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Rules for the Classification of Pleasure Yachts

Effective from 1 January 2011

Part B
Hull and Stability

RINA Via Corsica, 12 - 16128 Genova - Italy Tel. +39 01053851 - Fax: +39 0105351000 E-MAIL info@rina.org - WEB www.rina.org

GENERAL CONDITIONS
Definitions: "Rules" in these General Conditions means the documents below issued by the Society: - Rules for the Classification of Ships or other special units; - Complementary Rules containing the requirements for product, plant, system and other certification or containing the requirements for the assignment of additional class notations; - Rules for the application of statutory rules, containing the rules to perform the duties delegated by Administrations; - Guides to carry out particular activities connected with Services; - Any other technical document, as for example rule variations or interpretations. “Services” means the activities described in Article 1 below, rendered by the Society upon request made by or on behalf of the Interested Party. “Society” or “RINA” means RINA S.p.A. and/or all the companies in the RINA Group which provide the Services. “Surveyor” means technical staff acting on behalf of the Society in performing the Services. “Interested Party” means the party, other than the Society, having an interest in or responsibility for the Ship, product, plant or system subject to classification or certification (such as the owner of the Ship and his representatives, the ship builder, the engine builder or the supplier of parts to be tested) who requests the Services or on whose behalf the Services are requested. “Owner” means the registered Owner, the ship Owner, the manager or any other party with the responsibility, legally or contractually, to keep the ship seaworthy or in service, having particular regard to the provisions relating to the maintenance of class laid down in Part A, Chapter 2 of the Rules for the Classification of Ships or in the corresponding rules indicated in the specific Rules. “Administration” means the Government of the State whose flag the Ship is entitled to fly or under whose authority the Ship is authorised to operate in the specific case. "Ship" means ships, boats, craft and other special units, as for example offshore structures, floating units and underwater craft. Article 1 1.1. - The purpose of the Society is, among others, the classification and certification of ships and the certification of their parts and components. The Society: - sets forth and develops Rules; - publishes the Register of Ships; - issues certificates, statements and reports based on its survey activities. 1.2. - The Society also takes part in the implementation of national and international rules and standards as delegated by various Governments. 1.3. – The Society carries out technical assistance activities on request and provides special services outside the scope of classification, which are regulated by these general conditions, unless expressly excluded in the particular contract. Article 2 2.1. - The Rules developed by the Society reflect the level of its technical knowledge at the time they are published. Therefore, the Society, though committed, also through its research and development services, to continuous updating, does not guarantee they meet state-of-the-art science and technology at the time of publication or that they meet the Society's or others' subsequent technical developments. 2.2. - The Interested Party is required to know the Rules on the basis of which the Services are provided. With particular reference to Classification Services, special attention is to be given to the Rules concerning class suspension, withdrawal and reinstatement. In case of doubt or inaccuracy, the Interested Party is to promptly contact the Society for clarification. The Rules for Classification of Ships are published on the Society's website: www.rina.org. 2.3. - The Society exercises due care and skill: - in the selection of its Surveyors - in the performance of its Services, taking into account the level of its technical knowledge at the time the Services are performed. 2.4. - Surveys conducted by the Society include, but are not limited to, visual inspection and non-destructive testing. Unless otherwise required, surveys are conducted through sampling techniques and do not consist of comprehensive verification or monitoring of the Ship or of the items subject to certification. The surveys and checks made by the Society on board ship do not necessarily require the constant and continuous presence of the Surveyor. The Society may also commission laboratory testing, underwater inspection and other checks carried out by and under the responsibility of qualified service suppliers. Survey practices and procedures are selected by the Society based on its experience and knowledge and according to generally accepted technical standards in the sector. Article 3 3.1. - The class assigned to a Ship, like the reports, statements, certificates or any other document or information issued by the Society, reflects the opinion of the Society concerning compliance, at the time the Service is provided, of the Ship or product subject to certification, with the applicable Rules (given the intended use and within the relevant time frame). The Society is under no obligation to make statements or provide information about elements or facts which are not part of the specific scope of the Service requested by the Interested Party or on its behalf. 3.2. - No report, statement, notation on a plan, review, Certificate of Classification, document or information issued or given as part of the Services provided by the Society shall have any legal effect or implication other than a representation that, on the basis of the checks made by the Society, the Ship, structure, materials, equipment, machinery or any other item covered by such document or information meet the Rules. Any such document is issued solely for the use of the Society, its committees and clients or other duly authorised bodies and for no other purpose. Therefore, the Society cannot be held liable for any act made or document issued by other parties on the basis of the statements or information given by the Society. The validity, application, meaning and interpretation of a Certificate of Classification, or any other document or information issued by the Society in connection with its Services, is governed by the Rules of the Society, which is the sole subject entitled to make such interpretation. Any disagreement on technical matters between the Interested Party and the Surveyor in the carrying out of his functions shall be raised in writing as soon as possible with the Society, which will settle any divergence of opinion or dispute. 3.3. - The classification of a Ship, or the issuance of a certificate or other document connected with classification or certification and in general with the performance of Services by the Society shall have the validity conferred upon it by the Rules of the Society at the time of the assignment of class or issuance of the certificate; in no case shall it amount to a statement or warranty of seaworthiness, structural integrity, quality or fitness for a particular purpose or service of any Ship, structure, material, equipment or machinery inspected or tested by the Society. 3.4. - Any document issued by the Society in relation to its activities reflects the condition of the Ship or the subject of certification or other activity at the time of the check. 3.5. - The Rules, surveys and activities performed by the Society, reports, certificates and other documents issued by the Society are in no way intended to replace the duties and responsibilities of other parties such as Governments, designers, ship builders, manufacturers, repairers, suppliers, contractors or sub-contractors, Owners, operators, charterers, underwriters, sellers or intended buyers of a Ship or other product or system surveyed. These documents and activities do not relieve such parties from any fulfilment, warranty, responsibility, duty or obligation (also of a contractual nature) expressed or implied or in any case incumbent on them, nor do they confer on such parties any right, claim or cause of action against the Society. With particular regard to the duties of the ship Owner, the Services undertaken by the Society do not relieve the Owner of his duty to ensure proper maintenance of the Ship and ensure seaworthiness at all times. Likewise, the Rules, surveys performed, reports, certificates and other documents issued by the Society are intended neither to guarantee the buyers of the Ship, its components or any other surveyed or certified item, nor to relieve the seller of the duties arising out of the law or the contract, regarding the quality, commercial value or characteristics of the item which is the subject of transaction. In no case, therefore, shall the Society assume the obligations incumbent upon the above-mentioned parties, even when it is consulted in connection with matters not covered by its Rules or other documents. In consideration of the above, the Interested Party undertakes to relieve and hold harmless the Society from any third party claim, as well as from any liability in relation to the latter concerning the Services rendered. Insofar as they are not expressly provided for in these General Conditions, the duties and responsibilities of the Owner and Interested Parties with respect to the services rendered by the Society are described in the Rules applicable to the specific Service rendered.

Article 4 4.1. – Any request for the Society's Services shall be submitted in writing and signed by or on behalf of the Interested Party. Such a request will be considered irrevocable as soon as received by the Society and shall entail acceptance by the applicant of all relevant requirements of the Rules, including these General Conditions. Upon acceptance of the written request by the Society, a contract between the Society and the Interested Party is entered into, which is regulated by the present General Conditions. 4.2. – In consideration of the Services rendered by the Society, the Interested Party and the person requesting the service shall be jointly liable for the payment of the relevant fees, even if the service is not concluded for any cause not pertaining to the Society. In the latter case, the Society shall not be held liable for non-fulfilment or partial fulfilment of the Services requested. In the event of late payment, interest at the legal current rate increased by 2% may be demanded. 4.3. - The contract for the classification of a Ship or for other Services may be terminated and any certificates revoked at the request of one of the parties, subject to at least 30 days' notice to be given in writing. Failure to pay, even in part, the fees due for Services carried out by the Society will entitle the Society to immediately terminate the contract and suspend the Services. For every termination of the contract, the fees for the activities performed until the time of the termination shall be owed to the Society as well as the expenses incurred in view of activities already programmed; this is without prejudice to the right to compensation due to the Society as a consequence of the termination. With particular reference to Ship classification and certification, unless decided otherwise by the Society, termination of the contract implies that the assignment of class to a Ship is withheld or, if already assigned, that it is suspended or withdrawn; any statutory certificates issued by the Society will be withdrawn in those cases where provided for by agreements between the Society and the flag State. Article 5 5.1. - In providing the Services, as well as other correlated information or advice, the Society, its Surveyors, servants or agents operate with due diligence for the proper execution of the activity. However, considering the nature of the activities performed (see art. 2.4), it is not possible to guarantee absolute accuracy, correctness and completeness of any information or advice supplied. Express and implied warranties are specifically disclaimed. Therefore, except as provided for in paragraph 5.2 below, and also in the case of activities carried out by delegation of Governments, neither the Society nor any of its Surveyors will be liable for any loss, damage or expense of whatever nature sustained by any person, in tort or in contract, derived from carrying out the Services. 5.2. – Notwithstanding the provisions in paragraph 5.1 above, should any user of the Society's Services prove that he has suffered a loss or damage due to any negligent act or omission of the Society, its Surveyors, servants or agents, then the Society will pay compensation to such person for his proved loss, up to, but not exceeding, five times the amount of the fees charged for the specific services, information or opinions from which the loss or damage derives or, if no fee has been charged, a maximum of one hundred thousand Euro. Where the fees charged are related to a number of Services, the amount of the fees will be apportioned for the purpose of the calculation of the maximum compensation, by reference to the estimated time involved in the performance of the Service from which the damage or loss derives. Any liability for indirect or consequential loss, damage or expense is specifically excluded. In any case, irrespective of the amount of the fees charged, the maximum damages payable by the Society will not be more than 1 million Euro. Payment of compensation under this paragraph will not entail any admission of responsibility and/or liability by the Society and will be made without prejudice to the disclaimer clause contained in paragraph 5.1 above. 5.3. - Any claim for loss or damage of whatever nature by virtue of the provisions set forth herein shall be made to the Society in writing, within the shorter of the following periods: THREE MONTHS from the date on which the Services were performed or THREE MONTHS from the date on which the damage was discovered. Failure to comply with the above deadline will constitute an absolute bar to the pursuit of such a claim against the Society. Article 6 6.1. - Any dispute arising from or in connection with the Rules or with the Services of the Society, including any issues concerning responsibility, liability or limitations of liability of the Society, will be determined in accordance with Italian Law and settled through arbitration assigned to a board of three arbitrators who will proceed in compliance with the Rules of the Chamber of National

and International Arbitration of Milan. Arbitration will take place in Genoa, Italy. 6.2. - However, for disputes concerning non-payment of the fees and/or expenses due to the Society for services, the Society shall have the right to submit any claim to the jurisdiction of the Courts of the place where the registered or operating office of the Interested Party or of the applicant who requested the Service is located. In the case of actions taken against the Society by a third party before a public Court, the Society shall also have the right to summon the Interested Party or the subject who requested the Service before that Court, in order to be relieved and held harmless according to art. 3.5 above. Article 7 7.1. - All plans, specifications, documents and information provided by, issued by, or made known to the Society, in connection with the performance of its Services, will be treated as confidential and will not be made available to any other party other than the Owner without authorisation of the Interested Party, except as provided for or required by any applicable international, European or domestic legislation, Charter or other IACS resolutions, or order from a competent authority. Information about the status and validity of class and statutory certificates, including transfers, changes, suspensions, withdrawals of class, recommendations/ conditions of class, operating conditions or restrictions issued against classed ships and other related information, as may be required, may be published on the website or released by other means, without the prior consent of the Interested Party. Information about the status and validity of other certificates and statements may also be published on the website or released by other means, without the prior consent of the Interested Party. 7.2. - Notwithstanding the general duty of confidentiality owed by the Society to its clients in clause 7.1 above, the Society's clients hereby accept that the Society will participate in the IACS Early Warning System which requires each Classification Society to provide other involved Classification Societies with relevant technical information on serious hull structural and engineering systems failures, as defined in the IACS Early Warning System (but not including any drawings relating to the ship which may be the specific property of another party), to enable such useful information to be shared and used to facilitate the proper working of the IACS Early Warning System. The Society will provide its clients with written details of such information sent to the involved Classification Societies. 7.3. - In the event of transfer of class, addition of a second class or withdrawal from a double/dual class, the Interested Party undertakes to provide or to permit the Society to provide the other Classification Society with all building plans and drawings, certificates, documents and information relevant to the classed unit, including its history file, as the other Classification Society may require for the purpose of classification in compliance with the applicable legislation and relative IACS Procedure. It is the Owner's duty to ensure that, whenever required, the consent of the builder is obtained with regard to the provision of plans and drawings to the new Society, either by way of appropriate stipulation in the building contract or by other agreement. In the event that the ownership of the ship, product or system subject to certification is transferred to a new subject, the latter shall have the right to access all pertinent drawings, specifications, documents or information issued by the Society or which has come to the knowledge of the Society while carrying out its Services, even if related to a period prior to transfer of ownership. Pursuant and owing to Italian legislative decree 196/2003, the Interested Party declares that it has read the information sheet concerning the processing of personal data published on the society's website and gives its consent to such processing, also for commercial information purposes. Article 8 8.1. – Should any part of these General Conditions be declared invalid, this will not affect the validity of the remaining provisions. 8.2. - In the event of doubts concerning the interpretation of these General Conditions, the Italian text will prevail. Article 9 9.1. – When the Society provides its Services to a consumer - i.e. a natural person who does not act within the scope of his business or professional activity - the following provisions do not apply: art. 3.2. (as far as the Society is solely entitled to the interpretation of the Rules); art. 4.2., (as far as the payment of the fees is also due for services not concluded due to causes not attributable to the Interested Party); art. 5.1. (as far as the exclusion of liability is concerned); art. 5.2.; art. 5.3.; and art. 6.1. (as far as the jurisdiction of a Board of Arbitrators based in Genoa is concerned).

Ch 3.1] refers to requirement 1.2. it is not indicated. Rule Variations and/or corrigenda. Part A: Classification and Surveys Part B: Hull and Stability Part C: Machinery. Fig) and Tables (abbr. 4. 2.2 Cross-references Examples: Pt A.2. from A to E. Rule Variations and Corrigenda Until the next edition of these Rules is published.1 Rule subdivision The Rules are subdivided into five parts. • [3. Except in particular cases. Rule subdivision and cross-references 4. Part D: Materials and Welding Part E: Additional Class Notations Each Part consists of: • Chapters • Sections and possible Appendices • Articles • Sub-articles • Requirements Figures (abbr.rina. Sec 1.EXPLANATORY NOTE TO PART B 1. this list does not include those items to which only editorial changes have been made not affecting the effective date of the requirements contained therein. it is not indicated. • Sec 1 means Section 1 (or App 1 means Appendix 1 ) The Section (or Appendix) is indicated when it is different from the Section (or Appendix) in which the crossreference appears. [3. The effective date of all those requirements not followed by any date shown in brackets is that of the reference edition. Reference edition The reference edition of these Rules is the edition effective from 1 January 2007. 4.2 Item 4 below provides a summary of the technical changes from the preceding edition. 3. paper copies of Rule Variations or corrigenda are not issued. Effective date of the requirements 2. as necessary. Ch 3.2. In general. within sub-article 2 of article 3. 2.1] or Pt A.1 All requirements in which new or amended provisions with respect to those contained in the reference edition have been introduced are followed by a date shown in brackets.1] • Pt A means Part A The part is indicated when it is different from the part in which the cross-reference appears. • Ch 3 means Chapter 3 The Chapter is indicated when it is different from the chapter in which the cross-reference appears. Chapter 1 for a cross-reference to Chapter 1 of Part A. Cross-references to an entire Part or Chapter are not abbreviated as indicated in the following examples: • Part A for a cross-reference to Part A • Part A. Electrical Installations and Fire Protection . App 1. Otherwise. will be pubblished on the RINA web site (www. it is not indicated. [3. Tab) are numbered in ascending order within each Section or Appendix.org). Otherwise. The date shown in brackets is the effective date of entry into force of the requirements as amended by the last updating. Otherwise.

.5. Summary of amendments introduced in the edition effective from 1 January 2011 Foreword This edition of the Rules for the classification of pleasure yachts contains amendments whose effective date is 1 January 2011. with the exception of some modifications already issued with Circular 3585/A effective from 1 January 2010 and with Rule Variation PLCS/2009/02 effective from 1 October 2009. The date of entry into force of each new or amended item is shown in brackets after the number of the item concerned.

RULES FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF PLEASURE YACHTS Part B Hull and Stability Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS STEEL HULLS ALUMINIUM HULLS REINFORCED PLASTIC HULLS WOOD HULLS STABILITY .

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1 Keel connection 46 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 3 .1 2.1 5.4 5.2 1. pintles and stuffing boxes Steering gear and associated apparatus 42 2 Propeller shaft brackets 2.12 5.2 Direct calculations for monohull yachts Direct calculations for twin hull yachts 4 Definitions and symbols 4.5 5.1 1.4 1.1 31 31 31 Equivalents 2.2 5.1 Direct calculations for monohull and twin hull yachts 3.13 Number of watertight bulkheads Collision bulkheads Sea connections and overboard discharge Stern and side doors below the weather deck Hatches on the weather deck Sidescuttles and windows Skylights Outer doors Drawings Ventilation Air pipes Bulwarks and guardrails or guardline Freeing ports 35 Section 2 Hull Outfitting 1 Rudders and steering gear 1.3 5.2 Double arm brackets Single arm brackets 46 3 Sailing yacht appendages and component fastenings 3.9 5.7 5.1 4.1 3.C HAPTER 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Section 1 General 1 2 3 Rule application 1. integrity of hull and superstructure 5.11 5.6 General Rudder stock Coupling between rudder stock and mainpiece Rudder mainpiece and blade Rudder bearings.6 5.3 General Symbols Definitions 34 5 Subdivision.2 4.3 1.10 5.8 5.5 1.

1 5.1 Mooring lines 4.1 50 50 Sailing yachts 7.1 4.1 2.1 3.1 52 52 Metallic tanks 2.1 Windlass 5.2 General Scantlings 3 Non-metallic tanks 3.2 Tunnel wall thickness Tunnel arrangement details 48 6 7 Water-jet drive ducts 6.2 4.1 Chain cables for anchors 3.2 General Working test on windlass 6 7 Equipment Number and equipment 6.4 Stabilizer arrangements 4.3 General Stabilizer arrangements Stabilizing tanks 47 5 Thruster tunnels 5.1 Section 3 Equipment 1 2 3 4 5 General 1.3 General Scantlings Tests on tanks 52 4 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 49 49 49 49 49 Anchors 2.1 Section 4 Non-Structural Fuel Tanks 1 2 General 1.2 3.1 48 48 Crane support arrangements 7.1 5.

6 General Load points Design pressure for the bottom Design pressure for the side shell Design heads for decks Design heads for watertight bulkheads 57 Appendix 1 Side Doors and Stern Doors 1 General 1.1 Primary supporting members and securing and supporting devices 66 66 67 Securing and locking arrangement 6.1 1.1 4.2 5.2 Vertical acceleration at LCG Transverse acceleration 55 4 Overall loads 4.1 General RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 5 .1 Systems for operation Operating and Maintenance Manual 7.2 3.2 1.1 5.5 5.2 2.4 General Longitudinal bending moment and shear force Design total vertical bending moment Transverse loads for twin hull yachts 55 5 Local loads 5.3 General Plating and ordinary stiffeners Primary supporting members 4 Securing and supporting of doors 4.2 4.2 General Scantlings 65 5 6 7 Strength criteria 5.3 General Definitions Symbols 3 Design acceleration 3.3 5.Section 5 Loads 1 2 General 1.1 54 54 Definitions and symbols 2.1 3.1 4.1 3.3 4.4 5.1 Side and stern doors 64 64 Scantlings of side doors and stern doors 3.3 Application Arrangement Definitions 64 2 3 Design loads 2.1 2.

2 8.1 74 74 75 Minimum thicknesses 7.1 5.3 5.2 9.1 71 71 Definitions and symbols 2.2 71 4 Direct calculations 4.4 Primary supporting members Ordinary stiffeners Special cases Calculation of section modulus 9 Corrosion protection 9.1 Application 77 6 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .3 8.2 72 5 Buckling strength checks 5.3 76 Section 2 Materials 1 General 1.C HAPTER 2 STEEL HULLS Section 1 General Requirements 1 2 Field of application 1.3 Characteristics of materials Testing of materials Manufacturing processes 77 2 Steels for hull structure 2.1 2.1 Plating attached to griders 8.2 Premise Definitions and symbols 3 Plans.2 5.1 4.1 3.4 Application Elastic buckling stresses of plates Elastic buckling stresses of stiffeners Critical buckling stress 72 6 7 8 General rules for design 6.1 8.1 9.2 1. calculations and other information to be submitted 3.1 1.

4 Corner joint welding Bilge keel connection Connection between propeller post and propeller shaft bossing Bar stem connections 92 4 Workmanship 4.7 General Butt welding Fillet welding Partial and full T penetration welding Lap-joint welding Slot welding Plug welding 84 3 Specific weld connections 3.3 3.6 Information to be kept on board Material factor k Grades of steel Grades of steel for structures exposed to low air temperatures Grades of steel within refrigerated spaces 3 Steels for forging and casting 3.1 5.2 General Iron cast parts 82 Section 3 Welding and Weld Connections 1 General 1.3 General Steels for forging Steels for casting 82 4 Other materials and products 4.2 5.4 1.1 3.1 3.3 1.1 2.4 2.1 4.5 2.2 1.3 5.1 4.4 Forming of plates Welding procedures and consumables Welding operations Crossing of structural elements 92 5 Modifications and repairs during construction 5.1 6.6 Application Base material Welding consumables and procedures Personnel and equipment Documentation to be submitted Design 83 2 Type of connections and preparation 2.3 4.3 2.2 3.5 1.2 2.1 1.6 2.4 General Gap and weld deformations Defects Repairs on structures already welded 94 6 Inspections and checks 6.4 2.5 2.2 4.3 2.2 General Visual and non-destructive examinations 94 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 7 .2 3.2.2 2.

3 9.5 97 11 Riveted connections 11.1 2.2 Sheet steel keel Solid keel 8 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 8.1 9.1 Section 5 Plating 1 2 Definitions and symbols 1.2 98 12 Sealed connections 12.2 2.1 98 Section 4 Longitudinal Strength 1 General 1.5 96 10 Stiffening arrangement 10.4 10.1 11.4 9.1 100 100 Keel 2.7 8 End connections of ordinary stiffeners 7.1 10.1 2.2 Bracketed end connections Bracketless end connections 9 Cut-outs and holes 9.1 95 96 End connections of primary supporting members 8.3 10.1 99 99 Calculation of the section modulus 4.2 99 2 Bending stresses 2.3 99 3 4 Shear stresses 3.2 9.1 1.2 10.

1 1.3 4 5 Bottom and bilge 3.3 Scope Longitudinal structure Transverse structure 102 2 3 Definitions and symbols 2.3 Bottom longitudinals Floors Girders 4 Transverse type structures 4.2 3.1 5.1 6.1 104 104 Minimum height 2.3 Ordinary floors Centre girder Side girders 103 5 Constructional details 5.1 Side 5.3 101 8 Cross-deck bottom plating 8.1 102 102 Longitudinal type structure 3.2 4.1 3.2 6.1 4.1 101 Section 6 Single Bottom 1 General 1.1 100 101 101 Sheerstrake 4.2 7.1 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 9 .3 101 7 Local stiffeners 7.1 7.2 6 Openings in the shell plating 6.2 1.1 103 Section 7 Double Bottom 1 2 General 1.

2 105 7 8 9 Bracket floors 7.2 Transverse frames Longitudinal stiffeners 4 Reinforced beams 4.2 Arrangement.1 10 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .3 4 5 Inner bottom plating 3.2 Lower brackets of frames Section 9 Decks 1 2 General 1. scantlings and connections Bilge keel connection Section 8 Side Structures 1 2 3 General 1.1 104 104 104 Centre girder 4.1 Bilge keel 9.1 Ordinary stiffeners 3.1 9.2 6 Floors 6.1 6.1 General 108 108 Scantling of brackets of frame connections 6.1 3.2 Reinforced frames Reinforced stringers 107 5 6 Frame connections 5.1 5.1 Side girders 5.1 110 110 Definitions and symbols 2.1 105 105 105 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals 8.1 6.1 107 107 107 Definitions and symbols 2.1 4.

1 Stiffeners 4.1 4.1 112 112 112 112 Symbols 2.1 114 114 114 114 Boundary bulkhead plating 2.2 4.1 Plating 3.1 4.1 6.1 5.1 4.2 112 6 Non-tight bulkheads 6.2 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 113 Section 11 Superstructures 1 2 3 4 General 1.1 Superstructure decks 4.1 3.3 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams Pillars 110 Section 10 Bulkheads 1 2 3 4 General 1.3 Deck plating 3.2 Weather deck Lower decks 110 4 Stiffening and support structures for decks 4.2 Plating Stiffeners RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 11 .2 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams 5 General arrangement 5.1 Stiffeners 3.

3 1.1 3.2 Premise Definitions and symbols 3 Plans.1 118 118 119 General rules for design 5.1 Minimum thicknesses 6.1 2.6 1.5 1.4 1.1 117 117 Definitions and symbols 2.9 1.10 120 General requirements Aluminium alloy hull structures Extruded plating Tolerances Influence of welding on mechanical characteristics Material factor K for scantlings of structural members made of aluminium alloy Fillet welding Riveted connections for aluminium alloy hulls Welded connections Corrosion protection .1 Section 2 Materials. Connections and Structure Design Principles 1 Materials and connections 1.1 12 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 2.1 Application 125 125 Hull scantlings 2.2 117 4 5 6 Direct calculations 4.2 1.1 1.2 Protection against corrosion Rounding-off 124 Section 3 Design Loads and Hull Scantlings 1 2 Design loads 1.Heterogeneous steel/aluminium alloy assembly 2 Structure design principles 2.7 1. calculations and other information to be submitted 3.8 1.C HAPTER 3 ALUMINIUM HULLS Section 1 General Requirements 1 2 Field of application 1.

1 6.1 134 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 13 .4 Definitions and symbols Overall strength Buckling strength of aluminium alloy structural members Section 4 Longitudinal Strength 1 General 1.1 2.1 5.2 2.1 132 132 Calculation of the section modulus 4.2 2.2 6.1 133 133 Keel 2.1 Side 5.3 134 8 Cross deck bottom plating 8.3 134 7 Local stiffeners 7.1 1.1 133 134 134 Sheerstrake 4.1 7.1 Section 5 Plating 1 2 Definitions and symbols 1.3 132 3 4 Shear stresses 3.2 Sheet steel keel Solid keel 3 4 5 Bottom and bilge 3.1 2.2 7.3 2.2 6 Openings in the shell plating 6.2.2 132 2 Bending stresses 2.

2 4.2 Arrangement.1 137 137 137 137 137 Minimum height 2. scantlings and connections Bilge keel connection 14 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 136 Section 7 Double Bottom 1 2 3 4 5 General 1.1 Inner bottom plating 3.3 Scope Longitudinal structure Transverse structure 135 2 3 Definitions and symbols 2.1 Bilge keel 9.1 5.1 3.1 Centre girder 4.1 1.2 6 Floors 6.2 1.1 Side girders 5.1 6.1 138 138 138 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals 8.1 135 135 Longitudinal type structure 3.1 9.Section 6 Single Bottom 1 General 1.1 4.3 Bottom longitudinals Floors Girders 4 Transverse type structures 4.2 138 7 8 9 Bracket floors 7.2 3.3 Ordinary floors Centre girder Side girders 136 5 Constructional details 5.

1 Deck plating 3.2 Weather deck Lower decks 4 Stiffening and support structures for decks 4.1 3.1 140 140 140 Definitions and symbols 2.1 3.2 4.2 Lower brackets of frames Section 9 Decks 1 2 3 General 1.Section 8 Side Structures 1 2 3 General 1.3 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams Pillars 143 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 15 .1 Ordinary stiffeners 3.2 Transverse frames Longitudinal stiffeners 4 Reinforced beams 4.2 Reinforced frames Reinforced stringers 140 5 6 Frame connections 5.1 General 141 141 Scantling of brackets of frame connections 6.1 4.1 143 143 143 Definitions and symbols 2.1 6.1 4.

2 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 146 Section 11 Superstructures 1 2 3 4 General 1.1 4.1 Superstructure decks 4.Section 10 Bulkheads 1 2 3 4 General 1.2 Plating Stiffeners 16 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 145 145 145 145 Symbols 2.1 147 147 147 147 Boundary bulkhead plating 2.1 6.2 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams 5 General arrangement 5.1 Stiffeners 4.1 Stiffeners 3.1 4.2 145 6 Non-tight bulkheads 6.1 Plating 3.1 5.

1 5.1 160 160 160 Definitions and terminology 2.2 2.1 3.2 151 4 5 Direct calculations 4.3 Principles of building Engine exhaust Tanks for liquids 153 Section 2 Materials 1 2 3 General 1.C HAPTER 4 REINFORCED PLASTIC HULLS Section 1 General Requirements 1 2 Field of application 1.1 151 151 Definitions and symbols 2.6 3.4 3.1 2.3 Premise Symbols Definitions 3 Plans.2 6.1 152 153 General rules for design 5.2 3.1 6.7 3. calculations and other information to be submitted 3.3 3.1 Materials of laminates 3.1 4.1 3.2 General Coefficients relative to the mechanical properties of laminates 162 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 17 .2 General Minimum thicknesses 6 Construction 6.8 Resins Reinforcements Core materials for sandwich laminates Adhesive and sealant material Plywood Timber Repair compounds Type approval of materials 4 Mechanical properties of laminates 4.5 3.

1 2.2 169 2 Bending stresses 2.4 General Moulding shops Storage areas for materials Identification and handling of materials 166 2 Hull construction processes 2.4 2.1 6.1 Sheerstrake plating and side plating 6.3 169 3 Shear stresses 3.1 Rudder horn 4.2 2.1 170 Section 5 External Plating 1 2 3 4 5 6 General 1.3 2.1 171 171 171 171 171 172 Definitions and symbols 2.1 2.2 1.6 General Moulds Laminating Hardening and release of laminates Defects in the laminates Checks and tests 167 Section 4 Longitudinal Strength 1 General 1.Section 3 Construction and Quality Control 1 Shipyards or workshops 1.2 2.2 Sheerstrake Side plating 18 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .5 2.1 1.1 Bottom plating 5.1 Keel 3.3 1.1 1.

1 3.3 Scope Longitudinal structure Transverse structure 173 2 3 Definitions and symbols 2.1 7.1 172 Section 6 Single Bottom 1 General 1.2 3.1 4.2 7.3 Ordinary floors Centre girder Side girders 174 5 Constructional details 5.2 8.3 8.1 174 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 19 .3 Bottom longitudinals Floors Girders 4 Transverse type structures 4.1 8.2 4.7 Openings in the shell plating 7.1 1.3 172 8 Local stiffeners 8.1 173 173 Longitudinal type structure 3.2 1.4 172 9 Cross-deck bottom plating 9.

1 Ordinary stiffeners 3.2 Weather deck Lower decks 20 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .2 4 Reinforced beams 4.Section 7 Double Bottom 1 2 3 4 5 General 1.1 177 177 177 Definitions and symbols 2.1 3.1 Side girders 5.1 179 179 179 Definitions and symbols 2.2 6 Floors 6.1 5.1 3.1 175 175 175 175 176 Minimum height 2.1 Centre girder 4.1 Deck plating 3.2 Reinforced frames Reinforced stringers 177 Section 9 Decks 1 2 3 General 1.1 Inner bottom plating 3.1 6.1 176 Section 8 Side Structures 1 2 3 General 1.1 4.2 176 7 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals 7.

1 Stiffeners 4.1 Superstructure decks 4.4 Stiffening and support structures for decks 4.1 4.1 181 181 181 181 Symbols 2.2 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams 5 Tanks for liquids 5.1 Stiffeners 3.3 Ordinary stiffeners Reinforced beams Pillars 179 Section 10 Bulkheads 1 2 3 4 General 1.1 182 182 182 182 Boundary bulkhead plating 2.1 4.2 4.2 Plating Stiffeners RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 21 .1 4.1 Plating 3.1 181 Section 11 Superstructures 1 2 3 4 General 1.

1 Decks 7.1 Watertight bulkheads and boundary bulkheads of the superstructure 8.1 183 183 General 2.1 2.2 2.1 183 184 184 184 185 185 Minimum thickness of the skins 4.1 Bottom 5.1 Section 13 Structural Adhesives 1 General 1.1 187 22 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .2 186 2 Design criteria for bonded connection 2.Section 12 Scantlings of Structures with Sandwich Construction 1 2 Premise 1.1 Side 6.1 1.3 Laminating Vacuum bagging Constructional details 3 4 5 6 7 8 Symbols 3.

4 Planking Marine plywood and lamellar structures Certification and checks of timber quality Mechanical characteristics and structural scantlings Section 2 Fastenings.1 2.3 1.2 2.2 194 2 3 Timber working 2.4 1.3 2.1 1.6 1.C HAPTER 5 WOOD HULLS Section 1 Materials 1 2 Suitable timber species 1.1 2.2 2.7 1.1 1.1 194 194 Protection 3.4 2.3 2.2 1.5 Planking Plywood Plywood sheathed with laid deck Longitudinal planking Caulking 196 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 23 . Working and Protection of Timber 1 Fastenings 1.5 1.1 191 191 Timber quality 2.8 Simple skin Double diagonal skin Double longitudinal skin Laminated planking in several cold-glued layers Plywood planking Double skin with inner plywood and outer longitudinal strakes Fastenings and caulking Sheathing of planking 195 2 Deck planking 2.1 Section 3 Building Methods for Planking 1 Shell planking 1.

bilge stringers 6. beam clamps in way of masts.4 Scantlings of beams End attachments of beams Local strengthening Lower deck and associated beams 204 8 Planking 8.4 Shell planking Deck planking Superstructures .1 212 212 212 212 Keel .1 4.1 Floors and frames 4.Skylights Masts and rigging 205 Section 5 Structural Scantlings of Motor Yachts 1 2 3 4 General 1.2 8.stempost 2.1 5.Section 4 Structural Scantlings of Sailing Yachts with or without Auxiliary Engine 1 2 3 4 General 1.2 Types of frames Framing systems and scantlings 5 Floors 5.4 Beam shelves Beam clamps in way of masts Bilge stringers End breasthooks 203 7 Beams 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.3 8.3 General Arrangement of floors Scantlings and fastenings 201 6 Beam shelves.3 6.1 200 200 200 200 Keel 2.1 8.1 Frames 4.1 Stempost and sternpost 3.2 4.4 General Bottom and side frames Floors Frame and beam brackets 24 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 4.3 7.2 6.1 Transom 3.2 5.3 4.

Lining.1 214 215 215 216 216 Beams 6.1 Shell planking 8.1 Beam shelves and chine stringers 7.1 Thickness of shell planking Deck planking 9.1 223 223 223 223 Steel bulkheads 2. Machinery Space 1 2 3 4 Wooden bulkheads 1.3 Weather deck Superstructure decks Lower deck Section 6 Watertight Bulkheads.1 9.1 Internal lining of hull and drainage 3.2 9.1 Machinery space structures 4.5 6 7 8 9 Side girders and longitudinals 5.1 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 25 .

1 Calculation of the displacement 6.1 227 227 Intact Stability Standards 2.1 Inclining procedure 7.C HAPTER 6 STABILITY Section 1 Stability 1 2 General 1.1 26 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 Pendulums 3.4 Motor vessels Sailing vessels Element of Stability Stability Documents Appendix 1 Inclining Test and Lightweight Check 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 General 1.1 Aim of the Appendix 231 231 232 232 232 232 233 233 Inclining weights 2.1 Lightweight check 8.1 Documentation 5.1 Means of communication 4.2 2.3 2.1 2.

Appendix 2 Stability Information Booklet 1 Information to be included 1.2 General List of information 234 2 3 Loading conditions 2.8 4.9 General Consideration of free surface effects Categories of tanks Consumable liquids Water ballast tanks GMo and GZ curve corrections Free surface moment Small tanks Remainder of liquid 235 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 27 .7 4.1 234 234 Stability curve calculation 3.5 4.4 4.1 4.1 3.3 General Superstructures and deckhouses which may be taken into account Angle of flooding 4 Effects of free surfaces of liquids in tanks 4.3 4.6 4.2 4.1 1.2 3.

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Part B Hull Chapter 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 APPENDIX 1 GENERAL HULL OUTFITTING EQUIPMENT NON-STRUCTURAL FUEL TANKS LOADS SIDE DOORS AND STERN DOORS RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 29 .

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For the same reasons it may be necessary to consider further load conditions specified by RINA in individual cases. significant racking effects are anticipated (yachts with many tiers of superstructure). side and stern doors and helicopter decks. Chapter 5 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of wooden yachts. • marked V-shapes. which appears in the formula for impact pressure. speed or proportions or of types other than those considered in Part B will be given special consideration by RINA. web and floor) have very different cross-sectional inertia.1. not less than 16 m and up to the length as defined in the relevant sections according to the hull material and hull type intended for unrestricted service. • structures contributing to longitudinal strength with large openings. this may be the case in the following situations: • elements of the primary transverse ring (beam. direct calculations are to be performed to check the scantlings of primary structures of yachts whenever. Chapter 1 applies in general to all yachts. to check the primary structures of yachts which have unusual shapes and/or characteristics. the coefficient Fa.2]. in the opinion of RINA.1 Part B of the Rules consists of five chapters and applies to hulls of length (LH) defined in [4. in the opinion of RINA.1. Ch 1. which are to be classed by RINA. RINA may take into account material distribution and scantlings which are different from those obtained by applying these requirements. hull shapes and structural dimensions are such that the scantling formulae used in these Rules are no longer deemed to be effective. non-conventional geometry. provided that longitudinal. Connections between different materials will be the subject of special consideration by RINA. Depending on the loading configurations and on the structure design. such as decks intended for the carriage of vehicles. transversal and local strength are equivalent to those of the relevant Rule structure and that such scantlings are found satisfactory by RINA also on the basis of direct calculations of the structural strength. so that floor and web tend to degenerate into a single element. irrespective of the material used for the construction of the hull.1. Yachts built using a combination of the foregoing materials are subject to the applicable requirements of the relevant chapters.1 Equivalents 2. the following load conditions specified in a) to d) are to be considered. some load conditions as defined from points a) to d) may be less significant than others and. The use of RINA's "Rules for the Classification of High Speed Craft" for the scantlings of the structures of the aforementioned yachts is to be agreed between the yard and RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 31 . In particular. so that the boundary conditions for each are not well defined. 1. Chapter 4 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of yachts constructed of composite materials.1 Direct calculations for monohull and twin hull yachts Direct calculations for monohull yachts 3. Special structures not provided for in these Rules. Sec 1 SECTION 1 GENERAL 1 1. Chapter 2 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of steel yachts. 3. is to be 2 2. The condition in d) is to be checked in yachts for which.2 Loads In general. In addition. the Master is to be provided with a yacht operating manual indicating the appropriate speed for each sea state. also on the basis of equivalence criterion. For each primary supporting member. • presence of significant racking effects (yachts with many tiers of superstructure). Chapter 3 contains requirements relevant to the scantlings of hull structures of aluminium alloy yachts. they may be ignored. 3 3.Pt B. at the discretion of RINA.1. Yachts of unusual form. at the discretion of RINA. By way of example. The vertical and transverse accelerations and the impact pressure p2 are to be calculated as stipulated in Sec 5. are to have scantlings in accordance with the "Rules for the Classification of Ships".1 General Direct calculations are generally required to be carried out.1 In examining constructional plans. In such case. the structures of yachts similar in performance to high speed craft (HSC) may have scantlings in accordance with RINA's "Rules for the Classification of High Speed Craft".1 Rule application RINA before the submission of the drawings for approval and the commencement of the hull. • complex.

generally negligible compared with the stiffness of transverse structures (beams. however. It is therefore acceptable. according to criteria stipulated by RINA. In general. distributed as specified above and acting on the plane of the model itself. for steel structures 2. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. which are equal and opposite to half the vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads. or their presence may be taken into account by suitable boundary conditions. impact pressure is to be considered as acting separately on each transverse section of the model. In cases where loads act in the transverse direction (load condition 3). or when the geometry of the structures gives reason to suspect the presence of high stress concentrations. • outer hydrostatic load in still water. : coefficient depending on the material. the stresses given by the above calculations are to be not greater than the following allowable values. for load condition in still water. In such cases. equal to: fs 1. to examine primary members in this area of the hull by means of plane analyses of transverse rings. the stiffness of longitudinal primary members (girders and stringers) is. Sec 1 calculated as a function of the area supported by the member.3 Structural model The primary structures of yachts of this type may usually be modelled with beam elements. Ch 1. the following boundary conditions are to be assigned: a) Load condition in still water and combined load conditions 1 and 2 • horizontal and transverse restraints. the model adopted is to be three-dimensional and is to include the longitudinal primary members. finite element analyses are necessary. considered in a downward direction. • forces of inertia due to the transverse acceleration av of the yacht. Where a plane model is adopted.4 Boundary conditions Depending on the load conditions considered. if the angle between the two shells is generally less than 135°. at least outside the machinery space.and after-bodies. in way of the keel. grounds for the admissibility of such model are lacking. c) Combined load condition 2 The impact pressure acting on the bottom of the yacht is to be considered.5 Checking criteria a) For metal structures.Pt B. in way of the crossing point of bottom and side shells.0. b) Combined load condition 3 The vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads. the extent of the model is to be such as to allow analysis of the behaviour of the main structural elements and their mutual effects. such continuous elements may withstand transverse deformations of primary rings.1. if the bottom/side angle is greater than approximately 135°. When. the resultants are to be balanced by vertical and horizontal forces. In three dimensional analyses. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. In the case of three dimensional analyses. If they are of sufficient stiffness in the horizontal plane and are sufficiently restrained by fore. 3. On yachts dealt with by these Rules. notwithstanding the provisions above. special attention is to be devoted to the modelling of continuous decks and platforms. • forces of inertia due to the vertical acceleration av of the yacht. in general other than zero. for aluminium alloy structures 1. in N/mm2: • bending stress: 170 σ a m = --------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ fs • shear stress: 90 τ a m = --------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s • Von Mises equivalent bending stress: 200 σ e q. d) Combined load condition 3 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. 3. a) Load condition in still water The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. in general. equal to: The compressive values of normal stresses and shear stresses are not to exceed the values of the critical 32 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1. for combined load conditions 1. : safety coefficient. 3. In general. it is still permissible to examine bidimensional rings.00. a m = --------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ fs where: K f’m : material factor defined in Chapter 2 for steel and Chapter 3 for aluminium alloy.25. distributed on the shells according to the bidimensional flow theory for shear stresses.1.15. the longitudinal distribution of impact pressure is considered individually in each case by RINA. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. In cases where such approximation is not acceptable. special attention is to be paid to the distribution of weights and buoyancy and to the dynamic equilibrium of the yacht. b) Combined load condition 1 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. • horizontal and transverse restraints. floors and webs). the remaining sections being subject to hydrostatic pressure. by simulating the presence of decks and platforms with horizontal springs according to criteria specified by RINA. are to be balanced by introducing two vertical forces and two horizontal forces at the fore and aft ends of the model.

the model adopted is to be three-dimensional and is to include the longitudinal primary members. should some load conditions turn out to be less significant than others. special attention is to be devoted to the modelling of continuous decks and platforms. In such cases. The condition in d) is to be checked in yachts for which. • forces of inertia due to the transverse acceleration of the yacht. 3. which appears in the formula for impact pressure. For each primary supporting member. such continuous elements may withstand transverse deformations of primary rings. The vertical and transverse accelerations and the impact pressure p2 are to be calculated as stipulated in Sec 5. in the opinion of RINA. b) Combined load condition 1 The following are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present.1 General Direct calculations are generally required to be carried out. 3.2 Direct calculations for twin hull yachts 3. to examine primary members in this area of the hull by means of plane analyses of transverse rings. at the discretion of RINA. it may be necessary to consider further load conditions specified by RINA in individual cases. • forces of inertia due to the vertical acceleration av of the yacht. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht.and after-bodies. If they are of sufficient stiffness in the horizontal plane and are sufficiently restrained by fore. to check the primary structures and connecting structures of the two hulls which have unusual characteristics. Ch 1. in accordance with criteria specified by RINA. The condition in c) only requires checking for yachts of L > 65 m and speed V > 45 knots. at least outside the machinery space.3 Structural model In general. In addition. generally negligible compared with the stiffness of transverse structures (beams.2. based on simple models and on the formulae set out in these Rules. • outer hydrostatic load in still water. It is therefore acceptable. In cases where such approximation is not acceptable. In general. the former may be ignored at the discretion of RINA. considered in a downward direction. exceed the allowable limits and the type of structure gives reason to suspect the presence of high stress concentrations. significant racking effects are expected (yachts with many tiers of superstructure).Pt B.2. In cases where loads act in the transverse direction (load conditions 2 and 3). the allowable stresses are defined in Chapter 4. In relation to special structure or loading configurations. d) Combined load condition 3 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. calculated with medium-mesh schematisations. it is still permissible to examine bidimensional rings. detailed analyses with fine mesh are required for areas where stresses. the longitudinal distribution of impact pressure is considered individually in each case by RINA. c) Combined load condition 2 The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. In the case of three-dimensional analyses. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. Sec 1 stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. • the impact pressure acting hemisymmetrically on one of the halves of the hull bottom. the coefficient Fa. the primary structures of yachts of this type are to be modelled with finite element schematisations adopting a medium size mesh. or their presence may be taken into account by suitable boundary conditions. the allowable and critical stresses are to be reduced. In general.2 Loads In general. by simulating the presence of decks and platforms with horizontal springs according to criteria specified by RINA. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. the stiffness of longitudinal primary members (girders and stringers) is. considered in a downward direction. • forces of inertia due to the vertical acceleration av of the yacht. On yachts dealt with by these Rules. In structural elements also subject to high longitudinal hull girder stresses. By the same token. b) For structures made of composite materials. floors and webs). a) Load condition in still water The following loads are to be considered: • forces caused by weights present. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 33 .2. special attention is to be paid to the distribution of weights and buoyancy and to the dynamic equilibrium of the yacht. impact pressure is to be considered as acting separately on each transverse section of the model. In three-dimensional analyses. direct calculations are to be carried out to check the structures connecting the two hulls for yachts in which the structural arrangements do not allow a realistic assessment of their stress level. the following load conditions specified in a) to d) are to be considered. distributed according to the weight booklet of the yacht. At the discretion of RINA. the remaining sections being subject to hydrostatic pressure. the extent of the model is to be such as to allow analysis of the behaviour of the main structural elements and their mutual effects. 3. notwithstanding the provisions above. is to be calculated as a function of the area supported by the member. The conditions in b) and c) apply to the check of the structures connecting the two hulls. in general. The condition in a) applies to a still water static condition check.

measured parallel to the static load waterline. for load condition in still water. on the full load waterline. whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Chapters. c) Combined load condition 2 and 3 The vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads. for aluminium alloy structures : safety coefficient. distributed as specified above and acting on the plane of the model itself.1 Definitions and symbols General 4. measured vertically on the transverse section at the middle of length L. is the distance.2. in metres. measured on the full load waterline from FP to AP. if any.Pt B.00. Ch 1. from moulded base line to the top of the deck beam at side on the weather deck. for steel structures fs • 2.1 The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Chapters. am 200 = --------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s FP where: K f’m : material factor defined in Chap. is the perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline with the fore side of the stem. In ship designed with a rake of keel the waterline on which this is measured is to be parallel to the designed waterline. In yachts with unusual stern arrangements or without rudder the position of AP and the relevant LPP will be specially considered : Maximum outside breadth.1. in m. pulpits at either ends of the craft. in general other than zero. if that be greater. 3. Sec 1 3. equal to: • 1. for combined load conditions • 1. in accordance with criteria specified by RINA. or of L a) a) For metal structures. distributed on the shells according to the bidimensional flow theory for shear stresses. : Length between perpendiculars. measured vertically on the transverse section at the middle of length L. which are equal and opposite to half the vertical and horizontal resultants of the loads. the stresses given by the above calculations are to be not greater than the following allowable values. in metres. is to be balanced by introducing two vertical forces at the fore and aft ends of the model. 3 for aluminium alloy : coefficient depending on the material. : Depth. 4.1 LH Symbols : Hull Length.g. 4 4. b) For structures made of composite materials. equal to: • 1. The compressive values of normal stresses and shear stresses are not to exceed the values of the critical stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Chap. are to be balanced by introducing two vertical forces and two horizontal forces at the fore and aft ends of the model. from the foreside of the stem to the after side of the stern or transom. from the lower side of the bar keel. the vertical resultant is to be balanced by a single force.2. : Foreword perpendicular. 2 and Chap. 3. : After perpendicular. : Scantling length. in m. assumed to be equal to the length on the full load waterline with the yacht at rest. the following boundary conditions are to be assigned: a) Load condition in still water The vertical resultant of the loads. : Load Line length means 96% of the total length on a waterline of a ship at 85% of the least moulded depth measured from the top of the keel. b) Combined load condition 1 A vertical restraint is to be imposed in way of the keel of each hull. or the length from the fore-side of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline.2 4. : Depth. the resultants are to be balanced by vertical and horizontal forces. excluding projections removable parts that can be detached in a non destructive manner and without affecting the structural integrity of the craft.15.2. is the distance. e.25. In structural elements also subject to high longitudi- AP B D D1 34 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .5 Checking criteria nal hull girder stresses. measured according to ISO 8665.0. platforms. Where a plane model is adopted. in m. the allowable and critical stresses are to be reduced.4 Boundary conditions Depending on the load conditions considered. in N/mm 2: • bending stress: 170 σ am = --------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ f s LPP LLL • shear stress: 90 τ am = --------------------K ⋅ f' m ⋅ fs • Von Mises equivalent bending stress: σ eq. Where a plane model is adopted. the allowable stresses are defined in Chapter 4. 2 for steel and Chap. both distributed on the shells according to the bidimensional flow theory for shear stresses. which are equal and opposite to half the vertical resultant of the loads. in metres. is the perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline with the after side of the rudder post or to the centre of the rudder stock for yachts without a rudder post. distributed as specified above and acting on the plane of the model itself. rubbing strakes and fenders. in general other than zero.

where fitted. in metres. 4. measured at the middle of length L. Displacement. limited length and a spacing between the external longitudinal bulkheads less than 92% of the local breadth of the yacht. the length of the above pipe is not required to be more than 400 mm. even where the deck extends for the whole length of the yacht.2 times the Rule frame spacing. 005L In general.2 Superstructure The superstructure is a decked structure located above the weather deck. in metres. Ch1. the lower side of the keel is intended to mean the intersection of the longitudinal plane of symmetry with the continuation of the external surface of the hull. sR. 4.3.3. and below which all openings in the sides of the ship are fitted with permanent means of watertight closing.3 Bulkhead deck (1/1/2011) The bulkhead deck is normally the uppermost complete deck exposed to the weather and sea. measured to the lower side theoretically extended. in metres. to be a pipe of the same material as the bulkhead. where deck and sides extend for the whole length of the yacht.1 Rule frame spacing The Rule frame spacing. Superstructures may be complete. Sec 1 T : T1 : Δ V s S : : : : the fixed ballast keel. Superstructures may be of different tiers in relation to their position in respect of the weather deck. of the yacht at displacement Δ. As a general rule. Maximum design speed. 350 + 0. Watertight doors are generally to be built and tested according to the requirements given in Pt B. extending from side to side of the hull or with the side plating not inboard of the shell plating more than 4% of the local breadth. Web frame spacing. Ch 1.6 Weathertight A closing appliance is considered weathertight if it is designed to prevent the passage of water into the yacht in any sea condition.3 Definitions 5. of the yacht at draught T. if any. where D is the external diameter of the pipe. which has permanent means of closing all openings in the weather part thereof.3. Special consideration will be given in case of yachts with particular design only if the access is positioned as far above the design waterline as possible and its closing appliances are watertight. 5.3. in knots. if necessary. Sec 1. fitted in a way to restore the structural integrity of the bullhead.3. Draft T. and so on. a superstructure deck or another deckhouse. in metres. a 2nd tier superstructure is one fitted on the 1st tier superstructure. to the middle of length L .3 of the Rules for the Classification of Yachts Designed for Commercial Use. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 35 . Details relevant to these devices and their installation on board are to be sent to RINA for approval. 4. In any case. Spacing of ordinary stiffeners. no access openings are to be fitted in the collision bulkhead.3. Details of connection between the above device and nonmetallic pipes will be the subject of special consideration by RINA. An emergency escape of maximum size 500x500 mm may be accepted.4 Weather deck The weather deck is the uppermost complete weathertight deck fitted as an integral part of the yacht 's structure and which is exposed to the sea and the weather. in metres.3. to the top of the deck beam at side on the weather deck. integrity of hull and superstructure Number of watertight bulkheads 5. where sides extend for a length smaller than that of the yacht. as a minimum. A 1st tier superstructure is one fitted on the weather deck. 5 Subdivision. the above device is. spacing of transversal or longitudinal stiffeners is not to exceed 1. Pipes and electrical cable may be carried through watertight subdivisions provided that both water tightness and structural integrity of the bulkhead are ensured by devices suitable in the opinion of RINA. the transom may be accepted as an aft transverse bulkhead.1. when the pipe passing through the bulkhead is non-metallic. having The number of openings in watertight subdivisions is to be limited to the minimum compatible with the proper working of the yacht. or the drop keel. in m.of the fixed ballast keel. In the case of hulls with a drop or ballast keel. having a length of 10 D. of ordinary stiffeners is obtained as follows: s R = 0. or partial.Pt B. 4.1 All yachts are to have at least the following transverse watertight bulkheads: • One collision bulkhead • Two bulkheads forming the boundaries of the machinery spaces. App.1.7 Watertight A closing appliance is considered watertight if it is designed to prevent the passage of water in either direction under a head of water for which the surrounding structure is designed.5 Deckhouse The deckhouse is a decked structure fitted on the weather deck. or of the drop keel. 4.1 4. Draft. 4.2 Openings in watertight bulkheads and decks (1/1/2011) 4. between the full load waterline and the lower side of the keel. as an alternative. in t.

