltiest Queen. Manrique. Not so. Queen. Thou spak'st the word, 'tis
! !


But when it came to action thou didst quake, Oppose the deed, and mercy urge instead, Although in vain for need became our law. Nor would I wish the King's first burst of rage To strike the mighty heads we most revere

As being next

to him, the Kingdom 's hope. I did the deed, not with this hand, forsooth


With counsel, and with pity, deep and dread The first place, then, is mine. And thou,


Hast thou the heart



like a


For that which at the least thou hinder 'dst So that thy earnest wish to make amends

And thy return have tangled thee in guilt f To your side I come Garceran. Behold me ready And may the King's first fury fall on me!



(calling across).


murderers alike, Deserving every punishment and death
there, although all


Enough Nor would

of mischief


already done,

I wish the horrors yet increased beside Within, sister, is the King;


Enraged before he went, the
sight of her


Will but inflame his passionate ire anew. I pity, too, that woman and her child,

Half innocent, half guilty only half. there 's time, and do not meet So go while yet Th' avenger still too hot to act as judge. Manrique. Woman, we're Christians! You have shown you are. Esther. to the Jewess, Commend me my God!

Manrique. Prepared as Christians, too, to expiate In meek submission all of our misdeeds.

Lay off your swords. Here now is first my own To be in armor augurs of defense. Our very number makes submission less. Divide we up the guilt each bears entire.
[All have laid their


swords on the floor before

Manrique.] us wait. Or rather, let one go To urge upon the King most speedily, The country's need demands, this way or that, That he compose himself and though it were Repenting a rash deed against ourselves!









(turning around after having taken several

Behold, the King himself [The King rushes out of the apartment at the side. After taking a few steps, he turns

about and stares fixedly at the door.]

Queen. Manrique.



Queen, I pray be calm

[The King goes toward the front. Re stops, with arms folded, before old Isaac, who lies back as if asleep, in the armchair. Then


he goes forward.] her father). (to Behold thy foes are trembling! Art thou glad? Not I. For Rachel wakes not from the dead.


[The King, in the front, gazes at his hands, and rubs them, as though washing them, one over the other. Then the same motion over his body. At last he feels his throat, moving his hands around it. In this last position, with his hands at his throat, he remains
motionless, staring fixedly before him.]

Maneique. Most noble Prince and King. Most gracious Sire



(starting violently).

Ye here?


good ye come




of you.

Ye spare me

I sought for you further search.

[He steps before them, measuring them with angry glances.] Maneique (pointing to the weapons lying on the floor).


have disarmed ourselves, laid down our

swords. I see the swords.

Come ye

to slay me, then?

I pray, complete your work.

Here is my breast [He opens his robe.]
you, lady fa^r?




has't no more!

How mean


is the evil



his neck.



Queen. Maneique.

[He takes a few steps toward the door at the side, and then stands still.] God, this madness still





full well,

how much

we, Sire, have


greatly, that we did not leave to thee thine own honor thy return to self


more pressing was than we. The country trembled, and at all frontiers The foemen challenged us to ward our land. And foemen must be punished is't not so? Ye warn me rightly; I am in their midst.
But, Sire, the time

Ho, Garceran!

Thou meanest me,




Yea, I mean thee Though me thou hast betrayed, Thou wert my friend. Come to me then, I say, And tell me what thou think'st of her within! Her whom thou help 'dst to slay of that anon. What thoughtst thou of her while she still did


Garceran. Sire, I thought her fair. What more was she? King. Garceran. But wanton, too, and light, with evil wiles. And that thou hidst from me while still was time ? King. Garceran. I said it, Sire! And I believed it not? King. How came that? Pray, say on


She thinks


— the Queen,

was magic.



fools itself with idle make-believe.

Garceran. In part, again, it was but natural. That only which is right is natural. King. And was I not a king, both just and mild


The people's idol and the nobles', too? Not empty-minded, no, and, sure, not blind I say, she was not fair

Garceran. King.

How meanest,
evil line

Sire ?

on cheek and chin and mouth.


lurking something in that fiery glance Envenom 'd and disfigured all her charm.
erst I've gazed upon it and compared. there I entered in to fire rage, Half fearsome of the mounting of ire,



my my

happened otherwise than I had thought. Instead of wanton pictures from the past, Before my eyes came people, wife, and child. With that her face seemed to distort itself, The arms to rise, to grasp me, and to hold. I cast her likeness from me in the tomb And now am here, and shudder, as thou seest


But go thou now

For, hast thou not betrayed

Almost I rue that
I must punish you. Go thither to thy father and those others Make no distinction, ye are guilty, all.

Manrique (with a strong



(after a pause).

The man

But what



I'm guilty, too. and what the world, poor land,


If none are pure, if malefactors all son. Step thou within our midst Nay, here 's




shalt be guardian spirit of this land


Perhaps a higher judge may then forgive. Come, Dona Clara, lead him by the hand Benignant fortune hath vouchsafed to thee In native freedom to pursue thy course

Until this hour; thou, then, dost well deserve To guide the steps of innocence to us. But hold Here is the mother. What she did, She did it for her child. She is forgiv'n!

[As the Queen steps forward and bends her

Madonna, wouldst thou punish me? Wouldst show The attitude most seeming me toward thee? Castilians all, behold Here is your King,

And here is she, the regent in his stead! I am a mere lieutenant for my son.
For as the pilgrims, wearing, all, the cross For penance journey to Jerusalem,

conscious of

my grievous


Lead you against these foes of other faith Who at the bound 'ry line, from Africa, My people threaten and my peaceful land. If I return, and victor, with God 's grace, Then shall ye say if I am worthy still To guard the law offended by myself.



This punishment be yours as well as mine, For all of you shall follow me, and first, Into the thickest squadrons of the foe. And he who falls does penance for us all. Thus do I punish you and me My son Here place upon a shield, like to a throne, For he today is King of this our land. So banded, then, let's go before the folk. [A shield has been brought.] You women, each do give the child a hand.

Slipp 'ry his



and the second too


Thou, Garceran, do thou stay at



For equal wantonness we must atone So let us fight as though our strength were one. And hast thou purged thyself of guilt, as I, Perhaps that quiet, chaste, and modest maid/fr Will hold thee not unworthy of her hand Thou shalt improve him, Dona Clara, but Let not thy virtue win his mere respect, But lend it charm, as well. That shields from



in the distance



Hear ye? They call us. Those whom I did bid To help against you, they are ready all To help against the common enemy, The dreaded Moor who threats our boundaries, And whom I will send back with shame and wounds
Into the arid desert he calls home, So that our native land be free from

Well-guarded from within and from without. On, on! Away! God grant, to victory! [The procession has already formed. First, some vassals, then the shieldwith the chi ld,

in a in.




fiyboth hands, then


of the men.

T.n*ti.y }



a trustfu l


an fiK-BWBm



Esther (turning

her father).

Seest thou, they are already glad and gay; Already plan for future marriages

They are the great ones, for th' atonement feast They've slain as sacrifice a little one, And give each other now their bloody hands.
this I

say to thee, thou

[Stepping to the centre.] haughty King,

Go, go, in

thy grand

Thou deem'st thou'rt

f orgetf ulness ! free now from my sister's

power, Because the prick of its impression's dulled, And thou didst from thee cast what once enticed. But in the battle, when thy wavering ranks Are shaken by thy en'mies' greater might, And but a pure, and strong, and guiltless heart Is equal to the danger and its threat When thou dost gaze upon deaf heav'n above,

Then will the victim, sacrificed to thee, Appear before thy quailing, trembling soul Not in luxuriant fairness that enticed, But changed, distorted, as she pleased thee not

Then, pentinent, perchance, thou 'It beat thy


think upon the Jewess of Toledo ! (Seizing her father by the shoulder.) task awaits us there. Come, father, come


[Pointing to the side door.]
Isaac (as though waking from sleep). But first I'll seek my gold!


Think 'st
all this


of that

In sight of misery and woe ? Then I unsay the curse which I have spoke, and she! Then thou art guilty, too, and I We stand like them within the sinners' row; Pardon we, then, that God may pardon us toward the side door.] [ With arms outstretched



By Franz Grillparzer
translated by alfred remy,
Professor of


a. m. Modern Languages, Brooklyn Commercial High School

[N Vienna the Sunday after the full moon in the month of July of every year is, together with the following day, a real festival of the people, if ever a festival deserved the name. The peothemselves attend and arrange it; and if ple
representatives of the upper classes appear on this occasion, they may do so only in their capacity as members of the populace. There is no possibility of class discrimination; at least there was none some years ago. On this day the Brigittenau,* which with the Augarten, the Leopoldstadt and the Prater, forms one uninterrupted

popular pleasure-ground, celebrates its kermis. The working people reckon their good times from one St. Bridget's kermis to the next. Anticipated with eager expectation, the Saturnalian festival at last arrives. Then there is great excitement in the good-natured, quiet town. A surging crowd fills the streets. There is the clatter of footsteps and the buzz of conversation, above which rises now and then some loud exclamation. All class distinctions have disappeared; civilian and soldier share in the commotion. At
the gates of the city the crowd increases. Gained, lost, and regained, the exit is forced at last. But the bridge across the

Danube presents new
finally roll


Victorious here also,

two streams

along: the old river

Danube and

the swollen tide of people crossing each other, one below, the other above, the former following its old bed, the latter,

freed from the narrow confines of the bridge, resembling a wide, turbulent lake, overflowing and inundating every*


suburb of Vienna.



A stranger might consider the symptoms alarming. But it is a riot of joy, a revelry of pleasure. Even in the space between the city and the bridge wickercarriages are lined up for the real celebrants of this festival, the. children of servitude and toil. Although overthese carriages race at a gallop through the mass of loaded,
humanity, which in the nick of time opens a passage for closes in again behind them. No one is alarmed, no one is injured, for in Vienna a silent agreement exists between vehicles and people, the former promising not to run anybody over, even when going at full speed; the latter resolving not to be run over, even

them and immediately

though neglecting all precaution. Every second the distance between the carriages diminishes. Occasionally more fashionable equipages mingle in the oft-interrupted procession. The carriages no longer dash along. Finally, about five or six hours before dark, the individual horses and carriages condense into a compact line, which, arresting itself and arrested by new vehicles

from every
* '

old proverb It to go on foot."

side street, obviously belies the truth of the is better to ride in a poor carriage than

dressed ladies


mocked, the richly in their carriages, which are apparently



standing still. Unaccustomed to constant stopping, the black Holstein steed rears, as if intending to jump straight up over the wicker-carriage blocking its way, a thing the

women and children in the plebeian vehicle evidently seem to fear. The cabby, so accustomed to rapid driving and now balked for the first time, angrily counts up the loss he suffers in being obliged to spend three hours
traversing a distance which under ordinary conditions he could cover in five minutes. Quarreling and shouting are heard, insults pass back and forth between the drivers, and now and then blows with the whip are exchanged.
Finally, since in this world all standing still, however persistent, is after all merely an imperceptible advancing,

a ray of hope appears even in this status quo.



trees of the


Augarten and the Brigittenau come into view. The country! The country! All troubles are forgotten. Those who have come in vehicles alight and mingle with the pedestrians; strains of distant dance-music are wafted across the intervening space and are answered by the joyous shouts of the new arrivals. And thus it goes on and on, until at last the broad haven of pleasure opens up and grove and meadow, music and dancing, drinking and eating, magic lantern shows and tight-rope dancing, illumination and fireworks, combine to produce a pays de cocagne, an El Dorado, a veritable paradise, which fortunately or unfortunately take it as you will lasts only this day and

the next, to vanish like the


of a


night, re-

maining only as a memory,

or, possibly, as

a hope.

I never miss this festival if I can help it. passionate lover of mankind, especially of the

To me, common

as a

and more especially so when, united into a mass, the individuals forget for a time their own private ends and consider themselves part of a whole, in which there is, after to me every all, the spirit of divinity, nay, God Himself popular festival is a real soul-festival, a pilgrimage, an

act of devotion.




capacity as dramatic poet, I


always find the spontaneous outburst of
theatre ten times

an overcrowded

more interesting, even more instructive, than the sophisticated judgment of some literary matador, who is crippled in body and soul and swollen up, spider-like,
with the blood of authors whom he has sucked dry. As from a huge open volume of Plutarch, which has escaped from the covers of the printed page, I read the biographies of these obscure beings in their merry or secretly troubled

weary step, in the attitude shown by members of the same family toward one another, in detached, half involuntary remarks. And, indeed, one can not understand famous men unless one has sympathized
faces, in their elastic or

with the obscure


the quarrels of drunken pushcartto the discords of the sons of the gods there runs an


invisible, yet

unbroken, thread, just as the young servant-


who, half against her

follows her insistent lover

away from the crowd of dancers, may be an embryo
Dido, or Medea.

Two years ago, as usual, I had mingled as a pedestrian with the pleasure-seeking visitors of the kermis. The chief difficulties of the trip had been overcome, and I found myself at the end of the Augarten with the longed-for Brigittenau lying directly before me. Only one more difficulty remained to be overcome. A narrow causeway running between impenetrable hedges forms the only connection between the two pleasure resorts, the joint boundary of which is indicated by a wooden trellised gate in the centre. On ordinary days and for ordinary pedestrians this connecting passage affords more than ample space. But on kermis-day its width, even if quadrupled, would still be too narrow for
is jostled

the endless crowd which, in surging forward impetuously, by those bound in the opposite direction and
to get along only


by reason of the general good

nature displayed by the merry-makers. I was drifting with the current and found myself in the centre of the causeway upon classical ground, although I was constantly obliged to stand still, turn aside, and wait. Thus I had abundant time for observing what was going on at the sides of the road. In order that the pleasure-seeking multitude might not lack a foretaste of the happiness in store for them, several musicians had taken up their posi-

on the left-hand slope of the raised causeway. Probably fearing the intense competition, these musicians in-" tended to garner at the propylaea the first fruits of the liberality which had here not yet spent itself. There were a girl harpist with repulsive, staring eyes an old invalid with a wooden leg, who, on a dreadful, evidently home-made

instrument, half dulcimer, half barrel-organ, was endeavoring by means of analogy to arouse the pity of the public for his painful injury; a lame, deformed boy, forming with
his violin

endless waltzes with

one single, indistinguishable mass, was playing all the hectic violence of his misshapen



breast and finally an old man, easily seventy years of age, in a threadbare but clean woolen overcoat, who wore a smiling, self-satisfied expression. This old man attracted my entire attention. He stood there bareheaded and bald-

headed, his hat as a collection-box before him on the ground, after the manner of these people. He was belaboring an old, much-cracked violin, beating time not only by raising and lowering his foot, but also by a corresponding movement of his entire bent body. But all his efforts to bring uniformity into his performance were fruitless, for what he was playing seemed to be an incoherent succession of tones without time or melody. Yet he was completely absorbed in his work; his lips quivered, and his eyes were fixed upon the sheet of music before him, for he actually had notes! While all the other musicians, whose playing pleased the crowd infinitely better, were relying on their memories, the old man had placed before him in the midst of the surging crowd a small, easily portable music-stand, with dirty, tattered notes, which probably contained in perfect order what he was playing so incoherently. It was
precisely the novelty of this equipment that had attracted my attention to him, just as it excited the merriment of the passing throng, who jeered him and left the hat of the old


empty, while the rest of the orchestra pocketed whole copper mines. In order to observe this odd character at my leisure, I had stepped, at some distance from him, upon the slope at the side of the causeway. For a while he continued playing. Finally he stopped, and, as if recovering himself after a long spell of absent-mindedness, he gazed at the firmament, which already began to show traces of approaching evening. Then he looked down into his hat, found it empty, put it on with undisturbed cheerfulness, and placed his bow between the strings. "Sunt certi denique fines" (there is a limit to everything), he said, took
his music-stand, and, as though homeward bound, fought his way with difficulty through the crowd streaming in the

opposite direction toward the festival.



The whole personality of the old man was specially calculated to whet my anthropological appetite to the utmost his poorly clad, yet noble figure, his unfailing cheerful-

ness, so much artistic zeal combined with such awkwardness, the fact that he returned home just at the time when

for others of his ilk the real harvest was only beginning, and, finally, the few Latin words, spoken, however, with the most correct accent and with absolute fluency. The man

had evidently received a good education and had acquired some knowledge, and here he was a street-musician! I was burning with curiosity to learn his history. But a compact wall of humanity already separated us. Small as he was, and getting in everybody's way with the music-stand in his hand, he was shoved from one to another and had passed through the exit-gate while I was still

struggling in the centre of the causeway against the opposing crowd. Thus I lost track of him; and when at last I had reached the quiet, open space, there was no musician to be seen far or near. This fruitless adventure had spoiled all my enjoyment of
the popular festival.
all directions,


wandered through the Augarten in
go home.


finally decided to




gate that leads out of the Augarten into Tabor Street, I suddenly heard the familiar sound of the old violin. I accelerated my steps, and, behold there stood the

my curiosity, playing with all his might, surrounded by several boys who impatiently demanded a waltz "a from him. waltz, don 't you Play a waltz, they cried
object of
' '

' '


hear?" The old man kept on fiddling, apparently paying no attention to them, until his small audience, reviling and mocking him, left him and gathered around an organgrinder who had taken up his position near by. "They don't want to dance," said the old man sadly, and gathered up his musical outfit. I had stepped up quite close to him. "The children do not know any dance but the
waltz," I said.

"I was playing a waltz," he

replied, indicating with his

' '


the notes of the piece he had just been playing. You have to play things like that for the crowd. But the chil-

dren have no ear for music," he


shaking his head

permit me to atone for their ingratitude," I a silver coin out of my pocket and offering it said, taking to him. "Please, don't," cried the old man, at the same time warding me off anxiously with both hands "into the hat, into the hat." I dropped the coin into his hat, which was lying in front of him. The old man immediately took it That's what out and put it into his pocket, quite satisfied. I call going home for once with a rich harvest," he said



' '



just remind


of a circumstance," I said,


seems your earnings today my have not been particularly satisfactory, and yet you retire at the very moment when the real harvest is beginning. The festival, as you no doubt know, lasts the whole night, and you might easily earn more in this one night than in an entire week ordinarily. How am I to account for this ! "How are you to account for this?" replied the old man. "Pardon me, I do not know who you are, but you must be a generous man and a lover of music. With these words he took the silver coin out of his pocket once more and pressed it between his hands, which he raised to his heart. "I shall therefore tell you the reasons, although I have often been ridiculed for them. In the first place, I have never been a night-reveler, and I do not consider it right
curiosity before.
' ' ' '

to incite others to such a disgusting procedure

by means of

playing and singing. Secondly, a man ought to establish for himself a certain order in all things, otherwise he'll run wild and there's no stopping him. Thirdly, and finally, sir, I play for the noisy throng all day long and scarcely earn a bare living. But the evening belongs to me and to my poor art. In the evening I stay at home, and" at these words he lowered his voice, a blush overspread his

I consider it my duty to my patrons and benefactors to offer something not entirely unworthy in return for their gifts. . I from astonishment at hearing a man speak of the highest spheres of art who was not capable of rendering even the simplest waltz in intelligible fashion." I said. For this reason such musicians play from memory." "It almost looks. "I should ' ' ' ' — your solitary practising some day. my dear sir. Your distinguished visit will always confer honor on my dwelling. even melodies of indecent songs. because he had betrayed the innermost secret of his heart. if I may be permitted to say so. We had both grown silent. and sometimes. almost imploringly. sir I am very well aware of the fact that the other street musicians are satisfied to reel off a few street ditties. Meanwhile he was preparing " Where do to depart. he from confusion. German waltzes. the daytime." "Well. and I. so that the public pays them either in order to get rid of them. and I reject your advances so ungraciously. For my mornings are also devoted to a definite purpose." the old man said smiling. At any rate. in order that you may not be unduly delayed nor I be compelled to interrupt unceremoniously some business in which I may be engaged at the time. text-books on music call it improvising. you live?" I inquired. ." he replied." that prayers should be said in private like to attend ' ' ! know "Then "In I'll visit you in the daytime. "you must "Oh. of dancing or of other disorderly amusements.416 THE GERMAN CLASSICS then I play countenance and his eyes sought the ground I believe the to myself as fancy dictates. I have no desire to be a beggar. These they repeat incessantly. were the recipient. some morning early. all of which they have memorized. then. or because their playing revives the memory of former joys . the benefactor you are so kind. "I earn my living among the people." he replied. without notes. "as though you. Only I should like to ask you to be so very kind as to notify me beforehand of the day of your coming.

To my amazement And I saw in a careful. because memory is not of the best. the middle of the day for earning my living. "Very morning. The first three hours of the day for practice. partly because it might be difficult for my any one to retain in his memory. But since music of this characand at these words a selfter to return to my subject" — — kind requires practice. next to the garret." he continued. since music of this hours are devoted exmy morning clusively to this exercise. complicated compositions of esteemed composers.THE POOR MUSICIAN 417 But far in fact quite frequently. but awkward and stiff compositions by famous old handwriting. "consists in reality only of a ground floor. VI — . in return for the alms so generously bestowed upon me. "I shall surprise you some Where do you live?" He mentioned Gardener's "What number?" "Number 34." "Well. then." I said. . But upstairs. and at the same time something moist glistened in his eyes but he was smiling. long since deping. parted masters and composers." I cried. quite difficult these selections the old man played with his clumsy ringers! "In playing these pieces. Lane. be it from me to deceive. "I show my veneration for these esteemed. satisfied smile lighted up his features — ' ' . I have made a clear copy for myself in these note-books." he said. I may succeed in improving the taste and hearts of an audience distracted and misled on many sides. Partly." "The house. one flight up. note for note. "on the fashionable floor. there is a small room which I occupy in company with two journeymen." he said. well. extremely black with passage-work and double-stopmasters. ' ' "A single room for three people?" 27 Vol. and live in the pleasant hope that." With these words he showed me the pages of his music-book. well. the evening for myself and God that is not an unfair division. strike the wrong note. satisfy my own artistic instincts. therefore.

" I said. I was wondering in which of odd friend might live. Consequently I turned As homeward. to a side street that ran from the mass of houses pointing ' ' ' ' of the suburb out into the open fields. "Is Gardener's Lane near-by?" I asked a smf\Il boy who Over there. had today given up all their customers to the Brigittenau. I entered one of the many beer-gardens." he answered. I gave myself up to my thoughts. I had completely forgotten the number. did me good. and cried hurriedly. while overcrowded on ordinary days. Auf Wiedersehen!" At the same time I put my hand in my pocket with the intention of doubling the trifling amount I had given him before. "and you must' be anxious to get home. I said before. But he had already taken up his music-stand with one hand and his violin with the other. sir. and departed as quickly as his old legs could carry ' ' him. The old man had said that he lived in Gardener's Lane. moreover it was impossible these miserable huts my . which. he replied. I had lost for this day all desire of participating further in the festival. Tired out from the dust and heat. was running across the road. Night had come before I thought at last of going home. separated by large vegetable gardens. The stillness of the place. "and I have my own bed. houses. taking the road leading to the Leopoldstadt. in contradistinction to the noisy crowd. plainly indicated the occupation of the inhabitants and the origin of the name Gardener's Lane. Saying this he made me a rather awkward bow with an approach to elegant ease. and I am not aware of having earned any other reward. in which the old musician had a considerable share. I followed the direcThe street consisted of some scattered tion indicated. I have already received ample remuneration for my playing.418 THE GERMAN CLASSICS "It is divided into two parts." "It is getting late. I laid the amount of my bill upon the table and walked toward the city. which. "I humbly ask you to refrain.

as I walked — ' ' ' ' . the same tones. penetrating shrillness. clad only in a shirt and partly buttoned trousers stepped from the threshold into the middle of the street and called up to the attic The window Are you going to keep on all night again ? of his voice was impatient. emphasizing and repeating the third. attracted dow attention on account of this attic I stood still. It was always the same tone re- A peated as if the player dwelt . It was improvising after all. sustained tone of a violin struck my ear. soft distinct note increased to loudness. died out. and soon perfect and uninterrupted silence reigned. At moment a ' ' man The carrying aJieavy load of vegetables passed me.THE POOR MUSICIAN to 419 that make out any Jsigns in the darkness. and. being low and without an upper story like the rest of the houses. now constantly repeated with dizzy speed. which. While the player had before reveled in the sound of the single note. always the same intervals. Then he added the fifth. I do not know how long this may have lasted and how frightful the performance had become. The man went back into the house. window in the gabled roof. At last an interval followed it was the chord of the fourth. as I went on. tone The violin became silent even before the speaker had finished. now his voluptuous enjoyment of this harmonic relation was very much more susceptible. Through the intervening intervals he passed most unevenly. sustained. now with a trembling sound like silent weeping." he grumbled. And that was what the old man called improvising. and a man. the soft. when suddenly the door of the house was opened." At the same time. experiencing some difficulty in finding my way through the unknown lanes. It seemed to come from the open attic winof a hovel a short distance away. I started for home. as did his bow. "and disturbing decent people in their night's rest. only to rise again immediately to diminished. the attic window was closed. old fellow is scraping his fiddle again. but from the viewpoint of the player. upon it with pleasure. not from that of the listener. but not harsh or insulting. His fingers moved by fits and starts. vanishing.

without. I had no difficulty in finding Gardener 's Lane. I stood before a low. ever I force myself to do so without sufficient cause. showed me the steps leading up to the attic. close beside the narrow window. Before the window stood a small all table with music-paper and writing material. A extremely wretched chamber. received no answer. I also improvised mentally. and it is almost impossible to imagine a more violent contrast between dirt and cleanliness than existed on the two sides of the line. I have already said so much that is line . gardener's wife. therefore. half speechless with amazement. This time also I heard the tones of the violin. Thus it happened that I put off for several days my visit to the old man. The middle of the room from wall to wall was designated along the floor by a heavy chalk line. disturbing any one. It is. only with difficulty that I can to The morning hours have always been make up my mind and if to leave my room early in the morning. of peculiar value me. as it were. however. was a second bed. the wall of which on all sides followed the outlines of the pointed roof. At last I could not master my impatience any longer. badly fitting door. I found myself in a quite large. but otherwise I entered the house. opposite me. completely and carefully dressed. in the first hours of the day. nothing remains to me for the rest of the day but the choice idle distraction between and morbid introspection.420 THE GERMAN CLASSICS along. shabby but clean and most carefully made and covered. Close by the door was a dirty bed in loathsome disorder. on the window-sill a few flower-pots. and went. The old man had placed his music-stand close to the boundary and was standing before it practising. but owing to the closed window they were muffled and scarcely recognizable. finally raised the latch and entered. knocked. It is as though I felt the need of occupying myself with something ennobling. surrounded by signs of neglect. the equator of this little world. which I had agreed to pay in the morning. nor the house. thus consecrating the remainder of it. something worth while.

he did not even hesitate to repeat them arbitrarily. his knees shook. The old man enjoyed the music while he was playing. distinguished between only two kinds of effect. Of these the former delighted. and he was scarcely able to hold the violin he had lowered to the ground. possible and played the passages that were too difficult for him in a tempo that was too slow compared with the rest of the piece. after I had vainly means of attracting his attention. In order to recall him to the world tried several other of reality. I stepped up "Oh. Instead of accenting a composition in accordance with sense and rhythm. while he avoided the latter. looked around the room a few times in embarrassment. The old man started. I finally discovered the thread leading out of this labyrinth the method in his madness. there was no possibility of sisted chiefly of passage-work. as much as possible. After some time. euphony and cacophony. even I couldn't endure it any longer. it is you. he exaggerated and pro- — longed the notes and intervals that were pleasing to his ear. when an expression of ecstasy frequently passed over his Since he disposed of the dissonances as rapidly as face. I heard him speak with the gardener's wife outside* Soon he came back again rather abashed. to him. concealing the .THE POOR MUSICIAN 421 jarring about the discords of my favorite and I almost fear he is mine alone that I shall spare the reader a deAs the practice conscription of this infernal concert. then suddenly took up a plate from a table that was standing near the door and went out." he said. sir. but this might not have been an easy matter even under ordinary circum- — — stances. straightened things up. even enraptured him. laid down his violin. After listening a while. however. even when harmonically justified. I purposely dropped my hat. recognizing the pieces he was playing. one may easily form an idea of the resulting confusion. His conception." He forced me to sit down. if coming to of your kind promise. as "I had not counted on the fulfilment himself. his conscientiousness not permitting him to omit even a single note. as it were.

mitted to dwell here. even though at the present moment it hasn't quite passed the ' ' threshold. "I have no past. Today is But the day after can know about that? But tomorrow and beyond who God will look after me He knows best." I said. Then they scold a little and go. "You live quite comfortably here. "You are looking at me. what an impression he had made upon me by the . "My past?" he repeated." yond "And do these respect your boundary?" " Only the door is comThey don 't. but I do. and even if they startle me a little when I'm in bed." "And are you "Hardly." he said." "I confess that I have some curiosity concerning your time. ' ' . too. not disturbed by your neighbors?" They come home late at night. pen " "That I became a street-musician?" he asked. but had not been able to obtain it. It will retreat through the door. the pleasure of going to sleep again is all the greater. I now told him how he had attracted my attention the moment I caught sight of him. "and thinking. like yesterday. it the two journeymen live. when I put my room in order. in order to Untidiness is not perput an end to his embarrassment. filling in the pause that I had voluntarily made. "but your past! How did it hapand tomorrow — like today." abode reaches only to that line. only his legs were a little too short." said the old man.422 THE GERMAN CLASSICS plate behind his back and returning it to its place stealthily. ' ' "My 1 ' ' ' mon property. past. said he. Evidently he had asked for some fruit to offer me. His hands and feet were remarkably delicate. "Your present mode of life is probably monotonous enough." I continued. his figure was good enough for his years. Bepointing to the chalk-line in the middle of the room." I replied." I had been observing him in the mean His clothes were scrupulously clean. But in the morning I awaken them.

or rather. nothall sorts ing special. all sorts of things have happened. almost equal to that of a minister. with his head resting upon his left hand. I should like to hear the I haven't forgotten ' ' story myself again. Then he seated himself. my hand and laid it upon the bed. however. his hand into his vest-pocket. about? So that is what you call my past? How it all came Well then. Latin I did learn it once upon a time. This influential. Only I am still alive. of things. "I might have been capable of learning various things." he said. "We have time." he began. putIt is still early in the morning. and I was slow. His figure became more Without further ceremony he took my hat out of erect. I was considered a slow coach. but it all. "I was the second of three brothers. Both the others rose to high positions in the government service." he continued. I was to have learned it and might have done so. I admitted that I knew of him. I wonder whether he continued. If I remember rightly. crossed one leg over the other. there ting was no watch. Loqueris latinef" he turned to me. it was barely nine o 'clock. Latin words he had uttered. "you have heard of Court Councilor X?" Here he mentioned the name of a statesman who. ''but I couldn't continue. powerful man his father! The old man did not seem to notice my astonishment. turning aside as though looking far away. it is too long ! — ago. "No doubt. My brothers satisfied him. pulling at his threadbare trousers and picking off some little feathers with downcast eyes. I drew out mine . of the beggar. "My father was ambitious and a man of violent temper. and I almost feel like talking." he continued. in the middle of the last century. in which." Meanwhile he had grown visibly more at ease. had under the modest title of a Chief of Department exerted an enormous influence. His — The father of the old musician. but with evident pleasure continued the thread of his narrative.THE POOR MUSICIAN ' ' ' ' 423 ' ' ! Latin he echoed. if only I had been given father! — . and assumed the attitude of one who is going to tell a story in comfort. "He was my father. but they are now dead.

They would also complain of the torture inflicted upon their ears and made me wait for the lesson. I was obliged to begin again from the very beginning. who was extremely dissatisfied. which is now the delight and at the same time the support of my life. I That was the end. I should have liked nothing better than to become a turner But my father was much too proud or a compositor. and I began to grow obstinate. But toward the end I had to recite some verses of Horace from memory and I missed a word. came to my — all in vain. asserting that this ruined my fingering. Ney material was to occupy the place which had not yet been vacated by the old. My teacher. I didn't dare say how happy that would have made me. Thus I was constantly driven. and whenever only a single word escaped me. they would take the instrument away from me. brought matters to a climax. scolded me frequently and threatened to make a mechanic of me. num' Finally my father lost his patience. Although I now had forgotten all the rest. and so everything went swimmingly. In all my life I have never hated anything or any one so much as I hated the violin at that time. but I was so engrossed trying to locate the word in my memory and to establish its connection with the context. cachinthat was the word he roared at me in (laughter) — — a voice of thunder. Thus they even drove me into hating music. knew the missing word. but I could make absolutely no headway. He repeated it several times ' in approval and smiling at assistance when I broke down. who had been nodding his whispered the word to me. All . My brothers leaped from one subject to another with the agility of gazelles. When I used to improvise on my violin at twilight in order to way. have permitted such a thing. when the torture began for me. and head my father. that I failed to hear him. Finally a public exever to amination at school.424 THE GERMAN CLASSICS time and a systematic training. enjoy myself in my own "My father. which they had persuaded him to at- tend in order to appease him. A dishonest teacher arranged in advance what he was going to ask me.

from wounds inflicted "Next I was employed in the chancery office as a copyist. but I am now. rose. "I was industrious. as an And with that he felt his arms with occupation never . but bloodshed and mutilation as a vocation. — ' ' ! his hands. But musical notes are beautiful above everything. All day long I did nothing but weep. I was obliged to rise in disgrace and when I went over as usual to kiss my father's hand. Parents prophesy when they speak. day on he never spoke to me again. 'That shabby beggar. he pushed me back. At the same time my father was a good man. I was quite dismayed. There I was in my element. His orders were conveyed to me by the servants. An offer to enter the military service I refused with abhorrence. agreeable pastime than joining stroke to stroke with good ink on good paper to form words or merely letters. together with the preceding and following ones. as if experiencing pain upon himself and others. At last I was placed in an accountant's office on probation but arithmetic had never been my forte. only hot tempered me and ambitious.THE POOR MUSICIAN attempts to bring 425 back on the right track were in vain. I wasn't one at the time. if I were only permitted to continue in school. On the very next day I was informed that my studies were at an end. That one should protect those near and dear.' he called me. and between my crying spells I recited the Latin verses. for I realized what a blow it must "From that have been to my father. in which I was now letter-perfect. I promised to make up in diligence what I lacked in talent. and I can understand it. "For some time I remained at home without an occupation. only at that time I didn't think of music. I had always practised penmanship with enthusiasm and even now I know of no more . bowed hastily to the audience. but too conscientious. An incorrect . Even now I cannot see a uniform without an inward shudder. is quite proper. and went away. but my father never revoked a decision. even at the risk's of one's life.