2]. the distances. and not more than 10 per cent of L. accept a distance from the collision bulkhead to the forward perpendicular greater than the maximum specified in [5. the collision bulkhead is to be extended weathertight to the first tier superstructure deck.1] are to be measured from a point either: • at the mid-length of such extension.2 5.2.g.1] or [5.2]. stipulated in [5. Sec 1 5. the part of the collision bulkhead above the water level may be fit- RINA may.Pt B.2. provided that. e. on a case-by-case basis. taking into account the loss of stability due to the free surface.2.1 Collision bulkheads (1/1/2011) A collision bulkhead is to be fitted which is to be watertight up to the bulkhead deck.2.2.2.1] and [5.2 Where any part of the ship below the waterline extends forward of the forward perpendicular.3 ted at a distance less than 5%L from the forward perpendicular (but in any case not more than 300 mm from the forward perpendicular) under the following conditions (see Fig 1): a) The lower part of the vertical collision bulkhead is formed by a step having a height from the maximum waterline not less than 500 mm b) The vertical lower part of the collision bulkhead indicated under the above point a) is fitted at a distance from the fore perpendicular not less than 5%L c) The lowest limit of the collision bulkhead is positioned at least 500 mm from the stem post. or • at a distance 1.4 (1/1/2011) (1/1/2011) The bulkhead may have steps or recesses provided that they are within the limits in [5. This bulkhead is to be located at a distance from the forward perpendicular FP of not less than 5 per cent of the length L of the yacht. Figure 1 (1/1/2011) 50 0 m m 500 mm z (*) 5% L (*) actual position of the collision bulkhead P hAV z 36 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . or • at a distance 3 metres forward of the forward perpendicular.5 per cent of the length L of the yacht forward of the forward perpendicular. 5.2.2. in the event of flooding of the space forward of the collision bulkhead. such distance is to be measured perpendicularly to the stem post profile d) The space of the recess below the horizontal part of the bulkhead until the horizontal part of the step fitted at 500 mm above the maximum waterline is filled with closed cell high density foam e) The Maritime Administration Rules don't contain requirements adverse to the above arrangement.2. in metres. the waterline is not below the bulkhead deck and that. For yachts having gross tonnage not more than 500. 5. Ch 1.5 (1/1/2011) Where long forward superstructures are fitted. In any case it is not necessary that the collision bulkhead is positioned at a distance more than 2 m from the forward perpendicular. 5.2. 5. whichever gives the smallest measurement. compliance with the stability criteria of Sec 6 will be guaranteed. a bulbous bow.

valves etc are to be made of material of the same composition as the pipes or. If the above distance is less than 500 mm a watertight means of closure is to be provided. in general. such watertight means are to be tested according to the requirements given in Pt B. d) Stern and side doors are to be fitted with proper gaskets. 5. Sec 1. and adequate securing devices.3 Sea connections and overboard discharge 5. The filter is to be made of metal highly resistant to corrosion.3. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 37 . the requirements of Appendix I are to be complied with. • 300 mm or more above the maximum waterline. a weathertight means of closure may be accepted. The clamps are to be at least 12 mm wide and are not to be dependent on spring tension to remain fastened. The degree of protection of such equipment may be considered according to the height of installation from the platform and according to the means of protection in order to avoid water spray directly reaching the electrical equipment. above the full load waterline. Sec 1 5. whichever is the greater. 5. The joint location is to be readily accessible and visible at all times.3.5 m. • such hoses are to be secured by means of at least two stainless steel hose clamps at each end. and is to be of substantial dimensions and easy to open. the exhaust pipe material is to be resistant to the exhaust temperature and non-metallic material may be accepted for the entire length. f) Doors are preferably to open outwards. Where a metallic valve is fitted on the side in way of the sea connection. Sec 1.3 Pipes for the discharge of exhaust from the engines leading to the shell without a valve are to be made as follows: • from below the maximum waterline up to 300 mm above the maximum water-line or to a waterline corresponding to a heeling angle of 7°. The wall thickness pipe is to be not less than 5 mm if made of steel.Pt B.2]. 5.0 105 Pa. sea corrosion-resistant and electrochemically compatible with any different materials they may be connected to. App 1. the piping is to be made of corrosion resistant material. In any case a metallic non-return valve is to be fitted on the side of the hull under the conditions of Pt C. Tab 1. Ch 1.2 All pipes leading to the sea and located under the full load waterline are to be of adequate thickness in general metallic. The nozzle diameter is to be not less than 12 mm. as far as practicable. Ch 1. In addition. The means of closure is to be watertight or weathertight depending on the distance of the lower edge of the closure from the maximum waterline. Ch 1.4. and all the doors leading to internal compartments where essential equipment is installed are to be provided with watertight means of closure. Ch 1. When a watertight means of closure is requested.1 Overboard discharges are to be kept to a minimum and located. of material which is electrochemically compatible. If a composite material pipe is fitted the material is to have strength equivalent to that of side laminate or bottom laminate according to the location of the sea connection. When the distance from the maximum waterline to the lower edge of the means of closure is less than 500 mm. and the nozzle is to be applied at a maximum distance of 1. Joints for elbows.3. to be above the deepest sea going condition. 5. where this is not practicable. but no essential equipment is installed in the compartment.4 Stern and side doors below the weather deck Side/shell doors leading to a non-watertight space 5. e) The lower part of each of these openings is. or a watertight compartment is provided in the area where the joint is fitted. The sea connection for the engine cooling system is to be provided both with a grill fitted directly on the shell using a local stiffener and with a filter after the closing valve. c) In any case at the completion of the installation all watertight and weatertight doors are to be checked by a "hose test". The non-metallic materials are to meet the requirements in Pt C. Joints fitted lower than 300 mm above the maximum waterline may be accepted provided that they remain above the maximum waterline and additional bilge suctions and an alarm are fitted in the area where the joints are located. flexible hoses compyling with the requirements of ISO Standard 13363 may be accepted. App 3 of the Rules for the Classification of Yachts Designed for Commercial Use. App 1. b) Electrical equipment installed in the space where the access is provided by means of the side or stern doors is to have a degree of protection of at least IP 54. Tab 1. The hose test is to be carried out at a minimum pressure in the hose of not less than 2.1 Stern and side doors fitted on yachts not more than 24 m are to meet the requirements of ISO Standard 12216 as for appliances to be fitted on area I. [6. Note 1. If such distance is equal to or more than 500 mm.4. galvanically compatible and resistant to exhaust products.2 Side/shell doors leading to internal compartment (1/1/2011) Stern and side doors fitted on yachts more than 24 m are to be in compliance with the following requirements: a) All stern and side openings are to be provided with adequate means of closure. The material is to be suitable to withstand the temperatures reached by the exhaust and in addition reference is to be made to the requirements of Pt B. Ch 4. a weathertight means of closure may be fitted.

5.6.25 LLL. In general. • have non-oval hinges which can be considered as clips. Drawings representing the hatches. 5. (light series) non-opening or opening type. App 3 of the Rules for the Classification of Yachts Designed for Commercial Use. above the full load waterline. • be fitted with gaskets. in Zone B an openable portlight type with deadlight may be fitted. an automatic alarm for open position may be accepted. even where protecting openings giving direct access to spaces below deck. openable portlights with deadlight may be accepted if an automatic alarm for open position is provided. above ISO Standard. to be tested according to the requirements given in Pt B. • 38 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . 5.1 General For yachts not more than 24 m the requirements of ISO STANDARD 12216 are to be applied.6. 5. their position on deck. Zone C: Zone corresponding to the 1st tier of superstructures and above.4. provided that in the compartments a bilge level alarm is fitted connected to the automatic bilge pump. the acceptance is at the discretion of RINA.5. Zone B: Zone above Zone A bounded at the top by the deck from which the freeboard is calculated. in Zone B in general only type B sidescuttles and rectangular windows are permitted. their coamings and their system of closure are to be sent for approval. 5. LLL is defined in item [4. For yachts having gross tonnage greater than 250. hatches are to be hinged on the forward side. Ch1. in Zone C.2 Where the hatches may be required to be used as a means of escape. Discharges are to be provided to prevent the accumulation of water in the normal foreseeable situations of transverse list and trim.6. platforms. • have at least 4 clips of size 600 x 600 mm.1]. their locking devices and their height above the waterline is to be sent in triplicate to RINA for approval.4 Other fittings Recesses for wells.3 (1/1/2011) Flush hatches on the weather deck are generally not to be fitted. • have at least two drains in the aft part leading overboard. • be fitted in a protected location.5% B.5 Hatches on the weather deck 5. type C sidescuttles and rectangular windows are permitted.3 The following requirements apply: • • in Zone A neither side-scuttles nor rectangular windows are permitted. the requirements of ISO Standard 12216 apply.3 Drawings A drawing representing the structure of the side/shell doors.6 Sidescuttles and windows 5. For yachts having length LLL not more than 24 m. Sec 1. a bilge level alarm connected to the automatic bilge pumps is to be provided. with deadlight: Type B. located in positions which are exposed to the action of the sea or inclement weather below and above the weather deck. gangways. Ch 1. the yacht may be subdivided into zones which are defined as follows: • Zone A: Zone between the full load waterline and a line drawn parallel to the sheer profile and having its lowest point not less than 500 mm or 2.5.5.2 Zones for the determination of scantling For the purpose of determining the scantlings of sidescuttles and rectangular windows. whichever is greater. Where they are provided they are to: • be closed at sea. In addition.25 LLL. etc are to be watertight and of strength equivalent to that of the adjacent structures. Greater coamings may be required where closing appliances are not permanently attached. Coamings above the weather deck and deck above are to be not less than the following value: Deck position 1 Deck position 2 Hatch coamings Where: Deck position 1: any position on the exposed weather deck or superstructure deck above forward of 0. for yachts having gross tonnage not greater than 250. Sidescuttles and rectangular windows may be of “nonopening”. without deadlight: Type C. Deck position 2: any position on the exposed superstructure deck or weather deck aft of 0.Pt B.1 Hatches on the weather deck and deck above are to have a strength equivalent to that of the adjacent structures to which they are fitted and are to be in general weathertight. “opening” or “non-readily openable” type. For yachts more than 24 m the following requirements apply to sidescuttles and rectangular windows providing light and air. Alternatively. the securing arrangements are to be operable from both sides.2. 5. In addition. winches. For dimensions bigger than 600 x 600 mm. reference is to be made to the length LH not more than 24 m. Sec 1 5. hatches are.4. Any penetrations for electrical wiring and piping are to ensure watertight integrity. Under the 100 mm 75 mm • • Scantling and arrangements of sidescuttles and rectangular windows (1/1/2009) Sidescuttles and rectangular windows may be classified as follows. in general. depending on their constructional characteristics: • • (medium series) non-opening or non-readily openable type. 5. with enclosed a general arrangement showing the intended use of the compartment which the doors give access to and the machinery and/or sports craft fitted therein.

Pt B. 5. The thickness of toughened glass panes in rectangular windows of other sizes is given by the following formula: b β β a A t = 0.16m2.4 Windows above weather deck (1/1/2009) 200 250 300 350 400 450 For oval sidescuttles.078 A2 . Nota 1: Swing bolts and circular hole hinges of glass holders of opening type rectangular windows are considered closing appliances.54 A .0. they may be omitted. the result of which confirms that the proposed thickness is able to ensure watertight integrity at a pressure not less than 4 times the design pressure of the hull in that zone. Table 1 Thickness of toughned glass (mm) Clear light diameter (mm) Type B sydescuttles (medium series) 8 8 10 12 12 15 Type C sydescuttles (light series) 6 6 6 8 8 8 Where sidescuttles and rectangular windows with surface exceeding 0. performed on a mock-up representative of the arrangement. Deadlights of the non-fixed type may be arranged when laminated glass panes are fitted. The relevant drawings with dimensions of clear opening. and fitted below the weather deck. Different thickness may also be accepted on the basis of a hydraulic pressure test. b β β a A : : : : : RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 39 . thickness of glass and position in respect of the deepest waterline are to be sent for approval. the construction details are to be submitted to RINA. the thickness cannot be assumed less than 15 mm.54 A . Their acceptance will be considered by RINA case by case in relation to their number. All windows and portlights are to be hose tested after installation according to RINA Rules. type and location. 005b β ⋅ p where: p : design pressure in kN/m2 to be assumed 15 kN/m2 for frontal windows and 10 kN/m2 for lateral windows shorter side of the window in mm 0. Deadlights of the fixed type are to be arranged where monolithic toughened glass panes are fitted. Sec 1 For the thickness of toughened glass panes of sidescuttles and rectangular windows.75 for A > 3 : long side of the window : ratio a/b. Ch 1. in addition. tests on mock-ups representative of the arrangement as well as direct calculations for the zone of the side concerned may also be required in order to demonstrate the local structural adequacy. at the discretion of RINA where the glass pane is of the laminated (shatterproof) type with a polycarbonate core of thickness greater than 3mm.17 : 0.75 for A > 3 long side of the window ratio a/b.16 m2 are fitted in zone B. Sidescuttles and rectangular windows with surfaces exceeding 0. however.0. the result of which confirms that the proposed thickness is able to ensure watertight integrity at a pressure not less than 4 times the design pressure of the hull in that zone.6. performed on a mock-up representative of the arrangement. reference is to be made to the equivalent surface area. having surfaces not exceeding 0.17 0. : shorter side of the window in mm : 0.0. see Tab 1. In any case. Different thickness may also be accepted on the basis of a hydraulic pressure test.0. The thickness of the glass for such sidescuttles/rectangular windows fitted below the weather deck is given by the following formula: The required thicknesses of toughened glass panes in standard rectangular windows are given in Tab 2 as a function of the standard sizes of clear light Table 2 Total minimum number of closing appliances of opening type rectangular window 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 8 8 Nominal sizes (clear light) of rectangular window (mm) 300x500 355x500 400x560 450x630 500x710 560x800 900x630 1000x710 1100x800 Thickness of toughened glass (mm) 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 t = 0.078 A2 .16 m 2 may be accepted in Zone B. 015b β ⋅ p where: p : design pressure in kN/m 2 computed at the lower edge of the windows but not less than 20 kN/m2.

5 in the case of acrylic sheets. The sills of these doors are to be in accordance with the requirements set out in [5. The thickness may be determined using the formula in [5.6. 5.5.3 in the case of polycarbonate sheets and 1.6.2 Sliding glass doors Arrangements with sliding glass doors or glass walls are generally permissible only for the after end bulkhead of superstructures.4] assuming for P the value corresponding to 10 kN/m2. can be subjected to liquid pressure are to be made watertight and have scantlings suitable for withstanding the foreseen pressure. The deck plating in way of the coamings is to be adequately stiffened. the requirements of ISO STANDARD 12216 are to be applied. the securing arrangements are to be operable from both sides.8. A mock-up can be deemed representative of a set of glass panes of the same type if they have the same thickness and the dimensions "a" and "b" of each glass pane differ from those of the mock-up by not more than +/. 5.10 Ventilation 5.8 5. performed on a mock-up representative of the arrangement. The thickness of laminated glass is to be such that: t e = t i 1 + t i 2 + … t iin 2 2 2 2 5. The design pressure to be assumed is 15 kN/m2 if fitted in deck position 1 and 10 kN/m2 if fitted in deck position 2.7. For yachts having gross tonnage not greater than 350.7 Skylights 5. when machinery therein is operating at full power in all weather conditions.1]. the result of which confirms that the proposed thickness is able to ensure watertight integrity at a pressure not less than 4 times the design pressure. their dimensions and sills are to be clearly indicated. skylights. Ch 1.1 A plan showing the position portlights. The locking devices are to be the same required for flush hatches (see item [5. The machinery spaces are to be adequately ventilated so as to ensure that. The scantlings of ventilators exposed to the weather are to be equivalent to those of the adjacent deck or bulkhead. The thickness of toughened glass panes of windows of other shapes will be the subject of special consideration by RINA in relation to their shape. external doors and glass walls is to be submitted.6.6. for any reason.10. providing the doors are sufficiently strong. Ventilators which. Sec 1 Different thickness may also be accepted on the basis of a hydraulic pressure test.3]).8. windows. 5. the position of the air intake may be accepted below the 5.9.1 Outer doors Doors in the superstructure's side Doors of exposed bulkheads of superstructures are to be of adequate dimensions and construction such as to guarantee their weathertight integrity.8. The glass used is to be of the toughened type or equivalent.5].4] or [5. 5. For yachts more than 24 m.5 Materials other than toughened glass Where the doors may be required to be used as a means of escape. above all in exposed zones or those subject to high stress.1 For yachts not more than 24 m. The use of FRP for doors on the weather deck other than machinery spaces may be accepted.1 General Accommodation spaces are to be protected from gas or vapour fumes from machinery. 40 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . The height of the sills of doors above the exposed deck that give access to compartments below the deck is to be not less than the following value: Deck position 1 Outer doors Companionways 100 mm 100 mm Deck position 2 75 mm 75 mm Doors on the weather deck to 1st tier accommodation or other spaces protecting access below may have four clips. according to the Manufacturer's specification. skylights fitted on the weather deck may be considered as fitted in zone B and therefore their thickness is to be in accordance with item [5. exhaust and fuel systems. Materials other than toughened glass may be used for sidescuttles and windows above and below the weather deck. an adequate supply of air is maintained in the spaces for the safety and the operation of the machinery.9 Drawings where: te ti n : : : equivalent thickness of the single sheet glass pane thickness of the single sheet in the laminate number of sheets in the laminate. Ventilators are to be adequately stayed. 5.10%. RINA reserves the right to impose limitations on the size of rectangular windows and require the use of glass panes of increased thickness in way of front bulkheads which are particularly exposed to heavy seas. Ventilator openings are to be designed and position with care. The thickness of the sheets may be obtained by multiplying the Rule thickness for toughened glass by 1.Pt B. Yachts are to be adequately ventilated throughout all spaces.

Sec 9. The area of freeing ports is to be located for two-thirds in the half of the well nearer the lowest point of the sheer curve.1 General Air and sounding pipes are to comply with the requirements of Pt C. Handrails are to meet the requirements of ISO STANDARD 15085. The other courses of guardline are to be not more than 380 mm. 5. For yachts more than 24 m the requirements of ISO STANDARD 15085 are to be applied for the strength of the guardline and guardrails structure. but need not exceed 0.1 Stength.12.9 m in height.2 Closing appliances All ventilator openings are to be provided with efficient weathertight closing appliances unless: • the height of the coaming is greater than 4. 5. location and height Bulwarks.13 Freeing ports 5. The height of bulwarks or rails.12 Bulwarks and guardrails or guardline 5. 5. 5.11. in m3. Where the bulwark height is less than 0. guardrails or guardline are to be arranged on exposed decks.004 m 2 per metre of bulwark length for each 0. The stanchions are to be spaced at not more than 2.3 m above the deck if fitted in Position 2. and for an area not normally accessed under operational conditions. Ch 1. the freeing port area is to be decreased by the same ratio. 5.Pt B.11 Air pipes 5. If the bulwark height exceeds 1.003 V where V is the value of the well. or a combination of both. [7].1 m difference in height.13. As a general rule. freeing port openings are to be protected by rails or bars spaced not more than 230 mm apart. the total area A in (m2) of the means of discharge outboard is to be not less than the value given by the formula: A = 0.3 Cockpits and cockpits drainage For yachts not more than 24 m. as far as practicable.07 l Where: l (m) = length of bulwark on one side. provided that the following requirements are satisfied: a) the minimum down flooding angle meets the minimum of the stability criteria b) means are provided to the satisfaction of RINA in order to guarantee the hull integrity.2 Freeing port arrangement Where they exceed 230 mm in depth. For yachts not more than 24 m the requirements of ISO STANDARD 15085 are to be applied. • Yachts having LH equal to or less than 24 m: the requirements of ISO STANDARD 11812 are to be complied with. closing appliances are to be permanently attached to the ventilator coamings. the freeing port area is to be increased by 0. Ch 1. Where this is not practicable. close to the weather deck and in any case are as small as possible 5.11. • the height of the coaming is greater than 2. c) a bilge level alarm associated with additional automatic bilge pumps is to be provided inside the compartments where such ducts are fitted d) the openings are fitted.10.5 m above the deck if fitted in Position 1. is to be not less than 600 mm. they may be omitted and handrails are to be provided.1 (1/1/2009) Any bulwarks or guardrails are to be provided with freeing port openings having dimensions given as follows: • yachts having LH more than 24 m: freeing port area area A (m2) for each side not less than A= 0. 5.2 m. Ventilators are to be fitted with a suitable means of preventing ingress of water and spray when open and to have suitable drainage arrangements leading overboard. The maximum clearance below the lowest course of the guardline is to be 230 mm.2 Height of air pipes The height of air pipes from the upper surface of decks exposed to the weather is to be in compliance with the requirements of Part C. Sec 1 weather deck. recesses and their means for discharge outboard are to be in compliance to ISO STANDARD 11812.13.7 LWL The value given from the above formula is to be corrected for the height of the bulwarks according to the following criteria. Lesser heights may be considered with regard to location and hazards involved.2 m.13. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 41 . For yachts more than 24 m.

steering propellers.the modulus of elasticity of the metal Efc .1].08 + 0. in metres. constituted by: • main steering gear. taking as the value RS for the calculation of e. 1.the bending modulus of elasticity of the composite material.12b. the following formula is to be used for the calculation of V: V = 2.2.7 Rm. of rudder stocks. : 1. enabling control of the yacht in the event of an emergency due to mechanical breakdown of the components of the main steering gear. to be taken not less than 0.2. in mm. b = A/h is to be taken. the minimum yield stress RS is to be taken not greater than 0. is given by the following formula: D T = 12 ( A ⋅ R ⋅ V ⋅ e ) 2 1⁄3 where: A R : : total rudder area. horizontal distance. where b is the width. in m. 5 1. e where L is the length as defined in Sec 1.06 ( H / R ) for type IA or type IB rudders.1]. where: Im .1 Rudder subject to torque only The diameter DT. the value of shear tensile strength of the composite material. with or without auxiliary engine. subject to an inspection of the fabrication procedure and. as in the case of rudders with two bearings (with solepiece) and of space rudders (see types IA. assumed in solid bar and subject to torque only. In such cases. from the centroid of area to the centreline of pintles.2. of the yacht at full load draught. the scantlings of the rudder and the rudder stock will be determined by means of direct calculations to be agreed with RINA as regards the loads and schematisation. where Rm is the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the rudder stock material. where h is the rudder height. The inertia of the composite rudder stock Ic is to be not less than Im/Em/Efc. or equivalent means of manoeuvre. in way of the centreline of pintles mentioned above.2 Rudder stock 1. the loads will be determined either by model tests. a lower value for diameter D T than that obtained as above may be accepted by RINA on a caseby-case basis.2 Rudder stocks subject to torque and bending The diameter DTF. in m2 bounded by the rudder's external contour including the mainpiece. where appropriate. such as fins or flaps.08 + 0. IB and II in Fig) is to be not less than the value obtained from the formula: D TF = K ⋅ D T 1. The "steering gear" of a yacht means all apparatus and devices necessary for the operation of the rudder. In no case is such value to be reduced by more than 10%. In the case of sailing yachts. However.1. Sec 2 SECTION 2 HULL OUTFITTING 1 1. of the rudder stock. designed to ensure control of the yacht at the maximum navigational speed. In general. The diameter of rudder stocks made of composite materials may be derived using the above formulae. 3 L 0.2. • auxiliary steering gear. 42 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . in mm. The acceptance of rudder stocks made of composite material is. of rudder stocks subject to torque and bending. in metres. as defined and calculated in [1. in knots. the diameter DT is not to be taken less than 20 e1/3.Pt B. in any event.1 These requirements apply to ordinary profile rudders without any special arrangement for increasing the rudder force. or using recognised theories. etc. for rudders with non-rectangular contours. Ch 1. in mm. or by measurements taken on similar yachts. of the rudder. in mm. if the latter has a rectangular contour. : 235/RS. where: DT K : diameter.the inertia of the Rule metal rudder stock Em . For rudder stocks made of material which is more corrosion resistant than mild steels. The stresses in N/mm2 are not to be greater than the following: • torsional stress = 70/e • Von Mises equivalent stress = 120/e as defined in [1. 1. Unconventional rudders of unusual type or shape and those with speeds exceeding 45 knots will be the subject of special consideration by RINA.24 ( H / R ) for type II rudders.1 Rudders and steering gear General V : maximum design speed. to comparative working tests.

5 ⋅ d 1 d G ≥ 0. Sec 2 H : vertical distance. are to comply with the following formula: d2 – d1 ---------------d2 4 4 1⁄3 ≥D and.2 ⋅ d0 and.3 1. which in no case is to be less than 4. in the absence of such coupling. the diameter may be gradually tapered below the upper edge of the rudder blade.2.: dN ≥ 1. whichever is the greater. are to be available on board. Figure 1 1. not less than 0.3]. In cone couplings of type (a) above.3.2.65 ⋅ d 1 t N ≥ 0.1 Coupling between rudder stock and mainpiece Horizontal couplings Horizontal flange couplings between the rudder stock and the mainpiece when not integral are to have: • flanges of dimensions such that the coupling bolts are distributed on a circumference having a diameter not less than 2D or in a similar manner. In cone couplings of type (b) above. in any case.3 Tubular rudder stock Between the nut and rudder gudgeon a washer is to be fitted having a thickness not less than 0.2 ⋅ d 0 Where a tubular rudder stock is adopted.2. for rudders dealt with in [1.13 dG and an outer diameter not less than 1.Pt B.6 dG. in mm. from the centroid of the area A to the lower end of the rudder stock bearing in way of the piece. • bolts of diameter d. d N ≥ 1. 1. where D is as defined in [1. in any case.5 ⋅ d G The diameter of the rudder. 1. its inner diameter d1 and outer diameter d2. All necessary instructions for hydraulic assembly and disassembly of the nut. d N ≥ 1. In this case the Designer is to submit to RINA shrinkage calculations and supply all data necessary for the relevant check. • flanges of thickness not less than the diameter d of the bolts.1]. a key is to be fitted having a cross section 0.60 ⋅ d G d N ≥ 1. whichever is the greater. is to be extended at the upper part to at least 10% of the height of the bearing or to a height equivalent to 2 DTF.2.5 ⋅ d 1 d G ≥ 0.2]. in mm.3. in both (a) and (b) above. The dimensions of the locking nut. are given purely for guidance. b) Cone coupling without hydraulic arrangements for assembling and disassembling the coupling Taper: 1 ⁄ 12 ≤ ( d 1 – d 0 ) ⁄ ts ≤ 1 ⁄ 8 t S ≥ 1.25 DT x 0. in metres.65 ⋅ d 1 t N ≥ 0. and keyways in both the tapered part and the rudder gudgeon.5 ⋅ dG where D = DT.5 Cone couplings of the shape shown in Fig 1 (with explanations of symbols used in a) and b) below) are to have the following dimensions: a) Cone coupling with hydraulic arrangements for assembling and disassembling the coupling Taper: 1 ⁄ 20 ≤ ( d1 – d 0 ) ⁄ t s ≤ 1 ⁄ 12 t S ≥ 1. At the lower part. including indication of the values of all relevant parameters. the key may be omitted. • bolts whose axes are at a distance not less than 1. the determination of adequate scantlings being the responsibility of the Designer. for rudders dealt with in [1. and D = DTF.2 d from the external edge of the flanges. required in way of the mainpiece bearing.60 ⋅ d G RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 43 . • bolt nuts provided with means of locking. where n is the number of bolts. beyond this limit.3 d0 and 1.10 DT. the diameter DTF is to be extended as far as the coupling between the rudder stock and the mainpiece.2 Cone couplings 0. Ch 1.65 D/n . the rudder stock diameter may be gradually tapered so as to reach the value of DT in way of the coupling between rudder stock and tiller.

in way of the connection to the hull. for rudders dealt with in [1. 1. • welded connections complying with the requirements of Chapter 2 for steel rudders. For any lining or welding. in solid or tubular bar. If the rudder stock is lined in way of the trunk bearing (for instance with stainless steel brush). may be accepted except in the case of spade rudders. of the glass reinforcement of the material. where D is the local stock diameter as defined in [1.6 D where: c : 1. when s is greater than 750 mm. • plate with thickness t = 5 + 0.4. aluminium alloy or stainless steel. Sec 2 1.2. is given by the following formula: DA = c + 0. The tapering of any truncated cone-shaped part of the pintle.2.4. the lining is to be shrunk on. the requirements of [1. where V and b are as defined in [1.1] 5.3]. at the root. of the same material. 1.1].5. to be not less than 5 mm. their scantlings will be stipulated on the basis of their characteristics in accordance with a criterion of equivalence. as in the case of rudders with double plating. made of hull steel or light alloy. for which h ≥ 1. in kg/m2. to the section specified for single-plate rudders. a bearing.5. the type of material and the relevant mechanical characteristics are to be submitted to RINA for examination. outside of any lining or welding. complying with the requirements of Chapter 4 and filled with light material. 45 mass per unit surface.2 Plate rudders The following requirements apply to rudders made of hull plates of ordinary steel.4.5 D and 2 D.2 D. and Chapter 3 for aluminium alloy rudders. to prevent water from entering the steering gear compartment and lubricant being washed away from the rudder carrier.6Vb. of the pintles. • internal surfaces protected by painting. a double T or a box structure. designed to prevent the rudder from lifting as necessary.4 Cast rudders For rudders and their stocks obtained by casting. in order to support the weight of the rudder. • • The rudder trunk bearing height h. but in no case less than 1. • drainage hole. 1. 44 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .2 D A. 1. or equivalent device. Double-plate rudders are to have: • mainpiece of section equal. Single-plate rudders are to have: • mainpiece with section equal. m. • thickness t.5 D is required. Z = 7 + 0. in other cases. to be linearly increased with the arm spacing s. or equivalent. in any case. plates of other metallic material.1 Rudder bearings Rudder "bearings" means: • the bearing supporting the radial load fitted at the rudder trunk. otherwise. but in no case less than DA.4.20 ) mm. given by the following formula: t = DT 0 .2. Z = 7:cm3 is to be taken.5.1] apply. is to be 1:6 with respect to the diameter. in particular when stock and plating are cast in one piece. Lower values of h. DT : rudder stock diameter. e. to be taken for the calculation as not greater than 1000.8 (DT. • horizontal arms with solid rectangular section.2. The thickness of the plate is. extended into the blade when the coupling does not exist. in mm. The arms or the webs supporting the blade are to be structurally connected to the mainpiece. and mainpiece arms. Castings with sharp edges and sharp section changes are to be avoided.11 (DT . D : rudder stock diameter as defined in [1.3 Sealing devices In rudder trunks which are open to the sea. in particular: • stock and mainpiece. in mm. the filling of the rudder with light material of expanded type is permitted. and vertical and horizontal webs. including that of upper or lower closing. in mm.3 Rudders with blade made of glass reinforced plastics Such rudders are to have.1].3].5.1 Mainpiece types The rudder mainpiece is formed by the stock. are permitted. m = 0. carrying the vertical load. 1. that at the solepiece and that in way of the stock/tiller coupling. The height of the pintle bearing surface is to be approximately 1. in cm3.Pt B. Ch 1.2. for DT < 60 mm. gradually tapered in the lower half to not less than 50%. • blade made of a single plate or composed of two preformed plates. to that of the stock in way of the upper edge of the blade. Any proposed welding overlay may be accepted subject to the use of a welding process recognised as suitable by RINA. pintles and stuffing boxes 1. or. rudder stop devices.4 Rudder mainpiece and blade • 1. structurally connected to the mainpiece.g. in mm. or equivalent each having.5 Rudder bearings. by a solid or tubular bar. section modulus.20 ). ( 0.2 Pintles The minimum diameter DA. 1. of the plating. is to be between 1. in mm. or equivalent. 7 + s ⁄ 10 ) 3 where: s : spacing of the horizontal webs. a seal or stuffing box is to be fitted above the deepest load waterline. as defined in [1. made of glass reinforced plastics.

⋅ ----------1000 a 3 The parts of such steering gear are to comply with the specific requirements of Part C.6.4 Steering gear with hydraulic or electrohydraulic type remote control The rudder tiller. • the coupling key is to have rounded edges. with the addition of an electric pump feeding the actuator through distributor and gyropilot follow-up link. hydraulic actuator of the tiller and associated piping.5 DT + t. in mm2.17 D T and section area. • section modulus Z. valves and hydraulic pump controlled by rudder wheel. Ch 1. 15 ⋅ -----------. in any case the diameter db is to be not less than 12 mm. given by the following formula: DT a – b Z ≥ 0. 1. of the tiller.25 DT2. Alternative arrangements will be subject to special consideration by RINA.2 Types of steering gear b : The tiller-stock coupling is to be of the type with square section. or with cylindrical section and key.4 DT. or quadrant. length. two separate seals or stuffing boxes are to be provided. in mm. in mm. in particular: • the hub bolts are to have diameter db. 1. in mm. Figure 2 Type IA Type IB Type II RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 45 . in cm3. Chap 1. not less than the value given by the formula: 0. Sec 2 If the top of the rudder trunk is below the deepest load waterline. in mm. in way of the connection to the hub. and the tiller hub is to be bolted. measured from the rudder stock to the point of connection of rope or chain to the stock. is to have: • hub of height h ≥ DT. 5 2n Remote controlled steering gear of one of the following types: • tiller. length. equal to 0. which are dealt with below. where: DT a : : Rule diameter. Sec 10. thickness. 1.6. 1. in mm. and thickness t ≥ 0. equal to 0. in mm. in mm. 0. of the rudder stock subject to torque only. equal to the hub thickness.Pt B.1 Steering gear and associated apparatus Premise These requirements apply to the most commonly used types of steering gear.6.6 1. any different types will be specially considered by RINA in each case. in mm. • the above apparatus. 4D d b = -------------0.3 Steering gear of remote controlled type with rope or chain where n is the number of bolts on each side of the hub.6.

5 Rm a where: l : length of the arm. σR : is the minimum yield strength of the bolt material.5.4 ÷ 0.) but in no case to the plating.2 Single arm brackets 2. Σli is to be measured from the centroid of the bolts on that side to the edge of the keel on the other side. in mm. frames. from the centroid of the ballast.2. Sec 6. measured from the shell plating to the centreline of the shaft boss. Σli : summation of the distances from the centre of the bolts on side of the keel to the edge of the keel on the other side. Sec 6. with appropriate metallurgical temper. of arms. where: dp : 2.1 (1/1/2009) Single -arm shaft brackets are to have a section modulus at ship plating level. It is assumed that the conventional grounding loads are the following: hG RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . In any case when the diameter shaft propeller is calculated according Pt C. If there are fewer bolts on one side of the keel.2. at the bottom of the thread of each keel bolt is given by the following formula: W × hG d = 1. 5 ⋅ 10 d P ⋅ ---------------------------Rm a Rule diameter of the propeller shaft made of steel with ultimate tensile strength Rm = 400 measured inside the liner. : Rule diameter. and converging into a propeller shaft bossing. with a head (or nut and lock nut) at one end and a nut and lock nut at the other. the bolt holes are to be fashioned with equipment designed to achieve an almost complete absence of play between bolt and hole.2. at the root not less than that given by the following relationship: ⎠ ⎞ Boss thickness is to be calculated as for the double arm brackets. The maximum thickness in way of the above section is to be not less than 0. Ch 1.1 Propeller shaft brackets Double arm brackets n dso Rma : shaft revolutions per minute.× 10 –3 × I × d 2 so × ( n × d so ) o. The plating in way of the bracket connection is to be suitably increased and connected to the arm bracket with full penetration welding.4].1.1 (1/1/2011) The typical ratio of the weight of external ballast to light displacement is generally 0. The ballast may be internal or external to the hull. in m.4 dp. to the plane attachment of the ballast to the hull . the connection between bracket and hull is to be carried out by means of welding. It is to be verified that the arrangement is strong enough to withstand the grounding loads. The thickness of the plating in the vicinity of the connection is to be increased by 50%. etc.2. in mm. d being the diameter of the propeller shaft calculated according to Pt C. the connection to the hull is to be effected by means of bolts long enough to incorporate the height of the ballast. Ch 1. Sec 6.1 Sailing yacht appendages and component fastenings Keel connection 1600 + R m a –3 2 A = 87. In the second case. of the propeller shaft. : minimum ultimate tensile strength. Rma of the material of the brackets. In the case of metal hulls and brackets of the same material.1 (1/1/2011) Double arm propeller shaft brackets consist of two arms forming an angle as near as practicable to 90°. The nuts are to rest on plates or large washers and to be left uncovered so that they may be easily examined. and thickness of 0. if any. in N/mm2. in mm. : minimum tensile strength. in mm2. The diameter d. [2.1. 46 ⎝ ⎛ 3. by clips or equivalent means.2 dp and are to be connected to the hull by means of bolts with nuts and lock nuts on the internal hull structures. either wholly or in part. [2. towards the inside of the hull. and the locking of the nuts is to be uniform. such bolts are to pass through the hull.25 d. The surface of the ballast keel head is to be flush with the surface of the hull. in cm3. [2.35 d. the ballast is to be permanently secured. Ch 1.3] as applicable taking in account the effective material mechanical characteristics the boss is to have length not more than 4 d. 5 where: W : is the total weight of the ballast in N . for carbon steel material. In the first case.2. N/mm2. in N/mm2. in mm. the latter are to have thickness not less than 0. Arms having elliptical or trapezoidal section with round fairing are to have an area A. Where are fitted bolts on the longitudinal axis of the keel. : is the distance in mm. of not less than: 30 W = -------. Considering the diameter ( d ) of the shaft propellers calculated according the formula given in Pt C. which are to be suitably stiffened to the satisfaction of RINA.Pt B.3] boss thickness is to be not less than 0. but in no case may a length less than 3 d be accepted. Sec 2 2 2. to the resistant structures of the hull (floors. 2. Σli should be measured from the centre of the bolts to the edge of the keel. When the brackets are connected by means of palms. on which it is never to bear. 60 × ------------------Σli × σ R 0. so as not to shift even during rolling or pitching. Ch 1.2] or [2. 3 3. The brackets are to be continuous through the plating and to be connected internally to suitable transverse or longitudinal structures.

2. Where it is not practical to provide a watertight box. supported by adequately reinforced structures.2 Chain plates 4. the following arrangement could be adopted: a) Single strap design: in this case the chainplates may be fitted internally or externally and by means of bolts. Chainplates are to be generally of mild steel. Bolts are to be galvanically compatible with the other materials and are to be sea corrosion-resistant.Pt B. the bedplates of the various components. the supporting structures and the loads transmitted. If the components are to be fitted to a hull structure in sandwich construction with low density core materials. Sec 2 a) Longitudinal grounding loads acting in the aft direction and parallel to the longitudinal hull axis. washers are not normally fitted on the outside of the hull. Where direct calculations are carried out to determine the diameter of bolts. The box is to be well stiffened.2 (1/1/2011) The shell plating in way of stabilizer fins is to be adequately reinforced.3 Stabilizing tanks 4. 4. are to be arranged in a watertight box with an inspection opening fitted with a watertight cover. Where sloshing is foreseeable the scantlings will be the subject of special consideration. screws or rivets. on account of their appearance. 4.60 Δ (if Lwl < 10 m) b) Vertical grounding load VGL. 3. the hull or deck is to be made watertight with a flexible sealant rather than a rigid resin. 4.70 ηR where: Δ : is the maximum displacement of the vessel. the local hull area is to be replaced with structurally effective inserts in way of bolted connections and fittings.1. washers. the chainplates are to be bolted directly to the bulkhead. Adequately hull reinforcement is to be provided in way of the chainplates.1 Stabilizer arrangements General ηR : is the minimum shear yield stress of the bolts material.1.1 Δ (if Lwl > 20 m) LGL = 1. taking into account the maximum head that may arise in service. 4 4.60 Δ is to be verified that shear stress and primary stress due to the load as indicated in a and b are not more than the value given from the following formula: shear stress < 0. Ch 1. Basically. monel or aluminium. the local area can be replaced with monolithic laminate of the same thickness as the sandwich laminate. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 47 . In the case of fixed type stabiliser fins. The load is to be applied to the bottom edge of the keel LGL = 3. Alternatively. Drawings are to be submitted for approval showing the position.70 ηB primary stress < 0. Where possible.1 The stabilizer fin machinery is to be supported by adequately reinforced structures. The inserts are to be sea adequately bonded to the laminate skins and to the adjacent low density core. These fasteners are to be of a corrosionresistant metal. The chainplate is to be bolted to the bracket. For GRP vessels. adequately insulation is to be provided.1. Many arrangements may be adopted according to the design philosophy. arrangement and efficiency of stabiliser arrangements do not fall within the scope of Classification. 3. stainless steel. Where the chanplate and bolts penetrate.2 Stabilizer arrangements The plates should be ample in size and well fastened to the structure to distribute the loads. Bolts. b) Bracket connection in this case the chainplate is connected to a plywood bracket by means an angle or flat bar chainplate. in tonnes. the degree of locking is to be taken into account and a safety factor ≥ 3. particularly because of the restricted inside spaces. the watertight box is to be at least of the same thickness as the adjacent shell plating.3 Component fastenings Components can be satisfactorily fastened with bolts.1 The tank structures are to comply with the requirements for tank bulkheads. In metal structures.1 The scantlings. nevertheless. which may crack under the strain and result in annoying leakage.5 in relation to the ultimate tensile strength and ≤ 2 in relation to the yield stress of the bolt material is to be applied. the passage to the hull and the components necessary for the operation of the system. the supporting structures and the watertight integrity are to be examined. In the case of internal fittings. the arrangement will be specially considered by RINA.3. the scantling of the watertight boxes and their stiffeners will be considered case by case. acting upward on the bottom of the keel VGL = 1. Where chemically incompatible. 4. in N/mm2. backing plates and fittings are to be of a compatible material.2. the bolts are to have large heads. in tons.

be suitably prepared and have round corners.2]. in general. stiffened and fully integrated with the hull structure. 6.1 Crane support arrangements 7.2. 48 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .2.1. The thickness of these inserts shall be in accordance with the Designer's calculations. in order to avoid concentration of forces.1 Water-jet drive ducts Insert plates are to be provided in the deck in way of the crane foundation. All hull openings are to be adequately reinforced and to have well rounded corners.1 The thickness of the duct is to be in accordance with the Manufacturer's specifications and.Pt B. The water-jet drive supporting structures are to be able to withstand the loads induced by the propulsion system in the following conditions: • • • maximum thrust ahead maximum thrust at the maximum lateral inclination maximum reverse thrust (astern speed). The foregoing loads are to be provided by the water-jet drive Manufacturer and adequately documented.3 The tunnel is to be connected to the plating by means of full penetration welding. in any case the thickness is to be not less than 8 mm.1 Crane foundations are to be designed considering the worst combinations of the following loadings: maximum load capacity. the surfaces of the tunnel and the plating concerned are to be suitably cleaned and prepared and the edges of the cuts are to be sealed with resin.2. 5. in general.4 For tunnels in composite material. The thickness of the plating in the vicinity of the duct entrance is to be locally increased as stated in [5.2 The thickness of the plating is to be locally increased by 50% in way of the tunnel attachment.1 Thruster tunnels Tunnel wall thickness The duct is to be adequately supported. 5. • For composite tunnels: the Rule thickness of the adjacent plating increased by 25%.2 Tunnel arrangement details 5. 5.1 The system for connecting the tunnel to the hull depends on the material used for the construction. and in any case not less than 8 mm. 7 7. Prior to the connecting lamination. Sec 2 5 5.2. If tunnel diameter is less than 300 mm. A drawing of this arrangement with all the forces acting and the detail of the connection to the deck is to be sent for approval. 5. the thickness is to be not less than: • For steel tunnels: the Rule thickness of the adjacent plating increased by 10% (but at least 2 mm).1 (1/1/2009) The thickness of the tunnel is to be in accordance with the Manufacturer's specifications.2. the weight of the connecting laminate stiffener is to be equal to the weight of the bottom plating stiffener. the weight of the crane itself.1. 6 6. The Manufacturer is to assess the need to arrange suitable means of protection at the duct opening in order to prevent the ingress of foreign bodies which may damage the internal mechanism. 5.1. these insert plates are to have suitable dimensions (in respect to the dimensions of the foundation). • For light alloy tunnels: the Rule thickness of the adjacent plating increased by 10% (but at least 1 mm). is to be not less than that of the adjacent plating. and in any case not less than 7 mm. Ch 1. a thickness not less than the Rule thickness of the adjacent plating can be accepted. The stiffener is to be arranged on both sides of the plating laminate.

1 The working test of the windlass is to be carried out on board in the presence of the Surveyor. 4.1 Mooring lines may be of wire.1 Chain cables are to have proportions in accordance with recognised unified standards and to be of the steel grade given in Tab 1. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 49 . 5.7% with respect to that shown in Tab 1. 5. where the wire is wound on the winch drum.1 Chain cables for anchors 5. Where synthetic fibre ropes are adopted. Where steel wires are used. the mass shown in the table is to be multiplied by 1. or in a sheltered area.2 The test is to demonstrate that the windlass works adequately and has sufficient power to simultaneously weigh the two bower anchors (excluding the housing of the anchors in the hawse pipe) when both are suspended to 55m of chain cable. The equivalence between synthetic fibre ropes and natural fibre ropes may be assessed by the following formula: δ ⋅ C RM CR S = 7. even though a smaller diameter could be adopted in relation to the required breaking load. in kN.1. to be assumed not less than 30%.1 General 4 4.1. their size will be determined taking into account the type of material used and the manufacturing characteristics of the rope. rope diameters under 20 mm are not permitted. The first anchor is to be positioned ready for use. When "very high holding power" anchors are used. in not more than 6 min. In poor holding ground the holding power of the anchors will be significantly reduced. The breaking loads shown in Table 1 refer to steel wires or natural fibre ropes. natural or synthetic fibre.2 Working test on windlass 3. It is assumed that under normal circumstances a yacht will use one anchor only.1.2. may be constructed with an independent metal core instead of a fibre core. Ch 4. In such conditions the loads on the anchoring equipment increase to such a degree that its components may be damaged or lost owing to the high energy forces generated. Sec 3 SECTION 3 EQUIPMENT 1 1. the deck in way of the windlass is to be suitably reinforced. elongation to breaking of the synthetic fibre rope.1 Anchors are to be manufactured in accordance with Pt D. : breaking load of the natural fibre rope. the mass of the anchors may be equal to 70% of that shown in Table 1 for stockless anchors.Pt B. The windlass is to be fitted in a suitable position in order to ensure an easy lead of the chain cables to and through the hawse pipes. or a mixture of wire and fibre. 5. provided that the total mass of the two anchors is at least equal to the sum of the masses given in the Table. The equipment is therefore not designed to hold a yacht off fully exposed coasts in rough weather or to stop a yacht which is moving or drifting.1 Anchors where: δ : 2. A suitable stopping device is to be fitted in order to prevent the anchor from shifting due to movement of the yacht.1 Windlasses are to be power driven and suitable for the size of chain cable and are to have the characteristics below.1. Steel wires to be used with mooring winches. When use is made of normal type anchors.1. in kN.1 2. given in Tab 1 applies to "high holding power" anchors.33. chain cables of at least Grade 2 are to be used with "very high holding power" anchors. CRM Where synthetic fibre ropes are used.1 Mooring lines 1. CRS : breaking load of the synthetic fibre rope.1.1 Windlass General 3 3. as well as the different properties of such ropes in comparison with natural fibre ropes. The actual mass of each anchor may vary by + or .1 The anchoring equipment required in 6 is intended for temporary mooring of a yacht within or near a harbour. while the second may be kept on board as a spare. per anchor. Ch 1. The anchoring equipment required in 6 is deemed suitable to hold a yacht in good holding ground where the conditions are such as to avoid dragging of the anchor. Grade 1 chain cables are generally not to be used in association with "high holding power" anchors. 4 ⋅ -----------------1⁄9 C RM 2 2. Sec.2 The mass. they are to be of the flexible type. 5 5.2.

chain cables and ropes based on their Equipment Number EN.list of equipment.1 All yacths are to be provided with anchors. construction. from the summer load waterline amidships to the weather deck height.5m of chain cable and verifying that the time required for the weighing (excluding the housing of the anchors in the hawse pipe) does not exceed 9 min.Pt B. or the anchor cable is less than 82.material.1 Sailing yachts For yachts that have superstructures with the front bulkhead with an angle of inclination aft. . as shown in Tab 1. Sec 3 : angle of inclination with the horizontal axis aft of each front bulkhead : greatest breadth. the upper deckhouse is to be included and the lower ignored. in profile view. when a bulwark is more than 1. the weighing test is to be carried out for both.geometrical elements of calculation . of each tier n of superbn structures or deckhouses having a breadth greater than B/4.1]. 7 7. of the parts of the hull.construction and breaking load of steel wires. θn 6 6. in m 2.1 For sailing yachts (with or without auxiliary engine). in m.2. superstructures and deckhouses above the summer load waterline which are within the length L of the yacht and also have a breadth greater than B/4. as defined in Sec 1 a : distance.1 Equipment Number and equipment 6. EN = Δ 2⁄3 + 2 aB + b n h n sin θ n + 0. in tonnes.1.1.5 metres or more in height are to be regarded as parts of deckhouses when determining h and A. 6. sheer and trim are to be disregarded. Where a deckhouse having a breadth greater than B/4 is above another deckhouse with a breadth of B/4 or less.3 A drawing relevant to the equipment number is to be sent for approval. .3 Where two windlasses operating separately on each chain cable are adopted.5 metres in height the area above such height is to be included. The equipment Number EN is to be calculated as follows: EN = Δ 2⁄3 + 2h ⋅ B + 0.2 When calculating h. Ch 1.e. : a + Σh n hn : A : area. weighing an anchor suspended to 82. h is to be taken equal to the sum of freeboard amidships plus the height hn (at the centreline) of each tier of superstructures and deckhouses having a breadth greater than B/4. breaking load and relevant elongation of synthetic ropes. in m. i. suitable equivalent simulating conditions will be considered as an alternative. the value of EN is to be calculated using the formula given in [6. For EN > 1060 the anchors.1. 1 A .1. Where the depth of water in the trial area is inadequate. 6. 50 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ∑ ⎝ ⎛ 5. at the centreline of each tier n of superstructures or deckhouses having a breadth greater than B/4. Screens or bulwarks 1. in m. 1 A where: Δ h : yacht displacement. In determining the area A.5 m. the equipment number can be calculated as follows: 7. the drawing is also to contain information on . chain cables and ropes will be stipulated by RINA in each case.

5 14 14 16 16 17.5 192.5 247.5 302. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 51 .5 14.5 22 22 24 26 26 28 30 30 32 32 34 36 Grade U2 steel 12.5 17.5 12. Ch 1.5 20.5 330 330 357.5 22 24 24 24 24 26 28 No.5 302.5 275 275 275 302.5 12. the sheet anchor can be readily removed from its position and arranged as a bower anchor. equivalent mooring equipment may be accepted. Length (m) (3) Breaking load (kN) 26 31 35 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 62 70 78 86 98 105 118 126 138 150 160 173 184 50 70 90 110 130 150 175 205 240 280 320 360 400 450 500 550 600 660 720 780 840 910 980 (1) 70 90 110 130 150 175 205 240 280 320 360 400 450 500 550 600 660 770 780 840 910 980 1060 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 100 120 140 160 180 200 230 260 310 360 410 460 520 580 640 700 770 840 910 980 1060 1150 1260 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 42 50 62 70 74 77 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 110 130 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 140 The second anchor is intended as a spare and it is not necessary to carry it as a bower anchor provided that. The mass required for each anchor can be replaced with two anchors having a total weight not less that the weight of the anchor required. where Grade U2 or U3 steel studless chain cables are used.5 247.5 22 24 - Chain cables with stud Grade U1 steel 11 11 14 14 16 16 17.5 17.5 17.5 220 220 220 247.5 19 20. to be used simultaneously.5 165 165 192. at RINA's discretion. Sec 3 Table 1 (1/1/2011) Stockless bower anchors Total length (m) 137. in the event of the loss of the first anchor. In addition the length of each chain line shall not be less than 70% of the total length indicated in the table (2) The diameters refer to Grade U1 steel chain cables.5 19 19 20.5 14 14 16 16 17 20.5 14.5 22 22 24 26 26 28 28 30 32 Grade U3 steel 11 11 12.5 192. Note 1:At the request of the Interested Parties. (3) Length of each line.5 12. In this case the two anchors are to be in place.Pt B.5 EN A<EN<B Chain cables for anchors Diameter (mm) Mooring lines A B No. the diameters may be reduced guaranteeing the same breaking load as the chain cable corresponding to Grade U1. (1) Mass per anchor (kg) Studless chain cable (2) 11 12.5 17.5 357.5 357.5 19 19 20.