The servants were given money for their meals. namely my return to the gentle art of music. at the latest. Conother "In — — : my room. the time slipped by. one of which. father's house. with the exception of the evening hours for my father insisted that I should be at home within half an hour after the closing of the Then I sat there in the darkness on office. although I worked harder than any one else. which has remained faithful was ignored by the my members of the family. sequently I spent little time in . the saddest — ' ' and the happiest of my me life. though no one spoke a word to me. "About this time well. would cause me many an unhappy hour. I occupied a rear room looking out upon our neighbor's yard. account of eyes. But when my brothers received appointments in other cities and my father was invited out to dinner almost daily my mother had been dead for many years it was found inconvenient to keep house for me. In this manner I spent several years. While trying to make up my mind whether to follow the original closely or to supply missing material. however. my father voted for another candidate at the meeting of the board. So was I.426 THE GERMAN CLASSICS punctuation mark. I shall continue the story. pleased me particularly. and I gained a reputation for being negligent. to to this day. even if it could be supplied from the context. About this time two events occurred. — . When my turn for promotion came. where I to my leaving home and my violin. well. and the other members voted with him out of deference. only I didn't receive mine in cash it was paid monthly to the restaurant. this is turning out to be a story after all. which were weak even at that time. At first I took my meals with the family. an illegible or missing word in a first draft." he interrupted himself. and was neither my happy nor unhappy. I used to think of one thing and another. It was so simple. "When I sat thus I used to hear some one in the neighbor's yard singing a song really several songs. without receiving any salary.

The air about me was pregnant with intoxicating madness. Now he opened I have no his lips and uttered a few hoarse. and the musical expression was so perfect. his fingers trembling on the ' ' ' ' ' ' strings ""I and some tears finally rolling down his cheeks. into my heart. an attitude in which I have persisted to this day. I fell upon my knees and prayed aloud. "That was the song. and I kissed the violin and pressed it to my heart and played on and on. The musicians play Wolfgang . I never succeeded in getting even two notes right with my voice. but could play only in a general way. and could not understand that I had ever held this exquisite. lin.THE POOR MUSICIAN 427 so touching. that it was not necessary to hear the words. He played. the melody of a pleasing. time with proper expression. and this voice. had been hanging unused on the wall was since my boyhood. consequently I couldn't play anything in particular. and took up his violin. As I drew the bow over the strings it seemed to me. heard in it with ever-growing pleasure. the servant probably having used it during my absence. for I didn 't have a copy of I also noticed that I had pretty nearly forgotten whatever I had once acquired of the art of playing the viothe notes. I took it down and found it in tune. With the exception of that song the musical compositions themselves have always been a matter of indifference to me. he said. and from my heart The tone penetrated it found its way out again. laying down his violin. The song in the yard it was a woman who was singing continued in the meantime uninterruptedly. but by no means remarkable song. Then my eyes fell upon my violin which. But it was 1 ' — — not so easy to play it after her. rough tones. sir. that I had even hated it in my childhood. and I became almost impatient from listening. The song in the courtyard below and the tones produced by my fingers had become sharers of my solitude. as though God's finger had touched me. However vivid it my memory. divine instrument in small esteem." he said. like an old armor. Personally I believe that words spoil the music anyway.

No one can play the eternal comfort and blessing of tone and sound. as the "And A fugue. She was carrying a basket with what looked like pieces of cake my song and gate in the corner of the court. and so on — an entire heavenly structure. just as the children of God united with the daughters of the Earth. The She had her back singer was just crossing the court. where there probably was an oven. yet she seemed familiar to me. for while she continued dough. musician once explained all these things to me. did I stop in He paused was the same man. half exhausted.428 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Amadeus Mozart and Sebastian Bach. counterpoint. so that" he continued in a lower — voice and blushing with confusion forms a harmonic interval with the — ' ' so that the third tone first." I could scarcely believe it mated had he become. "speech is as necessary to man as food. then there are the mysteries of suspension and inversion. turned to me. straining ear. by means of which even the second is received into favor in the bosom of harmony. They would rather disturb this breathing of souls by the addition of words to be spoken the other without mortar and all held together own hand. but that was later. and the leading tone sonance - rises like a fulfilled hope. Sir. one part joined to by God's wants to know exceptions. the canon for two and three voices. I stepped to the open window in order to hear better. With a few to the music. as does the fifth. but not one plays God Himself. She entered a little . its magic correlation with the eager. And"by means of this combination of word and music they imagine they can affect and impress a calloused mind. Where ' ' story?" he asked finally. at the my attempt to imitate it. And then there are still other marvels which I do not understand. But I didn't succeed. "Oh yes. while the dislike conscious is bowed down wickedness or arro- gant pride. but we should also preserve undefiled the nectar meted out by God." he concluded at last. nobody anything about these things. so anifor a moment.

I heard her rattling some wooden utensils. and only now I discovered why she had seemed familiar to me before. who either actually had an appetite or else wanted to kill a half hour. but all agreed that she was pock-marked. for I had seen her in the chancery ' office. "I was not one of her customers. saved the gourmands a walk and brought their wares into the office building. were in the habit of taking a light lunch about eleven o'clock. After a while she came back. I have always been obliged to look upon eating and drinking as a necessity. however. a costermonger vended cherries. Of her buxom figure all spoke with enthusiasm. which she was asked to leave the moment the rather peevish director caught sight of her a command that she obeyed only with reluctance and mumbling angry words. in the second. In the first place I — had no money. Some there were who denied that she had cat's eyes. "My A which were baked by the daughter of a grocer in the vicinity and sold while still hot. Certain cakes. but they considered her rough.THE POOR MUSICIAN 429 her song. the effects of which he claimed to have felt for a week afterwards. and one of them had a long story to tell about a box on the ear. tion on the stairs and in the corridors. where they took up their posibaker sold rolls. The tradespeople. They considered her too small. who know how to turn everything to their advantage. and were not able to determine the color of her hair. I had actually known her for some time. Several of the younger employees. were especially popular. "Among my colleagues the girl did not pass for a beauty. only rarely. when bidden. sometimes clear. did she venture into the office itself. Her customers stepped out into the corridor to her and 1 ' . her voice sounding sometimes muffled. so that it has never entered my head to take . sometimes too much so. acquaintance with her was made like this: The office hours began early and extended beyond noon. like the voice of one who bends down and sings into a hollow space and then rises again and stands in an upright position.

at least give me a sheet of paper to put my cakes on. 'that I have plenty of paper at home. I waited until I had reason to believe that the rush of business was over.' she said mockingly.' I finally began.* she replied. She stepped up to my desk and held her basket out to me. I said. With her basket before her on the ground and her right foot resting on a low stool. which only added to my dear young woman. Well. I can make use of everything. Now I have brought some from home. — to foot. I tried to make her understand that it was chan' cery paper and didn't belong to me. 'I have enough myself at home. And so we took no notice of each other. In order not to betray myself. Only once. and as I saw at once that a practical joke had been ' ' ' played. 'the 'My other day you asked me for paper and I had none that belonged to me. However. mustered up sufficient courage. and' with that I held out the paper. my dear young woman. my colleagues made her believe that I wanted some of her cakes. therefore. pulled out my paper. The next morning. 'I don 't want anything. she said. why do you send for me then ? she cried angrily. I knew from the going and coming of my colleagues and from the sound of the munching jaws that the cake-vender had arrived.' Saying this. but that I had some paper at home which was mine and that I would bring her some of it. she ac- . "That had happened only a few days before and I was thinking of turning the acquaintance to immediate account for the fulfilment of my wish. — — toward noon. then I went out. she stood there humming a soft melody. I explained the situation as best I could. I buttoned a whole ream of paper of which there was never a scarcity in our home under my coat. 'Well then.430 THE GERMAN CLASSICS pleasure and delight in it. As I approached she measured me from head confusion. in order to tease me. on which she usually sat. I excused myself. and broke into a little laugh as she went away. I kept my armor with great personal inconvenience upon my body until. and went to the office. 'I told you the other day. and stepped up to the girl. beating time with her right foot.

sorther wares. but told her that I had another wish. 'the scraping arises from the fact that I do not possess the music of the song. — — ' acquire the necessary dexterity. I lost no time telling her that I was a lover of music. and flashing her eyes angrily at me. 'that is the most ' And how did you learn it.' I deing 'And what clined. and then I sang it ' ' after her. not real art. while with the fingers of his left hand he made movements in the air. this is not the proper add thing. putting her arm through the handle of her basket. And I may 'But in passing that uneducated people often possess the greatest natural talent. after all. 'although the best have been sold. "and I could see by the expression of her face that she repented her harsh words.' 'For a copy?' she exclaimed. drawing herself up to her full height.' 'The song?' I replied. and that I had been listening to her while she was at work in the courtyard. yes. the song. as though he were playing the violin.' she exclaimed. that one of her songs had pleased me particularly. and that I had heard her singing such beautiful songs." he continued the narrative. 'who scrapes so on the fiddle?' As I mentioned before. ' I was astonished at this natural gift.THE POOE MUSICIAN cepted 431 present with a slight nod and put it into her Perhaps you'll take some cake?' she asked. may that be?' she asked. . woman?' 'I heard some one singing it. and that I had tried to play it after her on my violin. by dint of much hard work. I was only a beginner at that time and not until later.' 'But the 'Are such things written melody to which it is sung down?' she asked. "I blushed violently. did I my ' basket. although only a recent convert. 'Surely. the words. 'My dear young woman.' was my reply. Can you be the man. 'You heard me singing?' she flared up. 'The song is printed and is sold at every streetcorner. and for this reason I should like to ask you most respectfully for a copy of it. 'You probably mean only the words!' 'Why. But. I was again plunged into despair. especially one.' I said. 'Where?' I then told her that I lived near her. my dear young important part." the old man interrupted himself.

after I too "I ran hair in my eagerness to secure the song and when she observed my anxiety. then it becomes fervent. she sang the song in a very low. keeping time by nodding her head. for she probably thought I intended to take her hand immodestly. who bade me go to my work and railed against the girl. I wanted to kiss all. in whom. while I accompanied her as far as the staircase. I seemed to be in a trance. Then. drawing back her arm. 'I know so many. it.' I explained. which was hanging at her side. than the others. Therefore I calmed myself and also went back to my desk. and placing her foot on the stool. before she had quite finished. Several days passed and I was in doubt whether to call for the music or not. so beautifully and so charmingly that. and beginning You sing it more frequently finally it ends very softly. that she would ask him to write out the music of the song. yet clear voice. Now which was it?' 'It is so very beautiful. I tried to grasp her hand. 'Right at the the melody rises.' 'Oh. this he could use only . for the song kept running through my head. there wasn't a vestige of good.432 THE GERMAN CLASSICS which song do you want!' she asked. 'What do you mean!' she cried. he asserted. of course.' 'All without the notes?' 'Why. As I was making a final bow on the top step. —Well.' she said. and that I might call for it in a few days. am poor now my fingers through my ! "As a matter of fact. she consoled me and said that the organist of St. Peter's visited her father's store frequently to buy nutmeg. I was very angry at this and was about to retort that I begged to differ with him. Thereupon she took up her basket and went. when I realized that he had returned to his office. setting down her basket. I was surprised by the director. The girl had said that the organist came to her father's store to buy nutmeg. I was unable to do any decent work on that day or on the following days. But from that time on he was firmly convinced that I was a careless employee and a dissipated fellow. I suppose it's this one. although she was only a poor girl.

and therefore it was probable that the good organist would rather drink wine and thus not be in need of nutmeg so too hasty inquiry might seem impolite and obtrusive. Vol. Either my neighbor did not sing at all. A had been noised broad among my colleagues. in front of which I stopped for a moment. I could wait no longer. The two were talking. went downstairs and walked with a firm step through the street to the grocery store. evidently in good humor. about three weeks having passed. I never heard my song again. so that the servants might think I was looking for something in the house. but whenever I came near the grocery store such a violent trembling seized me that I was obliged to turn back whether I wanted to or not. and one evening left my room. knowing that my playing had found disfavor. Two evenings in succession I had even stolen out upon the street. Now the weather had been cold for some time. and they were thirsting for an opportunity to play a practical joke on me. "At last. powerful man. Before her stood a coarse. At last. on the other hand. In the meantime I had again taken up my violin eagerly and devoted myself to a thorough study of the fundamental corridor. since our first meeting ' ' principles. I couldn't wait any longer. but always closed my window carefully in advance. I didn't dare address the girl in the soon. a delay might be interpreted as indifference. while. or else she sang softly and behind closed doors. who looked like a butcher his jacket was thrown over his shoulders and he held a sort of club in his hand. deliberating what was to be done next. I saw the girl sitting close before the counter by the light. I took courage.THE POOR MUSICIAN 433 for his beer. however. But even when I did open the window. VI — 28 . Occasionally I permitted myself to improvise. for the girl . The store was lighted and I heard voices within. as I said. After some hesitation I leaned forward and peered in from the side. without a hat. this time also without a hat. so that I could not distinguish one note from another. picking over some peas or beans in a wooden bowl.

twinkling I was in the store. and when I was released and looked about me. There it is. tilting her chair sideways and pointing with her hand to the counter without setting down the bowl. Meanwhile all my courage had again deserted me. 'Song! I'll sing you a song!' he exclaimed. ' ' ' Sir.434 THE GERMAN CLASSICS laughed aloud several times. but ' ! ' ' for his daughter. It was affair didn 't concern her in the least. who was indifferently picking her peas and beans as though the whole and turned as to the girl.' she replied. 'now I understand what becomes of my prunes and the handf uls of peas and barley which are taken With that he from my baskets in the dark. throwing a worm-eaten . said the girl. I saw that it was the proprietor himself. I felt utterly crushed. But the old man got there first. to he said. or whatever else it may have been. as though he meant to strike me. who. set up a loud laugh if to go. In a. had caught me peering through his window and seized me as a suspicious character. 'Confound it!' he cried. and crumpled the beautiful paper in his hand. having first whispered a few words which she laughingly replied with a resounding slap of her flat hand upon his back. returning home. ' ' the song. I therefore made a curt bow and told the uncivil man that my visit was not intended for his prunes or his barley. Damn it all made for me. what business have you with my daughter?' I tried to explain the circumstance and the cause of my visit. but the thought that my honesty was being questioned soon brought me back to my senses. who was standing in the middle of the store. Whether it was my unnatural. At these words the butcher. from the chancery. and I stood facing the girl. strained position. when I suddenly felt myself seized by a rough hand from the back and dragged forward. 'What does this mean?' he 'Who is this fellow?' 'He is one of the gentlemen said. I began to tremble again. The grocer accompanied him to the door. moving his right arm up and down in rather threatening fashion. I rushed over and saw a sheet of music lying there. but without interrupting her work or even looking up.