Where their dimensions permit. For yachts not more than 24m the requirements of ISO STANDARD 10088 are to be applied. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections. where necessary.1 Tanks intended to contain diesel oil or gas-oil are to be made of stainless steel. Tanks for liquid fuel are to be designed and constructed so as to withstand. steel or aluminium alloys. zinc plating may be used. In any case the thickness of the tank is to be not less than 2 mm for steel and not less than 3 mm for light alloy. for stiffeners. in mm. kerosene and similar).1 Fuel tanks may be made of non-metallic materials. Where light alloys are employed. in m. in m. of the tank material. Sec 4 SECTION 4 NON-STRUCTURAL FUEL TANKS 1 1. without leakage. intended as the lower edge of the plate. Tanks are to be arranged in adequately ventilated spaces equipped with a mechanical air ejector. Upon completion of construction and fitting of all the pipe connections. At the discretion of RINA. to be assumed as the greater of the following values: • vertical distance from the pdr (see below) to a point located 2 m above the tank top • two-thirds of the vertical distance from the pdr to the top of overflow K : 235 --------. Such tanks are to be separated from accommodation spaces by integral gastight bulkheads. in order to reduce the movement of liquid. They are to be fitted with internal diaphragms. : static internal design head.1 Non-metallic tanks General 2. tanks are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head equal to that corresponding to 2 m above the tank top or that of the overflow pipe.1 Metallic tanks General 3 3. In tanks intended to contain fuel with a flashpoint below 55°C determined using the closed cup test (petrol. For scantling calculations the mechanical characteristics obtained by the mechanical tests are to be assumed.2. Ch 1. in m. Mechanical tests are to be carried out on samples of the laminate "as is" and after immersion in the fuel oil at ambient temperature for a week.1. The upper part of tanks is generally not to have welded edges facing upwards or be shaped so as to accumulate water or humidity.where RS is the minimum yield stress. Tanks are to be effectively earthed. Steel tanks are to be suitably protected internally and externally so as to withstand the corrosive action of the salt in the atmosphere and the fuel they are intended to contain. 1. provided that it is possible.1.1 The requirements of this Section apply to yachts more than 24 m. tanks are to include openings allowing at least the visual inspection of the interior. nickel copper.1 General To this end. 2 2. given by the formula: Z = 4 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ hS ⋅ K 2 where: S : stiffener span. the centre of the area supported by the stiffener. 2. in cm 3. for which internal zinc plating is not permitted. or. 52 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . After immersion the mechanical properties of the laminate are to be not less than 80% of the value of the sample "as is". whichever is the greater. in RS N/mm2. given by the following formula: t = 4 ⋅ s ⋅ ( hS ⋅ K) 0. the above openings are to be arranged on the top of the tank. leak testing may be accepted as an alternative.2 Scantlings 2. using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks. pdr : point of reference.1 The thickness of metallic tank plating is to be not less than the value t. 5 where: s hS : stiffener spacing. Tanks are to be arranged on special supports on the hull and securely fastened to them so as to withstand the stresses induced by movement of the yacht.Pt B. the dynamic stresses to which they will be subjected. 3.1. the value of RS to be assumed is that corresponding to the alloy in the annealed condition. Tanks are to be arranged so as to be accessible at least for external inspection and check of piping. except for tanks intended to contain diesel oil or gas-oil. The section modulus of stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z.

In any case. The surface of the tanks is to be internally coated with resin capable of withstanding hydrocarbons and externally coated with self-extinguishing resin.2 Leak testing Leak testing is to be carried out by applying an air pressure of 0.3 Tests on tanks The scantlings of non-metallic tanks will be specially considered by RINA on the basis of the characteristics of the material proposed and the results of strength tests performed on a sample. the test is to be carried out before the surface is externally coated with self-extinguishing resin. of the plating and the module of stiffeners Z. In the case of tanks made of composite material. At the discretion of RINA. k0 : as defined in Chapter 4.1 General Prior to their installation on board. the thickness t. The self-extinguishing characteristic is to be ascertained by a test carried out according to ASTM D635 on specimens having all their surface impregnated with the self-extinguishing resin used.3. hS : as defined in [2. Sec 4 3. In general. 3. s.3.2]. Z = 15 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h S ⋅ K 0 where: kof . During such test the flame speed is not to exceed 6 cm/min. than the values: t = 6 ⋅ s ⋅ ( hS ⋅ ko f ) 2 0. Ch 1. leak testing may be accepted as an alternative in accordance with the conditions stipulated in [3. S.2. in mm. Prior to inspection of the tightness of welding. in the case of metallic tanks and pipe connections. 5 3. The level may then be lowered to the test pressure before carrying out the welding tightness check of the tank and connections by means of a liquid solution of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks. the thickness is to be not less than 8 mm with reinforcement not less than 30% in weight fraction.Pt B.3. are to be not less.02 MPa and kept at this level for about 1 hour. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 53 .1 Scantlings (1/1/2011) 3.2 3. The test may be supplemented by arranging a pressure gauge and checking that the reading does not vary over time. it is recommended that the air pressure is raised to 0.2]. for tanks made of composite material. Leak testing is to be performed before any primer and/or coating is applied. respectively. in cm3. tanks are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head equal to that corresponding to 2 m above the tank top or that of the overflow pipe.015 MPa. whichever is the greater.

CS is twice the distance measured along the single hull. intended as the lower edge of the plating panel or the centre of the area supported by the stiffener. : Maximum service speed.81 m/s2. pdr 2. in m. in knots. this is the point of the hull in which the tangent to the hull has an angle of 50° on the horizontal axis.1 Definitions and symbols General pdc 2. defined as the transverse distance. of the yacht at full load draught T.3.6 Side Shell The side shell is that part of the hull between the chine and the highest continuous deck.3 2.6 L and constituting an effective support for side structures.3]. : Point of reference. 3 and 4 of Part B.2. extending for at least 0. for the purposes of this Section.6 L from the PpAV.2.3 Planing yacht A yacht in which the dynamic lift generated by the bottom surface running over the water supports the total weight of the yacht.2 Semi-planing yacht A yacht that is supported partially by the buoyancy of the water it displaces and partially by the dynamic pressure generated by the bottom surface running over the water. in g. to be taken as located in the section at 0. Alternative methods for the determination of acceleration and loads may be taken into consideration by RINA also on the basis of model tests or experimental values measured on similar yachts.1 The static and dynamic design loads defined in this Section are to be adopted in the formulae for scantlings of hull and deck structures stipulated in Chapters 2. from the chines to 0. Ch 1.2. For yachts of speed exceeding 10 L0.1. Sec 5 SECTION 5 LOADS 1 1. 2.2 Definitions Δ 2. 025 L ⋅ B ⋅ T PpAV PpAD 2 2. to be assumed equal to 0. or generally accepted theories.2. 1.1 Displacement yacht A yacht whose weight is fully supported by the hydrostatic forces. Pressures on panels and stiffeners may be considered as uniform and equal to the value assumed in the point of reference pdr as defined in [2.1. : Maximum design value of vertical acceleration at LCG. Where unknown. : Design deck. : Acceleration of gravity = 9.1 The definitions of the following symbols are valid for all of Part B. 2. CB CS g LCG : Support contour of the yacht. 2. : Block coefficient. this is the angle formed by the horizontal axis and the straight line joining keel and chine. : Longitudinal centre of gravity of the yacht. The meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Chapters or Sections. provided by the Designer based on an assessment of the service conditions (speed. In such case a report is to be submitted giving details of the methods used and/or tests performed. significant wave height) envisaged in the design. : Displacement.5 Bottom The bottom is that part of the hull between the keel and the chines.4 Chine In hulls without a clearly visible chine. aCG V 54 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .42 · L · B · T.1 βx Symbols : Deadrise of the transverse section under consideration. additional information may be required in the form of basin test results on prototypes. in t. 2.5 knots or yachts of unusual shape. given by the relationship: Δ C B = ----------------------------------1. : Forward perpendicular: perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline plane (with the yacht stationary in still water) and the fore side of the stem.1 General 2. In hulls without a clearly visible deadrise. intended as the first deck above the full load waterline. : Aft perpendicular: perpendicular at the intersection of the full load waterline plane (with the yacht stationary in still water) and the aft side of the sternpost or transom. For twin hull yachts. 2. In general. where unknown.2. a displacement yacht is a craft having V / L0. measured along the hull. depending on the case under consideration.5 L.Pt B.5 ≤ 4.2.

in kN·m. whichever is the greater. The sea area to which the above mentioned value refers is defined with reference to the significant wave height HS which is exceeded for an average of not more than 10% of the year: • Open-sea service: Hs ≥ 4. it is to be not less than: 3. a more accurate calculation may be performed in accordance with the procedure given in [4. 65 C F where: Hsl r 0. the results of experimental tank tests may be taken into account. in g.S = 0.2. is given by the formula in c) below. transverse acceleration. 5 ⋅ ------l ⋅ 1 + 5 ⋅ 1 + ---------------6 L 2 r ⋅ -L 55 .8. equal to 2. For large yachts. if justified on the basis of the results of model tests or prototype tests. are the greater of those given by the formulae in a) and b) below. in kN. defined in [3. For yachts of L > 100 m. 5 Hs a t = 2.1. in m.0 m. at the calculation point of the yacht may be obtained from: V ⁄ L 0.3]. by the formulae in [4.x/L or 0. to be used in direct calculations for yachts with many tiers of superstructure for which significant racking effects are anticipated. In the absence of such results.3] whenever deemed necessary.2. Ch 1. is defined by the Designer and corresponds to the average of the 1% highest accelerations in the most severe sea conditions expected.1 General The values of the longitudinal bending moment and shear force are given. aCG (expressed in g).Pt B. the formula in a) is to be applied when deemed necessary by RINA on the basis of the motion characteristics of the yacht. Figure 1 where aCG is the vertical acceleration at the LCG. at the discretion of RINA. 4. If the design acceleration cannot be defined by the Designer. where: C F = 0. defined in Fig 1.2 Longitudinal bending moment and shear force The longitudinal distribution of vertical acceleration along the hull is given by: a v = k v ⋅ a CG 4. Generally. 5 : : permissible significant wave height.1. 3 and 4. from the calculation point to the aft perpendicular.1]. for twin hull yachts. wave induced loads and impact loads M bl. is defined on the basis of model tests and full-scale measurements. a) bending moment due to still water loads. only the formula in b) is generally to be applied. : Design acceleration at LCG (see [3. and Mbl.2 Bending moment and shear force The total bending moments Mbl. as required.2. in relation to the material of the hull. RINA reserves the right to require calculations to be carried out according to [4. 3.1] ).2. aCG Variation of aV in the trasverse direction may generally be disregarded. in hogging conditions. 4. If the actual distribution of weights along the yacht is known. in m.2 Longitudinal acceleration distribution of vertical 4 4.S.1 Design acceleration Vertical acceleration at LCG General 3. at speed V distance of the calculation point from: • 0.H.1.1 Overall loads are to be used for the check of longitudinal strength of the yacht. as a first approximation. the aCG value corresponding to the value of S calculated with the above-mentioned formula is to be assumed. The total force Tbl. Sec 5 3 3. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ The design vertical acceleration at LCG.2 Transverse acceleration V a C G = S ⋅ -------L 0.1 3.5 where S is given by: S = 0.55 ⋅ Δ ⋅ L ⋅ ( CB + 0.7 ) ⋅ ( 1 + a CG ) where: KV : Longitudinal distribution factor. in Chapters 2. 32 Values of S reduced to as low as 80% of the foregoing value may be accepted.2].H = M bl. 6 ⁄ ( V ⁄ L ) ] ≥ 0. in sagging conditions. The same value of Mbl is taken for a yacht in sagging conditions or in hogging conditions.2.5 D for monohull yachts • waterline at draught T. 2 + [ 0.2. where x is the distance.1 Overall loads General 4.1 Transverse acceleration.

7 ) 2 2 For twin hull yachts. from the centre of the surface FSL to the midship perpendicular. where not supplied.H : still water hogging bending moment. in m: λ = L • wave height. in m.H + 0. G = gi ⋅ Δ xi 0 . in kN · m. 4. in kN/m.S = M s. i. 6 L ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ a) The distribution of quasi-static bending moment and shear force. calculated from the following formula: ⎠ ⎞ 56 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ∑ fSL : x( Δ x i ⋅ B i ) ⋅ sin 2π ⋅ ---i – 0. due to still water loads and wave induced loads. in m 2 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ ∑ where: FS L = qS L i ⋅ Δ xi . calculated by the following formula: ( g i ⋅ Δ x i⋅ x i ) x W = ------------------------------------. in kN/m. : to be measured at the centre of interval i : maximum hydrodynamic pressure. in m. this number may be reduced to 10 if justified.S + 0. the following may be assumed for the checks: M sS = 63 ⋅ C ⋅ L ⋅ B ⋅ ( C B + 0. from the aft perpendicular : yacht breadth. For smaller yachts. the increase in bending moment and shear force.02 L For the purpose of this calculation.21 for displacement yachts : 6 + 0. for twin hull yachts gi is defined for one hull. 7 )10 2 –3 xqS L i = p 0 ⋅ Bi ⋅ sin 2 ⋅ π ⋅ ---i – 0. [ g i ⋅ Δ x i ⋅ ( x i – 0.6. per x/L ≥ 0. Bi p0 where Mbl is the greater of Mbl. calculated as follows: ⎠ ⎟ ⎟ ⎞ • wave form: sinusoidal. at the uppermost deck in way of the coordinate xi. of weight distribution. calculated by the following formula: 2 av 1 ⋅ G ⋅ ( r 0 + x W ) p 0 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1 ⋅ Mbl T t = --------------------L xi.5 L ) 2 ] r 0 = --------------------------------------------------------------( g i ⋅ Δ x i) normally xSL 0. due to impact loads in the forebody area. 25 ⋅ L (guidance values) : distance.S : still water sagging bending moment. the following procedure is to be applied to one of the hulls. c) Total shear force 3. Ch 1. the following values are to be taken for the design wave: • wave length.1. 5 ⋅ L ( x i ⋅ Δ x i) b) For calculation purposes. 55 ⋅ S ⋅ C ⋅ L ⋅ B ⋅ ( CB + 0. 7 )10 2 –3 where qSLi is the additional load. per length unit. is to be determined as specified below.1 to be assumed = 0. in m. in kN/m2. as defined in C3. the hull is considered longitudinally subdivided into a number of intervals. where not supplied. in m. in kN · m.e.6 L where: Δxi xi Bi : length of interval.H = M s. the longitudinal distribution of weight forces gi and the corresponding breadth Bi are to be defined for one hull.5 L .Pt B.H and Mbl. The total impact. in kN.3. on the basis of the weight distribution. for twin hull yachts. the hull forms and the value of the design acceleration aCG. is: Ms. calculated from the following formula: gi xW : weight per unit length. of LCG from the midship perpendicular. M bl. in m : distance. of interval i. 95 ⋅ S ⋅ C ⋅ L ⋅ B ⋅ C B M bl.3 Bending moment and shear force taking into account the actual distribution of weights av1 G : design vertical acceleration in way of the forward perpendicular.– 0. in m.S calculated according to a) or b) above. is to be determined from the difference in weight and buoyancy distributions in sagging and hogging for each loading condition envisaged. c) In addition.p 2 f S L ⋅ [ r 0 + 0. : weight force. as applicable.5 – 0. Sec 5 b) bending moment due to still water loads and wave induced loads.5 ⋅ L ⋅ ( xS L – z W ) – x S L ⋅ x W ] S C : parameter defined in 3. the following may be assumed for the checks: M sH = 85 ⋅ C ⋅ L ⋅ B ⋅ ( C B + 0. 2 ⋅ L < r 0 < 0. for the sagging condition only. Bi is the maximum breadth of one hull considered at the transverse section considered. generally to be taken equal to 20.6 (see Figure 2). at RINA's discretion. computed with the following formula: ⎠ ⎞ Ms. in kN. 6 L ⎝ ⎛ ∑ 1 x S L = ----fSL x( Δ x i ⋅ x i ⋅ B i ) ⋅ sin 2π ⋅ ---i – 0. in m: L h = ------------------L 15 + ----20 r0 : radius of gyration. For the purpose of this calculation.2. CB may not be taken less than 0. : distance.

g. wave induced loads and impact loads. or for yachts with structural arrangements that do not permit a realistic assessment of stress conditions based on simple models. 4. and shear force Tbt. 125 ⋅ Δ ⋅ L ⋅ a CG ⋅ g : ap : x SL – x W F SL ⋅ ------------------.1 The following loads are to be considered in determining the scantlings of hull structures: • impact pressure due to slamming. vertical acceleration at LCG. defined in [3. ah ap ah e ap ah : acceleration due to heaving motion : acceleration due to pitching motion : are relative to g 2 r 0 – x SL ⋅ x W F SL ⋅ --------------------------------2 2 G r 0 – xW Transverse torsional connecting moment The catamaran transverse torsional connecting moment. full-scale measurements or any other information provided by the Designer.6 q s i = q bi = g i ⋅ a vi where: avi : total dimensionless vertical acceleration at the interval considered. They are to be added to the respective values calculated according to a) and b) in order to obtain the total bending moment and shear due to still water loads.4 4. in kN. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 57 . tanks.3 Design total vertical bending moment 4.3] below. External pressure generally determines the scantlings of side and bottom structures. which need not be taken greater than 1.1 The design total vertical bending moment Mt. Ch 1. The design moments and forces given in the following paragraphs are to be used unless other values are verified by model tests.6 q si = qbi – qSLi 5 5. In 4. the transverse loads are to be evaluated by means of direct calculations carried out in accordance with criteria specified in the individual Chapters or other criteria considered equivalent by RINA.2] and [4. for the calculation of the impact induced sagging bending moment and shear force is: • For x / L < 0. between the centres of the two hulls.2] b).2 Transverse bending moment and shear force The transverse bending moment Mbt in kN·m. in k/N. 5. whereas internal loads generally determine the scantlings of deck structures. • internal loads.1 Local loads General e) The impact induced sagging bending moment and shear force are to be obtained by integration of the load distribution qsi along the hull. calculated by the following formula: a vi = ah + a p ⋅ ( x i – 0.. if expected to occur. • For x / L ≥ 0. are given by: Δ ⋅ b ⋅ aC G ⋅ g M bt = ------------------------------5 Δ ⋅ aC G ⋅ g T bt = ----------------------4 d) The resulting load distribution qsi. • external pressure due to hydrostatic heads and wave loads. the capacity of the side and bottom structures to withstand such loads is to be verified according to criteria stipulated by RINA.3 : : transverse distance.0 g for this calculation.1.m.Pt B. machinery). For displacement yachts.4.4.4. for planing or semi-planing yachts. in kN per m. is given by: M tt = 0.1].2.5 L ) where: b aCG 4.2. Sec 5 Figure 2 4.4. the hull connecting structures are to be checked for the load conditions specified in [4. is to be taken equal to the greater of the values indicated in [4. in kN. in m. These load conditions are to be considered as acting separately. defined in [3. Where internal loads are caused by concentrated masses of significant magnitude (e. the value of Mt is to be taken equal to the greater of those given in [4.2] a) and b). in m – 1 -----2 2 G r0 – x W where aCG is the vertical acceleration at LCG.1].3. For yachts of length L > 65 m or speed V > 45 knots.1 Transverse loads for twin hull yachts General For catamarans.4.

2 Displacement yachts For the purpose of the evaluation of the design pressure for the side shell. calculated at the section considered. for the scantlings of side structures. 15 L – h 0 ) The design pressure p. at the transverse section considered.4. in any case. a uniform value is to be taken on the basis of the weighted mean value of pressure calculated along the length of the member. Such verification is to disregard the simultaneous presence of any external wave loads acting in the opposite direction to internal loads. where A1 is the surface. of the section in way of the LCG. A = 2. in m2. where h1 is as defined in [5.4.+ 10 ⋅ ( h 0 + a ⋅ L ) 2T Δ p 2 = 15 ⋅ ( 1 + a V ) ⋅ -----------. • for strength members: centre of the area supported by the element.024) in way of PpAV • values for intermediate positions obtained by linear interpolation. be assumed as not greater than 0.3. defined as follows: p 1 = 66.625 . the inertial effects due to acceleration of the yacht are to be taken into account.5 L • 0. h0 a : : vertical distance. for the scantlings of structures on the bottom of the hull. For the zones located forward of 0. h0 C1 : as defined in [5. in kN/m 2. in m.3. equal to: • 0. in kN/m2. plating and stiffeners is to be assumed as equal to the greater of the values p1 and p2 defined as follows:.3. sailing yachts with or without auxiliary engine are also included as displacement yachts.Pt B. sailing yachts with or without auxiliary engine are also included as displacement yachts. 5. 5 p 1 = 0.25V : angle formed at the point considered by the side and the horizontal axis (see Figure 6) : angle formed by the tangent at the waterline. coefficient function of the shape and inclination of the hull to be taken > 0. coefficient function of the longitudinal position of pdr. C2 kV α γ FL F1 : : coefficient given in Fig 3 as a function of the longitudinal position of the pdr. the value p is to be not less than the value p2 defined as follows: p 2 = C 1 ( k V ⋅ [ 0. aV : maximum design value of vertical acceleration. defined as follows: ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 5. 43 ⋅ A 1 ⋅ T F a = 0. not to be assumed as < 10 D.3. for the scantlings of hull structures. p 1 = 0. for plating. given by: 50 – β X F 1 = ---------------------50 – β LC G where bLCG is the deadrise angle. bearing on the element considered. 15 ⋅ log -----------------------------Δ ⎝ ⎛ The value p2 may. with the above waterline and the longitudinal straight line crossing the above intersection (see Fig 7). not to be assumed as < 10 h1. 30 – 0.3 5. in any case.2 Load points 5. in any case. The pressure p is.⋅ g ⋅ F L ⋅ F 1 ⋅ F a L ⋅ CS ⋅ sen (90 – α ) } 2 where: a. where p is the design pressure for the bottom as defined in [5.1 Pressure on panels and strength members is to be considered uniform and equal to the pressure at the following load points: • for panels: lower edge of the plate.1 Design pressure for the side shell Planing or semi-planing yachts 5.1 Design pressure for the bottom Planing and semi-planing yachts (1/1/2011) The pressure p. in any case.1] : coefficient given by Figure 4 as a function of the load surface A. The pressure p1 is. Fa : coefficient given by: ⎠ ⎞ 1.3. of the plating panel considered or the surface of the area supported by the stiffener.3 L from the PpAV. in kN/m2. from pdr to the full load waterline.4 5. Sec 5 such cases.0. not to be assumed <10 D. plating and stiffeners located below the full load waterline is to be taken as equal to the value p1. ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ The pressure p1 is. 024 ) ⋅ ( 0. 5 h0 ⋅ 1 – -----. 5 h0 ⋅ 1 – -----.1]. Where the pressure diagram shows cusps or discontinuities along the span of a strength member.1].+ 10 ⋅ ( h 0 + a ⋅ L ) 2T where h0 and a are as defined in [5. in g. in m2. Ch 1. 24L 0.4. 58 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .036 aft of 0.2]. 6 + senγ ⋅ cos ( 90 – α) ] + C 2 ⋅ L 0. corresponding to the draught T.2 Displacement yacths For the purpose of the evaluation of the design pressure for the bottom. 24L 0.2. in degrees. 5.4.5s is to be taken : coefficient given by Figure 5 as a function of CB and the longitudinal position of the element considered : 0.5p. 5. taken at the point of intersection of the transverse section of the element considered. plating and associated stiffeners is to be taken as equal to the value p1. The pressure p. for pressure due to hydrostatic head and wave load. 25 ⋅ ( a + 0. L + 0.04/(CB .

9 0.3.2 Tank bulkheads (1/1/2009) The scantlings of tank bulkheads. the greater of the following values: • vertical distance from the pdr to a point located at a height h.2 AFT 0. plating and associated stiffeners are to be verified assuming a head hB equal to the vertical distance. plating and associated stiffeners are to be verified assuming as hT. from the pdr to the straight line of the beam of the highest continuous deck. 5. SHELTERED AREA (also partially by deckhouses) hd 0. 25 ⋅ ( a + 0. above the highest point of the tank given by: h T = [ 1 + 0. in m.0 0. Where distributed loads with mass density greater or lower than the above are envisaged.075 L from FWD PP hd Deck below pdc pdc Decks over pdc 1. In the case of decks subject to concentrated loads. in kN/m 2. Sheltered areas are intended to mean decks intended for accommodation.9 where: a. in kN/m2. where the value of L is to be taken no less than 50 m and no greater than 80 m • 2/3 of the vertical distance from the pdr to the top of the overflow pipe. in m.1 Subdivision bulkheads (1/1/2009) The scantlings of subdivision bulkheads. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 59 .1] : distance.6. 05 ( L – 50 ) ] 5. not to be assumed as <10 h 1. from the pdr to the highest point of the bulkhead.7 t/m 3 and a consequent load per square metre of deck. in any case.9 0. 5. 024 ) ⋅ ( 0.6. The design heads shown in Tab 1 assume a uniformly distributed load with mass density of 0. the scantlings of deck structures (plating and stiffeners) will also need to be checked with the aforementioned loads.5 1. 15 L – h 0 ) Table 1 (1/1/2011) EXPOSED WEATHER AREA Deck FWD 0. in m.7 The pressure p1 is.9 h d. in m. h0 h1 : as defined in [5. the value h0 will be modified accordingly.Pt B.1 The design heads for the various decks are shown in Table 1. for the scantlings of side structures located above the full load waterline is to be taken as equal to the value p1 defined as follows: p 1 = 66. Sec 5 The design pressure p.5 Design heads for decks 5.5. equal to 6. Ch 1.6 Design heads for watertight bulkheads 5.075 L from FWD PP hd 1.

Ch 1.Pt B. Sec 5 Figure 3 60 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 from the .

Pt B. Ch 1. Sec 5 Figure 4 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 61 .

Pt B. Sec 5 Figure 5 62 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 from the . Ch 1.

Sec 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 TRANSVERSE SECTION CONCERNED RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 63 .Pt B. Ch 1.

the arrangement is considered by the Society on a case-by-case basis.2.2 Supporting device (1/1/2009) 3. such as a hinge. strength and securing of side doors. 3.1 Design forces (1/1/2009) The design external forces FE and the design internal forces FI to be considered for the scantlings of primary supporting members and securing and supporting devices of side doors and stern doors are to be obtained.2 1.3. which transmits loads from the door to the Yacht's structure. 3 3.3 1. or a device other than a securing device. using the door stiffener spacing. A locking device is a device that locks a securing device in the closed position.3 (1/1/2009) Shell door openings are to have well rounded corners and adequate compensation is to be arranged with web frames at sides and stringers or equivalent above and below. in kN. App 1 APPENDIX 1 SIDE DOORS AND STERN DOORS 1 1. stopper or other fixed device. abaft the collision bulkhead. and of stern doors leading to enclosed spaces. 64 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . 1.1.1 Plating (1/1/2009) The thickness of the door plating is to be not less than that obtained according to the requirements for side plating. Ch 1. 1.1 The requirements of this Section apply to the arrangement. 1.2. using the door stiffener spacing. 3.1 Definitions Securing device (1/1/2009) A securing device is a device used to keep the door closed by preventing it from rotating about its hinges or about pivoted attachments to the Yacht.2 Plating and ordinary stiffeners A supporting device is a device used to transmit external or internal loads from the door to a securing device and from the securing device to the Yacht's structure.3 (1/1/2009) 3.1.1. 1. 1. from the formulae in Tab 1.3.3 Locking device (1/1/2009) 3.2 Ordinary stiffeners (1/1/2009) The scantling of door ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than that obtained according to the requirements for the side.1.2 (1/1/2009) Side doors and stern doors are to be adequately stiffened and means are to be provided to prevent any lateral or vertical movement of the doors when closed.1 Arrangement (1/1/2009) 2.1 Design loads Side and stern doors 1. Adequate strength is to be provided in the connections of the lifting/manoeuvring arms and hinges to the door structure and to the Yacht's structure.2.Pt B.2.2. 3.1.1 Side doors and stern doors are to be so fitted as to ensure tightness and structural integrity commensurate with their location and the surrounding structure.3. Doors are preferably to open outwards.1 (1/1/2009) The strength of side doors and stern doors is to be commensurate with that of the surrounding structure. 1.1 General Application (1/1/2009) 2 2.2 (1/1/2009) Scantlings of side doors and stern doors General Where the sill of any side door is below the uppermost load line.

Pt B, Ch 1, App 1

Table 1 : Design forces (1/1/2009)
Structural elements Securing and supporting devices of doors opening inwards Securing and supporting devices of doors opening outwards Primary supporting members (1) External force FE , in kN A pE + FP A pE A pE Internal force FI, in kN F0+ 10 W F0 + 10 W + FP F0 + 10 W

(1) The design force to be considered for the scantlings of the primary supporting members is the greater of FE and FI. Note 1: A : Area, in m2 to be determined on the basis of the load area taking account of the direction of the pressure W : Mass of the door, in t FP : Total packing force, in kN; the packing line pressure is normally to be taken not less than 5 kN /m F0 : the greater of FC and 5A, in kN FC : Accidental force, in kN, due to loose cargoes etc., to be uniformly distributed over the area A. The aforementioned value is to be assumed considering the failure of the lashing of the objects to be carried in the space behind the doors: in such case Fc is to be assumed not less than the weight in KN of the heaviest object to be carried in the space behind the doors. However, the value of FC may be taken as zero, provided an additional structure such as an inner ramp is fitted, which is capable of protecting the door from accidental forces due to loose cargoes. pE : Design pressure for the side shell (Ch 1, Sec 1, [4]) not to be taken less than 25 kN/m 2

Consideration is to be given, where necessary, to differences in conditions of fixity between the ends of ordinary stiffeners of doors and those of the side.

4.2
4.2.1

Scantlings
(1/1/2009)

3.3

Primary supporting members

3.3.1 (1/1/2009) The door ordinary stiffeners are to be supported by primary supporting members constituting the main stiffening of the door. 3.3.2 (1/1/2009) The primary supporting members and the hull structure in way are to have sufficient stiffness to ensure structural integrity of the boundary of the door. 3.3.3 (1/1/2009) Scantlings of primary supporting members are generally to be verified through direct calculations on the basis of the design loads in Tab 1 and the strength criteria given in [5]. In general, isolated beam models may be used to calculate the loads and stresses in primary supporting members, which are to be considered as having simply supported end connections.

Securing and supporting devices are to be adequately designed so that they can withstand the reaction forces within the allowable stresses defined in [5]. 4.2.2 (1/1/2009) When the securing and supporting devices are equally spaced, the distribution of the forces acting on each device may be obtained by dividing the total design force given in [2.1.1] by the number of the supporting devices. For arrangements of the securing and supporting devices different from the above, a direct calculations may be necessary to assess the distribution of the forces acting on the devices. Special consideration will be given by RINA when the dimension of the opening is significant compared with the depth of the vessel: the distribution of the forces acting on the securing and supporting devices may need to be supported by direct calculation taking into account the flexibility of the hull structure and the actual position of the supports. 4.2.3 (1/1/2009) The arrangement of securing and supporting devices in way of these securing devices is to be designed with redundancy so that, in the event of failure of any single securing or supporting device, the remaining devices are capable of withstanding the reaction forces without exceeding by more than 20% the allowable stresses defined in [5]. 4.2.4 (1/1/2009) All load transmitting elements in the design load path, from the door through securing and supporting devices into the ship's structure, including welded connections, are to be of the same strength standard as required for the securing and supporting devices. These elements include pins, supporting brackets and back up brackets.

4
4.1

Securing and supporting of doors
General

4.1.1 (1/1/2009) Side doors and stern doors are to be fitted with adequate means of securing and supporting so as to be commensurate with the strength and stiffness of the surrounding structure. 4.1.2 (1/1/2009) The number of securing and supporting devices is generally to be the minimum practical while taking into account the requirements for redundant provision given in [4.2.3] and the available space for adequate support in the hull structure.

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

65

Pt B, Ch 1, App 1

5
5.1

Strength criteria
Primary supporting members and securing and supporting devices

with: F : Design force, in KN, defined in [2.1.1] AB : Projected bearing area, in cm2 ReH,B : Yield stress, in N/mm2, of the bearing material. For other bearing materials, the allowable bearing pressure is to be determined according to the Manufacturer's specification. 5.1.5 Bolts (1/1/2009) The arrangement of securing and supporting devices is to be such that threaded bolts do not carry support forces. It is to be checked that the stress σT in way of threads of bolts not carrying support forces is in compliance with the following formula: σT ≤ σT,ALL where: σT,ALL : Allowable tension in way of threads of bolts, in N/mm2; σT,ALL = 125 / k; k : Material factor, defined in Ch 2, Sec 2, [2.3].

5.1.1 Plastic reinforced structures (1/1/2009) The allowable normal and shear stress are to be in conformity with the requirements stated in Ch 4, Sec 1, [4]. 5.1.2 Steel structures (1/1/2009) It is to be checked that the normal stress σ, the shear stress t and the equivalent stress σVM, induced in the primary supporting members and in the securing and supporting devices of doors by the design forces defined in [2.1.1], are in compliance with the following formulae: σ ≤ σALL σVM = (σ + τ )
2 2 0,5

≤ σVM,ALL

where: σALL : Allowable normal stress, in N/mm2; σALL = 120 / k; τALL : Allowable shear stress, in N/mm2; τALL = 80 / k; σVM,ALL : Allowable equivalent stress, in N/mm2; σVM,ALL = 150 / k; k : Material factor, defined in Ch 2, Sec 2, [2.3]. 5.1.3 Pins (1/1/2009) Pins in securing and supporting devices are to be checked for shear stress τ and normal stress σ due to bending moment using the above criteria. Where: τ = 103 F/(2 n A) N/mm 2 σ = 5,1 103 (F l /n d3) N/mm2 and: F : design force, in KN, defined in [2.1.1]; n : number of fixed bearings supporting the pin; A : cross-sectional area of the pin in mm2; l : distance between two consecutive fixed bearings in mm; d : diameter of the pin in mm. If the radial clearance between pin and bearing and the axial clearance between two consecutive bearings of the pins are small and l is nearly equal to d, the normal stress due to bending moment can be disregarded. 5.1.4 Bearings (1/1/2009) For steel to steel bearings in securing and supporting devices, it is to be checked that the nominal bearing pressure. σB, in N/mm2, is in compliance with the following formula: σB = 0,8 ReH,B where: σB = 10 F/ AB

6
6.1

Securing and locking arrangement
Systems for operation

6.1.1 (1/1/2009) Securing devices are to be simple to operate and easily accessible. Securing devices are to be equipped with a mechanical locking arrangement (self-locking or separate arrangement), or to be of the gravity type. The opening and closing systems as well as securing and locking devices are to be interlocked in such a way that they can only operate in the proper sequence. 6.1.2 (1/1/2009) Doors with a clear opening area equal to or greater than 10 m 2 are to be provided with closing devices operable from a remote control position above the freeboard deck. This remote control is provided for the: • • closing and opening of the doors associated securing and locking devices.

For doors which are required to be equipped with a remote control arrangement, indication of the open/closed position of the door and the securing and locking device is to be provided at the remote control stations. The operating panels for operation of doors are to be inaccessible to unauthorised persons. A notice plate, giving instructions to the effect that all securing devices are to be closed and locked before leaving harbour, is to be placed at each operating panel and is to be supplemented by warning indicator lights. 6.1.3 (1/1/2009) Where hydraulic securing devices are applied, the system is to be mechanically lockable in the closed position.

66

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

Pt B, Ch 1, App 1

This means that, in the event of loss of hydraulic fluid, the securing devices remain locked. When in closed position, the hydraulic system for securing and locking devices is to be isolated from other hydraulic circuits.

7.1.2 (1/1/2009) Documented operating procedures for closing and securing the side and stern doors are to be kept on board and posted at an appropriate place.

7
7.1

Operating and Maintenance Manual
General

7.1.1 (1/1/2009) An Operating and Maintenance Manual (OMM) for the side doors and stern doors is to be provided on board and contain necessary information on: a) special safety precautions b) service conditions c) maintenance. This manual is to be submitted in duplicate to the Society for information.

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

67

Part B Hull Chapter 2 STEEL HULLS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 SECTION 11 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS LONGITUDINAL STRENGHT PLATING SINGLE BOTTOM DOUBLE BOTTOM SIDE STRUCTURES DECKS BULKHEADS SUPERSTRUCTURES RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 69 .

.

whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Sections.1 Table 1 lists the structural plans that are to be presented in advance to RINA in triplicate. in tests of the longitudinal strength of twin hull yachts. The Table also indicates the information that is to be supplied with the plans or. provided that structures with longitudinal. at draught T. measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L. from the base line up to the deck beam of the uppermost continuous deck. B is to be taken as equal to twice the breadth of the single hull. Multi-hulls or yachts with unusual shape. The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Sections.1 L Definitions and symbols : scantling length. Sec 1. maximum breadth of the yacht.1. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 71 . outside frames. in any case. measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L. This Chapter may also be used to check the structural scantlings of hulls made of metals with superior mechanical properties. In any case use of these materials is subject to the examination of the technical documentation of the manufacture of the material and the welding processes and tests that will be adopted. in m. B : D : T : s Δ K : : : 3 Plans. such as titanium and its alloys. in m. submitted to RINA for the examination of the documentation. calculations and other information to be submitted 3. in m. from the base line to the full load waterline with the yacht at rest in calm water. • titanium alloys: Ti6AL4V grade 5.Pt B.1 3. on the basis of direct test calculations of the structural strength (see Pt B. as defined in Sec 2. with motor or sail power with or without an auxiliary engine. other than steel. TiCP4. In the examination of constructional plans. 2. for examination and approval when required.2. spacing of the ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener. depth of the yacht.1).1 Chapter 2 applies to monohull yachts with a hull made of steel and a length L not exceeding 120 m. assumed to be equal to the length on the full load waterline with the yacht at rest. For yachts made of steel and having length L greater than 120 m. Ch1. proportion and characteristics will be considered case by case.1 The definitions and symbols in this Article are valid for all the Sections of this Chapter. on the full load waterline. para 3. displacement of the yacht outside frames.5Sn grade 6 and Ti3AL2. however. transverse and local strength not less than that of the corresponding Rule structure are obtained or provided that such material distribution and structural scantlings prove adequate. in m. reference is to be made to the Rules for the Classsification of Ships. factor as a function of the mechanical properties of the steel used. The structural scantlings of displacement yachts of L > 60 m may be arranged by applying the provisions of the Rules for the Classification of Ships. is to be adopted. in t. in m. measured immediately below the cross-deck. to be not more than 0. Ti5AL2.1. on condition that additional buckling strength and fatigue calculations are carried out.1 Field of application 2 2.1. draft of the yacht. In general the following types are considered usable in the field of pleasure yachts: • titanium: TiCP2. in the opinion of RINA. TiCP3. a coefficient K depending on the minimum yield strength of the material used.2 2. 2.7 of the ultimate tensile strength of the material. Higher values may be adopted. The value of the minimum yield strength is. Ch 2. For the scantlings of the plating and stiffeners. RINA may take into consideration material distribution and structural scantlings other than those that would be obtained by applying these regulations.5V grade 9.1 Definitions and symbols Premise 1. at the discretion of RINA. Sec 1 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1 1.

2 4.1 If a Builder for the construction of a new vessel of a standard design wants to use drawings already approved for a vessel similar in design and construction and classed with the same class notation and the same navigation. if multi-hull.1.Pt B. Sec 1 For documentation purposes. • • • Shell expansion Structure of the engine room Watertight bulkheads and deep tank bulkheads Structure of stern/side door Superstructures Support structure for crane Rudder • • • openings location of overflow closing appliances 4.1 As an alternative to those based on the formulae in this Chapter.2. other than steel.1 In the case of use of materials with superior mechanical properties. lines plan. Chapter 1 provides schematisations. 5. the drawings may not be sent for approval. • name and characteristics of high resistance paint.2 3. maximum operating speed V. such as those indicated in 1.1 Where required. the allowable stresses will be stipulated by RINA on the basis of such properties and of any further fatigue tests and/or buckling checks which may be required.1 Compressive stress The elastic buckling strength. boundary conditions and loads to be used for direct calculations. • details showing how stern bush clearances are to be measured with the craft afloat. Ch 2. the following plans and information are to be submitted: • details showing how rudder pintle and bush clearances are to be measured and how the security of the pintles in their sockets is to be verified with the craft afloat.1. The scantlings are to be such as to guarantee that stress levels do not exceed the allowable values stipulated in the aforementioned Chapter. the critical buckling strength of steel plating and stiffeners subject to compressive stresses is to be calculated as specified below. • • • • • • • design loads and connections to the hull structures materials of all components calculation speed material 5 5. design acceleration aCG (for planing or semi-planing yachts) materials and associated mechanical properties for yachts having L>50 m. but the request for survey of the vessel is to be submitted with an enclosed list of drawings of reference and copies of the approved drawings are to be sent to RINA. scantlings may be obtained by direct calculations carried out in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1 of Part B of these Rules.1. in N/mm2. 5. 3.1 Buckling strength checks Application • Propeller shaft struts • If the INWATERSURVEY notation is to be assigned. capacity plan.2.1 Direct calculations • • • Longitudinal and transverse section Plan of the decks • • • openings loads acting. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ t σE = 0. Plan approval of standard design vessels is only valid so long as no applicable Rule changes take place.2 Elastic buckling stresses of plates 5. copies of the following plans are also to be submitted: general arrangement plans. Table 1 PLAN • Midship section • CONTAINING INFORMATION RELEVANT TO: main dimensions. if mono-hull and L> 40 m. 9 ⋅ m c ⋅ E ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a 2 where: 72 ⎝ ⎛ RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . the plans are to be submitted for new approval.2. When the Rules are amended. if different from Rule loads openings 4. the maximum still water bending moment is to be indicated displacement • • 4 4. It is the Builder’s responsibility to submit for approval any modification to the approved plans prior to the commencement of any work. Attention is also to be paid to possible flag Administrations requirements. which may determine differences in construction. for information only.

in m : longer side of the plate. in N/mm 2. equal to: 3 3 hw ⋅ tw --------------.Pt B. 105N/mm2 for steelstructures : thickness of plating. a and b are as defined in (a) above. 385 ⋅ E ⋅ --m2 Ip 10 4 ⋅ I p ⋅ I 2 (m-1) m<C<m (m+1) m ⋅ 10 –4 73 . 001 ⋅ E ⋅ ----------A ⋅ I2 E Ia A I : Young's modulus. to be taken equal to 2. in N/mm2. in N/mm 2. including plate flange : cross-sectional area. I : for pla ting CK defined in 5. of the stiffener. to be taken equal to 2.21 when the plating is stiffened by ordinary stiffeners with angle. t. in m. in mm web thickness.2 Shear stress The elastic buckling stress. equal to: 3 3 hw ⋅ tw --------------. in cm4.⋅ 10 4 π ⋅ E ⋅ IW with stiffeners perpendicular to compressive stress E t a b c : Young's modulus.05 when the plating is stiffened by flat bar ordinary stiffeners. in mm flange width.⋅ 10 –6 for flat b ars 36 or: 2 t f ⋅ b f3 ⋅ h w ----------------------. 1 ⋅ ------------------ψ + 1. 34 + 4 ⋅ -b and E. 9 ⋅ m t ⋅ E ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a ⎝ ⎛ 2 IW : sectional moment of inertia of profile.06 . in cm4. in cm6. m : number of half-waves.1 above 4 mC a = c ⋅ 1 + -b 2 2 2. equal to: 3 hw ⋅ tw --------------.⋅ 10 –4 for flat b ars 3 where: mt a2 = 5. in m : coefficient equal to: • 1. is given by: or: 3 hw ⋅ tw 2 --------------. Venant moment of inertia of profile.2 Torsional buckling For the torsional mode.3 5. about connection of stiffener to plate. Ch 2.10 when the plating is stiffened by ordinary stiffeners with bulb sections • 1. about connection of stiffener to plate. equal to: kp ⋅ E ⋅ t 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------. 5. in cm2. given in Table 2. 63 ⋅ --3 bf Ip : for flanged profile polar moment of inertia of profile.3. 1 π 2 ⋅ E ⋅ I WCK It σE = -----------------------. Sec 1 to compressive stress or: ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ where: E. for bulb profiles. in mm : shorter side of the plate.30 when the plating is stiffened by floors or deep girders • 1. in cm 444 without plate flange. 1 6 C⋅I = ---------------------.06 . the mean thickness of the bulb maybe used spring stiffness factor.⋅ [ t f ⋅ ( b f2 + 2b f ⋅ h w + 4 h w ) + ( 3t w ⋅ b f ⋅ h w ] ⋅ 10 –6 ) 12 ⋅ ( b f + h w ) 2 for flanged profiles. in mm flange thickness. in m.⋅ m 2 + -----.1 Elastic buckling stresses of stiffeners Column buckling without rotation of the transverse section For the column buckling mode (perpendicular to the plane of plating) the elastic buckling stress. of the stiffener.⋅ 10 –3 1. of the stiffener. 5.⋅ 10 –6 fo r T pro files 12 2 b f3 ⋅ h w 2 ---------------------------------.3. ψ : ratio between the smallest and largest compressive stresses when the stress presents a linear variation across the plate (0<ψ <1).fo r p lating w ith stiffen ers para llel ψ + 1. exerted by supporting plate. spacing of stiffeners.3.⋅ 10 –4 for flat bars 3 or: ⎠ ⎞ 1 t3 f -.+ h w ⋅ b f ⋅ t f ⋅ 10 –4 for flan ged profiles 3 ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ mC 8. 105 N/mm 2 for steelstructures : moment of inertia. 4 = ------------------. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ t τ E = 0. the elastic buckling stress.33 ⋅ k p ⋅ h w ⋅ t 3 3s ⋅ 1 + ----------------------------------------3 1000 ⋅ s ⋅ t w ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 5. in mm. in N/mm 2.⋅ h w ⋅ t w + b f ⋅ t f3 ⋅ 1 – 0.2.or T-sections • 1. is given by: Ia σ E = 0. in N/mm2.+ 0. in mm. Table 2 0<C<1 m 1 4<C<36 2 36<C<144 3 It : St. is given by: where: t : s : plating thickness. where: hW tW bf tf C : : : : : web height. including plate flange : span.

a longitudinal structure with reinforced floors.1 The hull scantlings required in this Chapter are in general to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. For yachts with length L greater than 50 m.58 Reh minimum yield stress of steel used.4. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ t wσ E = 3.3. For yachts similar in performance to high speed hulls. In such case the variations between the scantlings adopted for the central part of the hull and those adopted for the ends are to be gradual. 8 ⋅ E ⋅ ----hw 2 6. Lesser thicknesses may be accepted provided that. is required for the bottom.Pt B.2 Shear stress The critical buckling shear stress τC.2.1 The thicknesses of plating and stiffeners calculated using the formulae in this Chapter are to be not less than the values shown in Table 3. care is to be taken in order to avoid structural discontinuities in particular in way of the ends of superstructures and of the openings on the deck or side of the yacht.1.2. in the opinion of RINA.2. hW : defined in 5. Where plating and stiffeners contribute to the longitudinal strength of the yacht. In the design. σC.1 and 5. σp / σEp calculated compressive stress in the stiffener elastic buckling stress of plating as calculated in 5. in N/mm2 elastic buckling stress calculated according to 5. their adequacy in terms of buckling strength and resistance to corrosion is demonstrated.3.3 Web buckling The elastic buckling stress. in N/mm2 74 ⎝ ⎛ if if ⎝ ⎛ R eH σ E ≤ ------2 R eH σ E > ------2 7 7.1 Compressive stress The critical buckling stress in compression.2.2. placed at a distance of not more than 2 m.4 Critical buckling stress 5.4. 5.1. provided that they are no less than those shown in Table 3. for plating and stiffeners is given by: τ c = τE ⎠ ⎞ τF τ c = τF ⋅ 1 – ----------4 ⋅ τe where: : τC Reh : 0. Sec 1 kp ηp σa σEp : : : : 1 -ηp .2.1 defined in 5.1. 5. where: E : tW. Such interval is to be suitably reduced in the areas forward of amidships subject to the forces caused by slamming. their scantlings are to be such as to fulfil the requirements for yacht longitudinal strength stipulated in Sec 4.3. reduced scantlings may be adopted for the fore and aft zones. Ch 2.1 Minimum thicknesses 7. if if ⎝ ⎛ τF τ E ≤ --2 τF τ E > --2 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . for plating and stiffeners is given by: σc = σE ⎠ ⎞ R eH σ c = R eH ⋅ 1 – -----------4 ⋅ σe where: : ReH σE : minimum yield stress of steel used. not to be taken less than 0. τE : elastic buckling stress calculated according to 5. 6 6.3. in N/mm2.1 General rules for design 5.

1 The section modulus and the moment of inertia of primary supporting members are to be calculated in association with an effective area AS. of attached load bearing plating obtained from the following: A S = 10c ⋅ b F ⋅ t S 8. one-half of the sum of the spaces between parallel stiffeners adjacent to that considered. the section modulus of the stiffener may be approximately calculated by multiplying the section modulus of the web fitted at right angles to the attached plating by cos (90 .4 8. in mm.e.5 0.03 d . in cm2.α). K0. in mm.Pt B. side stringers. the effective area of the attached plating is to be assumed equal to 7/10 of the value of AS calculated by assuming bF equal to half the distance between the member considered and its adjacent member. measured between the inside of the face plate and the inside of the attached plating. L1/3 .1.4. Ch 2. in m As a rule AS is to be greater than Ap. the section modulus may be calculated as follows: AP ⋅ dA ta ⋅ d 2 a W T = --------------. bottom plating Side plating Open strength deck plating Lower and enclosed deck plating 1st tier superstructure front bulkhead Superstructure bulkhead Watertight subdivision bulkhead Tank bulkhead Centre girder Floors and side girders Tubular pillars (1) d = diameter of the pillar.35 . in general. in cm2. in built sections web depth in built sections. in mm.0 (1) ts As : : : : mean thickness. in built sections face plate width. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ 75 .5 t5 = t4 t6 = t5 . in cm2. in cm2. 25 ⋅ ---.1 Unless otherwise stated in specific requirements. the section modulus and the moment of inertia of the ordinary stiffeners are to be calcolated in association with an effective load bearing plating having width equal to the spacing of the stiffeners and thickness equal to the mean thickness of the attached plating. K0. 8 8. in m : actual width of the load bearing plating. Aa bp Aa : : : web area. in this respect. vertical and horizontal girders of bulkheads.2.1 t7 = t2 .5 t2 = 1.5 t8 = t2 t9 = 1. 8. Ordinary stiffeners: supporting members of shell plating. where the web of the section is at an angle α less than 90° to the attached plating.1 Plating attached to griders Primary supporting members 8.15 . K0. the thickness of the attached plating is to be increased accordingly where necessary. the section modulus shall be calculated taking account of the inclination of the attached plating. bulkheads.5 t4 = t3 .– 0. in cm3.+ ------------. in cm2 web thickness. may be calculated using the following formula: 2 Ap ⋅ da tS ⋅ da 200 ⋅ ( A S – A p ) W T = --------------.5 > 3.+ --------------10 6000 for S L ⁄ b F ≥ 8 : c = 1 where: Girders : primary supporting members of ordinary stiffeners such as deck girders.5 t10 = 1. K0. and similar. in built sections face plate area. L1/3 . of the attached plating area of the attached plating.1 Calculation of section modulus Primary supporting members The section modulus WT. Where the above angle α is less than 75°. L1/3 .0. decks. of a built section with attached plating of area AS. beams and web frames.5 t3 = 1. L1/3 . L1/3 . SL bF : overall length of the girder. Sec 1 Table 3 Minimum thickness (mm) t1 = 1.3 Special cases 8. in built sections In the case of members located along the edge of openings. and similar. in mm Member Keel.1 In way of fore and aft regions and. double bottom or tank top plating.⋅ 1 + -----------------------------------10 6000 200 AS + t a ⋅ d a where: SL SL for S L ⁄ b F < 8 : c = 0.15 . i.3. 016 ⋅ ---bF bF ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 2 In cases of symmetrical sections.0. floors.75 . in mm ta da 8. K0. centre and side bottom girders.30 . K0.2 Ordinary stiffeners 8.

1 Paint or other products containing nitrocellulose or other highly flammable substances are not to be used in machinery or accommodation spaces. Sec 1 9 9.3.1 Corrosion protection latter the composition of the primer is to be compatible with the subsequent layers of the coating cycle. 9. cathodic protection.1.2. where applicable.Pt B. The structures are to be clean and free from slag before the coating is applied. with the exception of fuel tanks.1 All steel structures. The coating is to be applied with adequate thickness in accordance with the Manufacturer's specifications. 9.1 When a primer is used after the preparation of the surfaces and prior to welding. are to be suitably protected against corrosion.3 9. Such arrangements may consist of coating or. Ch 2. as well as not impairing the 76 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . 9.2 9.

3].3 2.70 2. Table 2 : Material factor k ReH .3. Where RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 77 .2 Higher strength steels other than those indicated in Tab 1 are considered by the Society on a case by case basis. provided their specification (manufacture. 2.1. Ch 2.4 Characteristics of steels with specified through thickness properties are given in Pt D.1 Tab 1 gives the mechanical characteristics of steels currently used in the construction of ships.Pt B. as well as any workmanship requirements or recommendations.620 390 510 .78 0.2. mechanical properties.3 Manufacturing processes 1.1. Sec 1. For intermediate values of ReH .1 Material factor k General 2.1.1 The characteristics of the materials to be used in the construction of ships are to comply with the applicable requirements of Part D.1 A plan is to be kept on board indicating the steel types and grades adopted for the hull structures. welding. in N/mm2 400 .2 Testing of materials Steel grades A-B-D-E t ≤ 100mm AH32-DH32-EH32 t ≤ 100mm FH32 t ≤ 50mm AH36-DH36-EH36 t ≤ 100mm FH36 t ≤ 50mm AH40-DH40-EH40 FH40 t ≤ 50mm 1. Unless otherwise specified.1. Sec 2 SECTION 2 MATERIALS 1 1. are to be available on board together with the above plan. Ch 2.2 Information to be kept on board 2.2 Materials with different characteristics may be accepted. 2. [2] 2 2. 355 490 .2. hull scantlings are to be determined by taking into account the material factor k defined in [2.1 The requirements of this Section presume that welding and other cold or hot manufacturing processes are carried out in compliance with current sound working practice and the applicable requirements of Part D.2 It is also recommended that a plan is kept on board indicating the hull structures built in normal strength steel of grades D or E.2.1 General Characteristics of materials steels other than those indicated in Tab 1 are used. Ch 2. Table 1 : Mechanical properties of hull steels Minimum yield stress ReH. 2.1 Steels for hull structure Application 2. the material factor k has the values defined in Tab 2. Sec 1.3.650 Note 1:Reference in Part D: Pt D.1.520 440 . as a function of the minimum guaranteed yield stress ReH.3 When steels with a minimum guaranteed yield stress ReH other than 235 N/mm2 are used on a ship. In particular: • parent material and welding processes are to be approved within the limits stated for the specified type of material for which they are intended • specific preheating may be required before welding • welding or other cold or hot manufacturing processes may need to be followed by an adequate heat treatment. chemical composition. 1. etc. Steels with a yield stress lower than 235 N/mm2 or greater than 390 N/mm2 are considered by the Society on a case by case basis.) is submitted to the Society for approval.1 Materials are to be tested in compliance with the applicable requirements of Part D. 1. in N/mm2 235 315 Ultimate minimum tensile strength Rm.72 0. in N/mm2 235 315 355 390 k 1 0. their mechanical and chemical properties.590 1. 2. k may be obtained by linear interpolation.1. 1. [7].

the classes required within 0. For rudder and rudder body plates subjected to stress concentrations (e. attention is to be given to the appropriate choice of material and design. on a case by case basis. where fitted. 2. for instance at breaks of poop and bridge. 2. Table 3 : Application of material classes and grades (1/7/2004) Material class or grade Structural member category SECONDARY: • Longitudinal bulkhead strakes. Different grades may be required by the Society on a case-by-case basis.4.4L amidships I Outside 0. grade A/AH may generally be used.5].5 The material classes required for the strength deck plating. 2. require the impact test to be carried out on each original “rolled unit”. 2. In other cases.4. Sec 2 2. with particular regard to any free edges of the material. rudders. or in the case of grade DH plates with a nominal thickness equal to or greater than 31 mm. the latter are divided into categories (SECONDARY.g. as indicated in Tab 3. where the above plates: • either are to be placed in positions where high local stresses may occur. Note 2:Bedplates of seats for propulsion and auxiliary engines inserted in the inner bottom are to be of class I.4. or are to be subjected to considerable cold working.4.4L amidships are to be maintained for an adequate length across the poop front and at the ends of the bridge. Tab 3 also specifies the classes (I. the sheerstrake and the upper strake of longitudinal bulkheads within 0.4. PRIMARY and SPECIAL). the steel may generally be of grade A.4. with regard to stress distribution along the hull girder. other than that belonging to the Primary category • Deck plating exposed to weather.4.4. Ch 2. such as gutter bars and bilge keels.4 Grades of steel 2. Table 4 : Material grade requirements for classes I. in way of lower support of semi-spade rudders or at upper part of spade rudders) class III is to be applied.2 Materials are to be of a grade not lower than that indicated in Tab 4 depending on the material class and structural member gross thickness.3 For strength members not mentioned in Tab 3. respectively: “Normal Strength Steel” and “Higher Strength Steel”. such as [2. the workmanship and welding and the absence of prejudicial undercuts and notches.6L amidships) Note 1:Plating materials for sternframes.6 Rolled products used for welded attachments on hull plating. Note 1:“NSS” and “HSS” mean. other than that belonging to the Primary or Special category • Side plating PRIMARY: • Bottom plating (including keel plate) • Strength deck plating. II and III) of the materials to be used for the various categories of structural members. rudder horns and shaft brackets are generally to be of grades not lower than those corresponding to class II. Where it is necessary to weld attachments to the sheerstrake or stringer plate. • 78 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .4 In specific cases.Pt B. in mm t ≤ 15 15 < t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 25 25 < t ≤ 30 30 < t ≤ 35 35 < t ≤ 40 40 < t ≤ 50 NSS A A A A B B D I HSS AH AH AH AH AH AH DH NSS A A B D D D E II HSS AH AH AH DH DH DH EH NSS A B D D E E E III HSS AH AH DH DH EH EH EH 2. 2.4L amidships A / AH II A / AH III II (I outside 0. excluding that belonging to the Special category • Continuous longitudinal members above strength deck • Uppermost strake in longitudinal bulkhead SPECIAL: • Sheerstrake at strength deck • Stringer plate in strength deck • Deck strake at longitudinal bulkhead • Bilge strake Within 0. on a case by case basis. the Society may.7 In the case of grade D plates with a nominal thickness equal to or greater than 36 mm.1 For the purpose of the selection of steel grades to be used for the various structural members. including relevant doublings. or in way of large openings on the strength deck and on the bottom. II and III Class Gross thickness.4L amidships may be extended beyond that zone. are to be of the same grade as that used for the hull plating in way.

5. PRIMARY and SPECIAL). rudder horns.4L amidships I Structural member category SECONDARY: Deck plating exposed to weather (in general) Side plating above TB (1) Transverse bulkheads above TB (1) PRIMARY: Strength deck plating (2) Continuous longitudinal members above strength deck Longitudinal bulkhead above TB (1) SPECIAL: Sheerstrake at strength deck Stringer plate in strength deck Deck strake at longitudinal bulkhead (1) (2) II I III II TB is the draught in light ballast condition. the Society may. Figure 1 : Commonly used definitions of temperatures Mean daily maximum temperature 2. where: Mean : Statistical mean over observation period (at least 20 years) Mean daily average temperature Average : Average during one day and night Lowest : Lowest during one year Fig 1 illustrates the temperature definition. such as to prevent the risk of lamellar tearing (Z type steel. the lowest value within the period of operation applies.5. require the use of rolled products having adequate ductility properties in the through thickness direction. the materials in exposed structures are to be selected based on the design temperature tD. 2. egories (SECONDARY. see Part D).3 For the purpose of the selection of steel grades to be used for the structural members above the lowest ballast waterline and exposed to air. Note 1:Plating materials for sternframes. regular service during winter seasons to Arctic or Antarctic waters. Class III or grade E/EH to be applied in positions where high local stresses may occur. For non-exposed structures and structures below the lowest ballast waterline.4].2 The design temperature tD is to be taken as the lowest mean daily average air temperature in the area of operation. the latter are divided into cattD = design temperature Mean daily minimum temperature Table 5 : Application of material classes and grades to structures exposed to low air temperatures Material class Within 0. rudders and shaft brackets are to be of grades not lower than those corresponding to the material classes in [2. For seasonally restricted service.g. see [2. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 79 .8 In the case of full penetration welded joints located in positions where high local stresses may occur perpendicular to the continuous plating. on a case by case basis. Plating at corners of large hatch openings to be considered on a case by case basis. 2.2]. to be taken as defined in [2.4].1 For ships intended to operate in areas with low air temperatures (-20°C or below). as indicated in Tab 5.4.4L amidships I Outside 0.5. Tab 5 also specifies the classes (I.5.Pt B. Ch 2. e. II and III) of the materials to be used for the various categories of structural members. Sec 2 2.5 Grades of steel for structures exposed to low air temperatures 2.

6.5. Sec 2 2. depending on the design temperature.1]. 2.e.2] or special arrangements will be considered by the Society on a case by case basis.4]. for plating insulated on one side only.4 Materials may not be of a lower grade than that indicated in Tab 6 to Tab 8 depending on the material class. the structural member gross thickness and its category (as defined in Tab 3). 2. For design temperatures tD < -55°C.2 Unless a temperature gradient calculation is carried out to assess the design temperature and the steel grade in the structural members of the refrigerated spaces. may not be used.5. materials will be specially considered by the Society on a case by case basis. in relation to the class and gross thickness of the structural member considered.6. when the design temperature is below 0°C. [2.6 Grades of steel within refrigerated spaces • 2.6.e. structural member gross thickness and design temperature tD. the temperature value is stipulated by the Society on a case by case basis) in the case of non-refrigerated spaces adjacent to refrigerated spaces. 80 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .6.3 Situations other than those mentioned in [2. for plating insulated on both sides. Note 2:“φ” = not applicable.Pt B. in mm t ≤ 10 10 < t ≤ 15 15 < t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 25 25 < t ≤ 30 30 < t ≤ 35 35 < t ≤ 45 45 < t ≤ 50 -20°C / -25°C NSS A B B D D D D E HSS AH AH AH DH DH DH DH EH -26°C / -35°C NSS B D D D D D E E HSS AH DH DH DH DH DH EH EH -36°C / -45°C NSS D D D D E E E φ HSS DH DH DH DH EH EH EH FH -46°C / -55°C NSS D D E E E E φ φ HSS DH DH EH EH EH EH FH FH Note 1:“NSS” and “HSS” mean.4 Irrespective of the provisions of [2. Tab 3 and Tab 4. the temperatures to be assumed are specified below: temperature of the space on the uninsulated side. the temperature in the non-refrigerated spaces is to be conventionally taken equal to 0°C. either with uninsulated stiffening members (i.1] and [2. but not necessarily greater than 1800 mm.6. “Normal Strength Steel” and “Higher Strength Steel”. fitted on the uninsulated side of plating) or with insulated stiffening members (i.6. the materials are to be of grades not lower than those indicated in Tab 9. Ch 2.6.6. 2. with insulated stiffening members. respectively. 2. when the temperature difference between the adjacent spaces is generally not greater than 10 °C (when the temperature difference between the adjacent spaces is greater than 10°C.1 For structural members within or adjacent to refrigerated spaces. Table 6 : Material grade requirements for class I at low temperatures Gross thickness. fitted on the insulated side of plating) mean value of temperatures in the adjacent spaces.5 Single strakes required to be of class III or of grade E/EH of FH are to have breadths not less than (800+5L) mm.2] and Tab 9. steel having grades lower than those required in [2. • • 2.

1 Steels for forging and casting General 3.2 Steels of structural members intended to be welded are to have mechanical and chemical properties deemed appropriate for this purpose by the Society on a case by case basis.2 Steels for forging 3. in °C Gross thickness. Note 2:“φ” = not applicable. Table 9 : Material grade requirements for members within or adjacent to refrigerated spaces Design temperature. “Normal Strength Steel” and “Higher Strength Steel”. [1.1. in mm t ≤ 10 10 < t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 30 30 < t ≤ 40 40 < t ≤ 45 45 < t ≤ 50 -20°C / -25°C NSS B D D E E E HSS AH DH DH EH EH EH -26°C / -35°C NSS D D E E φ φ HSS DH DH EH EH FH FH -36°C / -45°C NSS D E E φ φ φ HSS DH EH EH FH FH FH -46°C / -55°C NSS E E φ φ φ φ HSS EH EH FH FH φ φ Note 1:“NSS” and “HSS” mean. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 81 . Ch 2. Sec 2 Table 7 : Material grade requirements for class II at low temperatures Gross thickness.2]). 3.1 For the purpose of testing. Table 8 : Material grade requirements for class III at low temperatures Gross thickness. which is to be carried out in accordance with the applicable provisions of Part D.2.1.3 The steels used are to be tested in accordance with the applicable requirements of Part D. Ch 2. “Normal Strength Steel” and “Higher Strength Steel”. Sec 3. respectively.1. 3.1 Mechanical and chemical properties of steels for forging and casting to be used for structural members are to comply with the applicable requirements of Part D. in mm t ≤ 10 10 < t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 25 25 < t ≤ 30 30 < t ≤ 35 35 < t ≤ 40 40 < t ≤ 50 -20°C / -25°C NSS D D E E E E φ HSS DH DH EH EH EH EH FH -26°C / -35°C NSS D E E E φ φ φ HSS DH EH EH EH FH FH FH -36°C / -45°C NSS E E φ φ φ φ φ HSS EH EH FH FH FH FH φ -46°C / -55°C NSS E φ φ φ φ φ φ HSS EH FH FH FH φ φ φ Note 1:“NSS” and “HSS” mean.Pt B. the above steels for forging are assigned to class 1 (see Pt D. Note 2:“φ” = not applicable. respectively. 3. in mm t ≤ 20 -10 ≤ tD < 0 20 < t ≤ 25 t > 25 t ≤ 15 -25 ≤ tD < -10 15 < t ≤ 25 t > 25 -40 ≤ tD < -25 t ≤ 25 t > 25 Structural member category Secondary B / AH B / AH D / DH B / AH D / DH E / EH D / DH E / EH Primary or Special B / AH D / DH E / EH D / DH E / EH E / EH E / EH E / EH 3 3.

after consideration by the Society on a case by case basis. accessories and wire ropes are generally to comply with the applicable requirements of Part D.3 Materials used in welding processes are to comply with the applicable requirements of Part D. in particular impact properties which are appropriate to those of the steel plating on which the cast parts are to be welded and non-destructive examinations. In such cases. the Society states the requirements for the acceptance of the materials concerned. Sec 2 3. 3. 3. masts. parts of steering gear and deck machinery in general may be made of C and C-Mn weldable steels of quality 1. anchors. chain cables.2 Rolled bars may be accepted in lieu of forged products. Ch 2. Ch 2. the use of high grade iron cast parts of a suitable type will be considered by the Society on a case by case basis. rivets.2 The use of plastics or other special materials not covered by these Rules is considered by the Society on a case by case basis.3. 4 4. cranes. derrick posts. in accordance with the applicable requirements of Pt D. Sec 4. rudders. [1. 4. In such case. Sec 4. 4. are to be subjected to nondestructive examination to check their internal structure. 4.1 As a rule. may be required. products made of copper and copper alloys.2. malleable iron or spheroidal graphite iron cast parts with combined ferritic/perlitic structure is allowed only to manufacture low stressed elements of secondary importance. the above steels for casting are assigned to class 1 irrespective of their quality.2 For the purpose of testing. particularly those intended to form a welded assembly and tillers or rotors mounted without key. compliance with the requirements of Pt D.2. the use of grey iron.1 Other materials and products such as parts made of iron castings.3 Steels for casting 3. which is to be carried out in accordance with Pt D.2 Ordinary iron cast parts may not be used for windows or sidescuttles.1 Cast parts intended for stems.Pt B. having tensile strength Rm = 400 N/mm2 or 440 N/mm2. 82 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . The Society may require additional properties and tests for such casting. 4. derricks.2 Iron cast parts 4.3.1.4 Heavily stressed cast parts of steering gear.1. 4. sternframes.3. 3.11]. Ch 2. relevant to the quality and testing of rolled parts accepted in lieu of forged parts.3.2. Ch 2. Items which may be subjected to high stresses may be required to be of quality 2 steels of the above types.1 Other materials and products General 3.1.3 The welding of cast parts to main plating contributing to hull strength members is considered by the Society on a case by case basis. Sec 1. where allowed.

2. Ch 5. even though an explicit indication to this effect may not appear on the approved plans.AH36 DH32 . For welding of hull structural steels. The general requirements relevant to fabrication by welding and qualification of welding procedures are given in Part D.1.EH36 FH32 .3 It is understood that welding of the various types of steel is to be carried out by means of welding procedures approved for the purpose.1 Welding consumables and procedures Approval of welding consumables and procedures Welding consumables and welding procedures adopted are to be approved by the Society.FH36 AH40 DH40 .3. The requirements relevant to the non-destructive examination of welded connections are given in the Rules for carrying out non-destructive examination of welding. The requirements for the approval of welding procedures for the individual users are given in Pt D. 1.2.1.3. The requirements for the approval of welding consumables are given in Pt D.2 Weld connections are to be executed according to the approved plans. 1.1 The requirements of this Section apply to the preparation.1 The requirements of this Section apply to the welding of hull structural steels or aluminium alloys of the types considered in Part D or other types accepted as equivalent by the Society. Ch 5. Sec 5.1.1 General Application ered electrodes. Sec 3 SECTION 3 WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS 1 1.EH40 FH40 1.3 1. to comply with the applicable requirements.3. Table 1 : Consumable grades Consumable minimum grade Steel grade Butt welding. the consumables indicated in the welding procedures to be approved are considered by the Society on a case by case basis.Pt B. 1.4 The quality standard adopted by the shipyard is to be submitted to the Society and applies to all constructions unless otherwise specified on a case-by-case basis. partial and full T penetration welding 1 2 3 2Y 3Y 4Y 2Y40 3Y40 4Y40 2Y40 2Y Fillet welding 1 A B-D E AH32 . welding consumables appropriate to one or the other steel are to be adopted. 1. Ch 5. Chapter 5. 1. as regards strength or notch toughness. except in the case of one side welding on refractory backing (ceramic). For welding of other materials.1. The approval of the welding procedure is not required in the case of manual metal arc welding with approved cov- Note 1: Welding consumables approved for welding higher strength steels (Y) may be used in lieu of those approved for welding normal strength steels having the same or a lower grade.2 Consumables 1. Any detail not specifically represented in the plans is. 1.3 Electrodes for manual welding Basic covered electrodes are to be used for the welding of structural members made in higher strength steels and irrespective of the steel type. Note 2: In the case of welded connections between two hull structural steels of different grades. Non-basic covered electrodes are generally allowed for manual fillet welding of structural members of moderate thickness (gross thickness less than 25 mm) made in normal strength steels. welding consumables approved in grade Y40 may be used in lieu of those approved in grade Y having the same or a lower grade. in any event. Ch 2.2 Base material 1.2 The service temperature is intended to be the ambient temperature. execution and inspection of welded connections in hull structures. Sec 2. the minimum consumable grades to be adopted are specified in Tab 1 depending on the steel grade. 1. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 83 . unless otherwise stated. As guidance see also the indications given in the “Guide for Welding”. Sec 4 and Pt D.DH36 EH32 .

5]).4. Ch 5. wires and fluxes are to be stocked in suitable locations so as to ensure their preservation in good condition. enabling easy and accurate reading. Special attention is to be given to the above details in the plan approval stage. Ch 5.6.3] and Pt D.2 A plan showing the location of the various steel types is to be submitted at least for outer shell. 1. in any event.1 The type of connection and the edge preparation are to be appropriate to the welding procedure adopted.1 Welders Manual and semi-automatic welding is to be performed by welders certified by the Society in accordance with recognised standards (see Pt D. 1. to comply with the applicable Rule requirements. Manual electrodes.4.1] and [1. 1. Sec 1. [2.2.5 Technical equipment and facilities The welding equipment is to be appropriate to the adopted welding procedures.5 Distance between welds Welds located too close to one another are to be avoided.4 Prefabrication sequences Prefabrication sequences are to be arranged so as to facilitate positioning and assembling as far as possible. 1.6 Design 1.1 General For the various structural details typical of welded construction in shipbuilding and not dealt with in this Section. [2. The amount of welding to be performed on board is to be limited to a minimum and restricted to easily accessible connections.5. the distance between two adjacent butts in the same strake of shell or deck plating is to be greater than two frame spaces.6. in such cases. and adequate devices for easy regulation and regular feed. as necessary. deck and bulkhead structures. considered equivalent by the Society. 2 2. Sec 1. In particular.Pt B. are to contain the necessary data relevant to the fabrication by welding of the structures and items represented. Possible exceptions to the above will be considered by the Society on a case by case basis. 1.4 Personnel and equipment rules of good practice.2] and to provide assistance for and inspection of welding personnel.4 NDE operators Non-destructive tests are to be carried out by qualified personnel.2. Any detail not clearly represented in the plans is.4. In general. 1. Connections different from the above may be accepted by the Society on a case by case basis. the structural elements to be connected and the stresses to which they are subjected. The qualifications are to be appropriate to the specific applications.1 The structural plans to be submitted for approval. 1. the main sequences of prefabrication.6.2 Plate orientation The plates of the shell and strength deck are generally to be arranged with their length in the fore-aft direction.1 General In general.3 Overall arrangement Particular consideration is to be given to the overall arrangement and structural details of highly stressed parts of the hull.2 Butt welding 2.6. 2. the welding equipment for special welding procedures is to be provided with adequate and duly calibrated measuring instruments. Sec 1. For important structures. assembly and welding and non-destructive examination planned are also to be represented in the plans.4. 2.6. the 84 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Ch 2. certified by the Society. if the thinner plate has a gross thickness equal to or less than 10 mm 1.2.1. are adopted. or by recognised bodies in compliance with appropriate standards.4. 1.5 Documentation to be submitted 1.3 Organisation The internal organisation of the shipyard is to be such as to ensure compliance in full with the requirements in [1.4. recognised standards and past experience are to apply as agreed by the Society. by means of a suitable number of competent supervisors.4.2 Automatic welding operators Personnel manning automatic welding machines and equipment are to be competent and sufficiently trained.5.2.1 Type of connections and preparation General 1. The minimum distance between two adjacent welds is considered on a case by case basis. 1. welded on both sides except where special procedures or specific techniques. tests as deemed necessary (for example. Sec 3 1. taking into account the level of stresses acting on the connected elements. according to Ch 2. 2. the welders are to be employed within the limits of their respective approval. of adequate output power and such as to provide for stability of the arc in the different welding positions.2 Welding of plates with different thicknesses In the case of welding of plates with a difference in gross thickness equal to or greater than: • 3 mm. 1. the relevant detail and workmanship specifications are to be approved. butt connections of plating are to be full penetration. transverse impact tests) may be required by the Society.

4]. For connections of plating parallel to the direction of main stresses. 2. root gap Typical edge preparations and gaps are indicated in the “Guide for welding”. are to be connected together by butt joints.2. where they are subjected to low stresses (in general not exceeding 30 N/mm 2) and adequate precautions are taken to prevent the possibility of local laminations of the element against which the T web is welded.3. for staggered welding are to be such that: p -. i. The type of bevel and the gap between the members to be assembled are to be such as to ensure a proper penetration of the weld on its backing and an adequate connection to the stiffener as required.3. and it is recommended where the spacing p. is low. calculated according to [2. for chain welding • • Fig 2.3 Continuous fillet welding Continuous fillet welding is to be adopted: • for watertight connections • for connections of brackets.3. or elements in general subject to high stresses. bulbs and flat bars When lengths of longitudinals of the shell plating and strength deck within 0.1 General In general. in mm. according to [2. • scallop welding (see Fig 2): d ≥ 75 mm p-d ≤ 150 mm v ≤ 0. 2.5 Section. partial or full T penetration welding according to [2.3 Fillet welding 2. 2.4] is to be adopted. these are to be full penetration.25b. butt welding assembly of two plates backed by the flange or the face plate of a stiffener. In addition. which may be subdivided (see [2. Continuous fillet welding may also be adopted in lieu of intermittent welding wherever deemed suitable.3.4]. shown in: • Fig 1. lugs and scallops • at the ends of connections for a length of at least 75mm • where intermittent welding is not allowed.4]) into: chain welding scallop welding staggered welding. The acceptable root gap is to be in accordance with the adopted welding procedure and relevant bevel preparation. 2.Pt B. staggered welding is not allowed for connections subjected to high alternate stresses.3. depending on the type and location of the connection. it may be accommodated in the weld transition between plates. of an intermittent weld.3.4 Intermittent welding The spacing p and the length d. may be accepted where back welding is not feasible or in specific cases deemed acceptable by the Society.2.e.≤ ϕ d where the coefficient ϕ is defined in Tab 2 and Tab 3 for the different types of intermittent welding. where the weld is constituted by a continuous fillet on each side of the abutting plate (see [2. Other solutions may be adopted if deemed acceptable by the Society on a case by case basis.4 Butt welding on permanent backing Butt welding on permanent backing.2 Fillet welding types Fillet welding may be of the following types: • continuous fillet welding. for scallop welding Fig 3. if the thinner plate has a gross thickness greater than 10 mm.6 L amidships. In general.3. ordinary fillet welding (without bevel) may be adopted for T connections of the various simple and composite structural elements. When the difference in thickness is less than the above values. a taper having a length of not less than 4 times the difference in gross thickness is to be adopted for connections of plating perpendicular to the direction of main stresses. 2.2. Sec 3 • 4 mm. without being greater than 75 mm Figure 2 : Intermittent scallop welding • staggered welding (see Fig 3): d ≥ 75 mm RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 85 . Where this is not the case.3 Edge preparation.3]) • intermittent fillet welding. the taper length may be reduced to 3 times the difference in gross thickness.3. the following limitations are to be complied with: • chain welding (see Fig 1): d ≥ 75 mm p-d ≤ 200 mm Figure 1 : Intermittent chain welding 2. Ch 2. 2.

3. depending on the results of structural analyses. For thicknesses t greater than 16 mm. from the following formula: p t T = w F t -d where: wF : Welding factor.3. Sec 3 p-2d ≤ 300 mm p ≤ 2d for connections subjected to high alternate stresses. Figure 4 : Continuous fillet welding between cut-outs t : p. with respect to those in Tab 2. Ch 2.3. of the structural element which constitutes the web of the T connection Spacing and length.0 mm. where the gross thickness of the thinner plate is less than 6 mm • 3. in mm. The values of p1 in Tab 2 may be used when 8 ≤ t ≤ 16 mm. by: • 10 mm for chain or scallop welding • 20 mm for staggered welding.3.5] the weld spacing may be taken equal to the value p1 defined in Tab 2.5 mm.4]. with respect to those in Tab 2. 2. for connections of primary supporting members belonging to single-skin structures and not mentioned in Tab 2. The throat thickness may be required by the Society to be increased.3. d : Throat thickness a Throat thickness a ε λ λ1 ε λ2 λ3 λ=∑(λi) 86 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . in mm. For thicknesses t less than 8 mm.Pt B. defined in Tab 2 for the various hull structural connections.5 Throat thickness of fillet weld T connections The throat thickness of fillet weld T connections is to be obtained. by: • 10 mm for chain or scallop welding • 20 mm for staggered welding without exceeding the limits in [2.4 times the required throat thickness. Actual gross thickness.6 Weld dimensions in a specific case Where intermittent fillet welding is adopted with: • length d = 75 mm • throat thickness tT specified in Tab 4 depending on the thickness t defined in [2. of an intermittent weld. Figure 5 : Intermittent scallop fillet welding between cut-outs 2.4]. wF is defined in Tab 3. the values of p1 are to be reduced. p/d is to be taken equal to 1. Figure 3 : Intermittent staggered welding For continuous fillet welds. The leg length of fillet weld T connections is to be not less than 1. otherwise. in mm. defined in [2. the values of p1 may be increased. In no case may the throat thickness be less than: • 3.

13 0.2 3.0 4.5 1.6]) (3) Hull area General.8 3.0 4.0 3.6 CH/SC 160 ST 260 ST 260 Structures located forward of 0.20 0.3.5 3.2 1.5 3.6 SC 3.5 3.13 0.0 4.13 0.6 4.0 1.8 CH 160 CH 130 CH 160 CH/SC 130 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 87 .2 3.6 4.13 0.0 3.25 0.5 3.20 0.6 p1.35 0.13 0.20 0.2 1.13 0.0 4.0 3. Ch 2.13 0.2 1.2 3.5 1.2 3.25 ST 260 ST 260 ST 260 CH/SC 130 CH/SC 160 ST 260 CH 160 ST 260 CH 130 longitudinal ordinary stiffeners centre girder side girders floors bottom and inner bottom plating keel inner bottom plating bottom and inner bottom plating floors (interrupted girders) bottom and inner bottom plating in general at ends (20% of span) for longitudinally framed double bottom inner bottom plating in way of brackets of primary supporting members girders (interrupted floors) partial side girders web stiffeners Side Deck ordinary stiffeners strength deck non-watertight decks ordinary stiffeners and intercostal girders hatch coamings floors floor and girder webs side and plating side plating side plating deck plating deck plating in general at corners of hatchways for 15% of the hatch length web stiffeners Bulkheads watertight bulkhead structures non-watertight bulkhead structures ordinary stiffeners coaming webs boundaries boundaries bulkhead plating wash bulkheads others in general (5) at ends (25% of span).6 ST 260 2.20 0. Sec 3 Table 2 : Welding factors wF and coefficient ϕ for the various hull structural connections Connection of watertight plates webs of ordinary stiffeners boundaries plating face plate of fabricated stiffeners at ends (4) elsewhere to ϕ (2) (3) CH 3.13 0.Pt B.8 2.0 3.13 0.8 1.25 0.0 4.2 3. in mm (see [2.5 3.8 3.6 CH 130 CH 160 CH 130 ST 260 ST 260 CH 160 ST 260 Partial penetration welding 0. where no end brackets are fitted 0.13 0.20 0.6 4.20 0.20 0.35 3. unless otherwise specified in the table Bottom and double bottom wF (1) 0.5 3.6 ST 4.6 3.13 0.45 1.8 2.5 2.5 2.0 4.5 2.35 0.2 3.25 See Tab 3 2.13 0.25 0.35 0.6 4.8 2.25 0.8 2.75 L from the AE (6) bottom longitudinal ordinary stiffeners floors and girders side frames in panting area webs of side girders in single side skin structures bottom plating bottom and inner bottom plating side plating side plating and face plate A< 65 cm2 (7) A ≥ 65 cm (7) 2 0.

45 0.35 3.45 2.2 2.2 CH/SC 160 1.8 CH/SC 130 Superstructures and deckhouses external bulkheads 0.13 0.35 0.20 0.25 0.Pt B.3.35 1.20 0.13 0. Ch 2.20 0. in mm (see [2.6 ST 260 ST 260 Pillars elements composing the pillar section pillars Full penetration welding 0.25 0.8 CH/SC 130 0.20 0.8 1.45 0.6 4.45 0.35 2.35 0.45 0.0 4. Sec 3 Hull area Connection of each other side plating bottom and inner bottom plating keel and inner bottom plating in way of main engine foundations in way of seating of auxiliary machinery and boilers elsewhere side girders bottom and inner bottom plating in way of main engine foundations in way of seating of auxiliary machinery and boilers elsewhere floors (except in way of main engine foundations) floors in way of main engine foundations floors bottom and inner bottom plating bottom plating foundation plates centre girder deck single bottom double bottom in general engine and boiler casings at corners of openings (15% of opening length) internal bulkheads ordinary stiffeners deck external and internal bulkhead plating each other (fabricated pillars) deck pillars in compression pillars in tension in way of seating of auxiliary machinery and boilers elsewhere side ordinary stiffeners floors to wF (1) 0.5 3.0 3.35 Ventilators coamings deck 88 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .13 0.20 0.2 CH/SC 160 0.6]) (3) After peak (6) internal structures Machinery space (6) centre girder 0.8 1.35 ϕ (2) (3) CH SC ST p1.2 2.5 3.

of the cut-out shown in Fig 6. SC = scallop welding. in mm (see [2.2 ST p1.5] 0. In connections for which no ϕ value is specified for a certain type of intermittent welding.c. For connections not mentioned. such type is not permitted and continuous welding is to be adopted.3.2d ⎠l ⎞ ⎝ l ⎛ where: pS. in mm. [7. in mm. acting on the ordinary stiffener. for intermittent scallop welding.6]) (3) SC 160 SC 160 According to Ch 10. Sec 3 Hull area Rudders Connection of webs in general each other plating in general top and bottom plates of rudder plating solid parts or rudder stock horizontal and vertical webs directly connected to solid parts each other plating to wF (1) 0. Sec 1. to be taken as shown in: • Fig 4. λ : Dimensions.35tW.3. to the web of primary sup- b. In tanks intended for the carriage of ballast or fresh water.20 0. where tW is the web gross thickness. in mm. A is the face plate sectional area of the side girders. 2. Sec 1.3. continuous fillet welding is to be adopted.7 Throat thickness of welds between cut-outs The throat thickness of the welds between the cut-outs in primary supporting member webs for the passage of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the value obtained. in cm2.35 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) In connections for which wF ≥ 0.5] tT ε. Where end brackets are fitted. continuous welding with wF = 0.4] or Ch 10. Sec 2.20 0. in mm. Ends of ordinary stiffeners means the area extended 75 mm from the span ends. defined in Ch 7.2] Main dimensions.35 is to be adopted.4]. Where primary supporting member web stiffeners are welded to ordinary stiffener face plates. from the following formula: ε t TC = t T -λ porting members is to be not less than 0.Pt B. 89 . in mm. ST = staggered welding. for continuous welding • Fig 5. respectively.45 0. For coefficient ϕ.35 ϕ (2) (3) CH SC 2. the requirements for the central part apply.v: RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ where: : Throat thickness defined in [2. pW : Still water and wave pressure.8 Throat thickness of welds connecting ordinary stiffeners with primary supporting members The throat thickness of fillet welds connecting ordinary stiffeners and collar plates. if any.3.3. see [2.u. in certain cases the Society may require the above throat thickness to be obtained. from the following formula: s4 ( p S + p W )s 1 – ----2 t T = -----------------------------------------------------c + 0 . CH = chain welding. in kN/m2.3. [7. 2.d.35.2d u + v --------------------b + 0 . ends means the area extended in way of brackets and at least 50 mm beyond the bracket toes.2 2. [3. Ch 2.

For coefficient ϕ. in mm 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 tT.20 0.2 CH/SC 160 1.35 0.45 0.0 CH/SC 210 2. Ch 2.Pt B. ends means the area extended in way of brackets and at least 100 mm beyond the bracket toes.20 0. in mm 6 8 9 tT.5 8.25 0. in mm 7. in cm2. continuous welding is to be adopted. where A < 65 cm2 (5) web face plate plating at ends elsewhere face plate at ends elsewhere end brackets In tanks.35 0.0 6.20 0.5 9.0 3.4].8 CH/SC 130 3.0 4.35 0. in mm 3.0 9. where A < 65 cm2 web.25 0.6]) (3) In connections for which wF ≥ 0.0 3.15 0.35.5 6.0 10.5 6.0 u d v 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 c b 90 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .35 0.45 3. Figure 6 : End connection of ordinary stiffener Dimensions of the cut-out c Table 4 : Required throat thickness t.5 5.3.0 7. continuous fillet welding is to be adopted. ST = staggered welding. where A ≥ 65 cm2 plating and face plate plating face plate at ends elsewhere end brackets In tanks.0 CH/SC 210 CH ϕ (2) (3) SC ST p1.5 4. see [2. Where end brackets are fitted.0 3. SC = scallop welding.0 7.15 0. Sec 3 Table 3 : Welding factors w F and coefficient ϕ for connections of primary supporting members Primary supporting member General (4) Connection wF (1) of web.2 2. Note 2: Ends of primary supporting members means the area extended 20% of the span from the span ends. (4) For cantilever deck beams.35 0. (3) CH = chain welding.35 0. where A ≥ 65 cm2 web face plate plating at ends elsewhere face plate end brackets (1) (2) face plate to at ends elsewhere 0.5 t. such type is not permitted. (5) For primary supporting members in tanks intended for the carriage of ballast or fresh water.0 5.0 10.5 8.3. continuous welding is to be adopted.5 7.0 6. in mm (see [2.8 1. In connections for which no ϕ value is specified for a certain type of intermittent welding. Note 1: A is the face plate sectional area of the primary supporting member.

2. in mm. the throat thickness required in [2. is to be taken between 3 mm and t/3.4.3. in mm. Typical edge preparations are indicated in: • for partial penetration welds: Fig 7 and Fig 8. depending on the properties of the electrodes and consumables. Ch 2.4.1 Lap-joint welding General Lap-joint welding may be adopted for: • peripheral connection of doublers • internal structural elements subjected to very low stresses. and α between 45° and 60° Back gouging is generally required for full penetration welds. which may be associated with: • cold cracking when performing T connections between plates of considerable thickness or high restraint • large fillet welding and full penetration welding on higher strength steels. T f = = 2.5 2. 2.5 mm. in which f.1 Partial and full T penetration welding General Figure 8 : Partial penetration weld Partial or full T penetration welding is to be adopted for connections subjected to high stresses for which fillet welding is considered unacceptable by the Society. The same reduction applies also for semi-automatic procedures where the welding is carried out in the downhand position. is to be taken between 0 and 3 mm. if deemed necessary under specific conditions. this reduction may not be greater than 1. Sec 3 2.5. lap-joint welding may be allowed by the Society on a case by case basis. T f = = 2. However. Continuous welding is generally to be adopted.5. 2.4 2.2 Gap f T Figure 10 : Full penetration weld The surfaces of lap-joints are to be in sufficiently close contact. Typical details are given in the “Guide for welding”.5] may be reduced up to 15%.2 Lamellar tearing T f = Figure 9 : Full penetration weld Precautions are to be taken in order to avoid lamellar tears. and α between 45° and 60° • for full penetration welds: Fig 9 and Fig 10.5.3. Elsewhere.3 Dimensions = The dimensions of the lap-joint are to be specified and are considered on a case by case basis.9 Throat thickness of deep penetration fillet welding Figure 7 : Partial penetration weld When fillet welding is carried out with automatic welding procedures.Pt B. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 91 . in which f.

cored or coated wires with gas shielding. the welding is to be carried out in weather protected conditions. flame or mechanical cleaning may be required. Ch 2. 4. grease or paint.3. Sec 3 2. Slot welding is. 2. is permitted provided the welds are continuous and of the required size for the whole length on both sides of the joint.1 The intermediate flat.7 Plug welding 4.6 2. Beyond this zone. is to be welded as a shell doubler by continuous fillet welds.2 Butt connection edge preparation 3.2 Welding procedures and consumables 2.g. 3. as far as possible.1 Corner joint welding.1. in any event.3 4. moisture and other substances.3. slot welding may be accepted by the Society on a case by case basis. 3.1 The various welding procedures and consumables are to be used within the limits of their approval and in accordance with the conditions of use specified in the respective approval documents. Slot welds are.Pt B. slag caused by oxygen cutting.3 Connection between propeller post and propeller shaft bossing Slot welding may be adopted in very specific cases subject to the special agreement of the Society. Recommendations for edge preparation are given in the “Guide for welding”.1. Effective means of cleaning are to be adopted particularly in connections with special welding procedures. according to specifically defined criteria.6. In welding procedures using bare. depending on the plate thickness. such as mill scale.3 Surface condition 3. 2. with the doubler and with the bilge keel. The shell plating is also to be welded directly to the bar stem with butt welding.2 Bilge keel connection 3. performed with ordinary fillet welds.7.3. (e. such parts are to be dry.1 Plug welding may be adopted only when accepted by the Society on a case by case basis.2. slot welding of doublers on the outer shell and strength deck is not permitted within 0. Typical dimensions of the slot weld and the throat thickness of the fillet weld are given in the “Guide for welding”.1 Workmanship Forming of plates Slot welds are to be of appropriate shape (in general oval) and dimensions. The surfaces to be welded are to be free from rust. 4. if edge preparation is carried out by flame. The butt welds of the bilge plating and those of the doublers are to be flush in way of crossing. which may produce defects in the welds. for doublers). 4.1 Fabricated propeller posts are to be welded with full penetration welding to the propeller shaft bossing. Sec 7.1.3. 92 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .6. respectively.1 Specific weld connections Corner joint welding Adequate protection from the weather is to be provided to parts being welded. it is to be free from cracks or other detrimental notches.2. as adopted in some cases at the corners of tanks.1 Hot or cold forming is to be performed according to the requirements of recognised standards or those accepted by the Society on a case by case basis depending on the material grade and rate of deformation. permitted only where stresses act in a predominant direction. 4 4. The butt welds of the doubler and bilge keel are to be full penetration and shifted from the shell butts.4. Recommendations for cold and hot forming are given in the “Guide for welding”. in general. The distance between two consecutive slot welds is to be not greater than a value which is defined on a case by case basis taking into account: the transverse spacing between adjacent slot weld lines the stresses acting in the connected plates the structural arrangement below the connected plates.2 Dimensions 3. [9]. In particular. 4. so as to ensure that the gas outflow from the nozzle is not disturbed by winds and draughts. Typical details are given in the “Guide for welding”.1 Welding operations Weather protection 3 3.4 Bar stem connections 3. to be aligned in this direction.6L amidships. through which the bilge keel is connected to the shell according to Ch 2.1 Slot welding General 3. and may not be completely filled by the weld. 4.2 Alternative solutions to corner joint welding may be considered by the Society on a case by case basis. The edge preparation is to be of the required geometry and correctly performed.1 The bar stem is to be welded to the bar keel generally with butt welding. In general.

the gap g may not exceed 4 mm. while allowing maximum freedom for shrinkage to prevent cracks or other defects due to excessive restraint.9 Preheating and interpass temperatures The misalignment m in cruciform connections.7 Misalignment in cruciform connections When welding aluminium alloy parts. 4. and slow cooling may be required by the Society on a case by case basis.8 Assembling of aluminium alloy parts The misalignment m. as shown in Fig 11. to be maintained during welding.15t. when not specified. in general.3.3.9]. In any event. where t is the gross thickness of the thinner abutting plate • the values specified in Sec 2 for some special connections of various ship types. Suitable preheating. it is to be in accordance with normal good practice. measured on the median lines as shown in Fig 13. Sec 3.Pt B. as applicable.3.3. Ch 2. 4. 4. where t is the gross thickness of the thinner abutting plate. In the case of a gap greater than 2 mm.6 Plate misalignment in butt connections 4. not greater than 2 mm may be accepted without increasing the throat thickness calculated according to [2. The gap between the edges is to comply with the required tolerances or. Figure 11 : Gap in fillet weld T connections Figure 13 : Misalignment in cruciform connections 4. between plates with the same gross thickness t is to be less than 0. is to be less than: • t/2. The Society may require lower misalignment to be adopted for cruciform connections subjected to high stresses. Sec 3 The presence of a shop primer may be accepted. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 93 .5 Gap in fillet weld T connections In fillet weld T connections. without being greater than 3 mm.5] to [2.3.3.3. by adopting assembling and tack welding procedures suitable for this purpose • keep possible deformations within the allowable limits. measured as shown in Fig 12. Ch 5. Recommendations are also given in the “Guide for welding”. particular care is to be taken so as to: • reduce as far as possible restraint from welding shrinkage. provided it has been approved by the Society. the above throat thickness is to be increased accordingly as specified in Sec 2 for some special connections of various ship types.3. a gap g. Shop primers are to be approved by the Society for a specific type and thickness according to Pt D. 4.4 Assembling and gap Figure 12 : Plate misalignment in butt connections The setting appliances and system to be used for positioning are to ensure adequate tightening adjustment and an appropriate gap of the parts to be welded.

94 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . considering these modifications as repairs of the inservice ship’s hull. as appropriate for the type of steel.12 Stress relieving It is recommended and in some cases it may be required that special structures subject to high stresses.4.1 5. the same precaution is to be taken when an interrupted weld is resumed or two welds are to be connected. having complex shapes and involving welding of elements of considerable thickness (such as rudder spades and stern frames).1 Deviations in the joint preparation and other specified requirements.1. The Manufacturer's internal organisation is responsible for ensuring that welders and operators are not employed under improper conditions or beyond the limits of their respective qualifications and that welding procedures are adopted within the approved limits and under the appropriate operating conditions. welding procedures and work schedule are in accordance with the applicable requirements.1 In the case of repairs involving the replacement of material already welded on the hull. the results of non-destructive examinations are to be submitted.2 The Manufacturer is to make available to the Surveyor a list of the manual welders and welding operators and their respective qualifications.3 Defects 5. 6. 6. As far as possible.1.2.3. 5.1 Inspections and checks General 4.3. both during ship launching and with the ship afloat.4 Crossing of structural elements 4. 6. 6. the procedures to be adopted are to be agreed with the Society on a case by case basis. Sec 3 4. particular care is to be devoted to obtaining the correspondence of the interrupted elements on both sides of the continuous element. the Manufacturer is required to promptly inform the Surveyor and submit the repair proposal. The Surveyor may require destructive or non-destructive examinations to be carried out for initial identification of the defects found and. before final assembly. 4. to inspections suitable to check compliance with the applicable requirements. in excess of the permitted tolerances and found during construction. When any serious or systematic defect is detected either in the welded connections or in the base material.3. welding by building up or repairs are to be authorised by the Society’s Surveyor. 5. the other physically interrupted at the crossing) when it is essential to achieve structural continuity through the continuous element (continuity obtained by means of the welded connections at the crossing).10 Welding sequences Welding sequences and direction of welding are to be determined so as to minimise deformations and prevent defects in the welded connection. at a temperature within the range 550°C ÷ 620°C.2 Visual and non-destructive examinations 5. Ch 2.4.1. taking into account any detailed information on the size and position of welds and the stresses on the zones concerned. Departures from the above provision may be accepted by the Society on a case by case basis. 5.4 Repairs on structures already welded 5.3 The Manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the operating conditions. 4.1 When the gap exceeds the required values. structures and welded connections are to be subjected.2 Gap and weld deformations 6.Pt B. for verification of their satisfactory completion. at the beginning of the work. in the event that repairs are undertaken. are to be repaired as agreed with the Society on a case by case basis. 6 6. the structure is to be presented to the Surveyor for visual examination at a suitable stage of fabrication.11 Interpass cleaning After each run. All main connections are generally to be completed before the ship is afloat. the slag is to be removed by means of a chipping hammer and a metal brush.1. Suitable systems for checking such correspondence are to be adopted. are prefabricated in parts of adequate size and stress-relieved in the furnace.2. workmanship.1 Materials.1 In the case of T crossing of structural elements (one element continuous.1 After completion of the welding operation and workshop inspection.1 Defects and imperfections on the materials and welded connections found during construction are to be evaluated for possible acceptance on the basis of the applicable requirements of the Society. the defective material and welds are to be discarded or repaired. approved plans and recognised good welding practice. as deemed appropriate by the Surveyor on a case by case basis. Recommendations for repairing gap and weld deformations not complying with the required standards are given in the “Guide for welding”. approved plans and standards. Where the limits of acceptance are exceeded. 5 Modifications and repairs during construction General 5. during construction and after completion.3.

3 Radiographic examinations are to be carried out on the welded connections of the hull in accordance with the Society’s requirements. in mm. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 95 . Additional examinations may be required by the Surveyor on a case by case basis. Figure 14 : End connection of ordinary stiffener without collar plate In all the above connections. 6. Ch 2. are to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate.Pt B. as shown in Fig 10.2 Where ordinary stiffeners are cut at primary supporting members. The net thickness of brackets is to be not less than that of ordinary stiffeners. in m. 7. The repaired zone is then to be submitted to non-destructive examination. the relevant connection is to be repaired to sound metal for an extent and according to a procedure agreed with the Surveyor.4 The Society may allow radiographic examinations to be partially replaced by ultrasonic examinations. Figure 15 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with collar plate Figure 16 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with one large collar plate Figure 17 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with two large collar plates 7 End connections of ordinary stiffeners 7. 6. Brackets with net thickness. The net sectional area. where Lb is the length.1. 6.2.1.1 Where ordinary stiffeners are continuous through primary supporting members. in cm2. of the flanged edge or face plate is to be at least equal to 10Lb .2.2 Non-destructive examinations are to be carried out with appropriate methods and techniques suitable for the individual applications. they are to be connected to the web plating so as to ensure proper transmission of loads.g. of the free edge of the end bracket. the approved plans and the Surveyor’s instructions.2. RINA may require backing brackets to be fitted.5 When the visual or non-destructive examinations reveal the presence of unacceptable defects. 7. to be agreed with the Surveyor on a case by case basis.2. 6. using a method at least as effective as that adopted the first time and deemed suitable by the Surveyor to verify that the repair is satisfactory. Sec 3 6. by means of one of the connection details shown in Fig 6 to Fig 9. The extension of the collar plate above the primary member is to be at least 3 t. less than 15Lb.3 Where necessary.1 7. in order to improve the fatigue strength of the connection. e. where t is the thickness of the collar plate. brackets are to be fitted to ensure the structural continuity.6 Ultrasonic and magnetic particle examinations may also be required by the Surveyor in specific cases to verify the quality of the base material.1. the radius of the all the scallops in the primary member around the stiffener is to be at least 20mm. Connection details other than those shown in Fig 6 to Fig 9 may be considered by RINA on a case by case basis.2.

in mm. of the face plate of end brackets is to be not less than 50(Lb+1). the web of the bracket is to be stiffened. Where the width of the symmetrical face plate is greater than 400 mm. 8.1.1. In general. the height of end brackets is to be not less than that of the primary supporting member. 8. Figure 19 : Bracketless end connections of primary supporting members 8 End connections of primary supporting members Bracketed end connections 8.Pt B. 8. in m. Sec 3 Figure 18 : End connection of ordinary stiffener with backing bracket thickness of the common part of the web is to be not less than the value obtained.1 Arm lengths of end brackets are to be equal.3 In general. Member 2 Ω Member 1 Member 3 9 9. their height is to be not greater than 20% of the web height. the continuity of the face plates is to be ensured. additional backing brackets are to be fitted. in general. of the stiffener. of the free edge of the end bracket. in cm 2.2 The thickness of the end bracket web is generally to be not less than that of the primary supporting member web. In the absence of one of members 2 and 3 shown in Fig 11. the depth of cut-outs is to be not greater than 50% of the depth of the primary supporting member. 8.75 ----Ω where: w : the lesser of w1 and w 2.2 Bracketless end connections 8.2 In no case may the thickness calculated according to 4.2.1 As a general rule. in m.4 The width.1 8.1. in cm3. the net thickness of the face plate is to be not less than that of the bracket web.1 Cut-outs for the passage of ordinary stiffeners are to be as small as possible and well rounded with smooth edges.1. of the gross section moduli of members 2 and 3 Ω : Area.5l.1. in cm3.5 Stiffening of end brackets is to be designed such that it provides adequate buckling web stability. 8.2. in the case of bracketless crossing between primary supporting members (see Fig 11). of the common part of members 1. they are to be equidistant from the face plate and corners of cut-outs and.MAX: the greater value. in mm. as far as practicable. of member 1 w 2.1 Cut-outs and holes 9.2 9. where l is the span. • the net sectional area. 2 and 3.5 m. the 96 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .2.1. the value of the relevant gross section modulus is to be taken equal to zero. 9. where Lb is the length.1 be less than the smallest web net thickness of the members forming the crossing. in cm2. 8. Moreover. As guidance.2. from the following formula: W t = 15.MAX w1 : gross section modulus. • tripping flat bars are to be fitted to prevent lateral buckling of web stiffeners.1 Where openings such as lightening holes are cut in primary supporting members. the following prescriptions may be applied: • where the length Lb is greater than 1.2. Ch 2. As a general rule. 8. of web stiffeners is to be not less than 16.3 The scantlings of end brackets are generally to be such that the net section modulus of the primary supporting member with end brackets is not less than that of the primary supporting member at mid-span.

Figure 21 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members .1 The cut-out is to be reinforced to one of the solutions shown in Fig. in m: d = 0.1.1 Openings may not be fitted in way of toes of end brackets.Pt B.3 9. of the primary supporting member.2 10.1 As a general rule. Ch 2. in mm. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 97 . 10. of tripping brackets t : Net thickness. Sec 3 9.4 t t 9. where t is the web net thickness. the web stiffeners of primary supporting members are to be spaced not more than 110t apart. 10 Stiffening arrangement 10.3 10. in mm.38 b s d = 0.5. where tripping brackets are spaced as specified in 6. in m.4.2.Solution 3 (inserted plate) 9. 9. shown in Fig 23 st : Spacing. tripping brackets (see Fig 23) welded to the face plate may be fitted: at every fourth spacing of ordinary stiffeners. Other arrangements may be accepted provided they are supported by direct calculations submitted to RINA for review.85 b --t t where: b : Height.1 Over half of the span of primary supporting members. Figure 20 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members .Solution 1 10. At the ends of the span.2. the width of the primary supporting member face plate is to be not less than one tenth of the depth of the web. 22: • continuous face plate (Solution 1): see Fig 20 • straight face plate (Solution 2): see Fig 21 • compensation of the opening (Solution 3): see Fig 22 • combination of the above solutions.1 In general. in m. the length of openings is to be not greater than 25% of the distance between adjacent openings.4. without exceeding 4 m • at the toe of end brackets • at rounded face plates • in way of cross ties • in way of concentrated loads. 20 to Fig. In general.1 The arm length of tripping brackets is to be not less than the greater of the following values.5 9.1 Webs of primary supporting members are generally to be stiffened where the height.Solution 2 10. backing brackets are to be fitted in way of the tripping brackets.1 10.3. of tripping brackets. It is recommended that the bracket toe should be designed as shown in Fig 23. is greater than 100t. of tripping brackets. in mm. Figure 22 : Stiffening of large openings in primary supporting members . Where the width of the symmetrical face plate is greater than 400 mm.4 10.3. the length of openings is to be not greater than the distance between adjacent openings.

11 Riveted connections 11.1 Tripping brackets with a net thickness.5. the mechanical properties of the rivets are to be indicated on 98 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . etc.2.1 Where a sealing product is used to ensure airtight or watertight integrity. less than 15Lb are to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate. the arrangements are to be such as to enable inspection in service without the need to remove coverings. tensile and compression tests to be carried out on representative specimens of riveted connections.1 11. product information is to be submitted together with evidence of its previous successful use.1 12. 12 Sealed connections 12.1 When rivets are used to connect materials of different types. Sec 3 10. require shear. Whenever possible.2 11. at its discretion. RINA may. precautions are to be taken against electrolytic corrosion.1.1.Pt B. Ch 2.5 10. 11. Figure 23 : Primary supporting member: web stiffener in way of ordinary stiffener the plans.1 When riveted connections are employed. in mm.