you sneak he said. that is. as fashionable people do?' I told him I played the violin. bring a chair!' The girl stirred reluctantly on hers. the CounI mean His Honor's son. which an' noyed me greatly.' he cried. — ' . from notes and according to rule?' I tolcl him that nature had not gifted me with a voice.' he continued. taking a basket from a stool and wiping the dust from the latter with his handkerchief. where should she get it ? So saying. which he had opened to heap abuse upon me. — — spread more and more. 'in the dark. at the same time I designated ttie house.' 'I am the son of the Councilor. perhaps you play the ' piano. Without interrupting her work. his eyes still looked threatening.' he said. as though I were telling a lie. in her music. at the girl and At the word scratch' I involuntarily looked saw a mocking smile on her lips. sir? Barbara. remained open. The son of the Court Councilor finally exclaimed the old ' ' ! man. 'I know 'Nobody lives there but the Court Councilor here he mentioned the name of my father 'and I know all the servants. The girl remained indifferent and continued in her stooping posture. Oh. This is a great honor. His mouth.THE POOR MUSICIAN pea a little 435 farther away than the rest. or rather quite differently. and possesses other good qualities but refinement good heavens.' he continued. 'I used to scratch on the fiddle myself when I was a boy. I have seen many changes during my life. " 'You ought to take an interest in the girl. from whose face the clouds had entirely disappeared. 'Never mind. also taken up music? Percilor ' ! ' — haps you sing like my daughter. but about the lower part of his face a smile began to play which the house. 'Won't you make yourself comfortable. without a hat?' I accounted for the absence of a hat by explaining that I lived close by.' he cried. he repeatedly rubbed the thumb and forefinger of his right hand together. she pushed her loose hair back behind her ears. ' A gentleman from the chancery. I was . but none so sudden as that which came over the man at these words.' I said in a low voice. 'She has a good voice. 'Has His Honor.

something wrong. The fortunes of our house were declining. affected me painI managed to mumble a few words of parting. to be sure. was so. cost him his life. and I couldn't make up my mind to visit her father's store. and fully. Nor did I see my singer again. went out. he foolishly swam the Danube. far away in my father 's Hungary. when accidentally I met the old grocer on the street. since I knew that this would displease mine. when some one passI started. a headstrong. mounted and in full armor. he even turned away from me with an angry expression. and awaited developments. but he couldn't recognize you. was an officer in a regiment "I reached my room of dragoons. This escapade. beThis cause you were standing with your back to the door. I should even have left the song behind had not the old man run into the street after me and pressed it into ' my hand. The grocer had also was the voice of one recognized it. She had been forbidden to vend her cakes in the chancery. all of our servants. As the result of a reckless wager. The servant had recognized me after all. for it ing the store called in Good evening. and I was stunned. but nevertheless the feeling of doing something on the sly. And I didn't have to wait long. A few days later my father's private secretary looked me up in my room and announced that I was to leave my home. which occurred while he was older brother. All my remonstrances were in vain. Putting out the tip of his tongue and raising his shoulders. impetuous fellow. Once. held an appointment as . he whispered: 'It was one of the servants of ' ' ! His Honor. while heated from the exertion of a ride. My favorite. and was just on the point of explaining the true state of affairs. My youngest brother. being frequently alone half the day. And so I got out my violin and played and practised. A little room had been rented for me in a distant suburb and thus I was completely banished from my family.436 THE GERMAN CLASSICS quite confused at being undeservedly credited with such a considerable knowledge of music. "But even worse things were in store for me. your father.

and at the same time enraged at the waning of his influence. An investigation followed. asked for the reason. Attacked on all sides. the murderer of his daily the cil. utilized this circumstance to bring about his downfall. bereft of the power of speech. but then I was completely overcome. being secretly incited thereto. In constant opposition to the governor of the province. as rumor had it. but my father was dead and buried. On the following Friday the sad event had occurred on a Wednesday a black suit of clothes with crepe was suddenly brought to my room. by our father. of whom there were many. Only in the evening I wandered about the dark streets like Cain. "I had not been able to speak to him again. and my brother took French leave of the country. and was informed of what had taken place. The next morning my strong constitution had conquered. he even went so far as to pro- member mulgate untruthful statements in order to injure his opponent. and it — — — . For several days I kept my room and scarcely touched any food. I fell to the floor in a swoon. to ask his forgiveness for all the sorrow I had brought upon him. The next day in the chancery I noticed that the men were whispering secretly and pointing at me with their fingers. But I was accustomed to such treatment and paid no further attention to it. Ordinarily my body is strong and capable of resistance. where I lay in a fever and was delirious throughout the day and the entire night. My father's house appeared to me a dreadful . At last I went out. I was naturally astonished. he delivered most bitter speeches at the meetings of the counwas in the middle of a speech that he suffered a stroke of apoplexy. favors. They carried me to bed. but came home again immediately after dinner. for his intentions had been good and some time I hope to meet him again where we are judged by our intentions and not by our acts. or to thank him for all the undeserved favors yes. Our father's enemies.THE POOR MUSICIAN a 437 of provincial council. I myself heard nothing of all this. ' ' brother. They brought him home.

I found myself unexpectedly in the ing vacantly vicinity of the dreaded house. as he was alone in the store. Barbara was sitting inside. but I thought the girl would say a kind word to me. shook hands with me. the grocer regretting that he could not accompany me. I was grievously disappointed that my hopes had not been fulfilled. although it seemed to me as though I sometimes heard a rustling near the door. But once. My knees trembled so that I was obliged to seek support. But it turned out just the other way. But since she did not put in an appearance. I finally took my leave. and went into the adjoining room. starbefore me. and standing up straight close by was her father.438 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I avoided it most carefully. looked at me haughtily. and yet I felt strangely consoled. and since the old man talked of nothing but money. no one to look to for sympathy. As I stopped in the street and looked over toward my father's house. bade me sit down and consoled me. who seemed to be urging something upon her. the light upon the counter beside her. I recognized the door of the grocery store. ited. I suddenly heard . he repeatedly called for the girl. and hind me. however. I knew very well. 11 While he was telling me all this. Barbara rose as I entered. at the same time intimating that I was now a rich man and my own master. which I promised to do. was angry with me. however. who gave no sign of life. locking the door behind her. He wanted to know how much I had inher- He urged me to go to court I couldn't tell him. The old man. I should have entered. The old man. a letter in her hand. even though my life had been at stake. assured me that gallnuts and fruit would yield a good profit and that a partner who understood this particular business could turn dimes into dollars. He was of the opinion that no fortune could be made in a chancery. about it. and said that he himself had at one time done well in that line. Leaning against the wall be- phantom. You have no idea how awful it is to have no one to pour out one's heart to. He then advised me to invest my inheritance in a business.

Barbara's father also came. that the secret warning had come from Barbara. and that I had promised to help them as soon as I should be in possession of the money? My promises I was obliged to keep. But my father's recent events had deprived of his livelihood. and granted a request only when the distress was really great. not to worry on that score that he had brought her to her senses. whom undertaking I was to advance the initial cost of equipment. I had almost become hardened. . It was less than had been expected.' Although I turned quickly. So she had overheard what had been said in the store Did she intend to warn me against her father"? Or had it come to her knowledge that immediately after my father's death colleagues of the chancery as well as utter strangers had approached me with requests for support and aid. warning. which troubled me little. but I resolved to be more careful in future. and translation. nearly eleven thousand gulden. they're tone: after your money. In the chancery. whereupon I truthfully replied that I feared I was unwelcome to his daughter. Only the rattling of a window on the ground floor of the grocer's house told me. I concealed the amount of the inheritance when the subject came up in the course of the conversation and also skilfully evaded his business proposals. I saw no one. I was already turning other prospects over in my mind. The whole day my room was besieged by people demanding financial assistance. He scolded me for not having been around for three days. my place had already been filled by another. informed me of a plan for the establishment of a bureau of information. since no salary was attached to the position. I applied for my inheritance. But he told me with a malicious laugh that alarmed me. however. "As a matter of fact. For this secretary. where I had been tolerated only on account of my father. but still a considerable sum. even if I had not recognized the voice. copying.THE POOR MUSICIAN 439 a voice behind me saying in a subdued and indignant 'Don't be too ready to trust everybody. Thus reminded of Barbara's ! .

although not quite correctly. she rose in her seat and exclaimed in an almost threatening tone. What she disliked especially was my politeness toward the customers. but she acted as if no one were present. 'Father!' Thereupon the old man immediately changed the subject. it made me look like a scarecrow my walk was a cross between that of a duck and cock. a I man at into a better apartment.440 THE GERMAN CLASSICS he being prepared to undertake the management. and I felt relieved. As I had nothing to do until the opening of the copying bureau. I my life I was independent— I was scarcely gave my father another thought. procured better clothes. I advanced the necessary sum.' —not came again and again. it had become dark. her 'good-night' sounded almost like a 'thank heaven. Her father received me most cordially. God had given me two left hands my coat fitted so badly. since it had to be deposited with the court. "The affair was settled. which I likewise furnished. I arrived in the best of spirits. I went through familiar streets to the moved and when grocery store. when I finally took my leave. continued making paper bags. Everything I did she considered clumsy. and gradually she yielded that I ever did anything that pleased her. where I should have direct dealings I . but an icy look from Barbara immediately threw me back into my former state of timidity. she said nothing during the whole evening. "But with the public. didn't give me a second look. She scolded me and found fault with me incessantly. and now I was perfectly happy. having grown cautious. exalted. with a swinging step and humming my song. and. caused me no worry. The rather large bond for the establishment. and took no part whatever in our conversation. where it was as safe as though it were locked up in my strong-box. At my request the field of copying was extended so as to include music. I considered it a good preliminary training . Only when we touched upon the subject of my inheritance. Aside from that. for the first time in last. demanded a written receipt. I never have been able to strike the B flat in the second half. but. .

She whirled . and the rear room. my song ! when it bathes its —alonger of song no to come from without. But at such times she let me do all the talking and expressed her approval or as happened more frefirst disapproval only by casual words. she listened to me when I told her what was going on in the city. 'The goods carry their own recommendation. and was so close that the melody seemed the song. that there was no sense in talking about it. I crept nearer and nearer. in which event Barbara would interfere guilty by forcibly taking away whatever money I had in my hand. never spoke of music or singing. she was standing on tip-toe. she was all kindness. acted as cashier. and smoothes them again with its little beak. 441 in the retail business of the grocery This often kept me there half the day. and ridiculing and mocking me before the customers. tosses its head. she believed one should either sing or keep quiet. her back turned toward me. even before he had left the store. groping along one of the upper shelves as if looking for something. with her hands raised above her head. I seemed to be walking in a green meadow. but out of my own breast souls. and as she stood there straining forward. ruffles its feathers. where we had met. when I entered unnoticed. or when I spoke of my early spices. which she occupied with her father. years. I was unable to contain myself any longer. At other times. she would say brusquely. however. I threw both arms around her body. At the same time she was singing softly to herself it was ' ' — quently her We — — — She was warbling like a hedge-sparrow breast in the brook. I was not allowed to enter. I weighed an active part counted out nuts and prunes for the children. If I bowed to a customer or recommended myself to his kind consideration. In the first place.THE POOR MUSICIAN to take store. however. But then the storm broke.' and turn her back upon me. Once. her shoulders thrown slightly back towards me. and In this latter capacity I was frequently of errors. But it was not possible to do any singing the store was not the proper place for it. or of the business of the chancery.

however. "I only remember that I rushed toward her and that she ran into the sitting room and threw — herself against the glass door. but it was a kiss. In my confusion I took the grocer's hat instead of my own. I took courage. Her face livid with rage. She kissed me only gently. while I pushed against it from the other side. It was the grocer. Barbara. As she pressed forward with all her might against the glass panel. moon and they were the lights of heaven. It seemed stars. her strength was tremendous.' she said. passed her hand gently over the place she had struck. my colleagues in the chancery used to tell a story of a box on the ear." he continued. and returned her kiss with great fervor through the glass " 'Well. like a second thunderbolt. like angels playing hide-and-seek I and singing at the same time. just returning home. the blow came. This was.442 THE GERMAN CLASSICS like . But it was a fact.' But she didn't come out. a kiss upon this very cheek. There's said. tranced. The lights were dancing before my eyes. I suddenly felt her warm breath and her lips upon my cheeks.' I heard some one call out behind me. I took my leave after having stammered a few words of apology. had dealt out to an impertinent fellow. and he laughingly corrected the mistake. I stood as though I had been struck by a thunderbolt. this is a jolly party. which Barbara. I was ' en- She. I 'm afraid I struck more violently than I intended. and tears came to his eyes." As he said this.' he 'Come out. scarcely less astonished than I. dear sir. naught amiss in an honest kiss. seemed greatly and humorously exaggerated. scarcely knowing what I was saying. don't be foolish. and before I could utter a word of apology. What they then said of the strength of this rather small girl and of the power of her hand. "What happened after that I do not know. had visions. around fore ' me 'As I have said before. a top. the old man put his hand to his cheek. she stood beher hand twitched. when she was still vending cakes. and. 'People who love each other are fond of teasing each other. but like sun. as I called it ! — .

the But that wouldn't be true. she shook her hand back and forth. but you are weak and always interested in matters of secondary importance. Freyou sit here in the store half the day. he said in a loud voice. looked at me from head to foot. stepping before the girl. ceives many favors from God. 'You needn't go. and motioned with her head toward a stool standing near. But I found her amiable. I wanted examine the cut. not take advantage of you. but she beckoned to me to continue my work.' she said. 'Let us forget that. 'There is no end to your tomf oolery. but for some time you have been calling more and more frequently. I started to make apologies for the day before. 'What I was going to do hasn't been attended to at Then all. not irritable as usual. and with a heavy tread he went out of the door. It is therefore the and acquaintances to look out for you. 'what you want to do has al- — He stamped his foot on the floor and remained. and we have become accustomed to you. counting and quently weighing. humble and quiet. for man reonly happy day. Father. and continued in a calm tone of voice. but what good does duty of your friends in order that people may .' "She raised her head.THE POOR MUSICIAN before. ' things. She had cut her finger slightly and. Walking up and down he talked of different ready been attended to. Nobody will deny that you have an honest heart. measuring and bargaining. the old man grumbled and. intimating that I should sit down and help her. I scarcely remember ' the beginning of our acquaintance. Thus we sat and worked. She sat over her work. although she didn 't usually pay any attention to such trifles. Was she angry or had I conciliated her? The next visit cost me a great effort. Suddenly the girl uttered a low scream. but I didn 't dare take part in the conversation. ' sensible things. "I didn't know exactly what the girl's feelings toward me were. the happiest 443 day of my life I had almost said. but she interrupted me and said. so that you are hardly capable of managing your own affairs. and talk of more to ' . The old man prepared to go out.

Our business yields little profit. 'I am honest. buy the millinery store next door. 'Much to invest.' she added with lowered voice. Besides. which is for sale. we'll not discuss at present. 'You're a child.' I had jumped up and change. You must have somebody at your side who has your interests at heart. Her eyes. seized my hat.' she replied. drawing a letter from her ' apron and throwing it half reluctantly upon the counter.' I pointed to her. 'he is so accustomed to take advantage of strangers that it's quite possible he wouldn't treat friends any better. this she looked like a queen. 'As a matter of fact I've had another offer. therefore. shone bright blue. But if you have confidence in me and like to be near me. 'To countermand everything!' I said 'Countermand what?' I then told her of my .' she said. 'But I'm in a peculiar position. I 'That's much and little. the blue of the sky. for I will not go out as a servant. laying her hand upon her heart. himself in similar ventures. and on the other hand. 'What's the matter? Where are you going?' she asked. For. My father As she said needlework. and nothing remains for me. he has lost money dissuaded you. and there are quite different matters to be considered.444 THE GERMAN CLASSICS make your from that do you? How do you expect to future?' I mentioned the inheritance quite large. and you can count on a reasonable profit on your investment.' she said. 'Why? What difference would that make to you?' I told her I should move to the same place. keeping the books and attending to the correspondence would supply you with a proper occupation.' she said. lit- made you a proposition. 'But in that case I should be obliged to leave the city. for I hate effeminate men. my living in father. which were ordinarily of a greyish hue. breathlessly.' she continued. and so my father intends to set himself up as an innkeeper. but I on the one hand. but tle to live upon. I understand the business. 'That wouldn 't do at all. What might develop later But you would have to on. Now that's no place for me. 'I suppose it's named the amount.' 'Would you have to go far away?' I asked.