N ⁄ mm 1000 Wp 4 4.72 for displacement yachts 4. of the transverse section.2 1.1. 90 ⋅ M ⋅ 10 –6 2 2. Wp : section modulus at the bottom and the deck.1. 32 ⋅ M ⋅ 10 –6 1.1 Bending stresses 3 3.1.1 In the calculation of the modulus and inertia of the midship section. provided that they extend for at least 0. to be calculated considering the net area of side plating and of any longitudinal bulkheads excluding openings.1 Calculation of the section modulus Wf. in m3 MT f f : design total vertical bending moment defined in Chap.1 The compressive value of normal stresses is not to exceed the value of the critical stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Sec 1. the scantlings of members contributing to the longitudinal strength of monohull yachts and catamarans are to achieve a section modulus of the midship section at the bottom and the deck such as to guarantee stresses not exceeding the allowable values.1 In addition to satisfying the minimum requirements stipulated in the individual Sections of this Chapter.1 Shear stresses 2. σ p ≤ f ⋅ σ s N ⁄ mm σs.1 The moment of inertia J of the midship section. 2. calculation of longitudinal strength is required.1. 2.2. longitudinal strength calculations are to be carried out considering the load and ballast conditions for both departure and arrival. Ch 2. is to be not less than the value given by the following formulae. in m2.3 2.4 L amidships. For planing yachts: J = 5.3. in particular.1 The structural scantlings prescribed in Chapter 2 are also intended for the purposes of the longitudinal strength of a yacht of length having L not exceeding 50 m for monohull yachts or 40 m for catamarans and openings on the strength deck of limited size. respectively. f At where: MT 2 σ f = ---------------------.1 The shear stresses in every position along the length L are not to exceed the allowable values.80 for planing yachts : 0. Therefore: σ f ≤ f ⋅ σ s N ⁄ mm 2 3.1. For yachts of greater length and/or openings of size greater than the breadth B of the hull and extending for a considerable part of the length of the yacht. T ----t ⋅ 10 –3 ≤ f ⋅ σ s At where: Tt 2 : : : total shear in kN defined in Chapter 1 defined in 2 actual shear area of the transverse section. in m4. For displacement yachts: J = 5.Pt B.1 General σs : mimimum yield stress of the material.1 To this end. Sec 4 SECTION 4 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH 1 1. all the continuous members. in N/mm2.2 1. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 99 . Sec 5. 2. plating and longitudinal stiffeners are generally to be included.N ⁄ mm 1000 Wf MT 2 σ p = ----------------------.2. [5]. : 0.

in any event. and. to be taken as not less than the greater of the thicknesses of the bottom and side. in m scantling pressure.1 22. 5 1.1 Bottom and bilge 1. in mm. 5 ⋅ L + 100 t C H = ( 0. in mm. not less than the value te given by: t e = ( 0. 2 2.6 22.2 1. 2.1.1. 5 Lesser heights and thicknesses may be accepted provided that the effective area of the section is not less than that of the Rule section.6 1. t2 = 8 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K) 0.1.11. in mm. 5 factor defined in Sec. in kN/m2.0 3. throughout the length of the yacht. are to be not less than the values hCH and tCH. in m.4 Ka 17.6 20. measured perpendicularly from the chord s to the highest point of the arc of plating between the two supports (see Figure 1). Sec 5 SECTION 5 PLATING 1 1. The garboard strakes connected to the keel are each to have a width not less than 750 mm and a thickness not less than that of the bottom plating increased by 10%.1 The height and thickness of the keel. given in Chap. assuming p=p2. Sheet steel of plating connected to the stem or to the sternpost or in way of the propeller shaft struts is to have a thickness. equal to the thickness of the bottom increased by 50%. in any event.1 Bottom plating is the plating up to the chine or to the upper turn of the bilge.1 s p K : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener.07. 35 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0.1 Definitions and symbols The thickness of the bottom plating and the bilge is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 and t2. 5 ⋅ L + 600 k2 and a thickness not less than that of the adjacent bottom plating increased by 2 mm.1 The keel plating is to have a width bCH.8 2. 5 2. assuming p=p1 : 0.7 where h is the distance.1.2. : curvature correction factor given by 1-(h/s) to be taken not less than 0. Lesser heights and thicknesses may also be acceptable if a centre girder is placed in connection with the solid keel. in mm.1 Keel Sheet steel keel 2.Pt B.2 Solid keel The thickness of the plating of the bilge is. 5 where: k1 : 0. in mm. 2. >2 100 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Sec. Ch 2. 05 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0.5 19.3 22.4 3 3. calculated with the following equations: h CH = 1. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K) 0.9 21. not less than the value obtained by the following equation: b CH = 4. throughout the length of the yacht. ka : coefficient as a function of the ratio S/s given in Table 1 below where S is the greater dimension of the plating. Table 1 S/s 1 1.

1 The thickness of plating is to be locally increased in way of inner or outer permanent ballast arrangements. Where the gap between the bottom and the waterline is so small that local wave impact phenomena are anticipated.2.1.1 Openings in the shell plating 6.1 Where the aft end is shaped such that the bottom plating aft has a large flat area. in way of the stem. in mm. the thickness of the sheerstrake is to be adequately increased.1 The thickness of side plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 and t2. or for the side. RINA may require the local plating to be increased and/or reinforced with the fitting of additional stiffeners.1 Sea intakes and other openings are to be well rounded at the corners and located. anchor recesses. an increase in thickness and/or additional internal stiffeners may be required. 8. stabilisers. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K) t 2 = 6. for the part above the waterline. as far as possible. Ch 2. 4 4. the thickness is to be increased sufficiently as necessary in order to compensate such openings. 8 8. The thickness is to be not less than 1.3 6. In way of the ends of the bridge.2 5. generally by at least 50%.2.1 Side 5.25 that of the adjacent plating but no greater than that of the keel.1 The internal walls of sea intakes are to have external plating thickness increased by 1 mm.1 Openings in the curved zone of the bilge strakes may be accepted where the former are elliptical or fitted with equivalent arrangements to minimise the stress concentration effects.1 Sheerstrake 6. 4.1 Cross-deck bottom plating 5. Arrangements are to be such as to ensure continuity of strength in way of openings. outside the bilge strakes and the keel. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K ) 0.3.3 7. 7. not less than 0.Pt B.1. the thickness of the transom will be the subject of special consideration. but not less than 6 mm. 5 0. rudder horn or trunk. In the event of water-jet drive systems.2. where k1. propeller shaft struts. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 101 . in mm.1 The thickness is to be taken.2 S 6. the stiffener spacing s being equal. h An increase in the thickness of the local plating may be required where the openings are of unusual dimensions.1. 7 7.1. In the case of sidescuttles or windows or other openings arranged on the sheerstrake plate.1 The thickness of the transom is to be no less than that required for the bottom.3. for the part below the waterline. 6.1 Local stiffeners 7. 5 5. k2 and ka are as defined in 3. no less than that of the side plating. In any event. Sec 5 Figure 1 6 6.1 The thickness of plating determined with the foregoing formulae is to be increased locally. etc. such openings are to be located well clear of welded connections. 5 7.025 L and thickness not less than the greater of the values of the plating of the side and the stringer plate is to be fitted.1.2 7.1.1 In yachts having L > 50 a sheerstrake plate of height h.

Pt B, Ch 2, Sec 6

SECTION 6

SINGLE BOTTOM

1
1.1

General
Scope

2
2.1

Definitions and symbols

1.1.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a single bottom, which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type.

2.1.1 s p K : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners, in m; : scantling pressure, in kN/m2, given in Chap. 1 : coefficient defined in Sec. 2 of this Chapter.

1.2

Longitudinal structure

1.2.1 The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally, supported by floors. The floors may be supported by girders, which in turn may be supported by transverse bulkheads, or by the sides of the hull. 1.2.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m, sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. 1.2.3 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders; the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas. 1.2.4 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts, the rudder and the ballast keel.

3
3.1

Longitudinal type structure
Bottom longitudinals

3.1.1 The section modulus of longitudinal stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2

where: k1 S : 0,83 assuming p=p1 : 0,36 assuming p=p2 : conventional span of the longitudinal stiffener, in m, equal to the distance between floors.

1.3

Transverse structure

The bottom longitudinal stiffeners are preferably to be continual through the transverse members. Where they are to be interrupted in way of a transverse watertight bulkhead, brackets are to be provided at the ends.

1.3.1 The transverse framing consists of ordinary stiffeners arranged transversally (floors) and placed at each frame supported by girders, which in turn are supported by transverse bulkheads or reinforced floors. 1.3.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m, sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. 1.3.3 In way of the propeller shaft struts, the rudder horn and the ballast keel, additional floors are to be fitted with sufficiently increased scantlings. 1.3.4 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders; the latter are to be fitted as a continuation of the existing girders outside the engine room. 1.3.5 Floors of increased scantlings are to be fitted in way of reinforced frames at the sides and reinforced beams on the weather deck. Any intermediate floors are to be adequately connected to the ends.

3.2

Floors

3.2.1 The section modulus of the floors at the centreline of the span S is to be not less than the value ZM, in cm3, calculated with the following formula.
ZM = k 1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2

where: k1 b S : defined in 3.1 : half the distance, in m, between the two floors adjacent to that concerned : conventional floor span equal to the distance, in m, between the two supporting members (sides, girders, keel with a dead rise edge > 12°).

In the case of a keel with a dead rise edge < 12° but > 8°, the span S is always to be calculated considering the distance between girders or sides; the modulus ZM may, however, be reduced by 40%. If a side girder is fitted on each side with a height equal to the local height of the floor, the modulus may be reduced by a further 10%.

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Pt B, Ch 2, Sec 6

3.3
3.3.1

Girders
Centre girder

4
4.1

Transverse type structures
Ordinary floors

When the girder forms a support for the floor, the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2

4.1.1 The section modulus for ordinary floors is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2

where: k1 bPC : defined in 3.1 : half the distance, in m, between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders : conventional girder span equal to the distance, in m, between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads, floors).

where: k1 S : : defined in 3.1 conventional span in m, of the floor equal to the distance between the members which support it (girders, sides).

S

4.2

Centre girder

Whenever the centre girder does not form a support for the floors, the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC, in cm 3, calculated with the following formula:
Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2 ′

4.2.1 The section modulus of the centre girder is to be not less than the value ZPC, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2

where: k1 b’PC : defined in 3.1 : half the distance, in m, between the two side girders if present or equal to B/2 in the absence of side girders : distance between the floors. Side girders

where: k1 bPC : : : 1,22 assuming p=p1 0,75 assuming p=p2. half the distance, in m, between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders conventional span of the centre girder, equal to the distance, in m, between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads, floors).

S 3.3.2

S

:

When the side girder forms a support for the floor, the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2

4.3

Side girders

where: k1 bPL : defined in 3.1. : half the distance, in m, between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder concerned : conventional girder span equal to the distance, in m, between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads, floors).

4.3.1 The section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL, in cm3, calculated with the following formula:
Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2

where: k1 bPL : : defined in 4.2 half the distance, in m, between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder adjacent to that concerned conventional girder span equal to the distance, in m, between the two members which support it (transverse bulkheads, floors).

S

S

:

Whenever the side girder does not form a support for the floors, the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL, in cm 3, calculated with the following formula:
Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p
2 ′

5
5.1

Constructional details

where: k1 b’PL : defined in 3.1 : half the distance, in m, between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the adjacent girder : distance between the floors.

5.1.1 The centre girder and side girders are to be connected to the stiffeners of the transom by means of suitable fittings. The face plate of the girders may be gradually reduced to reach the dimensions of that of the transom stiffeners.

S

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103

Pt B, Ch 2, Sec 7

SECTION 7

DOUBLE BOTTOM

1
1.1

General

2
2.1

Minimum height

1.1.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a double bottom, which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally, supported by floors. The fitting of a double bottom with longitudinal framing is recommended for planing and semi-planing yachts. 1.1.2 The fitting of a double bottom extending from the collision bulkhead to the forward bulkhead in the machinery space, or as near thereto as practicable, is requested for yachts of L > 50 m. On yachts of L > 61 m a double bottom is to be fitted, as far as practicable, outside the machinery space extending forward to the collision bulkhead and aft to the after peak bulkhead. On yachts of L > 76 m the double bottom is to extend, as far as this is practicable, throughout the length of the yacht. The double bottom is to extend transversally to the side so as to protect the bottom in the bilge area, as far as possible. 1.1.3 The dimensions of the double bottom, and in particular the height, are to be such as to allow access for inspection and maintenance. In floors and in side girders, manholes are to be provided in order to guarantee that all parts of the double bottom can be inspected at least visually. The height of manholes is generally to be not greater than half the local height in the double bottom. When manholes with greater height are fitted, the free edge is to be reinforced by a flat iron bar or other equally effective reinforcements are to be arranged. Manholes are not to be placed in the continuous centre girder, or in floors and side girders below pillars, except in special cases at the discretion of RINA. 1.1.4 Openings are to be provided in floors and girders in order to ensure down-flow of air and liquids in every part of the double bottom. Holes for the passage of air are to be arranged as close as possible to the top and those for the passage of liquids as close as possible to the bottom. Bilge wells placed in the inner bottom are to be watertight and limited as far as possible in height and are to have walls and bottom of thickness not less than that prescribed for inner bottom plating. In zones where the double bottom varies in height or is interrupted, tapering of the structures is to be adopted in order to avoid discontinuities.

2.1.1 The height of the double bottom is to be sufficient to allow access to all areas and, in way of the centre girder, is to be not less than the value hDF, in mm, obtained from the following formula:
h df = 28B + 32 ( T + 10 )

The height of the double bottom is in any event to be not less than 700 mm. For yachts less than 50 m in length, RINA may accept reduced height.

3
3.1

Inner bottom plating

3.1.1 The thickness of the inner bottom plating is to be not less than the value t1, in mm,calculated with the following formula:
t 1 = ( 0, 04L + 5 s + 1 )k
0, 5

where: s : spacing of the ordinary stiffeners, in m. For yachts of length L < 50 m, the thickness is to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. For yachts of length L > 50 m, the thickness may be gradually reduced outside 0,4 L amidships so as to reach a value no less than 0,9 t1 at the ends. Where the inner bottom forms the top of a tank intended for liquid cargoes, the thickness of the top is also to comply with the provisions of Sec.10.

4
4.1

Centre girder

4.1.1 A centre girder is to be fitted, as far as this is practicable, throughout the length of the hull. The thickness of the centre girder is to be not less than the following value tpc, in mm:
t p c = ( 0, 008h df + 2 )k
0, 5

5
5.1

Side girders

5.1.1 Where the breadth of the floors does not exceed 6 m, side girders need not be fitted. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m, side girders are to be arranged with thickness equal to that of the floors.

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RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

Pt B, Ch 2, Sec 7

A sufficient number of side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them, or between one such girder and the centre girder or the side, does not exceed 3 m. The side girders are to be extended as far forward and aft as practicable and are, as a rule, to terminate on a transverse bulkhead or on a floor or other transverse structure of adequate strength.

7
7.1

Bracket floors

5.2
5.2.1 Where additional girders are foreseen in way of the bedplates of engines, they are to be integrated into the structures of the yacht and extended as far forward and aft as practicable. Girders of height no less than that of the floors are to be fitted under the bedplates of main engines. Engine foundation bolts are to be arranged, as far as practicable, in close proximity to girders and floors. Where this is not possible, transverse brackets are to be fitted.

7.1.1 At each frame between solid floors, bracket floors consisting of a frame connected to the bottom plating and a reverse frame connected to the inner bottom plating are to be arranged and attached to the centre girder and the margin plate by means of flanged brackets with a width of flange not less than 1/10 of the double bottom depth. The frame section modulus Zc, in cm3, is to be not less than:
Zc = k 1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ p ⋅ K
2

where: k1 S : : : 0,83 assuming p=p1 0,36 assuming p=p2 frame span, in m, equal to the distance between the mid-spans of the brackets connecting the frame/reverse frame.

The reverse frame section modulus is to be not less than 85% of the frame section modulus. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom, the frame and reverse frame section moduli are to be no less than those required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec.10.

6
6.1

Floors

6.1.1 The thickness of floors tm, in mm, is to be not less than the following value:
t m = ( 0, 008 hdf + 0, 5 )k
0, 5

8
8.1

Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals

Watertight floors are also to have thickness not less than that required in Sec.10 for tank bulkheads.

6.2
6.2.1 When the height of a floor exceeds 900 mm, vertical stiffeners are to be arranged. In any event, solid floors or equivalent structures are to be arranged in longitudinally framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • outside the machinery space at an interval no greater than 2 m • in the machinery space under the bedplates of main engines • in way of variations in height of the double bottom. Solid floors are to be arranged in transversely framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • in the machinery space at every frame • in way of variations in height of the double bottom • outside the machinery space at 2 m intervals.

8.1.1 The section modulus of bottom stiffeners is to be no less than that required for single bottom longitudinals stipulated in Sec.6. The section modulus of inner bottom stiffeners is to be no less than 85% of the section modulus of bottom longitudinals. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom, the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec.10.

9
9.1

Bilge keel
Arrangement, scantlings and connections

9.1.1 Arrangement Where installed, bilge keels may not be welded directly on the shell plating. An intermediate flat, or doubler, is required on the shell plating. The ends of the bilge keel are to be sniped at an angle of 15° or rounded with large radius. They are to be located in way of a transverse bilge stiffener. The ends of the intermediate flat are to be sniped at an angle of 15°. The arrangement shown in Fig 1 is recommended.

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

105

Ch 2. Sec 7 Figure 1 : bilge keel arrangement Figure 2 : bilge keel arrangement The arrangement shown in Fig 2 may also be accepted 9. The butt welds of the doubler and bilge keel are to be full penetration and shifted from the shell butts.3 Scantlings The net thickness of the intermediate flat is to be equal to that of the bilge strake. through which the bilge keel is connected to the shell.2 Bilge keel connection 9. 9. 9.2 Materials The bilge keel and the intermediate flat are to be made of steel with the same yield stress and grade as that of the bilge strake. is to be welded as a shell doubler by continuous fillet welds. 106 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . The butt welds of the bilge plating and those of the doublers are to be flush in way of crossing. this thickness may generally not be greater than 15 mm. with the doubler and with the bilge keel.2.1.1 The intermediate flat. However.Pt B. respectively.1.

by decks. Ch 2.67 assuming p=p1 : 0. Reinforced frames are to be provided in way of the mast and the ballast keel.2. 4. equal to the distance between the members which support the reinforced frame.2 Longitudinal stiffeners 1. 2 of this Chapter. in cm3. in m.36 assuming p=p2 conventional span of the longitudinal.1 2.1 s p K Definitions and symbols 4. : scantling pressure. which may be of longitudinal or transverse type.83 assuming p=p1 0.9 for reinforced frames which support ordinary longitudinal stiffeners.1 The section modulus of the reinforced frames is to be not less than the value Z. 5.1 The section modulus of the side longitudinals is to be not less than the value Z. equal to the distance between the supporting members. in cm3.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of the reinforcement structures of the side. in m. where: k1 KCR : : : 1 assuming p=p1 0.2. spacing. conventional span.1. 4 4. in general made up of reinforced frames or transverse bulkheads.1 General 3.1 Reinforced beams Reinforced frames 2 2. 3 3.calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ The ordinary frames are to be well connected to the elements which support them.1 Ordinary stiffeners Transverse frames s : : 3. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners. in m. between the reinforced frames or half the distance between the reinforced frames and the transverse bulkhead adjacent to the frame concerned.1 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 107 . generally spaced not more than 2 m apart. which may be supported by reinforced stringers. defined in Part B. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 S : where: k1 S : 0.Pt B. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 S : : : 0. equal to the distance between the supporting members. : factor defined in Sec. or reinforced stringers. 1. 3. in m. where: k1 : defined in 4. The transverse type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed vertically (frames). Chap. in cm3. in cm3. in general made up of a beam and a floor. Sec 8 SECTION 8 SIDE STRUCTURES 1 1.1. in sailing yachts.1.4 for reinforced frames which do not support ordinary stiffeners.2 Reinforced stringers 4.56 assuming p=p2 : conventional frame span.7 assuming p=p2 0. calculated with the following formula: The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z. The longitudinal type structure consists of ordinary stiffeners placed longitudinally supported by reinforced frames. 0. by flats or by the bottom structures. Sec.1 The section modulus of the reinforced stringers is to be not less than the value Z. in m. in the machinery space and in general in way of large openings on the weather deck.1 The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z.1. or by transverse bulkheads. in cm3. in kN/m2.

1 Scantling of brackets of frame connections d 6. from the following formula: w + 30 d = φ ---------------t w1 d Figure 2 : Connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes d where: φ: coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: φ = 48 • for flanged brackets: φ = 43. a bracket may be required to be fitted at the bottom.1.in m.2 ‘Tweendeck frames are to be bracketed to the deck at the top and welded or bracketed at the bottom. Figure 1 : Connections of perpendicular stiffeners in the same plane w2 6 6. where w1 . the following scantlings may be adopted: 6.1. given in [ 6. 6.1 End connections of frames are to be bracketed. The length of overlap is to be not less than the depth of frames. in mm.5 w : required section modulus of the stiffener.Pt B. the required section modulus is to be taken equal to: • • for bracket "A": wA = w1 if w2 ≤ w1 5 5. w'1 and w2 are the required section moduli of stiffeners.1. In the case of bulb profiles. the required section modulus is to be taken equal to: w = w2 w = w1 if if w2 ≤ w1 w2 > w1 where w1 and w2 are the required section moduli of stiffeners.3 Brackets are normally connected to frames by lap welds.3. Ch 2.2 Upper brackets of frames The arm length of upper brackets connecting frames to deck beams is to be not less than the value obtained. t : bracket net thickness.2] and [ 6. 5.3 For connections of perpendicular stiffeners located in the same plane (see Fig 1) or connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes (see Fig 2).4 for reinforced stringers which do not support ordinary vertical stiffeners. spacing. for yachts of length greater than 50m.1.9 for reinforced stringers which support ordinary vertical stiffeners (frames). Sec 8 K’CR : s : S : • 0. in mm.1 As a general rule.3] and depending on the type of connection.1. w2 theoritical bracket actual bracket d w1 108 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1. equal to the distance between the members which support the stringer. as shown in Fig 3. between the reinforced stringers or 0. in m.1. in cm3.4 For connections of frames to deck beams (see Fig 3). 6. • 0. conventional span.5 D in the absence of reinforced stringers or decks.1.1 Frame connections General for bracket "B": w B = w' 1 bu tneed not be greater then w 1 5. 5. in general made up of transverse bulkheads or reinforced frames. as shown in Fig 1 and Fig 2.

1.5 h RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 109 . t : bracket thickness.1 In general. frames are to be bracketed to the inner bottom or to the face plate of floors as shown in Fig 4.3 Where the bracket thickness. of the bracket free edge. Ch 2. from the following formula: w + 30 d = φ ---------------t 6.Pt B. in cm3. in cm2.2 Lower brackets of frames 6. Sec 8 Figure 3 : Connections of frames to deck beams w'1 Figure 4 : Lower brackets of frames h h'1 dB d2 dB h'1 B w2 A dA 75 75 2h dA d1 w1 6. The sectional area. in mm. where: φ: coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: φ = 50 • for flanged brackets: φ = 45 w : required section modulus of the frame. where Lb is the length. in m. in mm.2. of the flange or the face plate is to be not less than 10Lb. 6. is less than 15Lb . in mm.2. the free edge of the bracket is to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate.2.2 The arm lengths d1 and d2 of lower brackets of frames are to be not less than the value obtained.

5 4.1.025 L and thickness t. in m. 9 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. In the calculation of b any openings are to be considered as non-existent : conventional span of the reinforced beam. meaning the first deck above the full load waterline. not less than the value given by the formula: t = 2. Sec 9 SECTION 9 DECKS 1 1. is to be not less than the value t.1 Stiffening and support structures for decks Ordinary stiffeners 2 2. open section pillars are to be fitted.1. laid transversally or longitudinally.1 The section modulus of the ordinary stiffeners of both longitudinal and transverse (beams) type is to be not less than the value Z. Ch 2. in any event. The section area of pillars is to be not less than the value A. Sec 5. equal to the distance between the two supporting members (pillars.1 pdc : calculation deck.2. to be made of tubes. beams or longitudinal stringers. in theory. Chap 1. where: C1 : 1.2 Reinforced beams 4. in cm3. in cm2.1. in mm. 3.1 General 3.2 Lower decks 1. given by the formula: 110 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 Pillars are.1 Deck plating Weather deck where: b : average width of the strip of deck resting on the beam. : conventional span.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating. 5 Where the deck is a tank top. In tanks intended for liquid cargoes. in m. 3. in m. 15 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0. to be not less than the value calculated with the formulae given in Sec. scantling height. the value of which is given in Part B. the thickness of the deck is. extending for at least 0. considering that said deck is also a strength deck.6 L and constituting an efficient support for the structural elements of the side. In sailing yachts with the mast resting on the deck or on the deckhouse. not less than 0. which in turn are supported by pillars or by transverse or longitudinal bulkheads. 75 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ h 2 3 3. Reinforced beams together with reinforced frames are to be placed in way of the mast in sailing yachts.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of decks. s h K : : : 4. other reinforced beams. 4 4. bulkheads). calculated with the following equation: Z = 4. equal to the distance between the two supporting members.44 for weather deck longitudinals : 0. considering that said deck is also a strength deck.1 The section modulus for girders and for ordinary reinforced beams is to be not less than the value Z. in general. in mm. 4 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K ) 0.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating. is to be not less than the value t.1. calculated with the following formula: t = 1. plating and reinforcing or supporting structures.10 for tank bulkhead plating. in m. The reinforcing and supporting structures of decks consist of ordinary reinforcements. calculated with the following formula: t = 1. in mm. it is to extend for the whole length of the yacht.63 for lower deck longitudinals S : 0. 5 ⋅ C 1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ h 2 2. in m.Pt B. 5 S In yachts having L>50 m. 4. calculated with the following formula: Z = 7. a stringer plate is to be fitted with width b. a pillar or bulkhead is to be arranged in way of the mast base.2. spacing of ordinary transverse or longitudinal stiffeners.1 Definitions and symbols 4.3.3 Pillars The stringer plate of increased thickness may be waived if the thickness adopted for the deck is greater than Rule thickness.56 for beams. supported by lines of shoring made up of systems of girders and/or reinforced beams. in cm 3. in m. factor defined in Sec 2.

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 111 . in kN. such as those in tanks. Pillars are to be connected to the inner bottom at the intersection of girders and floors.Pt B. 87 ⋅ A ⋅ h 4.3. partial floors or girders or equivalent structures suitable to support the pillars are to be arranged. Pillars are to be attached at their heads and heels by continuous welding. defined in [2. in m2. where: A h : area of the part of the deck resting on the pillar. λ : the ratio between the pillar length and the minimum radius of gyration of the pillar cross-section. Insert plates may be replaced by doubling plates.2 Pillar connections Heads and heels of pillars are to be attached to the surrounding structure by means of brackets and insert plates so that the loads are well distributed.5 times the thickness of the pillar. except in the case of pillars which may also work under tension. : scantling height.1. 045λ where: Q : load resting on the pillar. Sec 9 Q A = -------------------------------------12. Ch 2.1]. the thickness of doubling plates is to be not less than 1. 5 – 0. Where pillars connected to the inner bottom are not located in way of intersections of floors and girders. In general. calculated with the following formula: Q = 6.

in cm3. or to the overflow pipe. “Tanks" means the structural tanks that are part of the hull and intended to contain liquids (water. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 The values of the coefficient c and of the scantling height h are those indicated in Table 2. 5.35 3. for tank bulkheads : width. in m conventional span. using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks. C1 b h : 6.1. 112 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1.2 Reinforced beams 2 2. as defined in Chap. leak testing with an air pressure of 0.8 4.25 hB hB hT h (m) 1. 5 as defined in Chap. of the zone of bulkhead resting on the horizontal web or on the reinforced stiffener : scantling height indicated in Table 2. for subdivision bulkheads : 10. Chap. 4. in cm3. whichever is the greater.1 The structural continuity of the bulkhead vertical and horizontal primary supporting members with the surrounding supporting structures is to be carefully ensured. Table 2 (1/1/2009) Bulkhead h (m) hB hB hT c 0.1 s S : : spacing between the stiffeners. At the discretion of RINA. fuel oil or lube oil). between the members that support the stiffener concerned as defined in Part B. provided that it is possible. h o K : : 3 3. in general. in m. the use of independent metal tanks is required as stated in Chapter 1 of Part B. to be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1 of Part B. 5 5 5.1. are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head above the tank top equal to h. 1.1 Symbols 4.1.1 Plating Collision bulkhead Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 3. in m.1 The horizontal webs of bulkheads with ordinary vertical stiffeners and reinforced stiffeners in the bulkheads with ordinary horizontal stiffeners are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections.1 The number and position of watertight bulkheads are. In order to contain fuel oil with a flashpoint ≤ 55° C. equal to the distance. calculated with the following formula: Z = C1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 2. complete with all pipe connections.1 The watertight bulkhead plating is to have a thickness not less than the value tS in mm. Tanks.1 General Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Table 1 (1/1/2009) k1 4.2. 5. calculated with the following formula: tS = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ ( h ⋅ K ) 0.63 1 h s.1.15 bar may be accepted as an alternative.1 The section modulus of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z.1 General arrangement The coefficient k1 and the scantling height h have the values indicated in Table 1. calculated with the following formula: Z = 7. Sec.78 0. 2. Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 4 4.1 Stiffeners Ordinary stiffeners 4. Ch 2. Sec. Sec 10 SECTION 10 BULKHEADS 1 1. 1. Sec. 2.Pt B.

1. 6.Pt B. with a maximum of 1.2. cross-bars are to be provided to support the interrupted stiffeners. when the frame spacing is greater than 0.5 m.1 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • 0.9 m.1 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • two frame spaces.2 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 6 6. for longitudinal bulkheads. for transverse bulkheads • two frame spacings. • one frame spaces.2 5. Ch 2.1 Where vertical stiffeners are cut in way of watertight doors.75 m. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 113 . Sec 10 5.75 m.2. reinforced stiffeners are to be fitted on each side of the door and suitably overlapped. 6. when the frame spacing does not exceed 0.1 Non-tight bulkheads Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars 6.

1. Sec.0 1. Sec.3.2. where: s K h : spacing of the stiffeners. 5 The superstructure deck plating is to be not less than the value t. equal to the distance.1 1. 2.1 First tier superstructures or deckhouses are intended as those situated on the uppermost exposed continuous deck of the yacht.0 Type of bulkhead 1st tier front 2nd tier front Other bulkheads wherever situated : conventional span of the stiffener. factor defined in Chap. defined in 2 : factor defined in Ch 2. h Reinforced beams (beams.1]. reduced scantlings with respect to those stipulated in this Section may be accepted at the discretion of RINA. 2. The section modulus Z.2 4. the thickness t is to be not less than the values shown in Chap. calculated with the following formula: t = 4. second tier superstructures or deckhouses are those above. in m : factor defined in Ch 2. in mm. in m conventional scantling height. in m. [4. in cm3.5 1. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 where: h K s S : conventional scantling height.1 The thickness of the boundary bulkheads is to be not less than the value t. of both the longitudinal and transverse ordinary deck stiffeners is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = 5. Where the distance from the hypothetical freeboard deck to the full load waterline exceeds the freeboard that can hypothetically be assigned to the yacht the reference deck for the determination of the superstructure tier may be the deck below the one specified above. 4 4.1. 2. calculated with the following formula: Z = 5. and so on. in cm 3. in mm.1 2.1 Superstructure decks Plating (1/1/2011) 2 2. stringers) and ordinary pillars are to have scantlings as stated in Sec 9. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 Table 1 where: S h (m) 1. 4. 114 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1. see Ch 1.1. When there is no access from inside superstructures and deckhouses to 'tweendecks below. between the supporting members : as defined in [2. equal to the distance. Sec 11 SECTION 11 SUPERSTRUCTURES 1 1. (1/1/2011) The stiffeners of the boundary bulkheads are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. Ch 2.2]. s h : : spacing between the stiffeners. in m. 3 ⋅ s ⋅ ( K ⋅ h ) 0. in m.1 Stiffeners (1/1/2011) K : In any event. 1. Table 2. calculated with the following formula: t = 3 ⋅ s ⋅ (K ⋅ h) 0. Sec 1. between the members supporting the stiffener concerned. the value of which is to be taken not less than the value indicated in Table 1. in m. Sec 2 : conventional scantling height. defined in [2. in m.Pt B.1 Boundary bulkhead plating 4. in m : span of the stiffeners.1 Stiffeners 3.1 General 3 3. Sec 2 : spacing of the stiffeners.1]. s.

Part B Hull Chapter 3 ALUMINIUM HULLS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 SECTION 11 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH PLATING SINGLE BOTTOM DOUBLE BOTTOM SIDE STRUCTURES DECKS BULKHEADS SUPERSTRUCTURES RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 115 .

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with motor or sail power with or without an auxiliary engine. provided that structures with longitudinal. B is to be taken as equal to twice the breadth of the single hull. on the basis of direct test calculations of the structural strength. in t. in m. measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L. RINA may take into consideration material distribution and structural scantlings other than those that would be obtained by applying these regulations.1 L Definitions and symbols RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 117 .1 Table 1 lists the structural plans that are to be presented in advance to RINA in triplicate. measured vertically in the transverse section at half the length L.2 2. factor as a function of the mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy used. Sec 1 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1 1. at draught T.1. The scantlings of structures made with light alloys having different values of yield strength are obtained taking into account coefficient K as defined in Section 2. transverse and local strength not less than that of the corresponding Rule structure are obtained or provided that such material distribution and structural scantlings prove adequate in the opinion of RINA. draft of the yacht. assumed to be equal to the length on the full load waterline with the yacht at rest. from the base line to the full load waterline with the yacht at rest in calm water. The formulae indicated in this Chapter are based on use of an aluminium alloy having yield strength. in any case. in the welded condition.1 Definitions and symbols Premise 3. In the examination of constructional plans. measured immediately below the cross-deck. in m. The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Sections. calculations and other information to be submitted 2 2. capacity plan.Pt B.1. outside frames. in m. The Table also indicates the information that is to be supplied with the plans or. maximum breadth of the yacht.1 Chapter 3 applies to monohull yachts with a hull made of aluminium alloy and a length L not exceeding 90 m.2.1.1 The definitions and symbols in this Article are valid for all the Sections of this Chapter. on the full load waterline.1 Field of application B : 1. copies of the following plan are also to be submitted: : scantling length. as defined in Sec. from the base line up to the deck beam of the uppermost continuous deck. in tests of the longitudinal strength of twin hull yachts.2 = 110 N/mm 2 (corresponding to a permanent elongation of 0. submitted to RINA for the examination of the documentation. for examination and approval when required. Multi-hulls or hulls with a greater length will be considered case by case.2%). whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Sections. in m. displacement of the yacht outside frames. 2. D : T : s Δ K : : : 3 Plans. Ch 3. For documentation purposes. 2. depth of the yacht. lines plan. 2. spacing of the ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener. Rp 0. in m.1 3. general arrangement plans.

the following plans and information are to be submitted: • details showing how rudder pintle and bush clearances are to be measured and how the security of the pintles in their sockets is to be verified with the craft afloat. maximum operating speed V. the plans are to be submitted for new approval. if from Rule loads openings different a vessel similar in design and construction and classed with the same class notation and the same navigation.1 When deemed necessary by RINA. When the Rules are amended. if mono-hull. When performing direct calculations the load specified in Chap 1.1 General rules for design 5. a longitudinal structure with reinforced floors. It is the Builder’s responsibility to submit for approval any modification to the approved plans prior to the commencement of any work. is required for the bottom. 3. care is to be taken in order to avoid structural discontinuities in particular in way of the ends of superstructures and of the openings on the deck or side of the yacht. In such case the variations between the scantlings adopted for the central part of the hull and those adopted for the ends are to be gradual. with particular regard to plating. Plan approval of standard design vessels is only valid so long as no applicable Rule changes take place. in the case of ships of special design for which.2 3. • name and characteristics of high resistance paint.1 Direct calculations • • • Plating development Structure of the engine room Watertight bulkheads • and deep tank • bulkheads Structure of stern/side door Superstructures Support structure for crane Rudder Propeller shaft struts • • • • • • • openings location of air outlets closing appliances openings location of overflow design loads and connections to the hull structures materials of all components calculation speed material • • • • • 4.1 The hull scantlings required in this Chapter are in general to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. on the basis of the most advanced calculation techinques. • • • • • Plan of the decks • • • 4 4. reduced scantlings may be adopted for the fore and aft zones. For yachts similar in performance to high speed craft. Sec 1 Table 1 PLAN • Midship section CONTAINING INFORMATION RELEVANT TO: • main dimensions. these requirements are deemed inappropriate. For yachts with length L greater than 50 m. In the design. but the request for survey of the vessel is to be submitted with an enclosed list of drawings reference and copies of the approved drawings are to be sent to RINA. provided that. state the maximum vertical bending moment in still water displacement longitudinal and trasversal section openings loads acting. if multi-hull. Where. Ch 3. 5 5. the drawings may not be sent for approval. which may determine differences in construction. for information only. placed at a distance of not more than 2 m. direct calculations of the hull structural scantlings are to be carried out. Sec 5 are generally to be applied. loads calculated according to other criteria are to be adopted. • details showing how stern bush clearances are to be measured with the craft afloat.1.2.Pt B.1. they are no less than those shown in Table 2. design acceleration aCG (for planing or semi-planing yachts) materials and associated mechanical properties for yachts with L > 40 m. in the opinion of RINA. Attention is also to be paid to possible flag Administartions requirements. If the INWATERSURVEY notation is to be assigned. Such interval is to be suitably reduced in the areas forward of amidships subject to the forces caused by slamming. or L > 50 m.1 If a Builder for the construction of a new vessel of a standard design wants to use drawings already approved for 118 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .

K0. L1/3 .05 d (1) 6. L1/3 . their scantlings are to be such as to fulfil the requirements for yacht longitudinal strength stipulated in Sec. Open strength deck plating Lower and enclosed deck plating 1st tier superstructure front bulkhead Superstructure bulkhead Watertight subdivision bulkhead Tank bulkhead Centre girder Floors and side girders Tubular pillars (1) d = diameter of the pillar. L1/3 .75 .5 t10 = 1.1.5 t5 = t1 t6 = t5 .0. Where plating and stiffeners contribute to the longitudinal strength of the yacht.Pt B. K0. L1/3 . in mm RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 119 .0.5 t4 = t3 . bottom plating Side plating Table 2 Minimum thickness (mm) t1 = 1. K0. the thicknesses of plating stiffeners and cores of reinforced beams are to be not less than the minimum values shown in Table 2. Ch 3. their adequacy in terms of buckling strength and resistance to corrosion is demonstrated.5 t8 = t2 t9 = 2. in the opinion of RINA. Sec 1 6 6.1 In general.70 .1 Minimum thicknesses Member Keel. L1/3 .5 t2 = 1.5 t7 = t2 . K0.50 .5 t3 = 1.1.3 . K0.5 t11 = 0. Lesser thicknesses may be accepted provided that. 4.50 .

1 Materials to be used in hull and equipment construction. The characteristics of aluminium alloys to be used in the construction of aluminium craft are to comply with the relevant requirements of RINA Rules. they are to be tested in compliance with the applicable provisions. may include requirements concerning welding operations and techniques and other manufacturing processes (e. The latter. in particular. Quality and testing requirements for materials covered here are outlined in the relevant RINA Rules. These requirements presume that welding and other cold or hot manufacturing processes are carried out in compliance with current sound working practice and the relevant RINA provisions. Other grades or tempers may be considered. specific preheating before welding and/or welding or other cold or hot manu- 1. subject to RINA’s agreement.1 The designation of aluminium alloys used here complies with the numerical designation used in RRIAD (Registration Record of International Alloy Designation). in delivery condition. Table 1 (1/1/2011) SERIES 5000 WROUGHT ALUMINIUM ALLOYS FOR WELDED CONSTRUCTION (Rolled products: Plates and Sections) Guaranteed mechanical characteristics (1) Alloy (2) Temper (3) Dimensions in mm t≤6 t>6 Minimum guaranteed yield stress Rp 0.2 Aluminium alloy hull structures 1. 0 : annealed H111: roller levelled after annealing F: as fabricated. See [1.2.1. refer to the minimum values guaranteed by the product supplier. 120 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Ch 3.5. Sec 2 SECTION 2 MATERIALS.Pt B. As a rule.g.2% N/mm2 125 115 110 100 95 80 70 85 100 Minimum guaranteed tensile strength Rm N/mm2 275 275 270 240 240 190 190 215 210 5083 (Plates) 5083 (Sections) 5086 (Plates) 5086 (Sections) 5754 5454 5454 (1) (2) (3) 0 or H111 0 or H111 0 or H111 0 or H111 0 or H111 0 or H111 F All thicknesses All thicknesses All thicknesses t≤6 t>6 All thicknesses All thicknesses (4) The guaranteed mechanical characteristics in this Table correspond to general standard values.1 Materials and connections General requirements facturing processes followed by an appropriate heat treatment).. Welding processes are to be approved for the specified type of material for which they are intended and with limits and conditions as stated in the applicable RINA requirements.2 at 0. are to comply with these requirements or with specific requirements applicable to individual cases. For more information.1]. CONNECTIONS AND STRUCTURE DESIGN PRINCIPLES 1 1. 1. series 5000 aluminium-magnesium alloys (see Tab 1) or series 6000 aluminium-magnesium-silicon alloys (see Tab 2) are to be used.

Extruded plating is preferably to be oriented so that the stiffeners are parallel to the direction of main stresses. The responsibility for maintaining the required tolerances lies with the Manufacturer. The under-thickness tolerances of extruded plating are to be in accordance with Tab 4. The list of aluminium alloys given in Tab 1 and Tab 2 is not exhaustive. Connections between extruded plating and primary members are to be given special attention. 1. etc.1 The under-thickness tolerances of plates and rolled sections are to be in accordance with Tab 3. the alloys to be employed will be defined in each separate case by RINA. provided the specification (manufacture. referred to as extruded plating. mechanical properties.Pt B. Other grades or tempers may be considered. requirements for chemical composition and mechanical properties will be defined in each separate case by RINA. Sec 2 Table 2 (1/1/2011) SERIES 6000 WROUGHT ALUMINIUM ALLOYS FOR WELDED CONSTRUCTION (Rolled products: Plates and Sections) Guaranteed mechanical characteristics (1) Alloy (2) Temper (3) Dimensions in mm t≤6 6< t ≤ 10 10 < t ≤ 25 t≤6 6< t ≤ 25 t ≤ 25 t ≤ 15 Minimum guaranteed yield stress Rp 0. The heat-affected zone may be taken to extend 25 mm on each side of the weld axis. may be used. 1. also taking into account the protective coating applied. T5 : artificially aged T6 : solution heat treated and artificially aged. For more information. Young’s modulus for aluminium alloys is equal to 70000 N/mm 2 and Poisson’s ratio equal to 0. Unless otherwise specified. Aluminium alloys of series 5000 in 0 condition (annealed) or in H111 condition (annealed flattened) are not subject to a drop in mechanical strength in the welded areas. In the case of welded structures. the application is limited to decks and deckhouses. Other uses may be permitted at the discretion of RINA. For forgings or castings.4.5.3.33. Other aluminium alloys may be considered. chemical composition. welding. Ch 3.3 Extruded plating 1. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 121 . who is also to inspect the surface condition. subject to RINA’s agreement. temper.4 Tolerances 1. Consequently.2 a 0.1 Welding heat input lowers locally the mechanical strength of aluminium alloys hardened by work hardening (series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111) or by heat treatment (series 6000). The use of series 6000 alloys or extruded plates.) and the scope of application are submitted to RINA for review.5 Influence of welding on mechanical characteristics 1. where necessary.2% N/mm2 225 215 200 215 Minimum guaranteed tensile strength Rm N/mm2 270 260 250 255 6005 A (Open Sections) 6005 A (Closed Sections) 6061 (Sections) 6082 (Sections) (1) (2) (3) T5 or T6 T5 or T6 T6 T6 200 240 250 250 260 290 The guaranteed mechanical characteristics in this table correspond to general standard values. which will state the acceptability requirements and conditions. will be considered in each separate case by RINA. alloys and welding processes are to be compatible and appropriate. a drop in mechanical characteristics of welded structures is to be considered in the heat-affected zone. for parts which are exposed to sea water atmosphere. In general. to the satisfaction of RINA and in compliance with the relevant Rules. In the case of structures subjected to low service temperatures or intended for other particular applications.1 Extrusions with built-in plating and stiffeners. 1. refer to the minimum values guaranteed by the product supplier. with respect to the mechanical characteristics of the parent material.

in mm.2 : is the minimum guaranteed yield stress. The mechanical characteristics to consider are. in mm. having the same physical mean of η. in N/mm 2.5 0. Ch 3. in mm t≤8 8< t ≤ 12 12< t ≤ 20 Under-thickness tolerance.e. normally.3 0. to be indicated by the supplier.45 where: Rp0. Table 3 As-built thickness t. the material factor K to be considered for the scantlings of welds is to be the greater material factor of the aluminium alloys of the assembly. of the parent material in delivery condition is the minimum guaranteed yield stress. The mechanical characteristics to be considered are. of metal in welded condition.2) R’p0.40 0. η : is the joint coefficient for the welded assembly. in mm 0. Sec 2 Aluminium alloys of series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111 are subject to a drop in mechanical strength in the welded areas.1 The effective length. : minimum guaranteed yield stress. given in Tab 6 For welded constructions in hardened aluminium alloys (series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111 and series 6000).1 R’p0.2 Table 6 : Aluminum alloys Metallurgical efficiency coefficient ß (1/1/2011) Aluminium alloys 6005 A (Open sections) 6005 A (Closed sections) 6061 (Sections) 6082 (Sections) Temper condition T5 or T6 Gross thickness. and series 6000 to be calculated by knowing R'p0.6 Material factor K for scantlings of structural members made of aluminium alloy (1/1/2011) When no information is available.53 0.: • condition 0 or H111 for series 5000 alloys (see [1. of metal in welded condition.5]).45 0.7 1 β : is the coefficient of metallurgical efficiency. in mm 0. normally. in mm t≤6 6< t ≤ 10 Under-thickness tolerance.6. provided they are duly justified. Aluminium alloys of series 6000 are subject to a drop in mechanical strength in the vicinity of the welded areas.2 R’p 0.7 Fillet welding 1.2/Rp 0.5]) • to be indicated by the supplier for series 6000 alloys (see [1. 122 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .50 0. coefficient η is to be taken equal β. in mm t≤6 t>6 T5 or T6 T6 T6 All All All β 0. in N/mm2. Higher mechanical characteristics may be taken into account.2 is not available. Note 1: 1. In the case of welding of two different aluminium alloys. i. given in Tab 5 (for series 5000 other than condition 0 or H11. provided that welded connections are located in areas where stress levels are acceptable for the alloy considered in annealed or welded condition.7.3 0. When R’p0. coefficient η is to be taken equal to the metallurgical efficiency coefficient ß defined in Tab 6. is determined by the following equation: 110 K = ------------------η ⋅ R p 0.2 1. of the weld beads is given by: d e = d – 20 where d is the actual length. in N/mm 2.4 R’p 0.2 : 1. Table 5 : Joint coefficient for aluminum alloys (1/1/2011) Aluminium alloys Alloys without work-hardening treatment (series 5000 in annealed condition 0 or annealed flattened condition H111) Alloys hardened by work hardening (series 5000 other than condition 0 or H111) Alloys hardened by heat treatment (series 6000) (1) η 1 t > 20 Table 4 As-built thickness t. those of condition 0 or H111. given in this Chapter and the various Appendices. greater characteristics than those in annealed or welded condition may be considered.2/Rp 0. of the weld bead.2 The value of the material factor K to be introduced into formulae for checking scantlings of structural members.Pt B. corresponding to the aluminium alloy considered.

together with the mechanical and metallurgical properties of the rivets. RINA may. 1. is to be regular and without burrs or cuts.g. cleaning procedures of edges to be welded.10 Corrosion protection . are to be protected against corrosion by means of coatings applied by suitable procedures agreed by RINA. the following details are to be stated: a) grade and temper of parent and filler materials b) weld execution procedures: type of joint (e. fillet joint). require tension. processes and sequences are in compliance with the relevant RINA requirements. to be performed with procedures and inspection methods at the discretion of the RINA Surveyor. compression and shear tests to be carried out on specimens of riveted connections constructed under the same conditions as during actual hull construction. the requirements Chap 2. e) Inspection of any repairs. in general. if necessary.9. and inspection of performance of the ultrasonic or magnetic particle examinations which may be required. The conditions for riveted connection acceptability are to be individually stated in each particular case.1 General requirements For welding. Sec 3 apply. root chipping and execution of welds in way of structural connections.9. voltage. gas flow capacity) c) welding conditions (e. a) Inspection of base materials for compliance with the requirements in this Article and of structures with the approved plans. right angle edges).g. spot-welding methods and root chipping are to be appropriate to the type of joint and welding position.1 Connections between aluminium alloy parts. For this purpose. for example for plating: welding to be started and completed on end pieces outside the joint. The extent of inspection will be defined by RINA on a case by case basis. the welding of the hull structures is to be performed with the MIG (metal-arc inert gas) and TIG (tungsten-arc inert gas) processes using welding consumables recognized as suitable for the base material to be used. depending on the type of member to be connected and the rivet material. to be carried out in general by machining. by means of zinc or cadmium plating of the steel parts and application of a suitable coating on the corresponding light alloy parts). Any heterogeneous jointing system is subject to RINA’s agreement. alignment of joints. welding position (e. arrangements for repairs consequent to possible arc restarts e) type and extent of controls during production. a detailed plan. such as stainless steel wire brushes. and comply with RINA requirements for the welding procedures adopted.9 Welded connections 1. 1.2 Accessibility and edge preparation For correct execution of welded joints. amperage. 1. flat. 1.Heterogeneous steel/aluminium alloy assembly 1. Exceptions are to be supported by experimental evidence or good in-service performance. d) Examination of radiographs of welded joints (radiographing is to be performed. those specified in (a) to (e) below. is to be submitted for approval. Irrespective of the extent of such inspections.g. RINA reserves the right to accept the results of tests performed by recognised bodies or other Societies. to be witnessed by a RINA Surveyor. are to be cleaned carefully before welding. sufficient accessibility is necessary. approved plans and sound working practice.g.8 Riveted connections for aluminium alloy hulls approved and verification that qualified welders are employed.9. so as to eliminate oxides. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 123 .3 Inspections Inspections of welded connections by RINA Surveyors are. depending on the welding process adopted and the welding position. in principle. 1. protection from environmental atmosphere) d) special operating requirements for butt-joints. horizontal) and other parameters (e. The structural parts to be welded as well as those adjacent. back chipping.Pt B.1 Use of rivets for connecting structures is limited.4 Welding processes for light alloys In general. Edge preparation. In addition. using suitable mechanical means. For authorisation to use welding procedures in production. vertical.9. Sec 2 1. Whenever riveted connections are to be employed. at its discretion. the shipyard is to have its own production control organization. Ch 3. any direct contact between steel and aluminium alloy is to be avoided (e. Welding processes and filler materials other than those above will be individually considered by RINA at the time of approval of welding procedures. employing welders qualified by RINA. c) Visual examination of edge preparations. individual builders are to hold an authorisation by RINA to use these procedures.10. only to members which do not contribute to the overall strength of the hull. Edge cutting.g. b) Inspection of the use and application conditions of welding procedures for compliance with those 1. edge preparation (e. even if they have been previously pickled. these provisions make the adoption of welding procedures dependent on their previous qualification by RINA. thicknesses.g. In particular. if any. depending on the extent of the examinations). butt-joint. it is the responsibility of the builder to ensure that the manufacturing procedures. grease or other foreign bodies which could give rise to welding defects. bevelling. illustrating the process as well as the dimensions and location of rivets and holes. and between aluminium alloy and steel parts. In any case.8.