' 'Father. and that's safe at all events.' 'But you have a receipt for it. 'is deposited with the court.' I continued. We're not in .THE POOR MUSICIAN 445 plan for the establishment of a copying and information bureau. Barbara.' I explained that I had found a partner. 'Let your music go. I mentioned the amount of the bond.' I remarked that music was also to be copied. and spare us your visits in future. at another time he was honesty itself. you blockhead! The fools aren't all dead yet. yes!' 'Oh. and quickly. 'Didn't I tell her so? But she always found an excuse for him. Father!' The old man entered. 'There isn't much in that. I admitted that I had advanced the three thousand gulden for the initial equipment. still more?' she screamed.' 'What. 'Information anybody can get for himself. And you. you're not able to manage a business yourself.' 'I haven't' partner?' she asked. 'And what is the name of your fine was a relief to be able to mention cried. left nothing but debts. which was something that not everybody could do. He intrusted his money to him. sir. But I'll take a hand I'll show you who's master in this house. Besides. 'A partner?' she exclaimed. 'And did you pay it over to the court personally?' 'My partner paid it.' cried the old man.' she suggested.' she cried. I hope you haven't advanced any money?' I was trembling without knowing why. A warrant for his arrest has been issued. 'You'll surely be cheated. he absconded. 'here's one He is of his victims. 'What was that you read in the papers today?' 'About the secretary?' he asked. 'Three thousand gulden!' she exclaimed. 'as much as that?' 'The rest. 'So you're back at your old nonsense?' she burst out. and everybody has learned to write in school. starting " 'Good heavens!' she 'Father! up and wringing her hands. ruined " 'Oh. 'Yes. and think of more important matters. and swindled everybody. get out. go to your room. in this business ' ! ! You. At one time she ridiculed him. 'Did you advance any money?' she asked once more. It my father's secretary.

but then I recollected having accompanied the secto the commercial court to deposit the bond. 'don't be harsh with him. 'there's a man for you! He's got brains in his head and money in his purse. There was no indication that the sum had ever been paid.446 THE GERMAN CLASSICS the charity business here. he's unhappy enough as it is!' 'That's the very reason I don't want ' to become unhappy too. pointing to the letter Barbara had thrown upon the table a short time before. but there was still a possibility. hers twitched as ' ' ' ' the old man. I moved to one side and turned toward the girl.' said the girl. but she angrily stamped her foot upon the floor. who was standing with her hands resting on the counter and her eyes fixed on the ground. and when I held out my hand. ha. When he came down he told me that everything was in order and that the receipt would be sent to my residence. but neither his name nor mine could be found. I wanted to approach her. Then I went. he cried. and made straightway for the residence of the secretary. perhaps sly you can still catch him. sir. Sometimes despair gripped me.' 'Father. and thus the disaster was certain. But that wasn't all. There retary I had waited in the gateway while he had gone upstairs alone. he laid the palm of his hand on my shoulder and pushed me toward the door. the rascal! And now you'd better run after him.' cried There. As he said this. "I tottered through the streets out of the city gate into the open fields. As a matter of fact I had received none. that secretary was no fool. hope returned. for inasmuch as a partnership contract . and the old man locked the door behind me. And that's the main thing in being honest!' I stammered something about the loss of the bond not being certain. At daybreak I returned to the city. he continued. ' though she were going to strike me again. He doesn't swindle any one. Ha. She was breathing heavily. I had the clerks examine the records. But the people there laughed and asked whether I hadn't read the papers? The commercial court was only a few doors away. but he takes good care at the same time not to let any one swindle him.

ing Suddenly I heard a rustling at the door it opened. selfish as he was. however. me it . whereupon she stepped back from the bureau.THE POOR MUSICIAN had been drawn up. the remembrance of that last evening came vividly back to my mind. although it wouldn 't have made much difference in the end. . When she had reached the middle of the room she remained standing. she might have even but she wouldn't have accepted me. but immediately began to arrange the linen and put away the pieces she had brought. several of his creditors insisted 447 upon seizing my person. Then she went to the wardrobe which stood on one side against the wall. her a comfortable existence. Then she looked straight at me and. and carried a bundle under her arm. hear them abuseven seemed as though they were ridiculing me. pointing with her finger to the open drawer. in the course of these disagreeable developments. I could understand Once in a while it occurred to me very well but the girl that if I had taken care of my money and been able to offer down and ! . she disliked my courteous behavior toward everybody. It was Barbara. She was pale. as well confess that the grocer and his daughter had. When she beheld the meagre contents she lifted her hands in astonishment. opened her bundle containing some shirts and handkerchiefs she had been attending to my laundry during the past few weeks and pulled out the drawer. I'm bring- . "Besides. The old man. which the court. — — she said. I sat riveted to my chair r as though I beheld a ghost. tomed place. — One I spent entire days thinking and planning. quite receded into the background. looked at the bare walls and the wretched furniture. and a woman entered. Now that things had calmed "I may I was considering what steps to take next. would not permit." With that he surveyed his wretched figure with hands outstretched. I had usually spent in evening at twilight it was the time the store I had transported myself in spirit to the accus- "Thus — — I could hear them speaking. For this decision I was profoundly grateful. 'Five shirts and three handkerchiefs. and heaved a deep sigh.

I've I saw the shaken hands with you. for hard ' ! then she raised her hand. but she shook her head impatiently and went out. so farewell. but none to equal this one. And it's all your doing. times are coming!' ' ! ' And ! ' ' "I've known hard days since then. Take good care of it. which she willingly left in mine. I stole over to the grocery store in the hope of possibly receiving some explanation. but yourself most of all. leaned against the wardrobe. and you really don't deserve any pity' here she became more agitated 'since you're so weak that you can 't manage your own affairs and so credulous that you trust everybody. for I wasn't quite clear as to how things stood with me. in order to make her look up. withdrew her hand. No one . You may yet I'm sorry for you! I've come to bid you well look alarmed. and began to cry aloud.' descended the rest of the way. therefore. and passed out of the door. she rose quickly. but there's no help for it. 'Oh. a rogue as soon as an honest — — man — and farewell. I moved my hand up to the elbow of her limp arm. When she had reached the door she turned once more and said. something that I've always dreaded. and was gone. James she added in a lower voice. ever. 'Stay where you are. whereupon she stopped on the stairway. and said in a calm voice.' So saying she slowly closed the drawer. It almost seemed as though she were going to faint. but when I went down a step she called up. But when. what's the use of it all! You've made yourself and us unhappy. I felt rooted to the spot. The following was scarcely less hard to bear. I hurried after her and called to her from the landing. Amen Not until then did I regain the use of my limbs. By her convulsive breathing I could see that she was still weeping. crossed Forever and herself. The next morning. and cried.448 THE GERMAN CLASSICS ing back what I took away. and forever tears coming to her eyes again. for she sat down on a chair beside the wardrobe and covered her face with her shawl. God be with you. 'Your laundry is now in order. I've got to go out among common people. I had approached her softly and took her hand.

449 to be stirring.' she said.' "In all probability the woman told me then what I The Langenlebarn learned subsequently from others. and while we were talking.THE POOR MUSICIAN seemed the store. of course. I practised and studied the works of the great masters. I made ready to turn my * In Lower Austria. 'Why. when I believe me. that she did not have to bear the sorrow and misery that would have been hers had she cast in her and this thought acted like lot with a homeless wanderer a soothing balm. who pushed me aside. had been pursuing the girl for some time with offers of marriage. and so I walked past and looked into There I saw a strange woman weighing goods and counting out change. 'Not yet. I made bold to enter. the woman no doubt told me all this. pressed by her father and in utter despair. The woman asked me gruffly whether there was anything else I wanted. Barbara was already the butcher's wife. 'And where are the owners?' 'They left this morning for Langenlebarn. Father and daughter had departed that very morning. But when the last penny had been spent. visit. I felt that she was now free of all care. a blissful sensation came over me.' she said. the same one I had met in the store on my first butcher. especially the old ones. but it wasn't for long. ' he continued. As long as my money lasted. and asked whether she had bought the store.'* 'The daughter. too?' I stammered. but I heard nothing and stood motionless. "As I said. copying all of the music. VI 29 — . my dear sir. 'she went there to be married. whereupon I took ' ' my departure. for as I left the store and looked back at the small windows at which Barbara no doubt had often stood and looked out. till finally customers came. she had given her consent. and I blessed her and her destiny. Vol. a few days before. "As my affairs went from bad to worse. I now considered myself the most wretched of that ' ' ' You '11 you tell mortals. which she had always rejected until finally. mistress of her own home. on the railroad from Vienna to Eger. I decided to earn my living by means of music.

changed greatly in these many years she has grown stout. I visited the courtyards of houses. I even stood on knowledge public promenades. since his father needs him in his business during the week. but at last they sent for me to give the elder boy lessons on the violin. question me and pass on. laid a few pieces of silver upon the table near me. and when we practise and play mother sometimes joins in with her voice. But as the compositions I rendered didn't meet with approval. and no longer cares much for music. He talent to be sure. not without a display of sympathy. Soon after this incident I set out on a journey. but the melody still sounds as sweet as of old.450 THE GERMAN CLASSICS to account. which I have taught him. She was the mother of two children. "After many years another piece of good fortune was granted to me. while the old man continued fiddling eagerly. Her husband had prospered and acquired a butcher shop in one of the suburbs. whom I didn't flatter myself I equaled. At last I had enough. believing that among so many tenants there must be a few who value serious music. where I really had the satisfaction of having persons stop and listen. Finally. In this way I have managed to make a scanty. New . like myself. I rose. sure. the elder being called James. and kept on playing and playing without paying any further attention to me." With these words the old man took up his violin and began to play the song. and then I saw that famous artists. My profession and the remembrance of old times didn't permit me to intrude. But Barbara's song. Barbara returned. to be . sometimes very large sums. and departed. first opportunity. and can play only on Sundays. the She has. living to this day. accepted money for their performances. The fact that they left"^ was the very object of my playing. but 1 honest. goes hasn't much very well. from which I did not return until the beginning of winter. I made a beginning in private cira gathering at the house of my landlady furnishing the cles. in this way.

Moreover. the iron see unfortunate victims inside the rooms. nothing could be done.THE POOR MUSICIAN 451 impressions had crowded out the old. and in the passageway I beheld a row of dead bodies. The Leopoldstadt was in frightful condition. while the cellars of some houses were still filled with water covered with floating furniture. I decided to deliver at the address that concerned me most my share of the fund that had ground floor. however. the authorities had done what they could to send food and aid in boats to those cut off by But when the waters had subsided and the the water. In order to avoid the crowd I stepped aside toward a gate that stood ajar as I brushed by it yielded. . At last I There also the mourners of a funeral procession were drawn up. that I was again reminded of him. streets had become passable. and I had almost forgotten my musician. Wrecked boats and broken tools were lying in the streets. For lack of time and men it was ab- solutely impossible to take an official census of so fatalities. On all sides weeping and of funeral bells. how been started for the benefit of the sufferers and that had assumed incredible proportions. Here and there I could even . But as I came nearer I noticed by the preparations and the movements of the people that there was some connection between reached Gardener's Lane. for he lived high up under the roof. many tolling Thus I went on and on. still clinging to window bars. from the house I was bound for. whereas death had claimed its numerous victims among the residents of the great might not his distress be! As long as the flood lasted. fears for the old man's seemed to be no need of entertaining life. anxious mothers searching for their children and children looking for their parents. which had evidently been picked up and laid out there for official inspection. seemingly at some distance. It wasn 't until the ice broke up in the following spring and the low-lying suburbs were flooded in consequence. But cut off from all help. The viThere cinity of Gardener's Lane had become a lake.

already closed. For he sang incessantly. We wanted to cleared of everything except the coffin in the centre. The good man was sitting up there safe in his room. I passed him and entered the court. the old man took an axe. which. beating time and imagining that he was giving lessons. but still vigorous. The old gardener's wife came toward me. and the room itself had been there." She urged me to go up the steep staircase to the atticroom. turned his head to one side as though he heard something very beauti- — — ful in the distance. he suddenly raised himself in bed. And when toward the very last you can't have your eyes everywhere it was found that my husband had forgotten his tax-books and a few paper gulden in his wardrobe. and greeted me with tears in her eyes. recognized me at once. In his high top-boots. until his breathing sounded like a blacksmith's bellows. "Are you also honoring us?" she said. but in the intervals conthe funeral procession versed rather indifferently with the bystanders. he dragged and carried them to safety. fell back. He was giving orders. who can't be much better than he was here below. he became delirious and went from bad to worse. In this way he caught a cold. At the stood a respectable looking man. The lady is also right up stairs. When the water had subsided somewhat and we were able to call the doctor and the priest. he looked like a country butcher. somewhat advanced gate in years. and was dead. but when the water came and he heard the children scream. our poor old man! He's playing with the angels. yellow leather breeches. up have him buried at our expense. Go he often spoke of you. he jumped down and helped. although we did what we could and suffered more than he did himself. "Alas. but the butcher's wife would not allow it. and long coat.452 THE GERMAN CLASSICS and the gardener's house. The door stood open. and as we couldn't summon aid at once. smiled. broke open the wardrobe and fetched everything like the faithful creature he was. At the . entered the water which by that time reached up to his chest. was waiting for the pall-bearers.

First came the school children with cross and banner.THE POOR MUSICIAN head sat a rather stout 453 woman no longer in the prime of life. The cof- and carried down. and behind them came the parents. The old musician A few days later — it psychological curiosity was buried. was a Sunday I was impelled by and went to the house of the butcher. whom she was evidently instructing how to behave at the funeral. It seemed almost as though Before her stood she could never have been beautiful. but with a black shawl and a black ribbon in her bonnet. half disbanded. Directly behind the coffin marched the two children of the butcher. returned. but the two children caused her some trouble. but at that moment the trombones began to play. The woman was eagerly reading in her prayer-book. At one time she pushed them ahead. a boy and a girl. on which he had been leaning in rather awkward fashion. as the wife evidently considered some charge of the undertaker too high. The children threw down the first handful of earth. in a colored cotton dress. then the priest and the sexton. "Barbara. The man moved his lips incesfin was lifted him santly. it's time. The grave was open." The pall-bearers appeared and I withdrew to make room for them. then she carefully smoothed the projecting corners of the shroud. and the procession. as if in devout prayer. being fol. lowed by their father. The mourners scattered in all directions. The gardener's wife led me up to the coffin. The grave-diggers completed their business. yet looked constantly about in both directions. two almost grown-up children. and at the same time the butcher's voice was heard from the street. — . In this way the procession arrived at the cemetery. who remained standing while their mother knelt. at another she held them back in fact the general order of the funeral procession seemed to worry her considerably. and the procession began to move. At the door there was a slight altercation. Just as I entered she was pushing the boy's arm away from the coffin. But she always returned to her prayer-book. holding her book close to her eyes.

however. I should say jumped up not. and laid it in the drawer. the man didn't seem averse to man The woman. At this moment the maid brought in the soup. concluding a profitable bargain. who didn't allow my visit to disturb him. . from her chair and said. so that I couldn't see what emotions were passing over it. showing no token of recent distress. looking as though she feared some one would steal it. I found the family together. began in a loud voice to say grace. She had turned around and the tears were streaming down her cheeks. in which the children joined with their shrill voices. I wished them a good appetite and left the room. My last glance fell upon the wife. The violin belongs to James. and as the butcher. "Well. But the violin was hanging beside the mirror and a crucifix on the opposite wall. Her face was turned away from me." With that she took the instrument from the wall. blew off the dust. looked at it from all sides. and a few gulden more or less make no difference to us. When I explained the object of my visit and offered a comparatively high price for the instrument. which she thereupon closed violently. the objects being arranged symmetrically.454 THE GERMAN CLASSICS I under the pretext that old wished to secure the violin of the as a keepsake.

turned his attention from poetry to science. while. period contributed perhaps more than anything else to the decadence of poetry. Goethe is one of the greatest poets of all time. The German geniuses had. they shared the general propensity of mankind to err. Goethe. on the other hand. Nevertheless. Professor of A. since the death of Schiller. Goethe fol- Perhaps means more to the German na- tion. Goethe. he deteriorated in each his latest . M. and when. JOUENEY is an excellent remedy for a per- plexed state of mind. and the father of our poetry. first impulse. for a people needs strong. inasmuch as it opened the door to the subsequent coarseness of Young Germany. but there was still one living. The public was only too glad to have once again something substantial poetry. This time the goal of my journey was to be Germany. Lessing blazed the Schiller trail. as was the fashion at that time. any more than I was of any other one poet. By distributing his talents over too many fields. * From Grillparzer's Autobiography (1855). and the idea of speaking with him or even of merely seeing him made me happy in anticipation. almost all departed from this life. to feed upon. in particular. [455] . for the sake of pose. True poetry where they met on common ground. poetic productions were tepid or cool. Brooklyn Commercial High School. on the one hand. indeed. seemed to me to lie their individual characteristics lent them. his poetry became The impassiveness which he imparted to that affected. he turned to the classical. a blind worshipper of Goethe. sweeping impressions. Klopstock gave the lowed it. of popular and of the Middle-high German trash.MY JOURNEY TO WEIMAR* TRANSLATED BY ALFRED REMY. the charm of individuality. had. I never was. Modern Languages.

while Schiller stands midway between Racine and Shakespeare. Among these there was a court councilor. was entertaining some guests and could not. he is not Little as I dead. inquiring whether he would receive me. He fills an entire page in the development of the human mind. so that I made many acquaintances. to the living Valhalla From there I dispatched the waiter with my card to Goethe. as it were. The daughter." a hostelry at that time famous throughout Ger- many and of Weimar. the Privy-councilor. At last a side door opened. Privy-councilor. I nevertheless felt that the mere sight of him would be sufficient to inspire me with new courage. therefore. appears to be the greater poet. and as beautiful as she was cultured. My name had become known card and the report of my presence spread through my through the town. (The boy sleeps. receive me at the moment.) W" ^" Tp TP *• W TT At last I arrived in Weimar and took quarters in "The Elephant. with his daughter. sympathized with Goethe 's most recent activity. non mortuus est. *A decoration. Jacob or Jacobs. the ante-room.456 THE GERMAN CLASSICS Goethe. and he himself entered. The waiter returned with the answer that His Excellency. Toward evening I called on Goethe. In the receptionroom I found quite a large assemblage waiting for His Excellency. the dined at the hotel. who later won a liter- ary reputation under the pseudonym of Talvj. was as young as she was beautiful. He would expect me in the evening for tea. and little as I could expect him to consider the author of The Ancestress and The Golden Fleece worthy of any consideration. Dressed in black. who had not yet made his appearance. whom Goethe had enI tertained at dinner. the star* on his . Dormit puer. however. and so I soon lost my timidity and in my conversation with the charming young lady almost forgot that I was in Goethe's house. in view of the dispassionate quietism which he affected at the time.

and. in the role of a formal minister presiding at tea brought me down from my celestial heights. which. returned. . who for many years had been occupying the position of musical director in Weimar. indeed. and ordered horses at the inn for the day Had following. He had . finally withdrew. it his manner been rude or had he shown me the door. despite its excellence. which was a fact. Goethe had treated me more kindly and more attentively than I had anticipated I confess that I returned to the hostelry in a — — but to see the ideal of my youth. Consequently I determined to devote the following day to sightseeing. among them the amiable and respected Chancellor Miiller. and Egmont. He exchanged a few words with one and another of his guests. almost stiff bearing. I almost repented having gone to Weimar. that the Italian language was. On the morning of the next day visitors of all sorts put in an appearance. He inquired whether Italian literature was cultivated to anygreat extent in our country. Clavigo. with erect. conversed I no longer remember on what subjects. Whether my opinion him or not. He left German me. I am alpleased most inclined to believe it did not. since all officials were required to learn it. most unframe of mind.MY JOURNEY TO WEIMAR 457 breast. would have pleased me better. talked with others. above all. Italian literature. and finally crossed the room and addressed me. had an admixture of coarseness that seemed to me to be anything but advantageous to the present state of the other hand. on was completely neglected the fashion was rather to turn to English literature. and we were dismissed. I told him. lie stepped among us with the air of a monarch granting an audience. the author of Faust. widely known. especially of poetry. I have no means of knowing. inasmuch as he was at that very time in correspondence with Lord Byron. It was not that my vanity had pleasant been offended on the contrary. culture. my fellow- countryman Hummel.

I therefore had to prolong my stay and to countermand the order for the horses. it we were planning to visit some points of interest in and while Chancellor Miiller. Miss Rockel. While too. . I do not know whether it was the contrast. was assuring me that Goethe's formality was nothing but the embarrassment always displayed by him on meeting a stranger for the first time. or whether this really was the worst German I had ever heard in my life. to be sure. teaching his grandson to read. probably gave him satisfaction to find his literary countryman honored and respected in Weimar. and I was especially delighted to find in the poet's study. he had an opportunity of conversing with a Viennese in his home dialect.458 left THE GERMAN CLASSICS Vienna before my poetry had attracted attention. where he heard nothing but disparaging opinions regarding the intellectual standing of Austria. the waiter entered and handed me a card containing an invitation from Goethe to dine with him the next day. It was almost touching to witness the joy with which this ordinarily unsociable man greeted me and took possession of me. so we had not become acquainted with each other. There I found his wife. which he had preserved pure and unadulterated while living among people who spoke quite differently. day that I dined with Hummel en famille. finally. who had probably Weimar. Now she was an efficient. that . which he had left with reluctance then. noticed my depression. And. In the first place I probably revived in him memories of his native city. formerly the pretty singer. of events is this first I believe The exact order it was on now confused in my mind. The morning was passed in visiting the places that had become famous through their literary associations. an old man who is said to have acted as prompter at the theatre in Schiller's time. Schiller's house interested me most of all. whom I could well remember in page 's attire and close-fitting silk tights. The little boy's open and intelligently animated expression prompted the illusion that out of Schiller's study a new Schiller might some day emerge — an illusion which. has not been realized. really an attic-room in the second story.

poetic tinge is necessarily lost. embraced Graff. I saw nothing particularly remarkable in him. had a role. At last the momentous day with its dinner-hour arrived. advanced into the room Goethe came toward me. in the representation the delicate. I was deeply moved. however. that Schiller. by the way. Schiller had rushed upon the stage. and when I was told that. the charming Talvj having departed with her father the morning after the tea-party and time. Goethe's daughter-in-law being absent from Weimar at the To the latter and to her daughter. He became while believing himself to be only eloquent one more proof of his incomparable genius.MY JOURNEY TO WEIMAR respected housewife. took my hand to lead me into the dining-room. I later became very much attached. they do not belong here. ability. almost a mythological being. The other guests. In the evening I attended the theatre with Chancellor where an unimportant play was being given. were already assembled. I — fectly to tive. Schiller's first Wallenstein. and was now as amiable and cordial as he had recently been formal and cold. lends himself so perstein. and Goethe. and I went to Goethe. tion. who had become for me the embodiment of German Poetry and. I honored and. because of the immeasurable distance between us. the boy in me manifested . these are reflections for another time. in which. after the first performance. who died when As I quite young. 459 in ami- who vied with her husband I felt myself strongly drawn to the whole family in spite of his rather mechanical disposition. all of them men. In Goethe we find the — figura- exact opposite. However. Graff. and venerated Hummel as the last genuine pupil of Mozart. his characters lose in the actual repHis figurativeness is only for the imaginaresentation. an objective representation. and exclaimed that now for the first time did he understand his WallenMiiller. who is not at bottom very objective. When we went in to dinner. While he is ordinarily called objective and is so to a great extent. thought to myself how much greater might the great poet have become had he ever known a public and real actors! It is remarkable.

Goethe requested me to come morning and have myself sketched. I was therefore directed to Goethe. while the events were still fresh in my memory. but as the accident I had in Berlin made it at first impossible for me to write and later difficult. and. They were done in black crayon by an artist especially engaged for the work. enlivened by him. or. as the guests asserted later. When I arrived the next morning the artist had not yet appeared. besides. The conversation. I cannot recall what he said. This honor was also bestowed upon me. dinner stands out in my memory namely. I sat next to him at dinner and he was more cheerful and talkative than he had been for a long time. for he was in the habit of having drawings made of those of his visitors who interested him. being changed in regular rotation every week. and the matter soon escaped my mind and therefore I retained in my memory nothing but general impressions of what I had almost called the most important moment of my life. Goethe took great pains to conceal my foolish emotion. and the pictures were then put into a frame which hung in the receptionroom for this purpose. However. This deterred me from fill continuing it. I As the next was taking my leave. The cause of his . except a good joke regarding Milliner's Midnight Journal. Only after the lapse of some time did I notice this. rather. Only one occurrence at mined to in . a great gap ensued. who was walking up and down in his little garden. I did begin a diary. even in Weimar. became general. of writing remained. in the ardor of the conversation I yielded to an old habit of breaking up the piece of bread beside me into unsightly crumbs. Goethe lightly touched each individual crumb with his finger and arranged them in a little symmetrical heap. Unfortunately I made no notes concerning this journey. the difficulty I therefore deter- what was lacking immediately after my return to Vienna. But when I arrived there some other work demanded immediate attention.460 itself THE GERMAN CLASSICS once again and I burst into tears. but Goethe frequently turned to me individually. and then I discontinued — my handiwork.

for I had followed fairly closely in his footsteps. a small skull-cap on his white hair.MY JOUENEY TO WEIMAR stiff 461 bearing before strangers now became clear to me. Goethe handling them with reverence. everything relating to his acquaintance with the Empress and the Emperor of Austria at Karlsbad. and again like a father. his head and shoulders. When I complained of my isolated position in Vienna he remarked what we have since read in his printed works. either because he liked the conservative attitude of Austria. We entered the house and I was sketched. He looked We walked up and like a king. my my . which pleased him when completed. had something infinitely touching about it. The sight of him in this unaffected carriage. and finally the imperial Austrian copyright of his collected works. they owed it largely to this stimulating and supplementing reciprocal influence. and . This latter he seemed to value very highly. down. In the meantime the artist had arrived. There was his correspondence with Lord Byron. At last I was most gra- ciously dismissed. In the course of the day Chancellor Miiller suggested visiting Goethe toward evening he would be alone. one could see that the upper part of his body. engaged in conversation. thus in a way praising himself. whence he emerged from time to time to satisfy himself as to the progress of the picture. He mentioned my Sappho and seemed to think well of it. that man can do efficient work only in the company of likeminded or congenial spirits. The years had not passed without leaving some traces. pursued in literary These treasures were wrapped separately in half-oriental fashion in pieces of silk. and hence that forced straightening-up which produced an unpleasant impression. When the artist had departed Goethe had his son bring in some of his choicest treasures. As he walked about in the garden. This he wished to hide from strangers. If he and Schiller had attained universal recognition. were bent slightly forward. Goethe had gone into his room. wearing a long dressing-gown. or because he regarded it as an oddity in contradistinction to the usual policy matters by this country.

later did it seemed to me that there was nothing within the whole range of my intellect worthy of being displayed before Goethe. I had left my poetic talent had com- Weimar pletely exhausted itself. and I had far too much reverence for him to accept his exposition with pretended his approval or in hypocritical silence. I felt that I was far too weak to defend against Goethe the causes of such divergence from his own views. a feeling which was intensified in to the point of actual depression. Goethe's aversion at that time for anything violent and forced was well known to me. the former appear- ing exceedingly crude and insignificant in contrast with the works of my predecessors. Now I was of the opinion that calmness and deliberation are appropriate only to one who is capable of introducing such a wealth of thought into works as Goethe has done in his Iphigenia and Tasso. Not until occur to me that Miiller could not have made the suggestion without Goethe's knowledge. Secondly. Yet there was some method in this madness after all. as I stated before. At the same time I held the opinion that every one must emphasize those qualities with which he is most strongly endowed. it was not until later that I learned to place the proper value upon my own works by comparing them with those of my contemporaries. and these in my case were at that time warmth of feeling and vividness of imagination. especially here in the home of German poetry. Several elements combined to produce this fear. It seemed to me an utterly unworthy proceeding to fill Goethe's ears with lamentations and to listen to words of encouragement for which there seemed to be no guarantee of fulfilment. I was afraid to be alone with Goethe for an entire evening. the viewpoint of impartial observation. At all events I did not go. In the first place.462 visit THE GERMAN CLASSICS would by no means be unwelcome it to him. He had good cause to feel astonished that I should display . and that displeased Goethe. as I then did. Vienna with the feeling that Finally. and after considerable vacillation decided not to go. Occupying. Now I committed my second blunder in Weimar.

On one of these days I was also commanded to appear before the grand duke. which were repugnant to him. 463 such indifference to the proffered opportunity of enlightening him concerning my works and myself or else he came nearer to the truth. and my description of Austrian conditions seemed to interest him. character was bound to ruin even a great talent. indeed. and gratitude. especially with goodwill. When . whom I met in all his simplicity and He conunaffectedness in the so-called Roman House. and imagined that The Ancestress and my predilection for similar effusions. in spite of the gulf that separates me from them.MY JOURNEY TO WEIMAR . for I do consider myself the best poet that has appeared after him and Schiller. That all this did not lessen my love and reverence for him. were not entirely quenched within me or perhaps he divined my entire mood. not he. versed with me for over an hour. Even in later years he did not do me justice. I From that But as far as this unmanliness is concerned. my stay I paid my farewell he was friendly. as have previously done. but somewhat reserved. time on he was much colder toward me. "They. but most of the others. visit to Goethe. Whenever I was able to define the opposing factors sharply to myself in the rejection of the bad as well as in the perseverance in a conviction. But in general it may safely be asserted: Only the union of I character and talent produces what is called genius. I need on the fourth day of scarcely say. hinted at the desire of acquiring my services for the Weimar theatre a desire that did not — coincide with my own inclination. would be glad. Not he. to falling a prey to this weakness whenever I find myself confronted with a confused mass of sensations of lesser importance. I confess. and added that they would all be glad to hear from me occasionally. might even be called obstinacy. and concluded that an unmanly . reverence." then. He expressed astonishment at my leaving Weimar so soon. displayed both before and after this period a firmness which.

a. however. Neither Haydn nor Mozart can be considered as a great character and we miss the note of sublimity in their music.m. was a thinker in tones and often in words. and even had he not written a single note of music [464] .BEETHOVEN AS A LETTER WRITER By Walter R. and their interest in whatever lay outside the musical horizon was very slight. His symphonies are human documents. were as musicians by reason of their sincere and masterful handling of the raw material of music. during his two visits to London. Beethoven. although it often has great vitality and charm. still extant. there is so little depth of thought in their compositions that many of them have failed to live. Their intellectual and imaginative activity was manifested almost exclusively in music. any expression of their personalities. and although Mozart wrote the average number of letters. in writings which can be classed as literature. Although Haydn kept a note-book. and this fact is so significant and so closely connected with the subsequent development both of music and literature that the reasons for such a statement should be set forth in detail. Spalding. In the written words of neither Haydn nor [HE first * Mozart do we find any reference to the poetical and prose works of Germany or of other nations. Associate Professor of Music. nor is there any evidence that their imaginations were influenced by sugFamous though they gestions drawn from literature. from no one of the musicians prior to Beethoven have we received. Harvard University musician to whom a place among the representative masters of German literature may justly be assigned is Beethoven.

Max Kiinger BEETHOVEN .


Goethe. and the lasting vitality in his works is due to their broad human import they evidently came from a character endowed with a rich and fertile imagination. No mere manipulator of sounds and rhythms could have impressed the fastidious nobility of Vienna to the high degree chronicled by con- temporary testimony. this dual activity reaching a sounds Vol. Later.BEETHOVEN we have sufficient 465 evidence in verbal form to convince us that his personality was one of remarkable power and that music was only one way.. a first-hand creator. E. the foremost. and his whole work was radically different from the rather cautious and imitative methods which had characterized former composers. to be sure. It was through the cultivated von Breuning family of Bonn that the young Beethoven became acquainted with English literature. In distinction from his predecessors. for the literature of England surpassed anything which had so far been produced by Germany. A. e. and Mendelssohn. Numerous examples might be cited of men who were almost equally gifted in expressing themselves in either words or musical von Weber. Beethoven was a man first and a musician second. in 1823. though. T. who were merely musicians. when the slavery debates were going on in Parliament. he used to read with keen interest the speeches of Lord Brougham. i. symphony bears witness to his keen interest in the momen- tous political changes of his time and in the growth of untrammeled human individuality. Schumann. Hoffmann. VI —notably — 30 . of expressing the depth of his feeling and the range of his menta activity. a fact of great significance is the relationship of the arts of literature and of music. Several of his most famous compositions were founded on works of Shakespeare. Beethoven wished to be known as a Tondichter. In estimating the products of human imagination during the last century. and Schiller. from one who looked at life from many sides. and his growing familiarity with it exerted a strong influence upon his whole life and undoubtedly increased the natural vigor of his imagination. and the Heroic 1 . Spohr.

among modern instances. Max Miiller. has shown a truer insight into the real nature of music than any other English writers have manifested. to such men as Heine. d'Indy. or. a highly cultivated musical amateur. whose esthetic principles so deeply influenced Wagner. It is a long step from Goethe. then. at any rate. allusions to music in works of both prose and poetry have become increasingly frequent during the nineteenth century. for they are the direct revelation of a great and many-sided personality and furnish invaluable testimony as to just what manner of man he was too great indeed for music wholly The letters are not to be read for their to contain him. . even in his music. Thus the French Berlioz and St. If the basis of all worth in literature is that the writer shall have something genuine Beethoven's letters are certainly literature. who was both a great dramatic poet and an equally supreme musician. With Beethoven. and Nietzsche. who was entirely unable to grasp the meaning of Beethoven's symphonies. together with Shakespeare. and the musical art is no longer considered a mysterious abstraction entirely divorced from the outward world of men and events. The same tendency is manifested by leaders of thought in other nations. To turn to the other side of this duality. various composers and their music. who has made some very illuminating comments on . Saens are equally noted as composers and men of letters the Italian Boito is an able dramatist as well as composer and. as one might approach the letters of Stevenson or Lamb. to say. Schopenhauer. always valued substance more than style. . for Beethoven. and Strauss have shown high literary as well as musical ability. To these names should be added that of Robert Browning who.466 THE GERMAN CLASSICS remarkable climax in Richard Wagner. Debussy. a musician of considerable technical ability. music ceases to be an opportunity for the display of mere abstract skill and takes its place on an equality with the arts of poetry and painting as a means of intense personal expression. — felicity of expression.