2. Sec 2 The use of transition joints made of aluminium/steel-clad plates or profiles is subject to RINA’s agreement. Ch 3.3 This document is also to include maintenance arrangements to be made in service to restore and maintain the efficiency of this protection. control after completion.1 Structure design principles Protection against corrosion 2. 2. 124 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . application conditions. without such a reduction exceeding 3 per cent. and whether or not incidental.1.2 Rounding-off 2. whatever the reasons for its weakening. etc.1.Pt B. 2 2.2. number and thickness of layers.1. Transition joints are to be type approved. Qualifications tests for welding procedures are to be carried out for each joint configuration.1 Scantlings stipulated in Sec 3 and Sec 4 assume that the materials used are chosen and protected in such a way that the strength lost by corrosion is negligible. corrosion at the construction stage: coating types. All such maintenance operations are to be listed in a book shown to the RINA Surveyor in charge upon request. surface preparation.2 The shipyard is to give RINA a document specifying all the arrangements made to protect the material against 2.1 Values for thickness as obtained from formulae are to be rounded off to the nearest standard value. anodic protection.

of stiffeners and primary supporting members. ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎞ ⎛ 1. permissible shear stress. as defined in [2. Sec 5.5 · (l1 + l2).4. : conventional scantling span of primary supporting members. Sec 3 SECTION 3 DESIGN LOADS AND HULL SCANTLINGS 1 1. Sec 1.2. ratio between permissible and actual hull girder longitudinal bending stresses (see [2.2 Transverse strength of twin-hull craft The equivalent Von Mises stresses obtained for load conditions in Ch 1. Sec 5. bulkhead web and longitudinal stiffener. which is not to be taken greater than 1. the distance between the supporting elements at the ends of the stiffeners (see Fig 4).1 Longitudinal strength In general.4. 2 2. in N/mm2.3. [4. l being the span of the connected stiffener.2 Definitions and symbols 2. 2. the bottom of the cross-deck is to be constituted by continuous plating for its entire longitudinal and transverse extension.1].0. S0 being the distance between the internal ends of the conventional brackets as indicated in Fig 5 or. if there are no brackets. Sec 5. Sec 5. 2. Ch 3. [4].1. [5] apply. For all other craft. the scantlings resulting from local strength calculations in this Article are such as to ensure adequate longitudinal strength of the hull girder for the craft. Where the bracket connects two different types of stiffeners (frame and beam. longitudinal bending stress. [4.1.1 S0. accept scantlings for transverse structures of the hull based on direct calculations in accordance with Ch 3. For craft with L > 65 m or speed V > 45 knots. Sec 5. σp / σbl. and Ch 1. RINA may. material factor defined in Sec 2. [4. the normal and shear stresses in the beams for the load condition in Ch 1. The loads acting on such structures are to be calculated in accordance with Ch 1.6].4]). Sec 1.1 “Rule bracket” . Sec 5. in m. [4].3]. Ch 1.1]. where l1 and l2 are the S b RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎝ ⎛ 125 . : section modulus. for craft with length L > 65 m or speed V > 45 knots.Pt B. or according to criteria specified by RINA. σp σbl μ : : : -1. [3].e. at its discretion and as an alternative to the requirements of this Article.4. in cm 3. in m. permissible normal stress. The compressive values of normal stresses and the shear stresses are not to exceed the values of critical stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated according to [2.3 Overall strength 2. in m.1 This Article stipulates requirements for the scantlings of hull structures (plating. Alternative solutions may. design pressure.5 . measured along the plating. In general.2] and Ch 1. : overall span of stiffeners. In the special case of twin hull craft. 5 ⋅ s l 0 . in N/mm2. Specific longitudinal strength calculations are to be carried according to the requirements of Sec 4. Sec 5. : spacing of stiffeners.1 Hull scantlings 2. 2. Special consideration is to be given to conditions different from those shown. the scantlings of transverse structures are to be verified also by direct calculations carried out in accordance with Ch 3. primary supporting members).3] can be calculated as indicated in [2. calculated as defined in Ch 1. maximum admissible stress.1 The requirements in Ch 1.5]. the transverse strength is to be checked by means of direct calculations carried out in accordance with the criteria specified in Ch 3. of plating and deck panels. stiffeners. however. in N/mm2.4. to be taken as given in the examples in Fig 5. or for those craft whose structural arrangements do not permit a realistic assessment of stress conditions based on simple models. etc. In general. [4]. in mm.4.3] are not to exceed 75/K N/mm2. the value of l is to be that of the member with the greater span. as defined in [2. in N/mm2. [5]. in kN/m2. [1. [4]. i. In no case is S to be less than 1. t Z s l : thickness.1 Design loads Application p σam τam K e : : : : : spans of stiffeners supported by the primary supporting member. between the ends of the members. be examined by RINA on the basis of considerations pertaining to the height of the cross-deck above the waterline and to the motion characteristics of the craft.). : actual surface width of the load bearing on primary supporting members. for usual arrangements b = 0.A bracket with arms equal to I/8. Sec 1. 1 – 0.3.4. when the structure connecting both hulls is formed by a deck with single plating stiffened by n reinforced beams. Sec 5.

the bending moment Mi. of one hull in relation to the other around a transverse axis passing through G. in m.⋅ 10 3 r i ⋅ d i2 Ei Ii Si Young’s modulus. If Fi. For this hypothesis to be correct. the force Fi. in rad. in N/mm2. ri and di are known. of the beam i with respect to the xi origin 0. Sec 3 Transverse strength in the special case of twin-hull craft when the structure connecting both hulls is formed by a deck with single plate stiffened by n reinforced beams See Fig 6. and the corresponding normal and shear stresses can be evaluated in each beam: Fi = ω ⋅ ri ⋅ di Mi = F i ⋅ S i ⁄ 2 Note 1: Beams calculated by the above method are assumed to be fixed in each hull as beams in way of bulkheads inside hulls. of the beam i span. in N · m.3 di ω : xi . in. in m4.2. abscissa.= ----i = d i ⋅ ω ri 12 ⋅ E i ⋅ I i As Mtt. Considering that the transverse torsional moment (see Ch 1. is the force taken over by the beam i. in N.Pt B. in m. of the beam i in relation to G : rotation angle. Ch 3.3]) where: a : the abscissa. and ω thus deduced. Sec 3. in N/m 3 Si ∑ ∑ ∑ M tt = F i ⋅ d i ⋅ 10 –3 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . the deflection yi. of the beam i between the inner faces of the hulls : abscissa. 126 ∑ ri 12 ⋅ E i ⋅ I6 : ----------------------i ⋅ 10 .3.a. G is the centre of the stiffnesses ri of the n beams. of the centre G with respect to an arbitrarily chosen origin 0 ri the formula for ω may be obtained as follows: M tt ω = --------------------. of the hull in way of the beam i. in m. the beams are to extend over the whole breadth of both hulls and their stiffness is to be kept the same over the entire span inside and outside the hulls. Its position is defined by: ri ⋅ xi a = ------------------ri 2. of the beam i bending inertia. is: : : : F F i ⋅ S i3 ⋅ 10 –6 y i = -----------------------------. in m. in N. [3. in m.

Sec 3 Figure 1 : Examples of conventional spans of ordinary stiffeners RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 127 . Ch 3.Pt B.

Ch 3.Pt B. Sec 3 Figure 2 : Examples of conventional spans of primary supporting members Ap = area of girder face plate a1 = area of bracket face plate a1 0.5 Ap 128 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .

Ch 3.Pt B.4. in N/mm2.1 Application These requirements apply to aluminium alloy plates and stiffeners subjected to compressive loads.4 Buckling strength of aluminium alloy structural members 2. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎝ ⎛ 2.4. Sec 3 Figure 3 2.2 Elastic buckling stresses of plates a) Compressive stress The elastic buckling stress. 9 ⋅ m c ⋅ ε ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a 2 129 . to calculate their buckling strength. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ where: m : 2 2 coefficient equal to: ( 1 + γ ) for uniform compression ( ψ ) = 1. t σE = 0.

34 + 4 ⋅ -b 2 b) Local elastic buckling stresses The local elastic buckling stresses. in N/mm2. 7 ------------------------------------------------3 ⎠ ⎞ 0. in N/mm2.2].or Tsection. 2. in m.5 4 – ------------------–1 0. for edge d stiffened by angle. 2 σ c = Rp 0. in m. in delivery condition σE : elastic buckling stress calculated according to [2. (b). for a stiffener simply supported at one end and fixed at the other end. 4. in N/mm2. 2 σE > ----------2 tf σ E = 11 ⋅ ---bf ⎝ ⎛ if R p0. S m b) Shear stress The elastic buckling stress. d ⎠ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎞ R p0. 1 ------------------.4. and γ ≥ 1 . (a) above. web thickness. where: hw tw bf tf : : : : web height.4 Axially loaded stiffeners a) Elastic flexural buckling stress The elastic flexural buckling stress. for a stiffener fixed at both ends. in mm.( m 1 – 1 ) . is given by: ⎠ ⎞ γ1 ε : : coefficient equal to: .25. in delivery condition : elastic buckling stress calculated according to [2.1. 2 σ E ≤ ----------2 tw σE = 27 ⋅ ----hw 2 ⋅ 10 4 web ⋅ 10 4 flange 2 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ where: r : I ---------------------------------10 S + φ ⋅ t ⋅ 10 – 2 ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ 1. 1 ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ c ⎠ ⎞ 2. . 130 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ Rp 0. : ratio between smallest and largest compressive stress in the case of linear variation across the panel (0 ≤ Ψ ≤ 1). for edge d stiffened by a flat bar or bulb section. excluding attached plating : coefficient depending on boundary conditions: 1.2 ium alloy used. are given by: .Pt B. in N/mm 2. flange width. 2. in mm. to be taken equal to 0. in N/mm 2.7 · 105 N/mm 2.5.⋅ ( 1 + γ 2 ) 2 . is given by: ⎠ ⎞ t τE = 0. : unloaded side of plate.4. in mm.1. for a stiffener simply supported at both ends. Sec 3 γ 1 + --. for edge d stiffened by angle. and γ < 1 . 1 + ψ if for compression-bending stress τF τ E ≤ --2 if τ τE > ---F 2 τF τ c = τ F ⋅ 1 – ----------4 ⋅ τE 2 ⋅ m ⋅ 10 4 0. if ( γ < γ 1 ) ) b) Shear stress The critical buckling stress. : shorter side of plate. in cm2. is given by: τc = τE ⎝ ⎛ ( 0 ≤ ψ ≤ 1 ) if γ ≥ γ 1 m1 t E a c d Ψ : 2. 1 2 ------------------. in m. for edge d stiffened by flat bar or bulb section. in cm4.5 ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝⎜ ⎛⎛ gyration radius. calculated with a plate flange of width equal to φ : smaller of: 800 · a 200 · c : area of the cross-section of the stiffener.2].5 τE : minimum guaranteed yield stress of aluminium alloy used. t and a are given in (a) b : longer side of plate. 2 ⋅ 1 – -----------4 ⋅ σE if Rp 0. in N/mm 2. and γ < 1 l φ : moment of inertia of the stiffener. : Young’s modulus. in mm.2 : γ : plate thickness. in N/mm2.1.3 Critical buckling stress a) Compressive stress The critical buckling stress. in mm. : loaded side of plate.1. Ch 3. 2. and γ ≥ 1 . in N/mm2. c -: . to be not greater than 1. in mm. 9 ⋅ m t ⋅ E ⋅ -------------------1000 ⋅ a ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 2 where: : mt a 5.for flat bars: ⎠ ⎞ E.5. 2 ----------3 0.or Tsection.⋅ ( 1 + γ 1 ) 2 1. in m.1. γ1 for compression-bending stress ( 0 ≤ ψ ≤ 1). 1 + ψ 0. 1 + ψ where: τF Rp0. flange thickness.1. is given by: σ c = σE ⎝ ⎛ t wσE = 55 ⋅ ----hw 2 ⋅ 10 3 - built-up stiffeners with symmetrical flange: ⎠ ⎞ where: : minimum guaranteed yield stress of aluminRp0. 1.5 r σE = 69.

in N/mm2. 2 σE > ------------------2 : : σE where: RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 131 . Sec 3 c) Critical buckling stress The critical buckling stress. Ch 3. in N/mm .2 : minimum guaranteed yield stress of aluminium alloy used. defined in Sec 2. [1. η η ⋅ R p 0.Pt B.6] either overall elastic buckling stress or local elastic buckling stress calculated according to (a) and (b) above. is given by: σc = σE η ⋅ R p0. 2 if σ c = η ⋅ R p0. 2 ⋅ 1 – ------------------4 ⋅ σE if ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 2 Rp0. whichever is the lesser. 2 σ E ≤ ------------------2 η ⋅ R p0. in delivery conditions joint coefficient for the welded assembly.

2.2 1. f At : total shear stress in kN defined in Chap. Therefore: σ f ≤ f ⋅ σ s N ⁄ mm 2 3. σ p ≤ f ⋅ σs N ⁄ mm 2 where: MT 2 σ f = ---------------------. 1.80 for planing yachts : 0. For yachts of greater length and/or openings of size greater than the breadth B of the hull and extending for a considerable part of the length of the yacht.1. 4.1 The compressive value of normal stresses is not to exceed the value of the critical stresses for plates and stiffeners calculated in Chap 3. in particular: T ----t ⋅ 10 –3 ≤ f ⋅ σ s At where: Tt σ s. to be calculated considering the net area of side plating and of any longitudinal bulkheads excluding openings.1 The moment of inertia J of the midship section.4. Ch 3. 1. Wp : MT : section modulus at the bottom and the deck.1 In the calculation of the modulus and inertia of the midship section. MT .3 2. plating and longitudinal stiffeners are generally to be included. 2 2.1 The structural scantlings prescribed in Chapter 3 are also intended for the purposes of the longitudinal strength of a yacht having length L not exceeding 45 m for monohull or 40 m for catamarans and openings on the strength deck of limited size. provided that they extend for at least 0.2. Sec.1 Calculation of the section modulus Wf. 132 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . in m 4.1.3. MT .1 General f f σs : 0. is to be not less than the value given by the following formulae: J = 16 . 1.1.1 In addition to satisfying the minimum requirements stipulated in the individual Chapters of these Rules. Sec 3.1 Bending stresses 3 3.N ⁄ mm 1000 Wp 4 4. the scantlings of members contributing to the longitudinal strength of monohull yachts and catamarans are to achieve a section modulus of the midship section at the bottom and the deck such as to guarantee stresses not exceeding the allowable values. 5 : defined in 2 : actual shear of the transverse section. 10-6 for planing yachts J = 18 .72 for displacement yachts : minimum yield stress of the material.1 The shear stresses in every position along the length L are not to exceed the allowable values. 5. Sec.N ⁄ mm 1000 W f MT 2 σ p = ----------------------. 10-6 for displacement yachts. of the transverse section. 1.Pt B.4 L amidships. respectively.2 2.1 Shear stresses 2.1 To this end. 2.2]. 2. [2. Sec 4 SECTION 4 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH 1 1. longitudinal strength calculations are to be carried out considering the load and ballast conditions for both departure and arrival.1. all the continuous members. calculation of the longitudinal strength is required. in N/mm2. in m3 design total vertical bending moment defined in Chap. in m2.

1 1. 2 of this Chapter. in mm. not less than the value te given by: t e = 1. are to be not less than the values hCH and tCH. given in Chap. Sec. 5 where: k1 : : ka : 0. 2 t 2 = 11 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K ) 0. assuming p=p2. calculated with the following equations: h CH = 1. coefficient as a function of the ratio S/s given in Table 1 below where S is the greater dimension of the plating. in mm. in any event. in mm.1 s p K Definitions and symbols The thickness of the bottom plating and the bilge is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 and t2. 35 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0. Sec 5 SECTION 5 PLATING 1 1.15. 05 ⋅ L + 6 ) ⋅ K 0. in kN/m . in m. in mm. 5 ⋅ L + 600 and a thickness not less than that of the adjacent bottom plating increased by 2 mm. 5 h S Lesser heights and thicknesses may be accepted provided that the effective area of the section is not less than that of the Rule section. : scantling pressure. in any event. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K ) 0.7. Lesser heights and thicknesses may also be acceptable if a centre girder is placed in connection with the solid keel. 5. The thickness of the plating of the bilge is. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 133 .1 Bottom plating is the plating up to the chine or to the upper turn of the bilge. 5 3 3.2. measured perpendicularly from the chord s to the highest point of the arc of plating between the two supports (see Figure 1). where h is the distance. and. 5 : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener.1 The height and thickness of the keel. throughout the length of the yacht. 5 ⋅ L + 100 t C H = ( 0. assuming p=p1 0.1 The keel plating is to have a length bCH. Sheet steel of plating connected to the stem or to the sternpost or in way of the propeller shaft struts is to have a thickness.10.1. Ch 3. in mm. throughout the length of the yacht. 2. curvature correction factor given by 1-h/s to be taken not less than 0. to be taken as not less than the greater of the thicknesses of the bottom and side.Pt B. The garboard strakes connected to the keel are each to have a width not less than 750 mm and a thickness not less than that of the bottom plating increased by 10%. Figure 1 2 2. : factor defined in Sec.1.1 Keel k2 : Sheet steel keel 2. not less than the value obtained by the following equation: b CH = 4.1. 1.2 Solid keel 2. in m. 3 ⋅ ( 0.1 Bottom and bilge 3. equal to the thickness of the bottom increased by 50%.

1 The thickness of plating determined with the foregoing formulae is to be increased locally.3.2.1 Local stiffeners 7.25 that of the adjacent plating but no greater than that of the keel.5 19. 8. the thickness of the transom will be the subject of special consideration.1.4 1. rudder horn or trunk. In any event.2 5. an increase in thickness and/or additional internal stiffeners may be required.1. k2 and ka are as defined in 3.3 7. The thickness is to be not less than 1. a sheerstrake plate of height h. not less than 0.1 The thickness is to be taken.1.6 20. 134 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 Side 7.1 Openings in the curved zone of the bilge strakes may be accepted where the former are elliptical or fitted with equivalent arrangements to minimise the stress concentration effects.1 22. Where the gap between the bottom and the waterline is reduced so that local wave impact phenomena are anticipated.0 >2 Ka 17.8 2. 7 7.6 22.3 22.3 6.1 The thickness of plating is to be locally increased in way of inner or outer permanent ballast arrangements. outside the bilge strakes and the keel. 4. in way of the stem. Sec 5 Table 1 S/s 1 1.1. In the event of water-jet drive systems. 4 4. anchor recesses. the stiffener spacing s being equal.1 In yachts having L> 50 m.1 The thickness of the transom is to be no less than that required for the bottom. generally by at least 50%.1 Sea intakes and other openings are to be well rounded at the corners and located. but not less than 6 mm. propeller shaft struts. no less than that of the side plating. for the part above the waterline. In way of the ends of the bridge.1 The thickness of side plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 and t2.4 6 6.1. stabilisers.1.2. the thickness of the sheerstrake is to be adequately increased. In the case of sidescuttles or windows or other openings arranged on the sheerstrake plate. etc.1 Sheerstrake 6. 5.2. calculated with the following formulae: t1 = k1 ⋅ k2 ⋅ ka ⋅ s ⋅ ( p ⋅ K ) t 2 = 10 ⋅ s ⋅ ( T ⋅ K ) 0. RINA may require the local plating to be increased and/or reinforced with the fitting of additional stiffeners.025 L and thickness not less than the greater of the values of the plating of the side and the stringer plate is to be fitted.3.1 Cross deck bottom plating 5. Arrangements are to be such as to ensure continuity of strength in way of openings. in mm. 5 0. 6. 7. as far as possible. where k1. 8 8.9 21. such openings are to be located well clear of welded connections. Ch 3.Pt B. for the part below the waterline.2 6.6 1. the thickness is to be increased sufficiently as necessary in order to compensate such openings.2 5 5.1 The internal walls of sea intakes are to have external plating thickness increased by 2 mm.1 Where the aft end is shaped such that the bottom plating aft has a large flat area. in mm.1 Openings in the shell plating 6. or for the side.2 1. 5 7.

Where they are to be interrupted in way of a transverse watertight bulkhead.3. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 135 . the modulus ZM may. which in turn may be supported by transverse bulkheads. 1.2.2.1 Definitions and symbols 1.1 The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally.Pt B. the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas. in cm3.1 The transverse framing consists of ordinary stiffeners arranged transversally (floors) and placed at each frame supported by girders.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. 3 3. or by the sides of the hull. however. 1. in m.1 General Scope 2 2.3. 1. in m.2 Longitudinal structure 1. supported by floors.1. 1.2.3 In way of the propeller shaft struts.5 Floors are to be fitted in way of reinforced frames at the sides and reinforced beams on the weather deck.3.1. scantling pressure. Any intermediate floors are to be adequately connected to the ends. the modulus may be reduced by a further 10%. 1. Sec 6 SECTION 6 SINGLE BOTTOM 1 1. 1.2. which in turn are supported by transverse bulkheads or reinforced floors.1 s p K : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners.3 Transverse structure The bottom longitudinal stringers are preferably to be continual through the transverse members. between the two floors adjacent to that concerned conventional floor span equal to the distance. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. the rudder and the ballast keel.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. girders. The floors may be supported by girders. coefficient defined in Sec 2 of this Chapter. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m.6 assuming p=p1 0. in m.1 Longitudinal type structure Bottom longitudinals 3. 1. the latter are to be fitted as a continuation of the existing girders outside the engine room. between the two supporting members (sides.7 assuming p=p2 conventional span of the longitudinal stiffener. If a side girder is fitted on each side with a height equal to the local height of the floor.3.1.3 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders. the rudder horn and the ballast keel. given in Chap. 1.2 Floors 3. in cm2. 1. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. half the distance. In the case of a keel with a dead rise edge ≤12° but > 8° the span S is always to be calculated considering the distance between girders or sides. 1. 3.4 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders. ZM = k1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b S : : : defined in 3. brackets are to be provided at the ends. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 S : : : 1. be reduced by 40%. additional floors are to be fitted with sufficiently increased scantlings.3.1 The section modulus of longitudinal stringers is to be not less than the value Z. Ch 3. calculated with the following formula. equal to the distance between floors.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a single bottom.4 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts. 2. in kN/m2. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. in m.1 The section modulus of the floors at the centreline of the span S is to be not less than the value ZM.1. keel with a dead rise edge > 12°). 1.2.

in m. in m.1 The centre girder and side girders are to be connected to the stiffeners of the transom by means of suitable fittings.1 The section modulus for ordinary floors is to be not less than the value Z.1 half the distance.3 3. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder adjacent to that concerned : conventional girder span equal to the distance.3 Side girders where: k1 bPL : : defined in 3.1 Transverse type structures Ordinary floors When the girder forms a support for the floor. where: k1 S : defined in 3. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4. of the floor equal to the distance between the members which support it (girders. in m. where: k1 KPC : 2.3. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. half the distance. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder concerned conventional girder span equal to the distance.2 Centre girder Whenever the centre girder does not form a support for the floors. in m. S : 4.3. in cm3. between the two members which support it (transverse bulkheads.1 half the distance.1 : conventional span in m. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads.1 Constructional details where: k1 b’PL : : defined in 3.1.1 The section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL.1. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPC : : defined in 3. in m.32 assuming p= p1 : 1.43 assuming p= p2 : half the distance. Ch 3. in m. Sec 6 3. between the two side girders if present or equal to B/2in the absence of side girders distance between the floors. half the distance. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPL : defined in 3.1 The section modulus of the centre girder is to be not less than the value ZPC. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. in m. in cm3. in m. in cm3. The face plate of the girders may be gradually reduced to reach the dimensions of that of the transom stiffeners. in m.1 : half the distance. S : 136 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ 4. 4.2 : S Side girders When the side girder forms a support for the floor. floors).1. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ 5 5. equal to the distance. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads.Pt B. floors).2. in m. sides). the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL.1 Girders Centre girder 4 4. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the adjacent girder distance between the floors. in cm3. S : S Whenever the side girder does not form a support for the floors. in m. in cm 3. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC. floors). in cm3. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of side girders conventional girder span equal to the distance. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders : conventional span of the centre girder. in cm3. floors). the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b’PC : : defined in 3.3. 5. S 3.1.

1 A centre girder is to be fitted. On yachts of L > 61 m a double bottom is to be fitted outside the machinery space extending.4 L amidships so as to reach a value no less than 0.1. 04 L + 5s + 1 )k where: s : spacing of the ordinary stiffeners.1. except in special cases at the discretion of RINA.Pt B. are to be such as to allow access for inspection and maintenance. the thickness of the top is also to comply with the provisions of Sec. throughout the length of the yacht.4 Openings are to be provided in floors and girders in order to ensure down-flow of air and liquids in every part of the double bottom. The height of manholes is generally to be not greater than half the local height in the double bottom. Bilge wells placed in the inner bottom are to be watertight and limited as far as possible in height and are to have walls and bottom of thickness not less than that prescribed for inner bottom plating.3 The dimensions of the double bottom. is requested for yachts of L > 50 m. throughout the length of the hull.1 Side girders 5. manholes are to be provided in order to guarantee that all parts of the double bottom can be inspected at least visually.9 t1 at the ends. as far as possible.1 General 2 2. Ch 3. 3 3.1 Centre girder 4. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m. obtained from the following formula: h df = 28B + 32 ( T + 10 ) The height of the double bottom is. 1. side girders need not be fitted. calculated with the following formula: t 1 = 1. Where the inner bottom forms the top of a tank intended for liquid cargoes.1. the thickness is to be maintained throughout the length of the hull.1 The thickness of the inner bottom plating is to be not less than the value t1. For yachts of length L < 50 m. Holes for the passage of air are to be arranged as close as possible to the top and those for the passage of liquids as close as possible to the bottom. as far as this is practicable. as far as possible. Manholes are not to be placed in the continuous centre girder. tapering of the structures is to be adopted in order to avoid discontinuities. 2.1 The height of the double bottom is to be sufficient to allow access to all areas and. the thickness may be gradually reduced outside 0. in m. The thickness of the centre girder is to be not less than the following value tpc.1. 4 ( 0. 10. supported by floors. 4 ( 0. In zones where the double bottom varies in height or is interrupted. in any event. side girders are to be arranged with thickness equal to that of the floors. in mm: t pc = 1.1 Minimum height 1. the free edge is to be reinforced by a flat iron bar or other equally effective reinforcements are to be arranged. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type. 1. to be not less than 700 mm. In floors and in side girders. 4 4. is to be not less than the value hDF.2 The fitting of a double bottom extending from the collision bulkhead to the forward bulkhead in the machinery space. For yachts less than 50 m in length RINA may accept reduced height. as far as possible. in way of the centre girder.1.1.1. 008 h df + 2 ) ⋅ k 5 5. 1. When manholes with greater height are fitted. For yachts of length L > 50 m.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a double bottom. or as near thereto as practicable. On yachts of L > 76 m the double bottom is to extend. or in floors and side girders below pillars.1. The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally.1 Where the breadth of the floors does not exceed 6 m. in mm. The double bottom is to extend transversally to the side so as to protect the bottom in the bilge area. The fitting of a double bottom with longitudinal framing is recommended for planing and semi-planing yachts. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 137 .1 Inner bottom plating 3. and in particular the height. in mm. Sec 7 SECTION 7 DOUBLE BOTTOM 1 1. forward to the collision bulkhead and aft to the after peak bulkhead.

The side girders are to be extended as far forward and aft as practicable and are. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom. Engine foundation bolts are to be arranged. as far as practicable. 138 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . 6 6. The ends of the intermediate flat are to be sniped at an angle of 15°.1 Floors 6. solid floors or equivalent structures are to be arranged in longitudinally framed double bottoms in the following locations. 10. 8. Ch 3. is to be not less than: Zc = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ p ⋅ K 2 where: k1 S : 1. The reverse frame section modulus is to be not less than 85% of the frame section modulus. Girders of height no less than that of the floors are to be fitted under the bedplates of main engines.2 5. The arrangement shown in Fig 1 is recommended. is to be not less than the following value: t m = 0.Pt B. 5 8 8.1 When the height of a floor exceeds 900 mm.1 Where additional girders are foreseen in way of the bedplates of engines.1.1 The thickness of floors tm. 6. Solid floors are to be arranged in transversely framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • in the machinery space at every frame • in way of variations in height of the double bottom • outside the machinery space at 2 m intervals. • under buklheads and pillars • outside the machinery space at an interval no greater than 2 m • in the machinery space under the bedplates of main engines • in way of variations in height of the double bottom. or between one such girder and the centre girder or the side. scantlings and connections 9.1 Bilge keel Arrangement. the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec.1. is required on the shell plating. They are to be located in way of a transverse bilge stiffener. 10 for tank bulkheads. An intermediate flat.1 Bracket floors 5.1 Arrangement Where installed. transverse brackets are to be fitted. in cm3. In any event. 008h df + 0. 7.1 At each frame between solid floors. The ends of the bilge keel are to be sniped at an angle of 15° or rounded with large radius. the frame and reverse frame section moduli are to be no less than those required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec.2.1 The section modulus of bottom stiffeners is to be no less than that required for single bottom longitudinals stipulated in Sec. in m. vertical stiffeners are to be arranged.1. Where this is not possible. The section modulus of inner bottom stiffeners is to be no less than 85% of the section modulus of bottom longitudinals. bilge keels may not be welded directly on the shell plating. in close proximity to girders and floors.1 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals Watertight floors are also to have thickness not less than that required in Sec.1. The frame section modulus Zc.68 assuming p=p2 : frame span. Sec 7 A sufficient number of side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them.6 assuming p=p1 : 0.2. to terminate on a transverse bulkhead or on a floor or other transverse structure of adequate strength. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom. 10. does not exceed 3 m. 9 9. or doubler. they are to be integrated into the structures of the yacht and extended as far forward and aft as practicable. equal to the distance between the mid-spans of the brackets connecting the frame/reverse frame.2 6. as a rule. 6. in mm. 7 7. bracket floors consisting of a frame connected to the bottom plating and a reverse frame connected to the inner bottom plating are to be arranged and attached to the centre girder and the margin plate by means of flanged brackets with a width of flange not less than 1/10 of the double bottom depth.

is to be welded as a shell doubler by continuous fillet welds. 9. The net thickness of the intermediate flat is to be equal to that of the bilge strake.1. The butt welds of the bilge plating and those of the doublers are to be flush in way of crossing. respectively.3 Scantlings 9. with the doubler and with the bilge keel. Sec 7 Figure 1 : Bilge keel arrangement Figure 2 : Bilge keel arrangement The arrangement shown in Fig 2 may also be accepted.2. through which the bilge keel is connected to the shell.1.1 The intermediate flat.Pt B. The butt welds of the doubler and bilge keel are to be full penetration and shifted from the shell butts. this thickness may generally not be greater than 15 mm. 9. However.2 Materials 9. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 139 .2 Bilge keel connection The bilge keel and the intermediate flat are to be made of the same alloy as that of the bilge strake. Ch 3.

1 Definitions and symbols 4.1. by decks. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: : 1. Reinforced frames are to be provided in way of the mast and the ballast keel. 4 4. factor defined in Sec. 1. 2 of this Chapter. 2. generally spaced not more than 2 m apart. 140 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . in cm3. in cm3.92 for reinforced stringers which support ordiKCR nary vertical stiffeners (frames).1 Reinforced beams Reinforced frames 2 2. in kN/m 2. Sec 8 SECTION 8 SIDE STRUCTURES 1 1.1.86 for reinforced frames which do not support ordinary stiffeners.2.2 Reinforced stringers where: k1 : : S : 1. by flats or by the bottom structures.1 General 3. equal to the distance between the members which support the reinforced frame. in m.1 : 1. Sec.1 The section modulus of the reinforced stringers is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 ′ The ordinary frames are to be well connected to the elements which support them. in m.92 for reinforced frames which support ordinary longitudinal stiffeners. equal to the distance between the supporting members. in m. : conventional span. The transverse type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed vertically (frames). in the machinery space and in general in way of large openings on the weather deck. : 0. in m.1 s p K 3 3. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 4. which may be supported by reinforced stringers.1 The section modulus of the reinforced frames is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ p 2 where: k1 : 1 assuming p=p1 : 0.1.2 Longitudinal stiffeners 1.1 The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z. Chap.2.7 assuming p=p2 : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners.6 assuming p=p1 k1 : 0. where: k1 : defined in 4. 3.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of the reinforcement structures of the side. 4.Pt B. s KCR : 1. Ch 3. in general made up of a beam and a floor. which may be of longitudinal or transverse type. : spacing between the reinforced frames or half the distance between the reinforced frames and the transverse bulkhead adjacent to the frame concerned. The longitudinal type structure consists of ordinary stiffeners placed longitudinally supported by reinforced frames.1 The section modulus of the side longitudinals is to be not less than the value Z. equal to the distance between the supporting members. in general made up of reinforced frames or transverse bulkheads. : 0. defined in Part B. scantling pressure.1 Ordinary stiffeners Transverse frames S 3. or reinforced stringers.1. or by transverse bulkheads.86 for reinforced stringers which do not support ordinary vertical stiffeners.7 assuming p=p2 S : conventional span of the longitudinal. 5 .27 assuming p=p1 1 assuming p=p2 conventional frame span. in sailing yachts.

Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 8

s

: spacing between the reinforced stringers or 0,5 D in the absence of other reinforced stringers or decks; : conventional span, in m, equal to the distance between the members which support the stringer, in general made up of transverse bulkheads or reinforced frames.

6.1.4 For connections of frames to deck beams (see Fig 3), the required section modulus is to be taken equal to: • for bracket “A”:
wA = w1 wA = w2 if if w2 ≤ w 1 w2 > w 1

S

5
5.1

Frame connections
General

• for bracket “B”: wB = w’1 but need not be greater than w1

5.1.1 End connections of frames are to be bracketed. 5.1.2 'Tweendeck frames are to be bracketed to the deck at the top and welded or bracketed at the bottom to the deck. In the case of bulb profiles, a bracket may be required to be fitted at the bottom. 5.1.3 Brackets are normally connected to frames by lap welds. The length of overlap is to be not less than the depth of frames.

where w1 , w’1 and w2 are the required net section moduli of stiffeners, as shown in Fig 3. Figure 1 : Connections of perpendicular stiffeners in the same plane

w2

6

Scantling of brackets of frame connections
d

6.1
6.1.1 As a general rule, for yachts of length greater than 50 m, the following scantlings may be adopted. 6.1.2 Upper brackets of frames
w1 d

The arm length of upper brackets connecting frames to deck beams is to be not less than the value obtained, in mm, from the following formula:
w + 30 d = ϕ ---------------t

where: ϕ : coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: ϕ = 48 • for flanged brackets: ϕ = 43,5 w : required net section modulus of the stiffener, in cm3, given in [6.1.3] and [6.1.4] and depending on the type of connection, : bracket net thickness, in mm.

Figure 2 : Connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes

d

w2

t

theoretical bracket actual bracket d

6.1.3 For connections of perpendicular stiffeners located in the same plane (see Fig 1) or connections of stiffeners located in perpendicular planes (see Fig 2), the required section modulus is to be taken equal to:
w = w2 w = w1 if if w2 ≤ w1 w2 > w1
w1

where w1 and w2 are the required net section moduli of stiffeners, as shown in Fig 1 and Fig 2.

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141

Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 8

Figure 3 : Connections of frames to deck beams

Figure 4 : Lower brackets of main frames

w'1
d2

h

h'1

dB

dB

h'1

B

w2
2h

75 75

A
d1

dA

6.2.2 The arm lengths d1 and d2 of lower brackets of frames are to be not less than the value obtained, in mm, from the following formula:
dA

w + 30 d = ϕ ---------------t

w1

6.2

Lower brackets of frames

6.2.1 In general, frames are to be bracketed to the inner bottom or to the face plate of floors as shown in Fig 4.

where: ϕ : coefficient equal to: • for unflanged brackets: ϕ = 50 • for flanged brackets: ϕ = 45 w : required net section modulus of the frame, in cm3, t : bracket net thickness, in mm. 6.2.3 Where the bracket thickness, in mm, is less than 15Lb , where Lb is the length, in m, of the bracket free edge, the free edge of the bracket is to be flanged or stiffened by a welded face plate. The sectional area, in cm2, of the flange or the face plate is to be not less than 10Lb.

142

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

1,5 h

Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 9

SECTION 9

DECKS

1
1.1

General

3.2

Lower decks

1.1.1 This Section lays down the criteria and formulae for the scantlings of decks, plating and reinforcing or supporting structures. The reinforcing and supporting structures of decks consist of ordinary reinforcements, beams or longitudinal stringers, laid transversally or longitudinally, supported by lines of shoring made up of systems of girders and/or reinforced beams, which in turn are supported by pillars or by transverse or longitudinal bulkheads. Reinforced beams together with reinforced frames are to be placed in way of the mast in sailing yachts. In sailing yachts with the mast resting on the deck or on the deckhouse, a pillar or bulkhead is to be arranged in way of the mast base.

3.2.1 The thickness of decks below the weather deck intended for accommodation spaces is to be not less than the value calculated with the formula:
t = 1, 5 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K )
0, 5

Where the deck is a tank top, the thickness of the deck is, in any event, to be not less than the value calculated with the formulae given in Sec.10 for tank bulkhead plating.

4
4.1

Stiffening and support structures for decks
Ordinary stiffeners

2
2.1
2.1.1 pdc

Definitions and symbols

4.1.1 The section modulus of the ordinary stiffeners of both longitudinal and transverse (beams) type is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following equation:
Z = 7, 5 ⋅ C 1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ K ⋅ h
2

where: C1 : calculation deck, meaning the first deck above the full load waterline, extending for at least 0,6 L and constituting an efficient support for the structural elements of the side; in theory, it is to extend for the whole length of the yacht; : spacing of ordinary transverse or longitudinal stiffeners, in m; : scantling height, in m, the value of which is given in Part B, Chap. 1, Sec. 5; : factor defined in Sec. 2 of this Chapter. : : : 1,44 for weather deck longitudinals 0,63 for lower deck longitudinals 0,56 for beams.

4.2

Reinforced beams

s h K

4.2.1 The section modulus for girders and for ordinary reinforced beams is to be not less than the value Z, in cm3, calculated with the following equation:
Z = 9⋅b⋅S ⋅K⋅h
2

where: b : average width of the strip of deck resting on the beam, in m. In the calculation of b any openings are to be considered as non-existent conventional span of the reinforced beam, in m, equal to the distance between the two supporting members (pillars, other reinforced beams, bulkheads).

3
3.1

Deck plating
Weather deck
S :

3.1.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating, considering that said deck is also a strength deck, is to be not less than the value t, in mm, calculated with the following formula:
t = 2, 5 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K )
0, 5

4.3

Pillars

In yachts having L > 50 m, a stringer plate is to be fitted with width b, in m, not less than 0,025 L and thickness t, in mm, not less than the value given by the formula:
t = 3, 1 ⋅ s ⋅ ( L ⋅ K )
0, 5

4.3.1 Pillars are, in general, to be made of tubes. In tanks intended for liquid cargoes, open section pillars are to be fitted. The section area of pillars is to be not less than the value A, in cm2, given by the formula:
1, 6Q A = -------------------------------------12 , 5 – 0, 045λ

The stringer plate of increased thickness may be waived if the thickness adopted for the deck is greater than Rule thickness.

where:

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Pt B, Ch 3, Sec 9

Q

:

load resting on the pillar, in kN, calculated with the following formula:
Q = 6, 87 ⋅ A ⋅ h

Insert plates may be replaced by doubling plates, except in the case of pillars which may also work under tension, such as those in tanks. In general, the net thickness of doubling plates is to be not less than 1,5 times the net thickness of the pillar. Pillars are to be attached at their heads and heels by continuous welding. Pillars are to be connected to the inner bottom at the intersection of girders and floors. Where pillars connected to the inner bottom are not located in way of intersections of floors and girders, partial floors or girders or equivalent structures suitable to support the pillars are to be arranged.

where: A : h :

area of the part of the deck resting on the pillar, in m2 scantling height, defined in 2.1.1

λ

:

the ratio between the pillar length and the minimum radius of gyration of the pillar cross-section.

4.3.2 Pillar connections Heads and heels of pillars are to be attached to the surrounding structure by means of brackets and insert plates so that the loads are well distributed.

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RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

in m. in cm3. to be in accordance with the provisions of Chap 1. as defined in Chap. 1.4 for watertight bulkheads 19 for deep tank bulkheads width.1.1 Plating Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 3.1 The watertight bulkhead plating is to have a thickness not less than the value tS in mm.1 The section modulus of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z.1 General Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Table 1 (1/1/2009) k1 5. Sec. in m. provided that it is possible. of the zone of bulkhead resting on the horizontal web or on the reinforced stiffener scantling height indicated in Table 2. Sec. Sec. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 145 .1 Stiffeners Ordinary stiffeners 4. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections.1 General arrangement The coefficient k1 and the scantling height h have the values indicated in Table 1.6 4.1 s S Symbols 4. In order to contain fuel oil with a flashpoint ≤ 55° C. Sec 1. or to the overflow pipe. using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks.9 5. between the members that support the stiffener concerned : as defined in Part B. fuel oil or lube oil). Chap.2.Pt B.1 The structural continuity of the bulkhead vertical and horizontal primary supporting members with the surrounding supporting structures is to be carefully ensured. "Tanks" means the structural tanks that are part of the hull and intended to contain liquids (water. 5. leak testing with an air pressure of 0. calculated with the following formula: Z = C1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 where: : spacing between the stiffeners. 5 : as defined in Chap. are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head above the tank top equal to h. Sec 10 SECTION 10 BULKHEADS 1 1.1 The number and position of watertight bulkheads are. equal to the distance.2 Reinforced beams 2 2.63 1 C1 b h : : : : 11. complete with all pipe connections. in cm 3.1. in m : conventional span. h0 K 3 3.1.1 The horizontal webs of bulkheads with ordinary vertical stiffeners and reinforced stiffeners in the bulkheads with ordinary horizontal stiffeners are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. calculated with the following formula: Z = 14 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ K 2 The values of the coefficient c and of the scantling height h are those indicated in Table 2. Table 2 (1/1/2009) Bulkhead Collision bulkhead h (m) hB hB hT c 0. 5 5 5.1. hS. whichever is the greater. Ch 3. calculated with the following formula: tS = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ ( h ⋅ K ) 0. At the discretion of RINA. Tanks.1 2. 1. the use of independent metal tanks is required as stated in Chapter 1 of Part B. 2. in general. Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 4 4.78 0.15 bar may be accepted as an alternative.5 h (m) hB hB hT 1.1. 4. 5. 2.

5 m. 6.2. Sec 10 5.2.1 Where vertical stiffeners are cut in way of watertight doors. 6. cross-bars are to be provided to support the interrupted stiffeners.Pt B.2 5. reinforced stiffeners are to be fitted on each side of the door and suitably overlapped.1 Non-tight bulkheads Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars 6.75 m.75 m.1. with a maximum of 1.9 m. • one frame space.2 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars 6 6. Ch 3. 146 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 Non-tight bulkheads not acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • 0. for transverse bulkheads • two frame spaces. for longitudinal bulkheads. when the frame spacing is greater than 0.1 Non-tight bulkheads acting as pillars are to be provided with vertical stiffeners with a maximum spacing equal to: • two frame spaces. when the frame spacing does not exceed 0.

9 ⋅ s ⋅ ( K ⋅ h ) 0. between the members supporting the stiffener concerned. of both the longitudinal and transverse ordinary deck stiffeners is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = 6. 3. 4 4. 4. : factor defined in Chap. Sec. stringers) and ordinary pillars are to have scantlings as stated in Sec.1.0 1. in m.1 Stiffeners 1. When there is no access from inside superstructures and deckhouses to 'tweendecks below. in cm3. defined in 2.1.1. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 where: h K s S : : : : conventional scantling height. in m. 2. Sec 11 SECTION 11 SUPERSTRUCTURES 1 1. Ch 3. 2. in m. 5 2. Sec. in cm3. 2. 9.5 1. Where the distance from the hypothetical freeboard deck to the full load waterline exceeds the freeboard that can hypothetically be assigned to the yacht. the value of which is to be taken not less than the value indicated in Table 1. 5 where: s K h : : : spacing of the stiffeners.1 The section modulus Z. the reference deck for the determination of the superstructure tier may be the deck below the one specified above (see Ch 1. Sec 1.1 First tier superstructures or deckhouses are intended as those situated on the uppermost exposed continuous deck of the yacht. reduced scantlings with respect to those stipulated in this Section may be accepted at the discretion of RINA. 3. h : Reinforced beams (beams. 2 conventional scantling height. and so on.1 Boundary bulkhead plating 4. in mm.1 The thickness of the boundary bulkheads is to be not less than the value t. equal to the distance. calculated with the following formula: Z = 6. 4. in mm.1. Type of bulkhead 1st tier front 2 tier front Other bulkheads wherever situated nd h (m) 1. in m. equal to the distance. in m. calculated with the following formula: t = 3. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K 2 Table 1 where: S : conventional span of the stiffener. in m : conventional scantling height. in m factor defined in Chap. the thickness t is to be not less than the values shown in Chap.1 General 3 3. 2.0 s.3.2 Stiffeners K In any event.1 The stiffeners of the boundary bulkheads are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z.1 The superstructure deck plating is to be not less than the value t. s h : spacing between the stiffeners.1. 1. between the supporting members as defined in 2. in m span of the stiffeners. 9 ⋅ s ⋅ ( K ⋅ h ) 0. Sec. 2 spacing of the stiffeners. second tier superstructures or deckhouses are those above. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 147 . defined in 2 factor defined in Chap. Sec. [4.1 Superstructure decks Plating 2 2.5]).1.2.Pt B. calculated with the following formula: t = 3. Table 2.

.

Part B Hull

Chapter 4

REINFORCED PLASTIC HULLS

SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 SECTION 11 SECTION 12

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION AND QUALITY CONTROL LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH EXTERNAL PLATING SINGLE BOTTOM DOUBLE BOTTOM SIDE STRUCTURES DECKS BULKHEADS SUPERSTRUCTURES SCANTLINGS OF STRUCTURES WITH SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

149

Pt B, Ch 4, Sec 1

SECTION 1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1
1.1

Field of application

Q Gc

: :

total mass per area of the laminate, in gm2, excluding the surface coating of resin; P/Q = content of reinforcement in the laminate; for laminates with glass fibre reinforcements the value of GC is to be not less than 0,30; thickness of a single layer of the laminate, in mm. In the case of glass reinforcements such thickness is given by:
⎠ ⎞

1.1.1 Chapter 4 applies to monohull yachts with a hull made of composite materials and a length L not exceeding 60 m, with motor or sail power with or without an auxiliary engine. Multi-hulls or hulls with a greater length will be considered case by case. In the examination of constructional plans, RINA may take into consideration material distribution and structural scantlings other than those that would be obtained by applying these regulations, provided that structures with longitudinal, transverse and local strength not less than that of the corresponding Rule structure are obtained or provided that such material distribution and structural scantlings prove adequate, in the opinion of RINA, on the basis of direct test calculations of the structural strength. (See Pt B, Ch 1, Sec 1, par. 3.1)

ti

:

2, 56 t i = 0, 33 p ------------ – 1, 36 gc
⎝ ⎛

p being expressed in kg/m2; tF : Σti = total thickness of the laminate.

2.3
2.3.1

Definitions

Reinforced plastic

:

2
2.1

Definitions and symbols
Premise
Reinforcements :

a composite material consisting mainly of two components, a matrix of thermosetting resin and of fibre reinforcements, produced as a laminate through moulding; reinforcements are made up of an inert resistant material matrix of thermosetting resin and of fibre reinforcements, encapsulated in the matrix (resin) to increase its resistance and rigidity. The reinforcements usually consist of glass fibres or other materials, such as aramid or carbon type fibres; reinforced plastic material with, in general, the shape of a flat or curved plate, or moulded. material composed of two singleskin laminates, structurally connected by the interposition of a core of light material.

2.1.1 The definitions and symbols in this Article are valid for all the Sections of this Chapter. The definitions of symbols having general validity are not normally repeated in the various Sections, whereas the meanings of those symbols which have specific validity are specified in the relevant Sections.

2.2
2.2.1 γr γv p q gc

Symbols
Single-skin laminate : : density of the resin; standard value 1,2 g/cm3; : density of the fibres; standard value for glass fibres 2,56 g/cm3; : mass per area of the reinforcement of a single layer, in g/m2; : total mass per area of a single layer of the laminate, in g/m 2; : p/q = content of reinforcement in the layer; for laminates in glass fibre the most frequent maximum values of gc are the following, taking into account that reinforcements are to be "wet" by the resin matrix and compacted therein: 0,34 for reinforcements in mat or cut filaments, 0,5 for reinforcements in woven roving or cloth; : total mass per area of reinforcements in the laminate, in g/m 2; Sandwich laminate :

3

Plans, calculations and other information to be submitted

3.1
3.1.1 Plans with the scantlings, the layout and the major structures of the hull are to be submitted to RINA for examination sufficiently in advance of commencement of the laminating of the hull.

P

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

151

Pt B, Ch 4, Sec 1

The plans are to indicate the scantlings and the minimum mechanical properties of the laminates as well as the percentage in mass of the reinforcement in the laminate. In general, the following plans are to be sent for examination in triplicate. • the midship section and the transverse sections with the main dimensions of the construction shown and, for constructions with an engine, the design speed and the design acceleration aCG; • longitudinal & transverse section and relevant typical connection details; • deck plan; • construction of the bottom, floors, girders; • double bottom; • lamination schedule; • watertight and subdivision bulkheads; • superstructures; • engine and auxiliary foundations. • structure of stern/side door and relevant closing appliances; • support structure for crane with design loads; The above-mentioned plans are also to contain the relative lamination details, the percentage, in mass, of the reinforcement, the type of resin, core materials characteristics, the sandwich construction process and the type of structural adhesive used (if any). In the case of reinforcements other than glass, the minimum mechanical properties of the laminate are to be indicated. A list of all materials used in the construction, including the commercial name and the relevant characteristics of each component such as gel coat, resin, fibre reinforcement, core material, fire-retardant additives or resins, adhesive, core bonding materials, details of the process of sandwich construction and details of the materials used for granting reserve of buoyancy (and method of installation), is to be sent with the initial submission of the plans and a copy of this list is to be provided to the attending Surveyor. The above list of drawings is for guidance purposes only; in particular, the same plan may be relative to one or more of the subjects indicated. For documentation purposes, copies of the following plans are also to be submitted: general arrangement plans; capacity plan; lines plan;

3.2
3.2.1 If a Builder for the construction of a new vessel of a standard design wants to use drawings already approved for a vessel similar in design and construction and classed with the same class notation and the same navigation, the drawings may not be sent for approval, but the request of survey of the vessel ois to be submitted with an enclosed list of drawings of refernce and copies of the approved drawings are to be sent to RINA. Attention is also to be paid to possible flag Administartions requirements, which may determine differences in construction. It is the Builder’s responsibility to submit for approval any modification to the approved plans prior to the commencement of any work. Plan approval of standard design vessels is only valid so long as no applicable Rule changes take place. When the Rules are amended, the plans are to be submitted for new approval.

4
4.1

Direct calculations

4.1.1 As an alternative to those based on the formulae in this Chapter, scantlings may be obtained by direct calculations carried out in accordance with the provisions of Chap. 1, Sec. 1 of these Rules. Chapter 1 provides schematisations, boundary conditions and loads to be used for direct calculations. The scantlings of the various structures are to be such as to guarantee that stress levels do not exceed the allowable values stipulated in Table 1. The values in column 1 are to be used for the load condition in still water, while those in column 2 apply to dynamic loads. Table 1
Allowable stresses 1 0,4 σ 0,4 σ 0,4 σ 0,6 σt 0,5 σt 0,5 σt 0,4 σt 0,4 σt 0,4 σt 2 0, 8 σ 0,8 σ 0,8 σ 0,9 σt 0,9 σt 0, 9 σt 0,8 σt 0,8 σt 0,8 σt

Member Keel, bottom plating Side plating Deck plating Bottom longitudinals Side longitudinals Deck longitudinals Floors and girders Frames and reinforced side stringers Reinforced beams and deck girders

If the INWATERSURVEY notation is to be assigned, the following plans and information are to be submitted: • details showing how rudder pintle and bush clearances are to be measured and how the security of the pintles in their sockets is to be verified with the craft afloat. • details showing how stern bush clearances are to be measured with the craft afloat. • name and characteristics of high resistance paint, for information only.

Note 1: σ(N/mm2): the ultimate bending strength for single-skin laminates; the lesser of the ultimate tensile strength and the ultimate compressive strength for sandwich type laminates. In this case the shear stress in the core is to be no greater than 0,5 Rt, where Rt is the ultimate shear strength of the core material; σt(N/mm2): the ultimate tensile strength of the laminate.

152

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011

a longitudinal structure with reinforced floors.2 General provisions The purpose of this item [6.2 Minimum thicknesses 6. 5.1 The thicknesses of the laminates of the various members calculated using the formulae in this Chapter are to be not less than the values. however. lower minimum thicknesses than those given in Table 2 may be accepted on the basis of the principle of equivalence.1. by bonding separately moulded. The mass per m2 of the corner joints is to be at least 50% of the mass of the lighter of the two elements to be fitted.1. 5. in any case. is required for the bottom. Connections of the various parts of a hull. or by mechanical connections. the thickness adopted is to be adequate in terms of buckling strength. when the strength of a structure element is reduced by the presence of an attachment or an opening.2] is to give some recommended structural details.5 4.1 Construction Principles of building 6. or equivalent joints. For high speed hulls. care is to be taken in order to avoid structural discontinuities in particular in way of the ends of superstructures and of the openings on the deck or side of the yacht. can be made by moulding on the spot.1 General rules for design General In such case. placed at a distance of not more than 2 m. the corners of openings are to be rounded.5 3/2 2/2 2/2 4/3 2/2 2.1. glass and aramid).5 5 5 4 3 2. and at least 900 g/m2 of mat or its equivalent. However. such as: keelsons or floors. different details may be proposed by builders and agreed upon by RINA. as well as attachment of reinforcing parts or hull accessories. a structure is made of one of the following systems: longitudinal framing. in mm.1 Definitions The stiffeners with the lowest spacing are defined in this Chapter as ordinary stiffeners.5 2. If necessary. Sec 1 5 5. reduced scantlings may be adopted for the fore and aft zones. Such spacing is to be suitably reduced in the areas forward of amidships subject to the forces caused by slamming.1 The hull scantlings required in this Chapter are in general to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. defined as primary stiffeners.Pt B. to be submitted to RINA for approval. 6 6. transverse framing. to be defined in each special case.1. For laminates made using reinforcements of fibres other than glass (carbon and/or aramid.5/3. bottom plating Side plating Inner bottom plating Strength deck plating Lower deck plating Subdivision bulkhead plating Tank bulkhead plating Side superstructures Front superstructures Girders-floors Any stiffeners (1) (2) Single-skin laminate 5.5 2/2 2 (2) The first value refers to the external skin. Arrangements are to be made to ensure the continuity of longitudinal strength: • in areas with change of stiffener framing. the shape of openings is to be designed to reduce stress concentration. provided that builders give justifications. This thickness is. Ch 4. In such case the variations between the scantlings adopted for the central part of the hull and those adopted for the ends are to be gradual. reinforced beams or deck stringers. Structure discontinuities and rigid points are to be avoided. Arrangements are to be made to ensure the continuity of transverse strength in way of connections between hulls of catamarans and axial structure.5 3 - Sandwich laminate (1) 4. Openings are to be avoided in highly stressed areas.2. Table 2 Member Keel.5 4/3 4.5/3. 5. and for webs of primary stiffeners in way of pillars. For yachts with length L greater than 30 m. they do not constitute a requirement. Bulkheads and other important reinforcing elements are to be connected to the adjacent structure by corner joints (see Fig 1) on both sides. in Table 2. stringers or web frames. in particular at ends of primary stiffeners. In the design. Ordinary stiffeners are supported by structural members. • in areas with large change of strength. Depending on the direction of ordinary stiffeners. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 153 . proper compensation is to be provided. In any case.5/2. • at connections of ordinary and primary stiffeners. the second refers to the internal skin Intended to refer to the thickness of the layers encapsulating the core The minimum values shown are required for laminates consisting of polyester resins and glass fibre reinforcements.

6 Engine seating The engine seating is to be fitted on special girders suitably positioned between floors. Prefabricated laminates are fitted by overlapping the layers. e) Openings in deck The corners of deck openings are to be rounded in order to reduce local stress concentrations as much as possible. stiffeners are to be considered as supported at their ends. in general. b) Bulkhead-hull connection In some cases. Changes of thickness for a single-skin laminate are to be made as gradually as possible and over a width which is. Abrupt changes in web height. some types of connections without bracket may be accepted. the connection between deck beam and frame is to be ensured by means of a flanged bracket. not to be less than thirty times the difference in thickness. and for the shear stress caused by the longitudinal bending. However. floors.1. which locally ensure sufficient strength in relation to pressure and weight loads. Primary stiffeners are to ensure structural continuity. Connections between stiffeners are to ensure good structural continuity. etc. are to be strongly built. the smallest stiffeners (longitudinals or frames) are to be continuous.1. preferably with chamfering of edges to be connected. beams or frames with stringers. Fig 13 gives the principle for connection between the structure and pillars subject to compressive loads. not to be less than three times the thickness of the sandwich core. Ch 4. Fig 9 and Fig 10 give possible solutions.1. can be made by adhesives. subject to special examination by RINA. Connections between metal pillars subject to compressive loads and the laminate structure are to be carried out by mean of intermediate metal plates. and the connection between the elements is to be made by corner joints according to the principles defined in [6. In this case.Pt B. this connection is needed to distribute the local load due to the bulkhead over a sufficient length of hull. Fig 11 to Fig 13 give various examples of stiffeners. shaft line. a) Deck-side shell connection This connection is to be designed both for the bending stress shown in Fig 4. The welding of the pillar to the metal plate is to be carried out before fitting of the plate on board ship.5 Pillars Connections between metal pillars subject to tensile loads and the laminate structure are to be designed to avoid tearing between laminate and pillars. caused by vertical loads on deck and horizontal loads of seawater. the connection is to avoid possible loosening due to local bending. in particular when subjected to alternating loads. Sec 1 The width of the layers of the corner joints is to be worked out according to the principle given in Fig 1. The builder is to pay special attention to connections between bulkheads of integrated tanks and structural members. The connection between a single-skin laminate and a sandwich laminate is to be carried out as gradually as possible over a width which is. Passages through hull are to be reinforced by means of a plate and counterplate connected to each other. girders or keelsons). in general. as shown in Fig 3. 6.1. 154 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . 6. flange breadth and crosssectional area of web and flange are to be avoided. In particular. 6. and the thickness of the deck is to be increased to maintain the stress at a level similar to the mean stress on the deck. Fig 15 gives an example of possible seating. In general. provided that loads are light enough. at the intersection of two stiffeners of unequal sizes (longitudinals with web-frames.1. c) Passages through hull Passages of metal elements through the hull. The reinforcement is to be made from a material identical to that of the deck. and ensure longitudinal continuity. shaft brackets. 6. In general. The thickness at the joint is to be at least 15% higher than the usual thickness. The connection of the various parts of the hull. especially at the level of the rudder stock. Fig 5 to Fig 8 give examples of deck-side shell connections.2]. as well as connection of reinforcing members to the hull.4 Stiffeners The edges of the reinforcements of one layer are not to be juxtaposed but to overlap by at least 50 mm. these overlaps are to be offset between various successive layers. Its thickness is to be sufficient to keep shear stresses acceptable.. The scantlings of bonding angles are determined according to the loads acting upon the connections. as shown in Fig 2.3 Plates d) Passages through watertight bulkheads The continuous omega or rectangle stiffeners at a passage through a watertight bulkhead are to be watertight in way of the bulkhead.

Pt B. Sec 1 Figure 1 Deck Figure 5 Hull 50 75 100 125 150 Figure 6 Figure 2 Δt Deck d > 30 Δ t Figure 3 ta Hull d > 3 ta Figure 4 Figure 7 Deck Fender Local loads Local loads Hull RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 155 . Ch 4.

Pt B. Sec 1 Figure 8 Figure 11 Hull Deck Fender Figure 12 Figure 9 Figure 13 Bulkhead Hull Figure 14 Deck Figure 10 Deck stiffner Rigid support Screwing Metallic plate Bulkhead Welding Metallic pillar Figure 15 Hull Engine mounting Reinforcement Web or rigid core Girder 156 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Ch 4.

4 Tanks formed by plywood bulkhead Where the tank is formed by plywood bulkhead.1] and general characteristics are to be reported on the relevant drawings. 6. to ensure that the flexible fuel inner fuel bladder can withstand the working conditions and also maintain adherence to the supporting structures. as a barrier to prevent any undue absorption by the laminate. the outer surface of the structural tank is to be coated with a fire retardant paint or resin. Accordingly.3 Single-skin laminates and sandwich tanks 6.5 Pressure test Tanks. having a thickness of not less than 1. Ch 4. No integral tanks are to contain gasoline. the internal thickness of the tanks is to be not less than 10 mm.1 Engine exhaust discharge arrangements made of laminates are to be of the water injection type with a normal service temperature of approximately 70° C and a maximum temperature not exceeding 120° C.3. Sec 1 6. provided that it is possible. the exhaust ducts are to be internally coated with two layers of mat of 600 g/m 2 laminated with vinylester resin. 6.5 mm. At the discretion of RINA.2. 6. 5.3.015 MPa may be accepted as an alternative. In addition for sandwich construction tanks the following requirements are to be applied: • the cores are to be end grain balsa or closed cell polyvinylchloride foam. tests are to be carried out on 3 specimens – (3 tests) During tests (a). specimens are not to have a reduction in tensile strength of RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 157 . using liquid solutions of proven effectiveness in the detection of air leaks.3. or to the overflow pipe. to carry out a visual inspection of all parts of the tanks with particular reference to pipe connections. are to be subjected to a hydraulic pressure test with a head above the tank top equal to h. Mechanical tests are to be carried out on samples of the laminate “as is” and after immersion in the fuel oil at ambient temperature for a week.3. a flame-retardant or self-extinguishing polyester resin.3 Additives or pigments which may impair the mechanical properties of the resin are not to be used.2 Single-skin laminates and sandwich tanks For single-skin laminates and sandwich construction tanks the following requirements are to be applied: • the final ply of the laminate is to be covered with fibreglass chopped strand mat of heavy weight (at least 600 gr/m 2).3 6.2. its surface is to completely protected against the ingress of liquid by means of a layer of laminate of at least 4 mm in thickness.3.3. Alternatively. 6.2. After the immersion the mechanical properties of the laminate are to be not less than 80% of the value of the sample “as is”.2]. • each balsa block is to be individually set with the space around it filled with resin. Type approval for the flexible fuel inner bladder may be obtained providing the following requirements are complied with: a) Dry heat resistance test according to the UNI EN ISO 7840 Standard b) Oil resistance test according to the UNI EN ISO 7840 Standard c) Abrasion test according to the UNI EN ISO 7840 Standard d) T-peel test according to the ASTM D 1876 Standard e) Fuel permeability test according to [6.3. The flexible inner fuel bladder is to be fitted according to the technical specifications of the manufacturer. the tank is to be isolated by means of diaphragms made of laminates to form the final internal barrier layer against oil absorption. with a low deflection at high temperature may be accepted. • the outer surfaces of the tanks are to be coated with a fire-retardant paint or resin. as defined in Chap. • stiffeners are not to penetrate the tank boundaries so that. 1. The following minimum requirements are to be satisfied for the tests: 1) Dry heat resistance test: after heat aging. 6. complete with all pipe connections. which may incorporate a light fibre tissue.Ref. leak testing with an air pressure of 0.1 Tanks for liquids General Structural tanks are to be intended to contain fuel oil or lube oil. MIL – DTL.Pt B.1. (b) and (d). 6. Details of these resins are to be enclosed with the list required in [3. whichever is the greater. For scantling calculations the mechanical characteristics obtained by the mechanical tests are to be assumed. the internal surface of the structural tank can be protected with a flexible inner fuel bladder type approved. As a general rule.7] . Alternatively a suitable thickness of gelcoat is to be applied.2 Engine exhaust 6.3.6 Tanks protected with flexible inner fuel bladder (1/10/2009) 6. • the internal surface of the tanks is to have a heavy resin coat. in the event of a fracture of the laminate or frame. the oil will not travel some distance along the continuous glass fibres due to a capillary action. the load-elongation diagram is to be recorded. Integral tanks may be of single-skin laminates and sandwich construction. This may be carried out with the use of special resin (isophaltic type) resistant to hydrocarbons. As an alternative to the requirements given in [6. Sec.2 (1/1/2009) The resins used for the lamination are to be type approved and to have adequate resistance to heat and to chemical agents as well as a high deflection temperature.

in Nm: 0. After vulcanization.26 2. the waterproofing and cellophane are to be removed. foam baffling) to prevent sloshing effects and relevant damage inside the tank. fifth and eighth day after inverting.69 to 2.5 cm piece of corrugated fibreboard coated on one side with a suitable water soluble breakaway agent. The cup is then to be inverted (test disc down) in a rack that permits free access of air to the disc. continuous inner fuel bladders.4 cm in diameter are to be cut from the panel prepared above according to this item a).7 Fuel permeability test for tanks protected with flexible inner fuel bladder (1/10/2009) then to be wiped from the assembly. Sec 1 more than 20%. In addition. 6. the manufacturer is to adopt a quality control system recognized by RINA.26 to 2. b) Test procedure The cup as prepared above is to be placed in a suitable rack and maintained at a temperature of 25 °C and a relative humidity of 50 to 65 percent for a 1-hour equilibration period. The certificate will be issued by RINA after examination of the test reports with a validity of 5 years. The requirements for the renewal of the certificate are to be agreed with RINA. the test disc is to be applied to the cup with the barrier. the uncured inner fuel bladder is to be applied to a 25. The exposed surface of the inner fuel bladder is to be coated with a barrier material that conforms to the manufacturer’s specifications. One hundred ml of ASTM D471 Ref Fuel B test fluid is to be placed in a cup conforming to Figure 16. the test samples are not to have any helical wire reinforcement exposed at the point of contact with the abrasive surface. The free moisture is Table 3 (1/10/2009) Inner fuel bladder type: Gum stocks Coated fabrics Unsupported plastic films Bolt torque.56 to 1. if any. and a relative humidity of 50 to 65 percent for a 24 hour period. The cup is to be weighted at the end of the third. facing outward. and tightening the bolts in accordance with Tab 3. The assembly is then to be cured or otherwise processed by a method used in regular production. The inner fuel bladder is then to be removed from the fibreboard. Defective films or leaks resulting from faulty assembly will usually be found when weighting on the third day. The assembly is then to be wrapped in fuel cellophane and covered with a suitable waterproof bag. 4) T-peel test: the test carried out according to the ASTM D 1876 standard on specimens and with the modalities as required by this standard. The junctures between the parts of the fuel bladder. and concern the abovementioned tests (a) to (e) : in determining which tests are to be carried out for the renewal. After conditioning. The cup is then to be weighted to check for integrity of the seal. The assembly is to be completed by attaching the bolting ring shown in the figure. The exposed surface of the inner fuel bladder is to be coated with prime cement and barrier resin (if required) that conform to the manufacturer’s specifications.82 158 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .5 x 25. The assembly is to be vulcanized by the method used in regular production.6 g/m2 per 24 hours. two discs 6.The manufacturer is to provide systems (i.13 1.Pt B. or a reduction in elongation of more than 50% of the tested value obtained from the specimens not aged 2) Oil resistance test: after heat aging.3. a) Specimen requirements For fuel tanks employing vulcanized inner fuel bladders.005 gram and placed in the rack with the face of the cup facing upward. and the assembly is to be conditioned for 24 hours at a temperature of 25°C and a relative humidity of 50 to 65 percent. for type approval. Ch 4. For fuel tanks using non-vulcanized. A suitable nylon solution is to be applied to the face of the cup flange covering the area inside the bolt circle.5 cm piece of corrugated fibreboard coated on one side with a suitable release agent. The inner fuel bladder is then to be removed from the fiberboard. the connections between the fuel bladder and the accessories for filling. the inner fuel bladder is to be applied by production method to a 25. transfer and suction of fuel oil piping and the connection with the air pipes are to be manufactured according to methods approved by RINA. 5) Fuel permeability test: the permeability is to be less than 7. The cup is to be weighted to the nearest 0. or a reduction in elongation of more than 40% of the tested value obtained from the specimens not aged 3) Abrasion test: after 1000 cycles. is to give an average load of not less than 80 N. . special consideration will be given to the quality control system adopted by the manufacturer and its demonstrated efficiency during the last period of approval of the certificate’s validity.e. specimens are not to have a reduction in tensile strength of more than 40%. The cup is to be maintained at a temperature of 25 °C ±5°C. The diffusion rating calculation is to be made on the fifth of the eight day period and expressed as gram per square meter per 24 hours.5 x 25. When the nylon solution is almost dry. The assembly is to be conditioned for 24 hours at a temperature of 25°C and a relative humidity of 50 to 65 percent.

78 0. Sec 1 Figure 16 : Cup for permeability test (1/10/2009) 0.78 .Pt B. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 159 . Ch 4.

1 Materials of laminates Resins 3. Reinforcement having fibres of two or more different types. Resins may be for laminating.1 Definitions and terminology 2. 1. etc. The acceptance of structural fillets of compliant resins alone. Laminates having a different composition or special systems of lay-up will be considered by RINA on a case-by-case basis upon submission of technical documentation illustrating details of the procedure. form the matrix of laminates. without over bonding lamination.1. reinforcements. a typical example is that of glass fibre with aramid type fibre. without interweaving. in any case.1.Pt B.1 Mat : Reinforcements made up of regularly distributed filaments on the flat with no particular orientation and held together by a bond so as to form a mat that can be rolled up.2 The basic laminate considered in this Chapter is composed of an unsaturated resin. i. Woven rovings of different types exist and can be differentiated by: the type of roving used in warp and weft. Sec 2 SECTION 2 MATERIALS 1 1.1. will be subject to special consideration after analysis of test results submitted by the Manufacturer 2 2. Ch 4. respectively in warp and weft.1 Resins used are to be type approved by RINA for marine use. The filaments may be cut to a pre-determined length or continuous. it is laid-up by hand. any structural parts in plywood are to be made with material type approved by RINA. cores. 1. always to be adopted in conjunction with over bonding lamination. the water resistance of the external surface will be the subject of special consideration.0% if on the surface and 2. the name of the distri- Roving Woven Roving : : 160 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . whether single-skin or sandwich (resins. Reinforcement made up of parallel fibres in the direction of filling and warp (0°. The reinforcement contained in the laminate is not less than 30% by weight. Resins are to have the capacity for "wetting" the fibres of the laminate and for bonding them in such a way that the laminate has suitable mechanical properties and. Reinforcement made up of fibres that follow only one direction without interweaving. Chap 6. Made from the weaving of roving. Polyester-orthophthalic type gel coat resins are not permitted. All of the materials making up the laminates are to have properties suitable for marine use in the opinion of the Manufacturer. are to be type approved by RINA. In the case of a hull constructed with a sandwich laminate on a male mould. by mechanical preimpregnation. Hybrid : Unidirectional : Biaxial : Quadriaxial : 3 3.). or by spraying. having mainly the purpose of protecting the laminate from external agents.1 General Mat-woven roving : bution per unit of length.1.6. polyestervinylester or epoxide type. The resins used are in general of the polyester. Due to their construction they have continuous filaments. Reinforcement made up of fibres that follow two directions (0°90°). and of glass fibre reinforcements in the form of mat alternated with woven roving. Made up of parallel filaments. the latter are to be compatible with the former. or for surface coating (gel coat).5% if in the laminate. The products used in the production of the laminates. stiffeners. At the discretion of the latter. provisions regarding the characteristics and test and quality control procedures for the manufacture of composite materials are also specified in Part D. Combined reinforcement made up of a layer of mat with cut filaments superimposed on a layer of woven roving by stitching or bonding. Compliant resins used in different structural applications are.1 In addition to those in this Section. or a combination of both. a sandwich laminate. material type approved by other recognised Societies may be accepted. in the case of glass fibre. as a general rule. 90°) and in two oblique directions (+ 45°). The construction may consist of a single-skin laminate. the resin is to have an ultimate elongation of not less than 3.e. not less than those indicated in 3. in general polyester.

2.e.Pt B. expressed in Na2O. [ 3. Sec 2 demonstrating equivalent strength to over bonding laminates. Details of flame-retardant additives are to be enclosed in the list required in Sec 1. roving. Structures can be obtained using reinforcements of one or more of the above-mentioned materials. The materials are to be free from imperfections.1.1. Where fire-retarding or flame-retardant characteristics are required by the flag Administration. Reinforcements made of materials other than the preceding may be taken into consideration on a case-by-case basis by RINA. The materials considered in these requirements are rigid expanded foam plastics and balsa wood. Reinforcements in glass fibre are generally foreseen in the form of: continuous filament or chopped strand mat. Such reinforcements can be used in the manufacture of hulls either alone or alternated with layers of mat or roving of "E" type glass.4 Carbon-graphite fibres Carbon-graphite type fibres means those which are at present called "carbon" type. with the procedure foreseen by the Manufacturer. used in the form of products suitable to be incorporated as reinforcements by themselves or together with other materials like glass fibres or aramid type fibres. Where additives are adopted for this purpose. Resins are to be used within the limits and following the instructions supplied by the Manufacturer.1 Core materials are to be type approved by RINA.) used. and to this end a technical report is to be sent illustrating the processes to be followed and the materials (resins. [3. i.2. in the same layer as "E" type glass fibres or carbon type fibres. discoloration.2. The results of tests performed by independent laboratories verifying the required characteristics are to be submitted. Ch 4. such that the laminates have the same mechanical properties required in the structural calculations and for "E" type glass. The use of hybrid reinforcements obtained by coupling the above-mentioned fibres is also foreseen.1 General All fibre reinforcements are to be type approved by RINA. 3. The Manufacturer's recommendations for the level of catalyst and accelerator to be mixed into the resins are to be followed. Such fillers are not to exceed 13% (including 3% of any thixotropic filler) by weight of the resins.2. in which the aramid type fibres are laid at the same time. The reinforcements taken into consideration in these requirements are mainly of fibres of three types: glass fibre. [3. accelerators. such properties are to be approved by the relevant Administration. made up of layers of one material or using hybrid reinforcements. aramid type fibre and carbon type fibre. 3. 3. reinforcements. in resin matrices for the construction of structural laminates. or by RINA when authorised by the former.1. may also be used. etc. The thixotropic fillers of the resins for surface coating are not to exceed 3% by weight of the resin itself. The inert fillers are not to significantly alter the properties of the resin. these not being less than those indicated in item [4].2 Glass fibre The glass generally used for the manufacture of reinforcements is that called type "E".3 Aramid type fibres Reinforcements in aramid type fibres are generally used in the form of roving or cloth of different weights (g/m2). with particular regard to the viscosity.3 Core materials for sandwich laminates 3.3. these materials are to be used in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions and the method used in the sandwich construction is to be forwarded for information purposes enclosed with the list required in Sec 1.1. The reinforcements used and their characteristics are to be enclosed with the list required in Sec 1.3 Flame-retardant additives Where the laminate is required to have fire-retarding or flame-retardant characteristics. [3. 3. made up of both mat and roving. moisture and other defects and stored and handled in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations.1. which will stipulate the conditions for their acceptance. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 161 . wax additives and colour pigments) are to be compatible with the resins and suitable for their curing process. foreign bodies. 3. Such reinforcements are to be used for the lamination in hull resin matrices.2 Resins additives Resin additives (catalysts. Details of the resins additives are to be enclosed in the list required in Sec 1. are to be added to the resin as a coloured paste and are not to exceed the maximum amount (in general 5%) recommended by the Manufacturer. details of the proposed arrangements are to be submitted for examination. having an alkali content of not more than 1%. Reinforcements manufactured in "S" type glass may also be used. The colour pigments are not to affect the polymerisation process of the resin. the manufacturing process is to be approved in advance by RINA. 3. fillers. and are to be carefully distributed in the resin itself in such a way that the laminates have the minimum mechanical properties stated in these requirements. Catalysts which initiate the curing process of the resin and the accelerators which govern the gelling and setting times are to be such that the resin sets completely in the environmental conditions in which manufacture is carried out. unidirectional woven roving and in combined products i. Hybrid reinforcements.e. In the latter case the laminates may be made in alternate layers.1.2 Reinforcements 3.1].1]. they are to be used in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions.1]. 3.1]. In any event.

RINA may require some tests. are to be no less than the values obtained from the formulae of the above-mentioned Table.4 The ultimate tensile strength of the core materials is to be not less than the values indicated in Table 1.1 Materials used for repairs are to be accepted by RINA before use. are to be of the closed-cell type. which will decide the conditions for acceptance on the basis of a criterion of equivalence. if worked in nonrigid sheets made up of small blocks.6 3.5.6.5 Plywood 3.Pt B. the Manufacturer is to submit full product details and user instructions. Ch 4.1 Plywood for structural applications is to be marine plywood type approved by RINA. fibre products of single-skin laminates and core materials of sandwich laminates is carried out according to the requirements set out in the relevant RINA Rules.2 "Rigid expanded foam plastics" means expanded polyurethane (PUR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC).1. the characteristics are to be enclosed in the list as per Sec 1. Laminates with reinforcements of fibres other than glass. Table 2 lists the typical mechanical properties of fibres commonly used for reinforcements. if worked in nonrigid sheets made up of small blocks. Where it is used for the core of reinforcements or sandwich structures. they are to maintain a good level of resistance up to the temperature of 60°C and.3. The minimum mechanical properties of the glass laminates found in testing. the reinforcement content being equal. par 3. the Designer will be required to indicate on the drawings submitted the assumed characteristics such as strength and density.2 0. Polystyrene can only be used as buoyancy material. Its humidity is to be no greater than 12%. The construction procedures of such sandwich structures will be subject to special consideration. Table 1 Minimum shear strength (N/mm2) 1. 3. 3.7 Repair compounds 3. 162 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . 3.2.1. 3. as a function of GC. described in 3. These values are based on the most frequently used laminates made up of reinforcements of mat and roving type. Depending on the proposed uses.4 Adhesive and sealant material 3.3 Balsa wood is to be chemically treated against attacks by parasites and mould and oven dried immediately after cutting. fuel oils. Sec 2 Particular care is to be given to the handling of these materials which is to be in accordance to the Mnufacturer's recommendations.1. RINA reserves the right to take into consideration possible laminates having certain properties lower than those given in Material Density (kg/m3) 104 144 80 100 80-96 90 Balsa end-grain PVC. Such characteristic is to be ascertained by tests. lube oils) and to have a low absorption of water. just as other materials used for cores. In the above-mentioned Table.1 The minimum mechanical properties in N/mm2 of laminates made with reinforcements of "E" type glass fibre may be obtained from the formulae given in Table 3 as a function of GC of the laminate as defined in Section 1. Details are to be submitted enclosed with the list required in Sec 1 par 3. the open weave backing and the adhesive are to be compatible and soluble in the resin of the laminate. Furthermore.5 For the constructions of sandwich structures with the dry vacuum bagging techniques.7. The balsa wood is to be laid-up with its grain at right-angles to the fibres in the surface laminates. are to have mechanical properties that are in general greater than or at least equal to those given in Table 3.3.5 Timber 3.3.3. core materials for laminates having an ultimate tensile strength <0.1 The use of timber is subject to special consideration by RINA. These materials. crosslinked PVC. 3. In general. the values indicated are those corresponding to GC = 30. the open weave backing and the adhesive are to be compatible and soluble in the resin of the laminate.4 N/mm2 are not acceptable.1. For acceptance purposes. the minimum value allowed of the content of glass reinforcement. 3. The type approval of resins. linear Polyurethane 3.1 Recognition by RINA of the suitability for use (type approval) of materials for hull construction may be requested by the Manufacturer.1.1 These materials are to be accepted by RINA before use.4.9 1. listing the types of repair for which the system is to be used.1 Mechanical properties of laminates General 4. in any case. 3.5 0.4 1.8 Type approval of materials 3. to be resistant to environmental agents (salt water. core bonding paste is to be used.8. the surfaces are to be suitably treated to enable the absorption of the resin and the adhesion of the laminate.6 2. 4 4. The use of other materials will be taken into consideration on a case-by-case basis by RINA.

RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 163 .34 (1) (1) (1) (1) Values supplied by the Manufacturer and agreed upon with RINA prior to use Table 3 1 Rm = ultimate tensile strength E = tensile modulus of elasticity = 1278 G c . The mechanical properties and the percentage of reinforcement are to be ascertained. 103 = 80 Gc + 38 = (1. The scantlings indicated in this Chapter are based on the values of the mechanical properties of a laminate made with reinforcements in "E" type glass.4 G2c + 2. having the same composition and prepared during the lamination of the hull (for the tests to be carried out.15 Tensile modulus of elasticity N/mm2 69000 69000 (1) 124000 230000 270000 300000 725000 Shear modulus of elasticity N/mm2 28000 (1) (1) 2800 (1) (1) (1) (1) Poisson’s ratio 0. 103 = 150 Gc + 72 = (40 Gc .24) .22 0. see Pt D.45 1.2) . 103 = 22. Where certain values are in fact found to be lower than those used for the scantlings.Pt B.58 1. and will establish the procedures and criteria for approval on a case-by-case basis.4. from tests on samples taken preferably from the hull or.49 2.5 Gc The values of the mechanical properties are to be no less than those used for the scantling of the structures. but no lower than 85% of the latter.2.8 1. Sec 2 Table 3. Table 2 Specific gravity E Glass S Glass R Glass Aramid LM Carbon IM Carbon HM Carbon VHM Carbon (1) 2.510 Gc + 123 = (37 Gc . Ch 6. with a reinforcement content equal to 0.20 (1) 0.3).8 1.30. 10 3 2 2 85 6350 117 6000 152 5200 62 2750 17 Rmc = ultimate compressive strength Ec = compressive modulus of elasticity Rmf = ultimate flexural strength Et = flexural modulus of elasticity Rmt = ultimate shear strength G = shear modulus of elasticity Rmti = ultimate interlaminar shear strength = (502 G2c + 107) = (33.1 below. the scantlings may be modified in accordance with the provisions of 4. Ch 4. Whenever the mechanical properties of the reinforcement are greater than those mentioned above. Sec. for each yacht built.17.75) .6) . RINA reserves the right to accept the laminate subject to any conditions for acceptance it may stipulate.7 Gc + 2.56 2. alternatively.5 .8 2.

woven roving and crossplied 0/90 reinforcement highstrengh carbon fibre.180 GC + 60 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ Perpendic to the fibres 8025 GC2 .28 [0.17 0.1.22 0.6730 740 GC .28 Vacuum bag 0.22 Complex surface 0.57 164 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Table 4 Mechanical Properties E = tensile module of elasticity (0° or 90° direction) Rm = ultimate tensile strength (0° or 90° direction) Rmc = ultimate compressive strength (0° or 90° direction) Rmf = ultimate flexural strength Rmtc = ultimate interlaminar shear strength N/mm2 75000 GC . 5R m --------------------------Rm 1 + ----------Rm c 230 GC2 .0.65 460 GC .0. Table 5 Mechanical Properties E = tensile module of elasticity Rm = ultimate tensile strength Rmc = ultimate compressive strength Parallel to the fibres 151500 GC . Sec 2 4.17 0.22 x Q ] . For unidirectional reinforcement the following mechanical properties are to be considered.180 GC + 60 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ Rmf = ultimate flexural strength Rmti = ultimate interlaminar shear strength The glass content GC may be assured according to the following.15 GC + 15 1126 GC2 .35 .46 . 5R m R mf = --------------------------Rm 1 + ----------Rm c 35 Mpa ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ The above properties are reserved for hand laminated.0.11 x Q ] .0.0.150 820 GC . 5R m --------------------------Rm 1 + ----------Rm c 230 GC2 .15750 1500 GC .2 Mechanical properties of carbon fibre laminates For carbon fibre laminates the following mechanical properties indicated in Table 4 may be assumed.08 0.46 0.45 GC + 45 2.08 0.08 0.Pt B.50 [0.0.56 .82 2.3150 GC + 3300 38 GC2 .30 0.28 0.18 x Q ] .40 [0.40 2. Ch 4.32 0. Table 6 Type of ply reinforcement Open mould Simple Surface Chopped strand mat sprayed up Chopped strand mat hand lay-up Woven roving Roving-mat combination Multidirectional fabric Unidirectional fabric 0.41 0.50 0.

..7. respectively. it is to be assumed that: Ko = 1 K of ˆ= 1 The values Ko and Kof are to be taken as not less than 0. In order to determine the total content G C of the laminate of n ply the following formula may be applied: q1 + q 2 + q 3 + . 4. except in specific cases considered by RINA on the basis of the results of tests carried out.. Gc : is the glass content of the single ply. For laminates of sandwich type structures the coefficient is given by the formula: K of = ′ ⎝ ⎛ The total thickness in mm of the laminate may be calculated with the following formula: K of = 152 --------Rm f 85 ----Rm 165 . 6 Gc where Rm and Rmf are the values. Therefore. in N/mm2. 5 0.. in N/mm2. 8 -------. Ch 4. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ Coefficients relative to the mechanical properties of laminates ⎠ ⎞ ⎠ ⎞ ⎝⎝ ⎛⎛ Q t = --------------2.Pt B.– 0.2 4..+ --------. of the ultimate tensile and flexural strengths of the laminate. in the case of laminates with glass fibre having GC = 30 (minimum allowed). 160 1.qn G C = ------------------------------------------------------------------q1 q2 q3 qn --------.5 and 0. 5 where Q is in kg/m2. Sec 2 Total mass of mat Q = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total mass of glass in laminate ( Ma t + Woven Roving ) the formulae of the structural scantlings of the hull in this Chapter are given by: K o = 85 ⁄ R m ⎠ ⎞ 0. of the surface laminate. --------gc 1 g c2 g c3 gc n where: q : is the mass in kg/m2 of the single ply.2. Such values may be calculated with the formulae in Table 3 for glass fibre reinforcements or obtained from mechanical tests on samples of the laminate for other types of laminate.+ --------.+ .1 The values of the coefficients Ko and Kof relative to the mechanical properties of the laminates that appear in where Rm is the ultimate tensile strength..

2 Moulding shops 1. furthermore it is the Builder’s responsibility to ensure that all the materials are used in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions and recommendations. Catalysts and accelerators are to be stored separately in clean. are to be stored in dust-free and dry conditions. so as to ensure a consistent level of quality. Shipyards or workshops for hull construction are to be suitably equipped to provide the required working environment according to these requirements. an instrument capable of providing a continuous readout and record of the measured values may be required. When they are stored outside the cutting area. When the resins are stored outside the moulding shop.1 All construction is to be built using materials and working processes approved or accepted by RINA. the shipyard or workshop may obtain from RINA a special recognition of suitability for the construction of reinforced plastic hulls. the reinforcements are to be brought into the latter in due time so as to reach the temperature of the moulding shop before being used. it is to be possible to stir them at a frequency for a length of time indicated by the resin Manufacturer.1 Shipyards or workshops General turer. Reinforcements. The work areas are to be suitably illuminated. Ch 4. uses type approved materials. dry and well-ventilated conditions in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations. such as would lead to condensation on moulds and materials. glass fibre. in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations. Compliance with the requirements of this Section does not exempt those in charge of the shipyard or workshop from the obligation of fulfilling all the hygiene requirements for work stipulated by the relevant authorities. the temperatures of the moulding shop are to be established accordingly.4. except when the latter has given the hull builder prior written consent. at the discretion of the RINA Surveyor.1 Resins are to be stored in dry. e. in chronological order of receipt. Fillers and additives are to be stored in closed containers that are impervious to dust and humidity. Small variations in temperature may be allowed.1 In the phases of reception and handling the materials are not to suffer contamination or degradation and are to bear adequate identification marks at all times. Precautions are to be taken to avoid effects on the polymerisation of the resin due to direct sunlight or artificial light. Alternative arrangements of the same standard may be adopted. Sec 3 SECTION 3 CONSTRUCTION AND QUALITY CONTROL 1 1. which are to be complied with for the recognition of the shipyard or workshop as suitable for the construction of hulls in reinforced plastic. the responsibility for the fulfilment of the requirements specified below as well as all other measures for the proper carrying out of construction being left to the shipyard or workshop. well-ventilated conditions at the temperature recommended by the resin Manufacturer.3 Storage areas for materials 1. Ventilation systems are not to cause an excessive evaporation of the resin monomer and draughts are to be avoided. including those relative to RINA type approval. whenever possible. The Builder is to obtain the approval or acceptance of the material used. a temperature of between 16° and 32°C is to be maintained in the moulding shop during the lay-up and polymerisation periods. they are to be brought into the shop in due time to reach the working temperature required before being used. and in any case lower than the limit recommended by the resin Manufac- 1. are to be avoided.2. Materials are not to be used after the Manufacturer's date of expiry. 1. 1. Storage is to be so arranged that the materials are used. due to environmental conditions. This suitability is to be ascertained by a RINA Surveyor.1. Significant changes in humidity.1 Where hand lay-up or spray lay-up processes are used for the manufacture of laminates.4 Identification and handling of materials 1. If the resins are stored in tanks. and has a system of production and quality control that satisfies the RINA Rules. 1. Materials for the cores of sandwich type structures are to be stored in dry areas and protected against damage. separate zones are to be provided for storage and for manufacturing processes.3. The relative humidity of the moulding shop is to be kept as low as possible. they are to be stored in their protective covering until they are used. The quality control documentation is to keep a record of the storage and depletion of the stock of such reinforcements. The risks of contamination of the materials are to be reduced as far as possible. Where moulding processes other than those mentioned above are used. Instruments to measure the humidity and temperature are to be placed in sufficient number and in suitable positions.Pt B. 166 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . preferably below 70%. When it emerges from the tests carried out that the shipyard or workshop complies with the following provisions. Pre-impregnated reinforcements are to be stored in an area set aside for the purpose. always with due consideration being given to the resin Manufacturer's recommendations. If necessary.g.

Laminating is to be carried out in such a sequence that the interval between the application of layers is within the limits recommended by the resin Manufacturer. the general spray conditions and the appropriate length of cut fibres.6 mm. 2. Sec 3 2 2.Pt B. the spray lay-up equipment is to be calibrated in such a way as to provide the required fibre content by weight. is to be applied to the gel coat itself by means of rolling so as to obtain a content of reinforcement not exceeding approximately 0.1 Hull construction processes General In the case of simultaneous spray lay-up of resin and cut fibres. in any event. Reinforcements are to be arranged so as to maintain continuity of strength throughout the laminate. During construction. such as to obtain the required catalyst content. • the calibration of the lay-up system is to be checked periodically during the operation. the Manufacturer is to satisfy himself of the efficiency of the equipment and the competence of the operator. Such length is generally to be not less than 35 mm for structural laminates. They are also not to prevent the finished laminate from being released. processes of other types (e. The core materials are to be compatible with the resins of the surface laminates and suitable to obtain strong adhesion to the latter (Manufacturer’s instructions to be followed). Similarly. then dry vacuum bagging techniques are to be adopted. dried and brought to the moulding shop temperature before being treated with the mould release agents.g.4 and 0. Bonding paste is to be visible at these holes after vacuum bagging.1 The general requirements for the construction of hand lay-up or spray lay-up laminates are set out below. processes and equipment proposed by the Manufacturer. in particular. • the use of this technique is limited to those parts of the structure to which sufficiently good access may be obtained so as to ensure satisfactory laminating. depending on the type of resin and the complexity of the laminate. generally not exceeding a mass per area of 300 g/m2.3. 2.1. unless the mechanical properties are confirmed by tests. the time between the forming and bonding of structural members is to be kept within these limits. it is not to be left exposed for longer than is recommended by the Manufacturer before the application of the first layer of reinforcement.4. A lightweight reinforcement. to the importance of ensuring the correct carrying out of joints between panels. In the case of hand lay-up processing. 2.4 Hardening and release of laminates 2. the surface of the laminate is to be treated with abrasive agents in order to obtain an adequate bond. the structures are to be stabilised in the moulding environment for the period of time recommended by the resin Manufacturer. 2.3 Laminating 2. but is to be at least 24 hours. thus avoiding cracks and deformations. Ch 4.2 Moulds 2. Where rigid core materials are used. roller or spraying device so as to form a uniform layer with a thickness of between 0. with particular regard to the core material and to its lay-up as well as to details of connections between prefabricated parts of the sandwich laminates themselves. The amount of resin laid "wet on wet" is to be limited to avoid excessive heat generation. unless a different period is recommended by the resin Manufacturer. This period may vary. by resin transfer. the spray gun is also to be calibrated. provision is to be made to ensure satisfactory access such as to permit the proper carrying out of the laminating. When laminating is interrupted so that the exposed resin gels. Moulds are to be thoroughly cleaned.1 Moulds for production of laminates are to be constructed with a suitable material which does not affect the resin polymerisation and are to be adequately stiffened in order to maintain their shape and precision in form. The hull. the laminate is to be left in the mould for a period of time to allow the resin to harden before being removed. according to the Manufacturer's instruction manual. the first layer of reinforcement subsequently laid is to be of mat type.1 On completion of the laminating. Furthermore. Attention is drawn. The manufacturing process for sandwich type laminates is taken into consideration by RINA in relation to the materials. vacuum or pressurised moulding with mat and continuous filaments) are to be individually recognised as suitable by RINA. which are not to have an inhibiting effect on the gel coat resin. where this is not practicable. • before use. Particular care is to be given to the core bonding materials and to the holes provided to ensure efficient removal of air under the core. the laminates are to be obtained with the layers of reinforcement laid in the sequence indicated in the approved drawings and each layer is to be thoroughly "wet" in the resin matrix and compacted to give the required weight content. Joints between the sections of reinforcement are to be overlapped and staggered throughout the thickness of the laminate.3. After the release and before the application of any special post-hardening treatment. • the uniformity of lamination and fibre content is to be systematically checked during production. deck and large assemblies are to be adequately braced and supported for removal from the moulds as well as during the fitting-out period of the yacht. which is to be examined by RINA.1 The gel coat is to be applied by brush. In the absence of recommendations. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 167 . the length of glass fibres is to be not less than 25 mm. the period is to be at least 24 hours.2. the following requirements are also to be complied with: • before the use of the simultaneous lay-up system.

and surface areas without resin or with glass fibre reinforcements exposed to the external environment. where the shipyard has a system of production organisation and quality control certified by RINA. Any defects are to be eliminated by means of appropriate repair methods to the satisfaction of the RINA Surveyor. d) check of the uniformity of the impregnation of reinforcements. is not to differ by more than 15% from the thickness indicated in approved structural plans. their lay-up and superimposition. a method of validating the complete laminate thickness is to be agreed on between the builder and the Surveyor. in general. Ch 4. in accordance with the relevant quality system.6. surface corrugation.1 Checks and tests are to be arranged during the lamination process by the hull builder. b) check of the thickness of the gel coat and the uniformity of its application. In general the following checks and tests are to be carried out: a) check of the mould before the application of the release agent and of the gel coat.5 Defects in the laminates c) check of the resin and the amount of catalyst.6 Checks and tests mechanical tests on laminates taken from the hull or prepared during the lamination of the hull (in accordance with Pt D. The hull builder is to maintain a constant check on the laminate. 2. j) 2. 2. g) general check of the laminate before release from the mould. Sec 3). Any defects found are to be eliminated immediately. 168 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .2 Where ultrasonic thickness gauges are used. surface or internal blistering due to the presence of air bubbles. 2. e) check and recording of the percentage of the reinforcement in the laminate. i) check of the thickness of the laminate which. accelerator. 2. Dimensions and tolerances are to conform to the approved construction documentation. Ch 6.3 As a general rule. f) checks of any post-hardening treatments. The thicknesses of the laminates are. h) check and recording of the laminate hardness before release from the mould. hardener and various additives.Pt B. 2. the checks may be carried out directly by the shipyard without the presence of a RINA Surveyor. Monitoring and random checking by the Surveyor does not absolve the builder from this responsibility.5.2 The responsibility for maintaining the required tolerances rests with the builder. such as in particular: surface cracks. to be measured at not less than ten points. Sec 3 2. internal areas with non-impregnated fibres. and by the RINA Surveyor.6. cracks in the resin for surface coating. The above-mentioned checks and tests are to be carried out as a rule in the presence of a RINA Surveyor. in general. evenly distributed across the surface.5. the relevant tools are to be calibrated against an identical laminate (of measured thickness).6.1 The manufacturing processes of laminates are to be such as to avoid defects.

the criteria used by RINA for tests of longitudinal hull beam strength are shown below. longitudinal strength calculations are to be carried out considering the load and ballast conditions for both departure and arrival. C’ : length. Em.1. of the bottom and deck laminate. tf. defined in Figure 1. of the transverse section in m3 MT f f : design total vertical bending moment defined in Chap. Epa. the scantlings of members contributing to the longitudinal strength of monohull yachts and catamarans are to achieve a section modulus of the midship section at the bottom and the deck such as to guarantee stresses not exceeding the allowable values. Ema. 10-6 for planing vessels J = 230 . is generally to be not less than the value given by the following formulae: J = 200 .1 In addition to satisfying the minimum requirements stipulated in the individual Chapters of these Rules.⋅ E f + n f ⋅ ( I fs ⋅ t fs ⋅ E fs + t f a ⋅ Hfa ⋅ E fa ) 2 Wf. Ims. Therefore: σ f ≤ fσ l σ p ≤ fσ l Where there is a sandwich member.N ⁄ mm 1000 Wf MT 2 σ p = ----------------------. H fa. Sec 4 SECTION 4 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH 1 1. 5.⋅ C' ⋅ P + ---. a test of the longitudinal strength is required.: values defined in Table 1 tps.1 General σl : the lesser of the values of ultimate tensile and ultimate compressive strength. tm. MT .1 In order to limit the flexibility of the hull structure. For yachts of greater length and/or openings of size greater than the breadth B of the hull and extending for a considerable part of the length of the yacht. nf: values defiined in Table 2 Im.1. As a guide. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ where: 169 .1 Bending stresses 2. 5 ⋅ A 1 C' F–P Wf = --. Eps. tfs. tpa.33 for planing yachts : 0. the moment of inertia J of the midship section. For each transverse section within the midship region. in N/mm2. Efs. tfa. in m. 10-6 displacement yachts.⋅ C' ⋅ P + ---. Ems. Efa.25 for displacement yachts tp. MT . Sec. 1. in N/mm2 tp Ep Side shell tm Em Bottom tf Ef 2 2. in mm Young’s modulus. tma. Ef. np. Ifs. Wp : section modulus at the bottom and the deck. Table 1 Deck Mean thickness. The cores may be taken into account only if they offer longitudinal continuity and appreciable strength against axial tension-compression. the two skins of the laminate are to be taken into account for the purposes of the longitudinal strength only with their own characteristics. 1. Ips. in m3.3 2.2. 1.N ⁄ mm 1000 Wp where: P A F : : : t p ⋅ B ⋅ E p + n p ⋅ ( I ps ⋅ t ps ⋅ E ps + t pa ⋅ H pa ⋅ E pa ) 2 [ t m ⋅ I m ⋅ E m + n m ⋅ ( t m s ⋅ I m s ⋅ E m s + t ma ⋅ H m a ⋅ E m a ) ] B t f ⋅ -. 2. the section modulus. is given by: ⎠ ⎞ 1C' F–P Wp = ---. nm.⋅ A ⋅ 1 + -------------------------Ep 6 F + 0. in m4. Ch 4. respectively.1 Reference is to be made to Table 1 for plating and Table 2 for longitudinals for calculation of the midship section modulus.⋅ A ⋅ 1 + -------------------------Ef 6 F + 0. 2. 5 ⋅ A ⎝ ⎛ ⎝ ⎛ ⋅ 10 –3 ⋅ 10 –3 MT 2 σ f = ---------------------. tms.3.2 2.2. Ep.2 1. Hma.1 To this end.Pt B.1 The structural scantlings prescribed in Chapter 4 are also intended as appropriate for the purposes of the longitudinal hull strength of a yacht having length L not exceeding 40 m for monohull yachts or 35 m for catamarans and openings on the strength deck of limited size. : 0.Hpa.

in N/mm2 Height in mm Number of longitudinals tps Eps Ips tpa Epa Hpa np Side shell tma Ema Ims tma Ema Hma nm Bottom tfs Efs Ifs tfa Efa Hfa nf Figure 1 3 3.4] f τ Αt : defined in [2] : shear stress of the laminate.1. Ch 4.1 The shear stresses in every position along the length L are not to exceed the allowable values.1 Shear stresses where: Tt : total shear stress in kN defined in Chap. in particular: T ----t ⋅ 10 – 3 ≤ f ⋅ τ At 170 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . in mm Web Young’s modulus. in mm Flange Young’s modulus. in N/mm2 Breadth in mm Equivalent thickness in Section I. 1. [5.Pt B. 3. to be calculated considering the net area of side plating and of any longitudinal bulkheads excluding openings. in m 2. Sec 4 Table 2 Deck Mean thickness. in N/mm 2 : actual shear area of the transverse section.

Sec.1. 4t 5. as indicated in Figure 2 b) in Section 1.–3 J = ----------------------. a suitable taper is to be made between the two types. When the hull is laminated in halves. in m2.10 36 2 2 : larger dimension of the plating panel. not less than the value obtained by the following formula: b CH = 30L The thickness of the keel is to be not less than the value tCH. Bottom plating is the plating up to the chine or to the upper turn of the bilge. calculated with the following formulae: t 1 = k 1 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ kof ⋅ p t 2 = 16 ⋅ s ⋅ k o f ⋅ D 0. Section 2.26. Ch 4.15. a transition zone is to be foreseen. 4 4. in m : spacing of the ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffener. with respect to its longitudinal axis are not less than the values given by the following formulae: A ⋅ h ⋅ V . obtained by the following formula: t C H = 1. in mm.1. transversally.1 The thickness of bottom plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 and t2. The minimum bottom shell thickness is to extend to the chine line or 150mm above the statical load waterline. calculated as specified in 5 assuming the spacing s of the corresponding stiffeners. such as Type I B shown in Chapter 1. . in mm. 5 : factors defined in Sec. when assuming p=p1 0. 5 t being the greater of the values t1 and t2. in m : scantling pressure. the thickness of the keel is to extend. tapering with the bottom plating. 1.1. A ⋅ h ⋅ VZ = --------------------55 2 where: A h : : the rudder area. of the generic horizontal section of the same skeg. in kN/m2. 5 0. from the skeg section to the lower edge of the pintle (rudder heel). in cm3. in cm4. when assuming p=p2 coefficient as a function of the ratio S/s given in Table 1. Figure 2. in mm. In yachts with sail and ballast keel.1. in any event.1 Rudder horn 2 2. given in Chap. When the side thickness differs from the bottom thickness by more than 3 mm. 1. in mm.1 The keel is to extend the whole length of the yacht and have a breadth bCH. the vertical distance.1 When the rudder is of the semi-spade type. 2 of this Chapter.Pt B. Sec 5 SECTION 5 EXTERNAL PLATING 1 1. whichever is the greater. the keel joint is to be carried out as shown in Figure 5 in Section 1 or in a similar way. the relevant rudder horn is to have dimensions and thickness such that the moment of inertia J.1 Bottom and side plating may be made using both single-skin laminate and sandwich structure. Ko 3 3. in mm. Appraising s. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 171 . the thickness of the keel for the whole length of the ballast keel is to be increased by where: k1 ka : : : 0. The thickness of the plating of the bilge is.1. When the two solutions are adopted for the hull. The thickness tCH is to be gradually tapered transversally. to be taken as not less than the greater of the thicknesses of the bottom and side. to the thickness of the bottom and in the case of hulls having a U-shaped keel.1 2.1 Bottom plating 3. in knots. dead rise edge > 12° is considered as a stiffener. this increase is to extend longitudinally to fore and aft of the ballast for a suitable length.1 Keel V : 5 5. and the section modulus Z.1 S s p Definitions and symbols 4. maximum design speed of the yacht. Kof.1 General 30%. acting on the horn.

Sec 5 If the plating has a pronounced curve. 6. 8.1. in way of the propulsion engine bedplates.6 1.1 The internal walls of sea intakes are to have external plating thickness increased by 2 mm.2. the thickness calculated with the formulae above may be reduced multiplying by (1 f/s). as for example in the case of the hulls of sailing yachts.3 22.1 The thickness is to be taken.1 The thickness of side plating is to be not less than the greater of the values t1 and t2.1 Sheerstrake plating and side plating Sheerstrake 6. not less than 0. 6 6.1 A sheerstrake plate of height h.1 Local stiffeners 8. 30t 8. Where the gap between the bottom and the waterline is so small that local wave impact phenomena are anticipated.2 7. an increase in thickness and/or additional internal stiffeners may be required.1 The thickness of the transom is to be not less than that of the side plating for the portion above the waterline.3 8. where t is the greater of the thicknesses t1 and t2.2. or less than that of the bottom for the portion below the waterline.025 L and thickness tc.4. in mm. f being the distance. 9. not less than the value in the following formula is to be fitted: t c = 1.8 2.3.1.5 19.2 Side plating 8. stabilisers.2 below. In sailing yachts with or without auxiliary engine in way of the ballast keel. 8. between the connecting beam and the two extremities of the plating concerned and the surface of the plating itself.1 The thickness of plating is to be locally increased in way of inner or outer permanent ballast arrangements as indicated in 3. 5 0.1. when the width of the latter is greater than that of the keel. anchor recesses.1 Cross-deck bottom plating 7.70.2 8. no less than that of the side plating. calculated with the following formulae: t 1 = k 1 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ k of ⋅ p t 2 = 12 ⋅ s ⋅ k o f ⋅ D 0. 7 7.1 22. outside the bilge strakes and the keel. This reduction may not be assumed less than 0.1.1 Openings in the curved zone of the bilge strakes may be accepted where the former are elliptical or fitted with equivalent arrangements to minimise the stress concentration effects. 8 8.4 6.2 1. rudder horn or trunk.4 1.1.1. Where water-jets or propulsion systems are fitted directly to the transom. Table 1 S/s 1 1. The edges of openings are to be suitably sealed in order to prevent the absorption of water. the stiffener spacing s being equal. Arrangements are to be such as to ensure continuity of strength in way of openings.0 >2 Ka 17. calculated as stated in 6. generally by at least 50%. etc.4 7.2. as far as possible. in mm. stem (the thickness is not required to be greater than that of the keel in this case).1 Openings in the shell plating 9 9.3. 5 where k1 and ka are as defined in 5. RINA may require the local plating to be increased and/or reinforced with the fitting of additional stiffeners.1 Where the aft end is shaped such that the bottom plating aft has a large flat area. in m. 7. in mm. In such case a sandwich structure with marine plywood core of adequate thickness is recommended. the thickness of the bottom is to be increased to the value taken for the keel.1. Ch 4. 172 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .Pt B.6 22.1 The thickness of plating determined with the foregoing formulae is to be increased locally.9 21. but not less than 6 mm.6 20.1 Sea intakes and other openings are to be well rounded at the corners and located.3 7. propeller shaft struts. the scantlings of the latter will be the subject of special consideration.

3 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts. 1. which in turn are supported by transverse bulkheads or reinforced floors. 1.5 assuming p=p1 1 assuming p=p2 conventional span of the longitudinal stiffener. in m.1. In the case of a keel with a dead rise > 12°. between the two floors adjacent to that concerned conventional floor span equal to the distance.1 The transverse framing consists of ordinary stiffeners arranged transversally (floors) and placed at each frame supported by girders. In the case of a U-shaped keel or one with a dead rise edge ≤12° but > 8°. however. the centre girder may be omitted but in such case the fitting of a longitudinal stringer is required. in m. girders.3. the modulus ZM may. in cm3.1 The section modulus of the floors at the centreline of the span S is to be not less than the value ZM. Sec. Ch 4. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 173 .3 Transverse structure 1. 1.4 assuming p = p1 1.2 A centre girder is to be fitted. given in Chap. in m. 1. be reduced by 40%. the modulus may be reduced by a further 10%. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m.1. coefficient defined in Sec. in m.1 A centre girder is to be fitted.3. calculated with the following formula. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m.2 Floors 3. 1. the rudder and the ballast keel. 3. Sec 6 SECTION 6 SINGLE BOTTOM 1 1. 1.2 assuming p = p2 half the distance. between the two supporting members (sides.2 Longitudinal structure 1. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m.Pt B. the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a single bottom. the rudder and the ballast keel. 2 of this Chapter. equal to the distance between floors.2.1 Longitudinal type structure Bottom longitudinals 3. keel with a dead rise edge > 12°). the latter are to extend beyond the engine room for a suitable length and are to be connected to any existing girders in other areas.4 Additional bottom stiffeners are to be fitted in way of the propeller shaft struts. the span S is always to be calculated considering the distance between girders or sides.2 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 where: k1 S : : : 1.5. Any intermediate floors are to be adequately connected to the ends.1 s p Ko : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners. in cm2.3. in kN/m2. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type.5 Floors are to be fitted in way of reinforced frames at the sides and reinforced deck beams. If a side girder is fitted on each side with a height equal to the local height of the floor.2. 1.1 The section modulus of longitudinal stringers is to be not less than the value Z. In the case of a keel with a dead rise > 12°.2.2. 3 3.1 Definitions and symbols 1.3 The bottom of the engine room is to be reinforced with a suitable web floor consisting of floors and girders.3. 1. ZM = k1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b S : : : 2. scantling pressure. 2.1 General Scope 2 2. sufficient side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them and the centre girder or the side does not exceed 3 m. 1.1. the centre girder may be omitted but in such case the fitting of a longitudinal stringer is required.3.