In fact. he committed his thoughts more and more to writing. and numerous passages from the letters give elo- quent expression to an analogous train of serious thought. The immortal power contained in his music finds its parallel in this document. number a most impassioned expression of feeling. In the Will. He who appeals to our deepest emotions commands for all time our reverent alleIn addition to the letters there is an extensive giance. Hector Berlioz. not only for themselves. and which was the basis of his creed for this reason transcends every conception. Beethoven 55. with been a religious man in the truest the capacity to realize the mystery and grandeur of human destiny. but because they confirm in an unmistakable way certain of the salient With Beecharacteristics of his musical compositions. Since he is invisible He can have no form. and had no practise as a journalist or a critic. one modern French musician claims that he had no taste He was not gifted with the literary charm and subtlety of his great follower. and also numerous conversation books. practically for the He must have first time. and undoubtedly left to the world a larger num- ber of letters than if he had been taking a normal part in is the activities of his f ellowmen. thoven we find in instrumental music. All these diary writings are valuable. and with an eloquence seldom surpassed has transformed cold words into living symbols of emotion. a prevailing note of sublimity.) was Sturm's Betrachtungen uber die Werke Gottes in der Natur ("Contemplations upon the Works of God in Nature"). lays bare his inmost soul. One of his favorite books (See letters 1017 and 1129. and from his diary of 1816 we have the quotation God is immaterial.BEETHOVEN ! 467 kept style subservient to vitality of utterance. But from what we observe — ' ' . sense of the term. As his deafness increased after the year 1800 and he was therefore forced to live a life of retirement. Particular attention artistic ven's correspondents and called to the variety of Beethoto their influential position in the and social life of that period.

omniscient. hinges upon the definition of humor. and that the expression of humor in his music something quite different from the facile wit and cleverness of the Haydn minuet was inevitable with him. In fact. In music. even grim. and. In but very few of his great works is the element much . the introduction of this element into symphonic music is generally considered one of Beethoven's greatest achievements. That Beethoven the humorist was closely related to Beethoven the humanist. who looks with sympathetic affection upon the incongruities of human nature. and in a Beethoven scherzo the gay and the pathetic are so intermingled that A are in constant suspense between laughter and tears. the same distinction in each art between wit ' ' scherzo ' ' much and the petty ones. is clearly proved by the — — presence of the same spirit in so many of the letters. at times. . Too stress has been laid by Beethoven's biographers upon his buffoonery and fondness for practical jokes. we know that Beethoven intended these movements to be expressions of his overflowing humorous spirits and the — —broad. The poet Lowell has defined humor as consisting in the contrast of two ideas.468 in His THE GERMAN CLASSICS work we may conclude that He is eternal. A genuine humorist always a deep thinker. of volcanic impetuosity. one who sees sides of human nature —the great traits and there is light and playful. serious. is his own invention. At bottom he was most tender-hearted and sympathetic his nature. Although some modern critics have doubted whether music without the association of words can express humor. is a person of warm heart. humorist. While it is true that if any one listening to the scherzos of the Third and Eighth symphonies asserts that they mean nothing humorous to him no one can gainsay him. and humor all is suggestive term as in literature." tent. omnipoand omnipresent. both the expression and the preception of we humor are social acts. furthermore. as may be seen from the development of this subject by the philosopher Bergson in his brilliant essay On Laughter. a puzzling mixture of contradictory emotions.

. and their perfect balance is the para- mount characteristic of this master. Beethoven's letters. then. All art is a union of emotion and intellect. and its expression ranges all the way from the uproariously comic to the grimly tragic. and as he is said always to have composed with some poetical picture in his mind. Familiarity with the selection of letters here published cannot fail to contribute to a deeper enjoyment of Beethoven's music. closely related to all artistic expression and to the currents of daily life. Just as in Beethoven's works we generally feel that there is something behind the notes. no longer a mere embodiment of the laws of its own being but charged with vital and dramatic import. are to be considered as the first distinct evidence we have of that change in the musical sense which has brought about such important developments in the trend of modern music. for through them we realize that the universality of the artist was the direct consequence of the emotional breadth of the man. Some of his scherzos reveal the same fantastic caprice which is humor found in the medieval gargoyles of Gothic architecture.BEETHOVEN of 469 omitted. so the music of our time has become programmistic in the wide sense of the term.

venture once again to come to the arms of your B. I am thoroughly ashamed for your sake. dear and best one. M. thought-out malice on my part. no storm will be able to shake firm eternal our friendship forgiveits foundations . could you have loved me Could I. I will vouch for it that the pure temple of holy friendship which you will erect on them will forever stand firm no chance event. also for mine. Permission J. C. Trust to the good qualities which you formerly found in him. I recognize it. otherwise. which caused me to act thus . A. FRANZ WEGELER IN VIENNA (Between 1794-1796) My dearest. Ah. so greatly to my disadvantage? Impossible that these feelings for what is great and good should all of a sudden become extinct! My Wegeler. and oh! let me say it myself I was really ! — — always of good disposition. and E. Kalischer. Dent & Co. I do not deserve your friendship. You are so noble. 'tis not so tional. which preseeing the matter in the right light.. then. I have fallen far a horrid picture you have What below you. P. Alas ! my noblest friends. but my vented me from unpardonable thoughtlessness. so kindly disposed. for weeks I have given pain to my best.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS* TRANSLATED BY J. SHEDLOCK NO. thank heaven. and now for the first time I do not dare to compare myself with you. Co. how. Dutton & by Dr. [470] . but. S. New York. 8 TO DR. I scarcely venture to beg you to restore your friendship. in so short a time have sud! denly changed so terribly. Wegeler My only consolation is that you knew me almost from my childhood. You believe I have ceased to be kind! It was not intenhearted. — — — — * A Critical Edition London. and in my dealings always strove to be upright and honest.. my best one ! drawn to me of myself.

"Wegeler do not cast off this hand of reconciliation place — God —but no more I myself come your hand in mine . 1800. no. 28 to the same (The next day) Good Friend Nazerl : You So are an honorable fellow. Oh how ! . Beethoven. and I see you were right. : My Dear. Your Beethoven. and you will give yourself to me full of contrition. to no. pleasant it that you have always remained so kind to me yes. and both of us will blow you up. You will also find Schup- panzigh. How often do I wish you were . My Good Amenda. and shake you so you will have a fine time of it. To what can I compare your is fidelity. your attachment to me. I have just received your letter on my return home. Do and the hangman take all such! Beethoven. circa 1799) not come any more to me. My Heartily Beloved Friend With deep emotion. thump you. you are one of those such as my native country produces.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS ness ! 471 —forgetting—revival of dying. and sue for the lost friend. 27 to the composes j. also named Mehlschoeberl. . who loves and ever will be mindful of you. are the most trustworthy. sinking friendship. Oh. with mixed pain and pleasure. you. (Vienna. no. 35 TO CARL AMENDA AT WIRBEN IN COURLAND Vienna. of all men. come this afternoon to me. June 1. ! ! you and throw myself in your arms. did I receive and read your last letter. n. You are no Viennese friend. You are a false fellow. embraces no. hummel. I also know that you.

You must leave everything and come to me. Since last year he has settled on me 600 florins. six months hence. stood the test. . it * . The latter I have often cursed for exposing His creatures to the smallest chance. I have. which. you have been always in my mind. Already when you were with me I noted traces of it. for I should then hasten to you. ! remains to be seen whether it can What a sad life I am now comto lead I must avoid all that is near and dear to me. pelled and then to be among such wretched egotistical beings as I can say that among all Lichnowski has best etc. I have duly received all your letters. forte playing. I must now have recourse to sad resignation. for your Beethoven is most unhappy and at strife with nature and the Creator. my sense of hearing. I must in all things be behindhand. it is true. together with the good sale of my works. his infirmity. I will travel (my malady interferes least with my playing and composition. with my talent and my strength. most only in conversation). As it is. my best years will slip away without bringing forth what. and you must be my companion. I have also greatly improved pianoI hope this journey may also turn to your my advantage afterwards you will always remain with me. * Oh how happy should I now be if I had my perfect hearing. has become very weak. do not refuse help your friend to bear with his trou. enables me to live without anxiety. but how is it possible? Yes. Yes. Only think that the noblest part of me. and * * ever be healed. my malady is beyond cure. I can sell immediately five times over. then I lay claim to your help. Now it has become worse. and I said nothing. I ought to have accomplished. resolved not to worry about all this. if. I am convinced good fortune will not fail me. so that frequently the richest buds are thereby crushed and destroyed. and although I have answered only a few. ! ! Amenda. and also be well paid. .472 THE GERMAN CLASSICS with me. bles. Everything I write. With whom need I be afraid of measuring my strength? Since you went away I have written music of all kinds except operas and sacred works.

your letters. 45 v. my Do write frequently. Thus is it for me with thee. as you will see I have only just learnt how to write quartets properly. what an unworthy waste of time in such matters why this deep sorrow where necessity speaks Can our love endure otherwise than through sacrifices. My All.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS and 473 heart. of course. not being wholly thine? Oh! gaze at nature in all its beauty. with it. truly loving. I need not. only thou so easily forgettest that I must live for myself and for thee were we wholly united thou wouldst feel this painful fact as little as I should my journey was terrible. console me. but that only spurred me on and I was wrong. Don't lend out my Quartet any more. and calmly accept the inevitable rightly so. my dear friend. they frightened me with a wood. My Very Just a few words today. 1801. and indeed in pencil with thine only till tomorrow is my room definitely engaged. the — — — — — . no. remind you to address yourself first to Now. in the morning — Angel. because I have made many changes in it. trust no one. do me good. beats tenderly for you. farewell If perchance you becan show you any kindness here. whoever it may be. and Self : My — — ! love demands everything. as always. I expect soon to get another one from you. friend. my dear good ! lieve that I Your faithful. for thee with me. can I. I arrived here only yesterday morning at four o'clock. L. the coach must needs break down. and as they were short of horses the mail-coach selected another route but what an awful road! At the last stage but one I was warned against traveling by night. to countess giulietta guicciardi On the 6th July. Beethoven. through restraint in longing? Canst thou help not being wholly mine. however short they may be. Please keep as a great secret what I have told you about my hearing. when you receive them.

Now for a quick change from without to within we — probably soon see each other. Thursdays the only days when the post goes from here to K. . true. us must be and Thy faithful Ludwig. 6. firm as heaven's dearest love ! I — — ! . — ! — vault . by the ordinary road. My heart is full of many things I have to say to thee ah. July Thou sufferest. Thou sufferest ah. a swamp. God so near! so far! Our love is it not a true heavenly edifice. where I am. Monday Evening. which I little deserve. besides. there are moments in which I feel that speech is powerless Cheer up shall — — ! — remain my be. thou have just found my out that the letters must be posted very early Mondays. what am I and what is He who is named the Greatest and still this again shows the divine in man. rest The gods must send the ought to my —what for all ! ! ! as I* to thee. Goodnight! As I am taking the baths I must go to bed [two words scratched through]. today I cannot tell thee what has been passing through my mind during the past few days concerning my life were our hearts closely united I should not do things of this kind. art thou also with me I will arrange for myself and Thee I will manage so that I can live with thee and what a life But as it is without thee Persecuted here and there by the kindness of men. my only treasure. Esterhazi. my love for thee is stronger but never conceal thy thoughts from me. met with the same fate with eight horses as I with four yet it gave me some — pleasure. Humility of man toward man it pains me and when I think of myself in connection with the universe. without the postillions I had with me I should have stuck on the way. as successfully overcoming any difficulty always does. However much thou lovest me. and as little care to deserve. I weep when I think that probably thou wilt get the first news from me only on Saturday evening.474 THE GERMAN CLASSICS road being dreadful. a mere country road. ! ! ! — ! ! ! — — — .

rendered worse by unintelligent physicians. Yes. at moments with joy. be calm love me in bed. or cynical. Beloved . I have been in a wretched condition. steady life but is that possible in our situation? My Angel. it must be so. From childhood onward. so that you may receive the letter without delay. never misjudge the faithful heart life all my thoughts my One. deceived from year to year with hopes of improvement. stubborn. Calm thyself. unfortunately. I can send my soul into the kingdom of spirits. Either I must live wholly with thee. how unjust are ye towards me! You do not know the secret cause of my seeming so. 55 to his brothers carl and beethoven ye men who regard or declare me to be malignant. and I must therefore stop. ! ! — — — — . no. I have just heard that the post goes every day. Yes.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS Good morning. one of the unhappiest of men at my age I need a quiet. Be calm only by calm consideration of our existence can we attain our aim to live together. never never O God why must one part from what one so loves and yet my life in V. on July While still 475 7. continue love my me — never. and all the more since thou knowest my faithfulness toward thee Never can another possess my heart. and then again with sorrow. at present is a wretched life! Thy love has made me one of the happiest and. I have resolved to wander in distant lands. But only think that. press to thee. ever thine. L. until I can fly to thy arms and feel that with thee I have a real home with thee encircling me about. ever each other's. at the same time. waiting to see whether fate will take pity on us. — — — to Of Thy Beloved Ever thine. or not at all. and I was ever inclined to accomplish great deeds. and then finally forced to the prospect of . my heart and mind prompted me to be kind and tender. —what tearful longing after thee — thee today— — —thee—yesterday my —farewell! Oh. during the last six years.

shout. — indeed. If I approach near to people. . when some one standing close to me heard a distant flute. I have done so lasting. he almost fell in with my present frame of mind. therefore. At times. fiery. My misfortune pains me doubly in that I am certain to be misunderstood. I must choose as my guide. Alas how could I declare the weakness of a sense which in me ought to be more acute than in others a sense which formerly I possessed in highest perfection. active temperament. or a shepherd singing. a feeling of hot anxiety comes over ticed — for me lest my condition should be no- so it was during these past six months which I spent in the country. Oh ! it seemed as if I could not quit this earth until I had produced all I felt within me. I hope. and again I heard nothing. but how harshly was I driven back by the redoubled experience of my bad hearing Yet it was not possible for me to say to men: Speak louder. when I would willingly mix with you. will be my resolution to bear up — until it pleases the inexorable Parcae to break the thread. and so I continued this wretched life wretched. For me there can be no recreation in the society of my fellow creatures. and mixing in ! ! — society only when absolutely necessary. no refined conversations. Patience.476 THE GERMAN CLASSICS may last for years. and with so sensitive a body that a somewhat sudden change can throw me from the best into the worst state. . even. if you see me withdraw. although many a time I was carried away by my sociable inclinations. a perfection such as few in my profession enjoy or ever have enjoyed. or lasting infirmity (which even be to- tally incurable). I am told. and I heard nothing. Almost alone. to live a solitary life. I cannot do it. even susceptive of the diversions of society. But how humili- ating was it. no interchange of thought. no. Forgive. I had soon to retire from the world. Ordered by my intelligent physician to spare my hearing as much as possible. Born with a I endeavored to forget all this. Such incidents almost drove me to despair at times I was on the point of putting an end to my life —art alone restrained my hand. I am compelled to live as an exile. for I am deaf.

but let no strife arise between you concerning them if money should be of more service to you. if he be still living. lookest down into my in- most soul. ! hard fate notwithstanding. in it is 477 my year. even when lying in my grave. my — . And you. next to my art.. to describe my malady. and love one another. I especially thank you for the attachment you have shown toward me of late. long been forgiven. and annex this written account to that of my illness. How happy I feel. should much like one of you to keep as an heirloom the in- struments given to me by Prince L. has still done everything in his power to be received into the ranks of worthy artists and men. my fellow men. beg Professor Schmidt. it will come. And now I declare you both heirs to my small fortune (if such it may be called). Recommend to your children virtue. Farewell. as you know. Thou who . less troubled by cares. prayer is that your life may My be better. it alone can bring happiness. in spite of all obwhich nature has thrown in his way. My thanks to all friends. If it come before I have had opportunity to develop all my artistic . not money. brother Carl. to her. who. when one day you read this. and I should probably wish it later yet even then I soon. just sell them. It was virtue which bore me up in time of trouble. What you have done against me has. Thou understandest Thou knowest that love for mankind and a desire to do good dwell therein! Oh. so that at least the world. I joyfully hasten to meet death. Divine Being. and help each other. I speak from experience. than for any one else. than mine. I may be useful to you So let it be. so far self if stacles . may become reconciled to me after my death. not easy— for an artist more 28th to difficult become a philosopher. You. remember that you were unjust to me and let the unfortunate one console himhe can find one like himself. as is possible.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS Forced already. I owe thanks for my not having laid violent hands on myself. I especially Prince Liclmowski and Professor Schmidt. that. my brothers Carl and as soon as I am dead. too faculties. Divide it honorably and dwell in peace.

and you will soon receive it. but since you all went away from here. Why not devote yourself entirely to it you who have such feeling for all that is beautiful and good? Why will you not make use of this. indeed. I hope and have every reason to believe that you are nicely occupied and as pleasantly entertained that you may also think of us. What a difference you will have found between the treatment of the theme I im- — . Your piano is ordered. Farewell. —but I hope not too much. I feel in me a void which cannot be filled my art. in order to show you that I always offer more to my friends than I actually promise.478 shall be THE GERMAN CLASSICS happy. 1802. who has departed. Heiligenstadt. what I promised.. so It would probably be expecttoo much of you. is . This I deserve from you. Be ye so. in our thoughts. still ' ' Who would ascribe anything of the life who takes so easily? Pray do not forget the pianoforte among your occupations. and when I am dead do not entirely forget me. You have such fine talent for it. October no. although lights now and again might awaken me. kind to the lively T. I am very solitary and quiet. or. . in order that you may recognize in so beautiful an art the higher perfection which casts down its rays even on us. even otherwise so faithful to me. had it not been for serious hindrances you would have received more. Ludwig von Beethoven. honored Therese. 136 6. or overrating my own importance. I shall face thee endless suffering? Come courageously. has not been able to gain any triumph. to theeese von malfatti You and (1807) receive herewith. music generally. if ing I ascribed to you: "Men are not only together when they are together even he who is far away. and how to make you happy. for during my lifetime I often thought of you. for will it not deliver me from a state of when thou wilt.

151 — Beethoven. 1808) Dear Marie. most innocent. in the woods. rocks reecho that for which mankind longs? Soon you will receive other compositions of mine. in remembrance forget my wild behavior. so perhaps I shall come early some morning and spend half an hour at your house. Be convinced that no one more than myself can desire to notice that I shall inflict on — — know that your life take no interest in is joyous. I am happy as a child at the thought piness ! of wandering among clusters of bushes. I happen to have an acquaintance in your neighborhood. feelings can often be miscon: . and willingly. same. and it will perhaps be agreeable to you if I send you these works. No man loves the country more than I . prosperous. among trees. translation of Shakespeare? One has much the Schlegel leisure in the country. trees. you the shortest ennui. in which you will not have to complain much about difficulties. honored T. rocks. and be off again. your mother. I wish you Keep me. likewise. It would really be very nice on your part to send a few lines to say in what way I can be of service here. for do not forests.BEETHOVEN'S LETTEES 479 provised one evening.B. you Your most devoted servant and me N. although I can claim no right for so doing and the Farewell. Dear Bigot Only with the deepest regret am I forced to perceive that the purest. Commend me to the good wishes of your father. to cousin MM. and the way in which I recently wrote it down for you! Explain that to yourself. but don't take too much punch to help you. to the bigots (Probably Summer. herbs. Have you read Goethe's Wilhelm Meister. even though friend. to be I cannot enjoy that hapable to go so soon to the country until the 8th. no. How lucky you are. all that is good and beautiful in life.

As you have received me so kindly. when I further declared that I attached great value to your not declining. it never occurred to me to explain it otherwise than that you bestow on me your friendship. I do displeases him. When I said . THE GEEMAN CLASSICS me — and life. and if anystraint. Never by such a relationship (as you suggest) would I fill my breast with distrust against her who may one day share my fate with — so taint for myself the most beautiful. beautiful day. and hate all reI now also count Bigot among them. the — having spoilt this day so bright for me. if you suppose that the civility itself of such excellent persons as you are could lead me to believe that I had at once won your affection. but how can good Marie put such bad meaning on my actions With regard to my invitation to take a drive with you and . — ! day before. it is one of my first principles never to stand in other than friendly relationship with the wife of another man. I was forced to conclude that you both probably found it unbecoming or objectionable and when I wrote to you. it was natural that. I only wished to make you understand that I saw no harm in it.480 strued. friendship demands from him and thing you to tell me so and I will certainly take care not to offend him again. was opposed to your going out alone with me. And so. this was only that I might induce you to enjoy the splendid. I am perfectly natural with all my friends. You must think me very vain or small-minded. by this means almost to compel you to yield to my wish. the purest It is perhaps possible that sometimes I have not joked with Bigot in a sufficiently refined way I have indeed told both of you that occasionally I am very free in speech. if I declared that mistrust on your part or a refusal would be a real offense to me. as Bigot. The matter really deserves careful reflection on your part as to how you can make amends for Caroline. and I thought. I was thinking more of your and Caroline's pleasure than of mine. owing as much to my frame of mind as to the cheerful weather. Besides.

Write to me a few lines. connected with you attracts me. 1809. this was more as a The object was to show you how much everything joke. and 2 German lieder or songs. so that I have no greater wish than to be able always to live with you and that is the truth. 198 all. account to misinterpret the secret of a friend because one cannot at once fathom it that you ought not to do. a sextet for 2 clarihanded nets. Everywhere the picture of you all pursued me it kept saying to me they are so good and perhaps through you they are suffering.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS 481 that you misunderstand me. my sensitiveness and my imagination pictured to me the thought that I had caused you suffering. to see you. Today I am really not well. the most holy friendship can often have secrets. dear Marie. You have deeply pained me. I hastened away. and it would be difficult for me Since yesterday. Perhaps — you could let me have editions of Goethe's and Schiller's complete works from their literary abundance something Vol. so that they may reach you as soon as possible they are presents to you in return for all those things which I asked you I have — for as presents. . to breitkopf and haertel Vienna. thoroughly depressed. over to Kind and Co. never will you find me ignoble. but on that . From childhood onwards I learnt to love virtue and all — — that is beautiful and good. — Your true friend Beethoven embraces you no. August 8. VI — 31 — . after the quartet. but in vain. Dear Bigot. Even supposing there was a hidden meaning in it. your present judgment of me shows that I was quite right not to speak of what you thought to yourself about it. the MusiJc Zeitung which I had also forgotten I remind you in a friendly way about it. 2 bassoons. When I said that something — bad would come of it if I came to you. 2 horns. I went at night to the ball for distraction. but it shall only serve to render our friendship ever firmer. never.

— poor Musici. August 11. one cannot open one 's ears. with the best will. The sextet is one of my early things. to whom one cannot refuse a thing of that sort. here and there . read only in translation. and cannot get away until a well-wishing Galatea puts him again : — into the mighty . at any rate. i. for many. So these (Goethe and Schiller) you have only to shoot out from my whom your literary store-house. the best one can say of it is that it was composed by an author who. which turns round and round. and if you send them to me soon you will make me perfectly happy. which goes out into all the world.. 1810. to which. also Ossian. I myself am a wretched man and yet complain of others! You will I Yes. and. however. Dearest Bettina (Friend!) No finer Spring than the present one I say that and also feel it. Homer. I was quite out of my element. Farewell. was written in one night. has produced better works and yet. such works are the best. unfortunately. e. because I have made your acquaintance. moreover. and send very soon news to your most devoted — Beethoven. sea. but it actually disappeared at sight of you. Those two something comes poets are favorite poets. and all the more so.482 THE GERMAN CLASSICS in to you. Of the 'cello Sonata I should like to have a few copies. no. I would indeed beg you always to send me half a dozen copies I never sell any there are. seeing that I hope to pass the remainder of the summer in some cozy country corner. dearest Bettina ill-humor was quite master of me. was surprised by you at a moment when — . You yourself have probably seen that in society I am like a frog (fish) on the sand. I at once perceived that you belonged to a different world from this absurd one. and I then send to you many things. the latter I can. 220 to bettina beentano Vienna.

Dear Bettina (friend). dearest heart! my heart. ears —a and with your t least our ears know how intelligence. — since I parted from you dear. But I shall surely receive a letter from you? Hope nourishes me it nourishes. have you not. to Goethe about me ? I would willingly hide my head in a sack.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS surely forgive me. will not meet me. beloved Maiden! Art! Who understands it. the best part of these fleeting conversations has been noted down. "Kennst du das Land" in remembrance of the hour in which I made your acquaintance. also on the ramparts but no angel met me who could take such hold on me as you. . which is 483 seen in your eyes. indeed. I also send the other which I have composed . dearest angel. dear. so as to hear and see nothing of what is going on in the world. answers so I have. Then you have written. with your good heart. which so impressed me that I can never forget it. this digression from the key. what bodes the crisis. My ears. Since you went away I have had vexatious hours. to thank my bad hearing that . are a barrier-wall through which I cannot easily hold friendly communication with men. angel! Forgive. in which one can do nothing. So I perhaps could only understand the great. written with my own hand. with whom can one speak concerning this great How dear to me were the few days when we gosgoddess I have kept all the siped or rather corresponded together ! — — — — ! ! little notes on which stand your clever. intelligent look of your eyes. half the world I have had it as my neighbor what otherwise would have become of me? I all my life here send. I must have such intervals in order to give vent to my feelings. What What a oppresseth thee so sore? strange. at any rate. dearest Bettina (friend). else I should have had more confidence in you. hours of darkness. — Heart. very dear. — — — . to natter which lies in your when they listen. unfortunately. because you. untoward life this! I can fathom thee no more. after your departure I roamed about for full three hours in the Schoenbrunner Alley.

who . guiding sun. he feels darkly how far he is from the The true . no. Continue. If. dearest Bettina (friend). Look upon me as your friend.. a mass of business and constant illness must be my excuse. July 17. such a happen to me since my heart has become Write to your most faithful friend. though he may be admired by others. Do not snatch the laurel wreaths from Handel. only address straight here where I shall remain for the next four weeks. there is my home. If you wish. and as the friend of your family. but get at the very heart of it. to write to me. write will Yes. My ! am here for the restoration of my health proves the truth of my excuse. he is sad not to have reached that point to which his better genius appears only as a distant. my dear Emilie. 1812. I will come to you. to your house I know no other excellencies in man than those which cause him to rank among better men where I find this. I would. artist is not proud. do not only practise art. Teplitz. which I do not deserve. . they are not. Ludwig v. goal and. perhaps. If one day I should come to H. for he unfortunately sees that art has no limits. write without hesitation to me. . That I My Dear Good Emilie. send to me what rebel. as yet I other tokens am Your pocket-book of the esteem of shall be preserved among many men. 295 to emilie m. Dear Friend I am sending a late answer to your letter. Mozart. rather come to you and your people than to many rich folk display inward poverty. entitled to them. Haydn. at h. you at any time wish to know something. for only art and science raise men to the Godhead. Beethoven. . dear Emilie. this it deserves. or to Vienna it is all one.484 THE GERMAN CLASSICS me an answer. Beethoven.

and went. where great spirI cannot its make sport of him and set him mighty tasks. We saw them from afar approaching. 485 August 15. Dearest. defile which he was guilty just been Good heavens! Had I been in your company. dear. . tell what ideas came into my head when I made your achis sins in his teeth. Say what I would. which one day will enchant the world when Beethoven has ceased to conduct. after the Empress had first greeted me. of whom we had quaintance. and hang on ribbons of various or- which ders. these grand gentlemen are forced to note what greatness. cast know me. as he has. into the thickest of the crowd. I could not induce him to advance another step. Yesterday on the way home we met the whole Imperial family. the most — beautiful themes then glided from your eyes into my heart. and Goethe slipped away from me and stood to one side. good Bettina! Kings and princes can certainly create professors. If God grant me yet a few years. this is beyond them. buttoned up my overcoat. dearest Bettina. means. 1812. importance. Duke Rudolph took off my hat. A musician is also a poet. Such men must therefore be held in respect. I should have produced works of greater. privy councilors. 300 bettina von aenim to Teplitz. he stood at the side. so I pushed my hat on my head. and titles. and the magic of a pair of eyes can suddenly cause him to feel transported into a more beautiful world. dear Bettina so calls the voice within me which never errs. deeply bowing. When two such as I and Goethe meet. far greater. especially those of toward you. Princes and sycophants drew up in a line. speaking. arms folded. Persons of rank To my great amusement I saw the procession past Goethe. master-minds tower above the rabble.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS no. Even minds can love each . in such as we are. Then I mercilessly reprimanded him. Hat in hand. In the little observatory during the splendid May rain that was a fertile moment for me. but they cannot create great men. then I must see you again.

one of your great admirers (as I also am). Adieu. I will not play to these silly folk. gives me only a moment to offer my thanks for the long time I have known you (for I know you from the days of my childhood)— that is very little for so much. for I have a higher aim. who is leaving here in a great hurry. They are mad on Chinese porcelain. which is recognized in everything. Emotion is only for women (excuse this) the flame of music must burst forth from the mind of a man. April 12. and a very long one. The Empress rehearsed her part with him. in 8 days from now I shall be there. the court goes tomorrow. His duke and he both wished to play some of my music. that is a matter of no importance. who never get over that mania. Everything is allowed to musicians. ! that we wish to be listened to with the intellect been in perfect agreement about everything! The only good thing is a beautiful. me to Goethe. good soul. and in presence of which there need be no concealment. One must be somebody if one ivishes to appear so. Ah my dearest child. nor will I write at public cost any . we have now for a long time . 615 to herr von goethe Vienna. Great heavens. however. I gave my opinion . to THE GERMAN CLASSICS I shall always court yours your approval is dearer than anything in the whole world. The world is bound to recognize one it is not always unjust. that approval affects such men as ourselves and by those who are our equals. 1811. and comforted me. your last on my heart for a whole night. I hope when I get back to Vienna to receive a letter from you. but to both I made refusal. To me. . Your Excellency The pressing business : of a friend of mine. there will be no more performance today. Write soon. how I love you letter lay ! Your sincerest friend and deaf brother. soon. adieu. Beethoven. stupid stuff for princes. for the intellect has lost the whip-hand. hence there is need for indulgence. dearest.486 other. no.

with an inexpressibly deep feeling for your noble creations? You — will shortly receive from Leipzig. spirit. through Breitkopf and Haertel. seeing that I am only in a position to approach you with the deepest reverence. You will easily understand. mainz (Summer. Everywhere poverty of cilia I — —and spirit of purse! Your Ce- have not yet received. for — publishers — and . the music to Egmont. if you only imagine to yourself. indeed friendly. The Overture which you had from my brother was performed here a few days ago. even blame will be profitable for me and for my art. 1017 to b. Your Excellency's great admirer. You are so open and frank qualities which I have never yet noticed in Let us shake this pleases me. was I again through you impressed by it should much like to know your opinion of it. and I received high praise for but what is all that in comparison with the great it. 1824). no. who knows whether I shall not do that in person and soon! I should be glad if you would now at once forward the honorarium for the quartet to Friess. But how could I think of such a reception. with the same warmth with which I read it. Dear Sirs : I only tell you that next week the works will certainly be sent off.BEETHOVEN'S LETTERS 487 Bettina Brentano lias assured me that you would receive me in a kindly yes. that with uncertain copying I have to look through each part separately for this branch has already decreased here in proportion as tuning has been taken up. willingly received as the greatest praise. with which I. schott & son. while here below everything is a mockery — — — — — we the little dwarfs are the highest!!!?? You will receive the quartet at the same time as the other works. Ludwig von Beethoven. Tone-Master above above above and with right the greatest of all. etc. and will be as and set it to music. this glorious Egmont. hands over it.

come tomorrow morning. God alone can be called gracious. The servant I have already engaged only impress on her to be honest and attached to me. everything must from abroad. an innocent and nothing more. Si vous ne viendrez pas vous me tuerez surement. For God's sake. as I see from your newspaper. is still living. 1129 to the copyist eampel (1825) Best Rampel. In greatest haste. do not rush to ! ! — . 1825. we will talk this over in a friendly way no reproaches. Junker. As to considering what is to be done in future. Come at once on receipt of this.488 I just now to me THE GERMAN CLASSICS — want a great deal of money. Only come — come to the faithful heart of your father. greet you heartily. as well as orderly and punctual in her small services. For Heaven's sake. October ! 5. but go to hell with your calling me gracious. do come home again today! Who knows what danger might be threatening you Hasten. 1117 TO HIS NEPHEW CARL Baden. destruction ! You will be received as ever with affection. You need expect from me — my only the most loving help and care. Your devoted Beethoven. no. he was one of the first who noticed me. volti sub. hasten My Dear Son Only nothing further only come to my arms you shall hear no harsh word. and here and there a delay arises through my own fault. for it would be of no use. Beethoven. Beethoven. you. and accepted by. and yet not of shortest standing. Greet him. My brother adds what is necesI sary about the works offered to. NO. — . come Yours. on word of honor.





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