Pt B. equal to the distance. in cm3. where: k1 bPC : defined in 3. S 3. where: k1 S : defined in 3. 5 5. in m. 4. in cm 3. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads.1 The centre girder and side girders are to be connected to the stiffeners of the transom by means of suitable fittings. in m. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. in cm3. in m. in m.1 : conventional span in m. of the floor equal to the distance between the members which support it (girders.1 The section modulus of the centre girder is to be not less than the value ZPC.2 Centre girder Whenever the centre girder does not form a support for the floors. in cm3.2 : half the distance. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 ′ 4.3.1 Constructional details S : 5. in m. in cm3. floors). between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders : conventional span of the centre girder. in cm3. between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. in m. between the two side girders if present or equal to B/2 in the absence of side girders distance between the floors. between the two members which support it (transverse bulkheads. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 ′ 4. Ch 4. 174 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the adjacent girder distance between the floors. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. Sec 6 3.1 The section modulus for ordinary floors is to be not less than the value Z.3 3. sides). floors). calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 ′ S where: k1 b’PL : : defined in 3. in m. floors).3 Side girders where: k1 b’PL : : defined in 3.1. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder concerned conventional girder span equal to the distance.2 : Side girders S When the side girder forms a support for the floor.2 half the distance.1 Girders Centre girder 4 4.3.1 half the distance.2 : half the distance. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC.3.1 half the distance.1.2 half the distance. S : 4. in m. calculated with the following formula: Z PL = k 1 ⋅ b PL ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 where: k1 bPL : defined in 3. in m. between the two adjacent girders or between the side and the girder adjacent to that concerned : conventional girder span equal to the distance. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b’PC : : defined in 3. between the two side girders if supporting or equal to B/2 in the absence of supporting side girders conventional girder span equal to the distance.1 Transverse type structures Ordinary floors When the girder forms a support for the floor. in cm3.1 The section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPL. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 where: k1 b’PC : : defined in 3. floors). between the two supporting members (transverse bulkheads. the section modulus is to be not less than the value ZPC.2. in m. in m. S : Whenever the side girder does not form a support for the floors. calculated with the following formula: Z PC = k 1 ⋅ b PC ⋅ S ⋅ K o ⋅ p 2 4.

3 ( 0. Sec 7 SECTION 7 DOUBLE BOTTOM 1 1. which may be of either longitudinal or transverse type.1. in mm.3 The dimensions of the double bottom. Ch 4. 1. For yachts less than 50 m in length.4 Openings are to be provided in floors and girders in order to ensure down-flow of air and liquids in every part of the double bottom.1. obtained from the following formula: h df = 28B + 32 ( T + 10 ) The height of the double bottom is in any event to be not less than 700 mm. In zones where the double bottom varies in height or is interrupted. the thickness is to be not less than twice that defined above. or as near thereto as practicable. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 175 . and in particular the height. supported by floors.1 Minimum height 1.1. except in special cases at the discretion of RINA. 1. When manholes with greater height are fitted.1 Centre girder 4. is requested for yachts of L > 50 m. 3 3. the thickness of the top is also to comply with the provisions of Sec 10. For yachts of length L > 50 m. throughout the length of the hull.1.1 The thickness of the inner bottom plating is to be not less than the value t1. The edges of the holes are to be suitably sealed in order to prevent the absorption of liquid into the laminate.1 General 2 2. Where a single-skin laminate is used for the centre girder. the free edge is to be reinforced by a flat iron bar or other equally effective reinforcements are to be arranged. 1. The longitudinal type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed longitudinally. is to be not less than the value hdF. manholes are to be provided in order to guarantee that all parts of the double bottom can be inspected at least visually. in way of the centre girder. 04 L + 5s + 1 )k of for sin g le – skin laminate t 1 = ( 0. calculated with the following formula: t 1 = 1. For yachts of length L <50 m the thickness is to be maintained throughout the length of the hull. 125 L + 3.4 L amidships so as to reach a value no less than 0. in m coefficients for the properties of the material defined in Sec 2. Bilge wells placed in the inner bottom are to be watertight and limited as far as possible in height and are to have walls and bottom of thickness not less than that prescribed for inner bottom plating.1. Manholes are not to be placed in the continuous centre girder. the thickness may be gradually reduced outside 0. RINA may accept reduced height. 04 L + 5 s + 1 )k of for sandw ich laminate where: s kof : : spacing of the ordinary stiffeners.1 This Section stipulates the criteria for the structural scantlings of a double bottom. The height of manholes is generally to be not greater than half the local height in the double bottom. Holes for the passage of air are to be arranged as close as possible to the top and those for the passage of liquids as close as possible to the bottom.1. 4 4.2 The fitting of a double bottom extending from the collision bulkhead to the forward bulkhead of the machinery space. In floors and in side girders. in mm: t pc = ( 0. 5 )k of where kof is defined in Sec 2.9 t1 at the ends.1.Pt B. Where the inner bottom forms the top of a tank intended for liquid cargoes. tapering of the structures is to be adopted in order to avoid discontinuities. or in floors and side girders below pillars.1 Inner bottom plating 3. The fitting of a double bottom with longitudinal framing is recommended for planing and semi-planing yachts. in mm. as far as this is practicable.1 A centre girder is to be fitted. The thickness of the core of a sandwich type centre girder is to be not less than the following value tpc. 2. are to be such as to allow access for inspection and maintenance.1 The height of the double bottom is to be sufficient to allow access to all areas and.

does not exceed 3 m. 7 7. transverse brackets are to be fitted. 5.1 Bottom and inner bottom longitudinals 6 6.1 When the height of a floor exceeds 900 mm. is to be not less than the following value: t m = ( 0.1. side girders need not be fitted.2. Sec 7 5 5. In any event. the thickness is to be not less than twice that calculated above.1.1.1 The thickness of the core of sandwich type floors tm. to terminate on a transverse bulkhead or on a floor or other transverse structure of adequate strength. or between one such girder and the centre girder or the side. • under buklheads and pillars • outside the machinery space at an interval no greater than 2 m • in the machinery space under the bedplates of main engines • in way of variations in height of the double bottom. in close proximity to girders and floors. they are to be integrated into the structures of the yacht and extended as far forward and aft as practicable. Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom. Watertight floors are also to have thickness not less than that required in Sec 10 for tank bulkheads.Pt B. Ch 4. where kof is defined in Sec 2. 176 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . solid floors or equivalent structures are to be arranged in longitudinally framed double bottoms in the following locations. Engine foundation bolts are to be arranged. Solid floors are to be arranged in transversely framed double bottoms in the following locations: • under bulkheads and pillars • in the machinery space at every frame • in way of variations in height of the double bottom • outside the machinery space at 2 m intervals. Where the breadth of the floors exceeds 6 m.1 The section modulus of bottom stiffeners is to be no less than that required for single bottom longitudinals stipulated in Sec 6. Where this is not possible. as far as practicable.1 Floors 6. 5 )k of 7. A sufficient number of side girders are to be fitted so that the distance between them. 125L + 1. vertical stiffeners are to be arranged. The side girders are to be extended as far forward and aft as practicable and are. Watertight girders are to have thickness not less than that required in Sec 10 for tank bulkheads 6. in mm.2 5.2. The section modulus of inner bottom stiffeners is to be no less than 85% of the section modulus of bottom longitudinals. the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec 10.1 Side girders Where a single-skin laminate is used for floors.2 6.1 Where additional girders are foreseen in way of the bedplates of engines.1 Where the breadth of the floors does not exceed 6 m. as a rule. side girders are to be arranged with thickness equal to that of the floors. Girders of height no less than that of the floors are to be fitted under the bedplates of main engines. 5.

between the reinforced frames or half the distance between the reinforced frames and the transverse bulkhead adjacent to the frame concerned.1 Where tanks intended for liquid cargoes are arranged above the double bottom. in cm3. spacing. the section modulus of longitudinals is to be no less than that required for tank stiffeners as stated in Sec.1 Reinforced beams Reinforced frames 4. equal to the distance between the members which support the reinforced frame. which may be supported by reinforced stringers. equal to the distance between the supporting members. or reinforced stringers.5 for reinforced frames which support ordinary longitudinal stiffeners.2.2 Reinforced stringers where: k1 S : 1. in m.2. 4 4.1 2. Ch 4. Chap. in cm3. : factor defined in Sec.1 2.1. in m. defined in Part B. in kN/m2. s KCR : 1 assuming p=p1 0. in m. : scantling pressure.5 for reinforced stringers which support ordinary vertical stiffeners (frames). defined in 4. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 1.1 The section modulus of the reinforced frames is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 2 2. 1. 5 .1.1 for reinforced stringers which do not support ordinary vertical stiffeners. in general made up of a beam and a floor. in sailing yachts. Sec. conventional span.1 The section modulus of the reinforced stringers is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ KC R ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 ′ where: k1 : : KCR : The ordinary frames are to be well connected to the elements which support them. 4. Sec 8 SECTION 8 SIDE STRUCTURES 1 1. by decks.1. 1.1 s p Ko Definitions and symbols where: k1 : : : spacing of ordinary longitudinal or transverse stiffeners. Reinforced frames are to be provided in way of the mast and the ballast keel. where: k1 : : S : 1. in m. in general made up of reinforced frames or transverse bulkheads. The longitudinal type structure consists of ordinary stiffeners placed longitudinally supported by reinforced frames. in the machinery space and in general in way of large openings on the weather deck. by flats or by the bottom structures. 1.Pt B.1 assuming p=p2 : conventional frame span. or by transverse bulkheads.9 assuming p=p1 1 assuming p=p2 conventional span of the longitudinal.75 assuming p=p1 : 1. generally spaced not more than 2 m apart.1 The section modulus of the side longitudinals is to be not less than the value Z.1 Ordinary stiffeners S : 3. calculated with the following formula: Z = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ Ko ⋅ p 2 4. The transverse type structure is made up of ordinary reinforcements placed vertically (frames). 2 of this Chapter.1. in m. 10.7 assuming p=p2 2.1 The section modulus of the frames is to be not less than the value Z. equal to the distance between the supporting members.1 for reinforced frames which do not support ordinary stiffeners. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 177 .1 General 3.2 3. : : 3 3.

Pt B.5 D in the absence of other reinforced stringers or decks. between the reinforced stringers or 0. in m. 178 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . in general made up of transverse bulkheads or reinforced frames. S : conventional span. Sec 8 s : spacing. Ch 4. in m. equal to the distance between the members which support the stringer.

in cm2. The section area of pillars is to be not less than the value A. 5 where ka is defined in 5. in m. 4.1 in Sec. and connected at both ends to plates supported by efficient brackets which allow connection to the hull structure by means of bolts.2 Lower decks 1. : scantling length.1. in cm3. 2 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ k of ⋅ L 1 0. Details to be sent for approval. to be made of steel or aluminium alloy tubes. not less than the value given by the formula: t = 0.Pt B. it is to extend for the whole length of the yacht. in general. 13 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ k of ⋅ L 1 0. other reinforced beams. 3. which in turn are supported by pillars or by transverse or longitudinal bulkheads. 4 4.1. in cm3.1 Definitions and symbols 4. in m. Ch 4. In the calculation of b any openings are to be considered as non-existent conventional span of the reinforced beam. the value of which is given in Pt B. where: C1 : : : 1 for weather deck longitudinals 0. 5 where ka is defined in 5. calculated with the following equation: Z = 14 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ k of ⋅ C 1 2 2.1.1 Pillars are.2.56 for beams. calculated with the following equation: Z = 15 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ ko 2 where: b : average width of the strip of deck resting on the beam. considering that said deck is also a strength deck.1 in Sec. 3 3.1 The thickness of the weather deck plating. : factor defined in Sec 2 of this Chapter.1 The section modulus for girders and for ordinary reinforced beams is to be not less than the value Z. Reinforced beams together with reinforced frames are to be placed in way of the mast in sailing yachts. 5. : scantling height. beams or longitudinal stringers. in m. Ch 1. : spacing of ordinary transverse or longitudinal stiffeners.3. calculated with the following formula: t = 0.1. in m. 15 ⋅ k a ⋅ s ⋅ kof ⋅ L 1 0. Kof L1 4. in any event. s h Ko. is to be not less than the value t. not less than 0. plating and reinforcing or supporting structures.1 Stiffening and support structures for decks Ordinary stiffeners 2 2. equal to the distance between the two supporting members (pillars.1 The thickness of decks below the weather deck intended for accommodation spaces is to be not less than the value calculated with the formula: t = 0.63 for lower deck longitudinals 0. the thickness of the deck is. The reinforcing and supporting structures of decks consist of ordinary reinforcements.10 for tank bulkhead plating. meaning the first deck above the full load waterline.6 L and constituting an efficient support for the structural elements of the side. in m. in theory. supported by lines of shoring made up of systems of girders and/or reinforced beams.3 Pillars On yachts of L > 30 m a stringer plate is to be fitted with width b. in mm. 5 4.1 The section modulus of the ordinary stiffeners of both longitudinal and transverse (beams) type is to be not less than the value Z. Where the deck is a tank top.1 Deck plating Weather deck S : 3. in mm.2.2 Reinforced beams 4.025 L and thickness t. Sec 9 SECTION 9 DECKS 1 1. to be not less than the value calculated with the formulae given in Sec. In sailing yachts with the mast resting on the deck or on the deckhouse. 5. bulkheads). extending for at least 0. given by the formula: RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 179 . to be assumed not less than 15 m. laid transversally or longitudinally. in m. a pillar or bulkhead is to be arranged in way of the mast base.1 This Section lays down the criteria for the scantlings of decks. Sec 5.1 General 3.1 (1/1/2009) pdc : calculation deck.

or other suitable solid insert is to be fitted in the core in way. Ch 4. to be through an area of single-skin laminate.1. Wherever possible. defined in 2. 4.3 The attachment of pillars to sandwich structures is.Pt B. deck pillars are to be fitted in the same vertical line as pillars above and below.3. where: Q : load resting on the pillar. in general. Where this is not practicable and the attachment of the pillar must be by means of bolting through a sandwich structure then a wood. area of the part of the deck resting on the pillar. 87 ⋅ A ⋅ h where: A : h : 4. in kN. in m2 scantling height. 045λ C : 1 for steel pillars : 1. 5 – 0.6 for aluminium alloy pillars.2 Pillars are to be fitted on main structural members. and effective arrangements are to be made to distribute the load at the heads and heels of all pillars. calculated with the following formula: Q = 6.3.1 λ : the ratio between the pillar length and the minimum radius of gyration of the pillar cross-section 180 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Sec 9 Q⋅C A = -------------------------------------12.

other than tank bulkheads. 5. h B ko.1 Plating 3.3 h (m) hB hB hT 1. between the members that support the stiffener concerned : as defined in Part B. in general. Whenever bulkheads.2 Reinforced beams : spacing between the stiffeners. 4.5].Pt B.1 General Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Table 1 (1/1/2009) k1 5.78 0.1 The watertight bulkhead plating is to have a thickness not less than the value tS in mm. 5 5 5.1 s S Symbols 4.1 See Sec 1. Sec 10 SECTION 10 BULKHEADS 1 1.63 1 h s.1 2. are made of wood. in cm3. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 181 . 2 2. kof 3 3. to be in accordance with the provisions of Chap 1. [6.1.8 5. calculated with the following formula: Z = 13. of the zone of bulkhead resting on the horizontal web or on the reinforced stiffener scantling height indicated in Tab 2.1 Tanks for liquids The coefficient k1 and the scantling height h have the values indicated in Tab 1. Ch 4. it is to be type approved marine plywood and the scantlings are to be not less than those indicated in Chapter 5 of Part B.1 The section modulus of ordinary stiffeners is to be not less than the value Z. in m. calculated with the following formula: Z = C1 ⋅ b ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ ko 2 where: C1 b h : : : : 10.1. in m : conventional span.1 The horizontal webs of bulkheads with ordinary vertical stiffeners and reinforced stiffeners in the bulkheads with ordinary horizontal stiffeners are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. equal to the distance.1 The number and position of watertight bulkheads are. Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead 4 4. Sec 1.1. Table 2 (1/1/2009) Bulkhead Collision bulkhead Watertight bulkhead Deep tank bulkhead h (m) hB hB hT c 0. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ c ⋅ k o 2 The values of the coefficient c and of the scantling height h are those indicated in Tab 2. Ch 1. in m.7 for subdivision bulkheads 18 for tank bulkheads width.0 5.2.1.1 Stiffeners Ordinary stiffeners 4. Sec 5 : as defined in Sec 2.1. Pipes or cables running through watertight bulkhead are to be fitted with suitable watertight glands. calculated with the following formula: tS = k1 ⋅ s ⋅ k o f ⋅ h 0. in cm3. The scantlings indicated in this Section refer to bulkheads made of reinforced plastic both in single-skin and in sandwich type laminates.

Table 1 Type of bulkhead h (m) 1. in mm. the reference deck for the determination of the superstructure tier may be the deck below the one specified above. the thickness t is to be not less than the values shown in Table 2 of Sec. and so on.1 Ko : factor defined in Sec 2 s : spacing of the stiffeners.1. 9. defined in 2 . in cm3.1. Where the distance from the hypothetical freeboard deck to the full load waterline exceeds the freeboard that can hypothetically be assigned to the yacht. Sec 11 SECTION 11 SUPERSTRUCTURES 1 1. 4 4.1 Boundary bulkhead plating 4. factor defined in Sec 2. Sec 1.Pt B. in m Kof : factor defined in Sec 2 h : conventional scantling height. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K o 2 1st tier front 2nd tier front Other bulkheads wherever situated In any event. in m conventional scantling height. second tier superstructures or deckhouses are those above.1 The section modulus Z. equal to the distance. 1 of this Chapter. see Ch 1. in m S : span of the stiffeners.0 where: s : spacing of the stiffeners.1. calculated with the following formula: Z = 5.1. in m. 4. [4.1 The superstructure deck plating is to be not less than the value t. 7 ⋅ s ⋅ K O f ⋅ h 0. in m.5 1.1. 5 2. in cm3.1 General 3 3. 7 ⋅ s ⋅ K O f ⋅ h 0.2. between the members supporting the stiffener concerned.1 The stiffeners of the boundary bulkheads are to have a section modulus not less than the value Z. When there is no access from inside superstructures and deckhouses to 'tweendecks below.1 First tier superstructures or deckhouses are intended as those situated on the uppermost exposed continuous deck of the yacht. Ko : as defined in 3.1. 5 ⋅ s ⋅ S ⋅ h ⋅ K o 2 where: h : conventional scantling height. reduced scantlings with respect to those stipulated in this Section may be accepted at the discretion of RINA.2].2 Stiffeners 4. h. where: S : conventional span of the stiffener. in mm. equal to the distance. stringers) and ordinary pillars are to have scantlings as stated in Sec. between the supporting members s. 182 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . in m. in m.1 The thickness of the boundary bulkheads is to be not less than the value t. Reinforced beams (beams. in m.1 Superstructure decks Plating 2 2. of both the longitudinal and transverse ordinary deck stiffeners is to be not less than the value calculated with the following formula: Z = 5. calculated with the following formula: t = 3. 5 s h : : Kof : spacing between the stiffeners. 3. calculated with the following formula: t = 3.3.0 1. defined in 2. the value of which is to be taken not less than the value indicated in Table 1. Ch 4.1 Stiffeners 1.

as a rule. 1. in general. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 183 . external and internal. the taper of the panel is not to exceed 30°.Pt B.1. scantlings and distribution of venting holes in the panels are to be in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions.1 Premise 2. 2.33 times the net thickness of the internal skin. as far as practicable the former is to be applied after the polymerisation of the skin laminate has passed the exothermic stage.1 The sandwich type laminate taken into consideration in this Section is made up of two thin laminates in reinforced plastic bonded to a core material with a low density and low values for the mechanical properties. 3 3. The thicknesses of the two skins are to be approximately equal. the taper is not to exceed 45°. The thickness of the core is to be not less than 6 times the minimum thickness of the skins.1 (1/1/2009) S : conventional span of the strip of sandwich laminate equal to the minimum distance. The use of a sandwich laminate in these zones will be carefully considered by RINA bearing in mind the properties of the core and the precautions taken to avoid infiltration of water in the holes drilled for the passage of studs and bolts. Sec 12 SECTION 12 SCANTLINGS OF STRUCTURES WITH SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION 1 1.3. even adhesion is to be ensured. Ch 4.1.1.1 In general the two skins. Such use may be accepted by increasing the thickness of the skin in contact with the liquid. single-skin laminate is to be used.1 Where the core material is deposited above a prefabricated skin. The number. in way of the connection to the upper deck and in general where connections with bolts are foreseen. 2. so as to avoid phenomena of core evaporation and/or excessive monomer loss.1 Symbols 3. The scantlings indicated in the following Articles of this Section are considered valid assuming the above-mentioned hypotheses. in particular in sailing yachts with a ballast keel.2. in the zone where there are the hull appendages. plastic foam of different densities or other materials (honeycomb) which deform easily under pressure or traction but which offer good resistance to shear stresses. the layer of reinforcement in contact with the core material is to be of mat. In zones where high density or plywood insert plates are arranged. The degree of vacuum in the bagging system both at the beginning of the process and during the polymerisation phase is not to exceed the level recommended by the Manufacturer. while shear forces are supported by the core . The core material is. The thicknesses of the two skins are negligible compared to the thicknesses of the core. The scantlings of sandwich structures obtained differently and/or with core materials or with skins not corresponding to the above-mentioned properties will be considered case by case based on the principle of equivalence.1. 2 2.5 Where the edges of a sandwich panel are to be connected to a single-skin laminate.1.1 General Laminating 2. in m. are to be identical in lamination and in resistance and elasticity properties. 2. The use of sandwich laminates is also ill-advised in way of structural tanks for liquids where fuel oils are concerned. details of the procedure are to be submitted for examination. the thickness of the external skin is to be no greater than 1. made up of balsa wood.1 Where the vacuum bagging system is used.3 When resins other than epoxide resins are used. 2.3 Constructional details 2.2 Where the core is applied on a pre-laminated surface. as indicated in Section 10.1. such as propeller shaft struts and rudder horns. In way of the keel. Normal forces and flexing moments act only on the external faces.2 Vacuum bagging 2. the latter is to be suitably cleaned and treated in accordance with the Manufacturer's instructions. on submission of full technical documentation of the materials used and on any tests carried out. The moduli of elasticity of the core material are negligible compared to those of the skin material.1.4 Prior to proceeding with glueing of the core. 2.

: the mean of the four values of the compressive ES and shear moduli of elasticity of the two skins.1 The section moduli ZSo and ZSi. given in Part B. in kN/m2.6 assuming p=p1 : 0.1 The thickness of the skin laminate is to be sufficient to obtain the section modulus prescribed in the following Articles. 4 ⋅ -----------------------------2 1–ν where: : 0.1. it is to have a value. compressive modulus of elasticity of the core material of the skin considered.1 Bottom 5. p h Rto Rti Rco Rci τ h : : : : : : : : scantling pressure. In the case of a sandwich structure with a core in balsa wood or polyurethane foam and other similar products. not less than that given by the following formulae: a) Bottom t o = 0. Chap. ultimate shear strength.1 Minimum thickness of the skins where: k1 : 1. in N/mm2. 25L ) where: R : the greater of the ultimate compressive strengths of the two skins. in kN/m2. of the internal skin. in mm. in N/mm2. in N/mm2. 2 + 0. 6 6. Thicknesses less than the minimums calculated with the above formulae. in cm3. shear modulus of elasticity of the core material. in cm3. 1. whichever is the greater. in. corresponding to the external and internal skins. in m. in kN/m2.1 The section moduli ZSo and ZSi. in mm. reinforced frames). of a strip of sandwich of the side 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 2 Z S o = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ------Rco 12 Z S i = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ----Rt i where: EF EA GA : : : compressive modulus of elasticity of the laminate of the skin considered. where: k1 : 1. ultimate compressive strength. 5. the critical stress σCR. 2 + 0. in N/mm 2 : Poisson coefficient of the laminate of the skin considered.5 assuming p=p1 k1 : 0. net height. scantling height.1.1 Side 6. Sec. given by the following formula: R I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---ES 4.6 assuming p=p1 : 0. in kN/m2. in cm4. may be accepted provided they are sufficient in terms of buckling strength. is to be not less than 1. ultimate tensile strength. 2 + 0. 40 ⋅ ( 2. of the external skin. is to be not less than the value given by the formula: k1 ⋅ p ⋅ S h a = ------------------τ where: to ti : : thickness of the external laminate of the sandwich thickness of the internal laminate of the sandwich. in N/mm2. 50 ⋅ ( 2. as defined in Part B. 2 + 0. 35 ⋅ ( 2. in mm. σC ν : actual compressive strength of the skin considered.2 assuming p=p2. Chap. of a strip of sandwich of the bottom 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 2 Z S o = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ------Rco 12 Z S i = k 1 ⋅ p ⋅ S ⋅ ----Rt i 4 4. 45 ⋅ ( 2. in kN/m2. 25L ) t i = 0. 1. furthermore. in kN/m2. Ch 4. of the core of the sandwich. respectively.4 assuming p=p2 The moment of inertia of a strip of sandwich 1 cm wide is to be not less than the value IS.1. Sec. of the core material of the sandwich. Sec 12 between the structural members supporting the sandwich (bulkheads. ultimate tensile strength. though not less than those in Table 2. 5. Z : ZSo or ZSi . ultimate compressive strength.Pt B. in cm3.1 σC: ( EF ⋅ EA ⋅ G A )1 ⁄ 3 σ CR = 0. of the internal skin. corresponding to the external and internal skins. 5 5.4 assuming p=p2 184 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . The net height of the core ha. in N/mm2. respectively. 25L ) t i = 0. 25L ) b) Side and weather deck t o = 0. in N/mm2. given by the following formula. of the external skin.

4.1 8. the mean of the values of the compressive moduli of elasticity of the two skins. corresponding to the external and internal skins. 1 2 Z Si = 15 ⋅ h ⋅ S ⋅ ----Rt i where: R ES : : the greater of the ultimate compressive shear strengths of the two skins. in mm.5.1. Ch 4. in mm. and the moment of inertia IS. given by the following formula: R I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---ES where R and ES are as defined in Art. Sec. the modulus ZSo may be assumed not greater than that required for the side in 6. The moment of inertia of a strip of sandwich 1 cm wide is to be not less than the value IS. of a strip of sandwich of the deck 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 2 Z So = 15 ⋅ h ⋅ S ⋅ ------R co However. in N/mm2.1. in cm4.1. respectively. in cm 3. in cm4. having the same S. Sec 12 The moment of inertia of a strip of sandwich of the side 1 cm wide is to be not less than the value IS. The section modulus ZS. 7 7. in cm4. given by the following formula: R I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---ES The net height of the core ha.5 assuming p=p1 : 0.2 assuming p=p2. in cm 3. is to be not less than the value given by the formula: 7⋅h⋅S h a = ----------------τ RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 185 .1 The section moduli ZSo and ZSi.1 Decks 7. 5: The net height of the core ha. is to be not less than the value given by the formula: k1 ⋅ p ⋅ S h a = ------------------τ 8 Watertight bulkheads and boundary bulkheads of the superstructure 8. in N/mm2. in mm. is to be not less than the value given by the following formula: 7⋅h⋅S h a = ----------------τ where R and ES are as defined in Art. of a strip of sandwich 1 cm wide are to be not less than the values given by the following formulae: 1 Z S = 15 ⋅ h ⋅ S 2 ⋅ -R R I S = 40 ⋅ S ⋅ Z ⋅ ---ES where: k1 : 0. 11.1 The scantlings shown in this Article apply both to subdivision bulkheads and to tank bulkheads. They may also be applied to boundary bulkheads of the superstructure assuming for h the relevant value indicated in Chap.Pt B. The net height of the core ha.

Sec 13 SECTION 13 STRUCTURAL ADHESIVES 1 1. c) the mechanical properties of the adhesive are to be rapidly achieved. 1.000 cycles.Pt B. generally applying a load of 50% of the static shear strength for 1. 2) 5 samples at room temperature of 23° C after exposure to 5 cycles of laboratory aging according to ASTM D1183 standard. • non-destructive test methods and acceptability criteria for any defects found. d) a greater safety factor (ratio of failure strain to actual strain) than the that of the adjacent structure is to achieved. The process for the application of the adhesive is to be submitted and is to include: • the maximum bondline thickness. All failures of test samples are to be either cohesive or fibre tear.2 For hulls for which structural adhesives are used.1 (1/1/2011) The structural adhesives are to have the following properties: a) the adhesive is to be compatible with the lamination resin. 1. mixing. That means no use of screws or bolts is 186 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . the strength properties are to be achieved on: 5 samples at room temperature of 23° C. the shear strength is to be achieved on: 1) 5 samples at room temperature of 23° C .1.1. b) it si recommended that the elastic modulus of the adhesive should be compatible with the elastic modulus of the GRP skin. • remedial work in order to rectify excessive unevenness of the faying surface or local undulations.2. • lap-shear fatigue dynamic test to be performed according to ASTM D3163 standard using substrates that can be metallic. [3. • handling. 1. The details of the structural adhesives are to be enclosed in the list required in Ch 1. • details relevant to the level of training required for personnel involved in the application of structural adhesives. f) the type approval of structural materials is issued by RINA subject to the satisfactory outcome of the following test carried out on the base of a testing scheme agreed with RINA: • lap-shear static test to be performed according to ASTM D3165 standard using FRP substrates. Requirements to be complied with: the average of the results obtained after conditioning according to ASTM D1183 shall not be less than 85% of the average of the results without conditioning. Requirements to be complied with: the sample shall withstand without breaks the fatigue tests carried out at 30 Hz.2 1. Requirements to be complied with the average of the results obtained after conditioning according to ASTM D1183 is to be not less than 85% of the average of the results without conditioning. a special class notation will be assigned as indicated in Part A. • Peel-static test to be performed according to ASTM D3807 standard using FRP substrates.1 (1/1/2011) Structural adhesives are to be used according to the Manufacturer's specifications. the shear strength is to be achieved on: 5 samples at room temperature of 23 °C after exposure to 2 cycles of laboratory aging according to ASTM D1183 standard.1 General necessary to hold the substrate together while the adhesive cures. • surface preparation and cleanliness of the surface to be bonded. Sec 1. e) the minimum shear strength obtained from a lap-shear test is to be not less than 7 N/mm2. application and curing requirements of the structural adhesive. 5 samples at room temperature of 23° C after exposure to 5 cycles of laboratory ageing according to ASTM D1183 standard. this means that the ratio between the two elastic moduli shall be such as to avoid stress concentration in the skin substrate when a longitudinal shear force is applied to the joint. Ch 4.000.1]. Data listed in the material data sheet are to be specified in the construction plan submitted for approval.1. The above-mentioned information is to include the material data sheet containing all the details of the structural adhesive.

1 In general the shear stress at the inner surface of the plating is to be calculated by direct calculations according to the requirements of Ch. (ExI)sp :is the flexural rigidity of the composite element (stiffener and plating) combined around the neutral axis. 5. A typical stiffener/plating connection is shown in the following figure: Figure 1 The linear load due to the bending moment calculated at the inner surface plating can be obtained from the following formula: P × ( E × A )p × Y Q p = ------------------------------------------p ( E × I )sp b: is the width of the plate associated with the stiffener. in N/mm2. 1. in mm .1. P= 500 x p x s x S: is the total load in N applied to the panel of dimension (Sxs) and due to the design pressure as calculated according to items [5. where: Ep: is the inplane elastic modulus of the plating in N/mm2. Yp: is the distance from the centroid of the associated plate to the neutral axis. Sec 13 2 2. ExA=Ep x b x tp . in mm. Sec.( N/mm ) b where: Qp : is the linear load in N/mm applied to the inner surface of the plating and due to the bending moment . Tab 1 indicates some data regarding the nominal shear strength and the allowable design stress for certain structural adhesives. In general. 1.5 8. Ch. the calculation of the flange connection between the internal reinforcement and the plating is to be carried out as indicated in [2.1 Design criteria for bonded connection 2. tp : is the thickness of the associated plate. Table 1 Adhesive Cold-cured epoxy Polyester or vinylester resin or paste Epoxy type paste Nominal bond shear strength [N/mm2] 28 14 41 Allowable design stress [N/mm2] 5.Pt B. Sec 5.2 3.1. It is to be verified that τp is not greater than 20% of the nominal bond shear strength as indicated by the Manufacturer's adhesive. in mm .2] of this paragraph. 3. Ch 4.4] of Pt. The shear stress for the jointing adhesive for plating can be calculated with the following formula: Qp 2 τ p = ------. For guidance.3] and [5.5 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 187 .

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MACHINERY SPACE OF TIMBER RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 189 . LINING. WORKING AND PROTECTION BUILDING METHODS FOR PLANKING STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF SAILING YACHTS WITH OR WITHOUT AUXILIARY ENGINE STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF MOTOR YACHTS WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS.Part B Hull Chapter 5 WOOD HULLS SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 MATERIALS FASTENINGS.

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In any case.2 by the builder to the RINA Surveyor. in kg/m3. will verify the circumstances by performing appropriate checks.1 Suitable timber species the same species in the same ambient conditions.2 Marine plywood and lamellar structures 2. The grain is to be straight (the maximum admissible inclination in relation to the longitudinal axis of the piece is equal to a ratio of 1:10).1 The suitable timber species and criteria for the use of alternative species are listed in Table 1.1 Timber quality Planking 2.1 The timber is to be well-seasoned. this factor contributes in enabling the marine plywood to have a lower moisture content than that of solid timber of S1 S : : corrected section (or linear dimension) Rule section (or linear dimension). Note 1: Timber with the above characteristics corresponds roughly to Class 1 of UNI 8198 (Conifer planking . the thickness of the individual layers constituting the plywood or the lamellar structure is to be reduced in direct proportion to the durability of the species used.4 Mechanical characteristics and structural scantlings 2. who. free from sapwood and any noxious organisms (moulds.1 The species of timber suitable for construction are listed in Table 1 together with the following details: • commercial and scientific denomination.1. Therefore. Sec 1 SECTION 1 MATERIALS 1 1. The scantlings given in this Section are to be modified as a function of the density of the timber employed and its moisture content.1 The quality of timber. The use of timber species other than those stated in Table 1 may be accepted provided that the characteristics of the species proposed are as similar as possible to those of one of the species listed. obtained in accordance with this Chapter RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 191 .1 and 2.1. assuming the same species of timber. at a moisture content not exceeding 20%: • bent frames: δ = 720 • non-bent frames keel and stem: δ = 640 • shell and deck planking. Moreover.4. the durability of marine plywood is greater than that of solid timber. Such certification is to refer to the checks carried out during building survey in the yard. 2. the elevated temperatures reached during drying and pressing rule out the possibility of survival of insects and larvae in the finished panels.Classification on the basis of mechanical resistance).) which might impair its durability and structural efficiency. larvae. stringers and beams: δ = 560. in accordance with the relationship: S1 = S ⁄ K δe K = ---. 1. 2. Such checks are not required for Quality Assurance material certified by RINA in pursuance of the relevant regulations. The minimum number of plywood layers used in the construction is 3 for thicknesses not greater than 6 mm and 5 for greater thicknesses. etc. The marine plywood adopted for hull construction and structural parts in general is to be type tested by RINA in accordance with the relevant regulations. Ch 5. insects. rendering it less prone to attacks of mould.3 Certification and checks of timber quality 2 2. shelves and clamps.+ ( U – U e ) ⋅ 0. The durability classes are relative to the solid timber's resistance to moulds. The moisture content at the time of use is to be not greater than 20% (according to the method UNI 8939 Planking Check of batch moisture content). bacteria. relative to the following characteristics: a) for solid timber: mass density and moisture content. 2.Pt B.3. The same species are suitable for the fabrication of marine plywood and lamellar structures in accordance with the provisions of Article 2 below. measured on the section of the knot. the maximum recommended thicknesses are listed in Table 1. plywood and lamellar structures is to be certified as complying with the provisions of 2. For marine plywood. Knots may be tolerated when they are intergrown. • average physical-mechanical characteristics at 12% moisture content. 02 δ 2. b) for plywood and lamellar structures: glueing test. provided that their diameter is less than 1/5 of the dimension parallel to such diameter. • natural durability and ease of impregnation.2.1 The structural scantlings indicated in this Chapter apply to timber with the following density δ. in the event of doubts or objections. The suitability for use in the various hull structures is given in Table 2.

Ch 5. source: Wood Handbook: wood as an engineering material .0 10.7 11.7 15.0 12.6 7.Ultimate compression strength Rc (parallel to the grain) . 15% for plywood or lamellar structures).5 mm) D = not durable (maximum permissible thickness for the fabrication of marine plywood 2 mm) Ease of treatment for impregnation 1 = permeable 2 = not very resistant 3 = resistant 4 = very resistant Note (1) (2) (3) (4) Area of natural growth Unified botanical name (spp = different species) Level of natural durability and ease of treatment for impregnation according to Standard EN 350/2 Mechanical characteristics with 12% moisture content. Sec 1 δ δe U : : : density of the timber species (or plywood) used. standard moisture content percentage (20% for solid timber.8 7.4 Commercial name DOUSSIE IROKO KHAYA MAKORE’ MAHOGANY OKOUME’ ELM OAK SAPELE SIPO TECK WHITE OAK CHESTNUT CEDAR (Western Red) DOUGLAS FIR LARCH Origin (1) Africa Africa Botanical name (2) Afzelia spp Chlorophora excelsa Africa Khaya spp Africa Tieghemella spp America Swietenia spp Africa Aucoumea Kleineana Europe Ulmus spp Europe Quercus robur e Q.5 6.1987.0 13.Pt B.Bending modulus of elasticity Ef (strength concentrated amidships) . petraea Africa Entandrophragma cylindricum Africa Entandrophragma utile Tectona grandis Asia America Quercus spp Europe Castanea spp America Thuja plicata America Pseudotsuga menziesil Europe Larix decidua Abbreviations: Natural durability A = very durable B = durable (maximum permissible thickness for the fabrication of marine plywood 5 mm) C = not very durable (maximum permissible thickness for the fabrication of marine plywood 2.0 13.0 8.0 15. Reductions in scantlings exceeding those obtained using the formulae above may be accepted on the basis of the mechanical base characteristics of the timber.Ultimate flexural strength Rf (strength concentrated amidships) .Ultimate shear strength Rt (parallel to the grain). 192 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Ue Table 1 : Basic physical/mechanical characteristics of timbers for construction Mass density (kg/m3) 800 650 520 660 550 440 650 710 650 640 680 730 600 380 500 550 Natural durability (3) A A/B C A B D D B C B/C A B/C B B/C C/D C/D Ease of impregation (3) 4 4 4 4 4 3 2/3 4 3 3/4 4 4 4 3 3/4 3/4 Mechanical characteristics (4) Rf (N/mm2) 114 85 74 86 79 51 89 125 105 100 100 120 59 51 85 89 Ef (N/mm2) 16000 10000 9600 9300 10300 7800 10200 15600 12500 12000 10600 15000 8500 7600 13400 12800 Rc (N/mm2) 62 52 44 50 46 27 43 68 56 53 58 65 37 31 50 52 Rt (N/mm2) 14.0 11. USDA . standard density of the timber species of reference. : maximum expected moisture content balance for the part considered.8 9.4 6.0 12. plywood or lamellar structures actually employed. in service conditions.

dead-woods Stern Bilge stringer Beam shelves clamps water-ways Floors Frames grown or web frames Frames. hog. (2) The timber may be employed only in laminated form.Pt B. Ch 5. Suitability of timber for use: I = very suitable II = fairly suitable III = scarcely suitable RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 193 . Sec 1 Table 2 : Guide for selections of construction timbers SPECIES OF TIMBER MahorElm engMakore gany lish II II III III II II II II II II II II II II II STRUCTURAL ITEM Keel. bent frames Planking below waterline Planking above waterline Deck planking Beams. bottom girders Brackets vertical Brackets horizontal Gunwale margin planks Douglas Cedar(red) Iroko II Larch White oak II II II II II II (1) II (1) II II Oak II II II II II (1) II (1) II Sapeli III III III III Teak I I I I I I II (2) III III III II II III II II II II III II II III III I I I I II II II II II (2) II (2) II (1) II (1) I II II (1) II I II II Note (1) The timber concerned may be employed either in the natural or in the laminated form. stern-post.

In any event. the threading is to penetrate the support frame for a distance equal to the planking thickness. paint or other suitable products such as to prevent the penetration of moisture along the end-grain. as well as to the type of hull construction. grown or web frames. 3 3. all traces of grease are to be removed. or tightened by a nut. Ureaformaldehyde glues may only be used in well-ventilated parts of the hull not subject to humidity. RINA reserves the right to require a minimum number of mechanical connections.1 Timber working 2. Where connecting bolts go through shell planking or keel. In general.1 The use of suitable glues in place of mechanical connections will be the subject of special consideration by RINA. The lamellas are generally to be made using the same species of timber. any synthetic resins used as coating are to be applied to dry timber with the utmost care.1.Pt B. the protective zinc coating on their surfaces is to remain intact. The lamellas are to be arranged with their fibres parallel to the length of the element to be constructed.g. with lamellas as continuous as possible or with scarf joints and normally glued before bending.1. also on washers. on representative samples of the joints. Glues are to be used according to the Manufacturer's instructions on timber with moisture content not exceeding 15-18% or. they are to be hot galvanised in accordance with a recognised standard. lamellar structures. WORKING AND PROTECTION OF TIMBER 1 1. 12. after rivets.2 1.1 Inaccessible surfaces of internal hull structures are to be treated with a suitable wood preservative according to the Manufacturer's instructions and compatible with the glues. All cut edges of plywood are to be sealed with glue. Where screw fastenings are used for planking. In the absence of such standard. i.1. conducted with procedures stipulated on the basis of the type of glue. Through bolts are to be clinched on washers.1 Glues for timber fastenings are to be of resorcinic or phenolic type.1 Timber working is to be appropriate to the species and hardness of the timber. Nuts and washers are to be of the same material as that of the bolts.1 Protection 1. varnishes and paints employed.2. 2 2. durable and water-resistant in particular. The timber of the internal bottom of the hull is to be smeared with oil or varnish. for urea-type glues. in particular. 194 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . e. the type of connection and any previous documented applications. such replacement of fastening methods will be accepted subject to the satisfactory outcome of tests. screws and bolts have been hot galvanised and subsequently machine finished.e. Where rivets. The parts to be glued are to be carefully prepared and cleaned and.1 Fastenings 1. 3.5-15%. Ch 5. Lamellar structure is generally employed for bent structural parts. they are to have heads packed with cotton or other suitable material. Sec 2 SECTION 2 FASTENINGS. screws and bolts are not made of material recognised as suitable for resisting corrosion from the marine environment. board or plywood planking.

4 Laminated planking in several coldglued layers 1. The butts are to be suitably staggered from each other and from machinery foundations. The butts of garboards are to be arranged clear of those in the keel.7. and wooden straps are to have thickness equal to that of the planking. The following types of connection are to be adopted: Type I framing: all through fastenings.1 This consists of two layers: one internal of plywood. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the Manufacturer should be equipped with adequate facilities for this type of construction. the other external. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 195 . The number of layers is to be such as to obtain the required thickness.5. 1.1 Planks are to be arranged such that strake butts are at least 1. arranged such that the seams of the outer skin fall on the middle of the planks of the inner skin.3 Double longitudinal skin 1. all connections 1.1 This consists of an inner skin of thickness not exceeding 0. 1. The number and scantlings of bolts to be used for connection of planking to frames are given in Table 1. Butts may be strapped or scarfed. Ch 5. and are to be proportionate in number to the width a of panels. Type II framing with grown or laminated frames: through bolts in way of bilge stringers or side longitudinals. to be centred on the frames and to be connected by means of glueing and pivoting. where effected in loco.1. The outer skin is. in turn.1 Shell planking Simple skin 1. as follows: a < 100 mm 3 bolts at each end of plank 100 ≤ a < 100 mm 4 bolts at each end of plank 200 ≤ a < 250 mm 3 bolts at each end of plank. The connection of seams is to be achieved by means of glue and bolts.4 of the total thickness and an outer skin arranged longitudinally.1 Plywood planking consists of panels as large as practicable in relation to the shape of the hull. arranged as described in 1. to be backed by straps. The strap connection is to be effected using straps of the same plywood.5. 1.2 Double diagonal skin 1. at least 10 times as wide as the thickness. All fastenings for strengthened frames in way of masts are to be through fastenings. laminated or steel frames are concerned. glued and fastened. The inner skin is to have thickness not exceeding 0. Sec 3 SECTION 3 BUILDING METHODS FOR PLANKING 1 1. Scarfs are to have length not less than 8 times the thickness and.6.6 Double skin with inner plywood and outer longitudinal strakes 1.1 Butt-straps on shell planking (see Figure 1) are to be connected by means of through bolts of the scantlings given in Table 1 for the connection of planking to frames. the use of screws is permitted.1 The construction of cold moulded laminated planking is to be effected in loco at a constant temperature. Scarfs are to have length not less than 5 times the planking thickness. 1. A suitable elastic compound layer is to be arranged between the two skins. The planks forming the laminate are to be of width and thickness adequate for the shape of the hull. formed by planks in longitudinal strakes arranged as described in 1. - Type III framing: connections as above depending on whether bent. Type II framing with metal frames: formed by through bolts with nuts.4 of the total thickness and to be connected to the frames by means of screws or nails and to the outer skin by means of screws or through bolts. to be connected to the frames by means of through bolts. width so as to overlap adjacent strakes by at least 12 mm and length as necessary for the connection while leaving a space for water drainage between the strap edge and the frame.Pt B. 1.3. wood screws for other connections.20 metres apart from those of adjacent strakes and at least three continuous strakes separate two butts arranged on the same frame. the width is generally not to exceed 125 mm.4 of the total thickness. and the butts of the sheerstrake are to be arranged clear of those of the waterway. When frames other than laminated frames are employed.7 Fastenings and caulking 1.4. The plywood thickness is to be not less than 0.5 Plywood planking 1. the connection of butts is to be effected by means of scarfs or straps.1 This consists of an inner and outer skin. grown.3.2.

5 5.5 5 5 5.1 Wood planking is to be caulked or made watertight by the application of a suitable elastic compound. All joints are to be sealed watertight.5 7. 2.1.1.2.4. while the distribution of plank butts is to comply with the provisions of 2.5 7 7 8 8 8 8. Longitudinal joints are to be set onto longitudinal structures of sufficient width for the connection.5 5. Wooden dowels used to cover bolt holes are to be glued. each plank may be connected to thatadjacent by means of a glued. 2. 2.scantlings of fastenings SHELL PLANKING Grown frame: laminated.5 6 6 Wood screws diameter mm Bolts with nuts diameter mm DECK PLANKING NUMBER OF FASTENINGS PER PLANK Width a of plank mm Thickness of planking mm a < 100 100 ≤ a <150 150 ≤ a <180 180 ≤ a <250 205 ≤ a <225 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 4.5 4.3. Sec 3 When plywood planking is adopted. two plank butts on the same beam are to be separated by at least three strakes of continuous planking. When sheathing is applied.2 Plywood 1.2.5 Bent frames diameter copper nails mm 2. prior to the fitting of external ballast in the keel.5 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 12 12 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 196 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .5 6.5 5.8 Sheathing of planking 2. it is to be connected to frames by means of nails or screws spaced 75 mm apart and with diameters as given in Table 2. Butts are to be set onto a beam and may be simple or scarfed. where envisaged.5 6.4 Longitudinal planking 2 2.5 7.5 6.5 7.5 5 5.5 8. or steel frames diameter bolts with nuts mm 4. or otherwise fastened by means of screws with pitch not less than 75 mm and diameter in accordance with that shown in Table 1. Planks of shell planking.3 Plywood sheathed with laid deck 2.5 10 10 copper nails mm 4.5 5. 2. false keel and deadwood as far as practicable.5 6.5 9.5 3.5 5.5. each plank is to be fastened to beams by means of a wood screw or lateral nail.20 m apart.1.5 4.5 4. the moisture content of the timber is to be as low as possible. The butts are to be arranged clear of those of adjacent panels and are to be strapped or otherwise set onto a strong beam.1 When use is made of reinforced plastic or synthetic resin sheathing. the hull is to be prepared by carefully levelling every joint and filling every bolt hole with suitable compounds after adequate sinking of the bolts.5 3 3.5 5.5 7.1 When longitudinal planking is adopted. if not glued.5 6. are to have caulked seams and butts.1 Plywood panels are to be as long as possible.8. 2.Pt B.1.5 8.5 Caulking 2. 1.5 11 11 12. Ch 5. In addition.1 The butts of planks of two contiguous strakes are to be spaced at least 1.5 7 7 7 8 8 8 8.5 5. Table 1 : Connections of shell and deck planking .5 4.5 5 6. sunk-in strip.5 6. Plywood planking is to be glued and riveted to beams.1 The butts of plywood panels are to be in accordance with the specifications given in 2.5 6.5 3.1 Deck planking Planking 2.5 12.5 9.5 9.5 6.5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 12 12 14 14 wood screws mm 5 5 5 5 5. The protective sheathing is to cover keel.5 6.5 4.

5 5.5 6. shelves. stringers. on keel. Ch 5.5 6.5 6.5 6 6.5 5 5 5.5 4. or carlings mm 25 28 32 35 35 45 45 50 50 60 60 Width of butt-straps mm Wood screws mm 4.5 4.5 5 5 5 5.5 5. Sec 3 Table 2 : Connections of shell and deck planking in plywood OVERLAP OF SEAMS Thickness of plywood DIAMETER OF FASTENINGS shell and deck planking.5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 single fastening 150 175 200 225 250 280 350 350 350 380 380 single fastening double fastenings double fastenings RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 197 .5 6.5 7 7 Copper nails mm 3.5 3.Pt B.

Sec 3 Figure 1 : Butt-straps on shell planking 1 .Frame 2 .Pt B. Ch 5.Butt .Shell planking 3 .strap 198 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .

Sec 3 Figure 2 : Usual types of scarf-joints 1 .Hooked scarf 3 .Plan scarf 2 .Tabled scarf 4 .Tabled hooked scarf 5 . Ch 5.Double wedges RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 199 .Pt B.

if glued. and fitted with fixed ballast or drop keel.1. Ch 5. The lower portion of the sternpost is to be tenoned or otherwise attached to the keel. it is to be arranged aft of the forward end of the ballast keel. while the width may be gradually tapered at the ends so as to be faired to the stem and the sternpost. keel and post by means of through bolts. The breadth of the rabbet on the keel for the first plating strake is to be at least twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm. such area may be reduced at the upper end by 25%. Sternpost Length L m 24 26 28 30 Keel Width mm 435 455 470 480 Stempost Depth mm 240 255 270 290 Sternpost at head Depth mm 190 200 215 230 at heel Width mm 240 255 270 290 Depth mm 240 255 270 290 Width mm 190 200 215 230 Depth mm 190 200 215 230 Depth mm 190 200 215 230 200 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 Bent frames consist of steam warped listels. Stempost scantlings are given in Table 1. The wooden keel is to be made of a minimum number of pieces.1 General arranged extending well forward and aft of the mast step and effectively connected to the keel.1 The scantlings of wooden keels are given in Table 1. 2 2.1.1 The scantlings in this Section apply to hulls of length L not exceeding 30 metres with round bottom of shape similar to that shown in Figures 1 and 2. The connection is completed by a stern deadwood and a large bracket fastening together false keel. the width is to be increased.Pt B.1 Frames Types of frames Bent frames 4. running continuous above the keel. effective longitudinal stiffeners are to be 4 4. the frames are to be in one piece from keel to gunwale and. Yachts of length L exceeding 30 metres or hull shapes other than the above will be considered in each case on the basis of equivalence criteria. The counter stern is to be effectively connected to the sternpost.1 Keel 2. scarf joints may be permitted with scarf 6 times as long as the thickness and tip 1/4 to 1/7 of the thickness of the hooked or tabled type. It is recommended that scarfs should not be arranged near mast steps or ends of engine foundation girders. if bolted.1 Stempost and sternpost 3. The sternframe is shown in Figure 3 and sternpost scantlings are given in Table 1. Where this is not practicable. Where the mast is stepped on the keel. or of the plain type. Bolted scarfs are to be made watertight by means of softwood stopwaters. where practicable.1. Table 1 : Keel. 3 3. The keel thickness is to be maintained throughout the length. Where the keel is cut for the passage of a drop keel. Sec 4 SECTION 4 STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF SAILING YACHTS WITH OR WITHOUT AUXILIARY ENGINE 1 1. The cross-sectional area of the counter stern at the connection with the sternpost is to be not less than that of the latter.1 The stempost is to be adequately scarfed to the keel and increased in width at the heel as necessary so as to fit the keel fairing. such connection is to be effected by scarfs with through bolts.1. Stempost. 1. where practicable. from gunwale to gunwale. Their width and thickness are to be uniform over the whole length.

grown or laminated frames.3 Laminated frames Laminated frames consist of glued wooden layers.1. Otherwise. and are arranged on the internal profile of the frames.2. a sufficiently strong bulkhead is provided. the thickness is to be increased by 10%. • Type I framing Three grown frames are to be fitted. The length of scarfs is to be not less than 6 times the width. the section modulus of the frame is to be modified proportionally. in way of the mast. Where. are to be maintained for 0. • Metal floors are employed in association with either bent. for the connection to the wooden keel (see the above Table). as Type III1. or butted and strapped. a1 and b2 the actual values for the assumed spacing s1. • metal frames: 10% in thickness. laminated or steel angle type. • Type II framing Three grown frames are to be fitted. The internal edge is to be provided with a reverse angle or a flange. of the bent type. Such frames are to be alternated with ordinary grown frames. Ch 5.Pt B. the latter are to be increased in scantlings. and arranged with one or two intermediate bent frames. • Wooden floors. grown or laminated frames. a being the width and b the height of the Rule section for the spacing s. • Type III framing Three grown frames with a cross-section increased by 50% in respect of that required for the heel in the above-mentioned Table. outside such zone. duly modified where necessary for the specific gravity of the timber and for the frame spacing. otherwise it is to be carried out in loco or be prefabricated by means of suitable strong moulds. Type III2. with one or two intermediate bent frames. and may be arranged as shown in Table 1. such increased frames may be reduced in number to two. in the latter case. while their depth is to be gradually tapered from heel to head.2 for the heel. The glueing may take place before forming where the latter is slight. Where no floors are arranged. Frames are to be properly shaped so as to fit the planking perfectly. Type III : frames of scantlings as required for Type II. and they are to be glued. are to be arranged at Rule spacing. Frames adjacent to masts are to be strengthened on each side as follows. with scantlings as required for Type II framing. but alternated with one. may only be employed in association with grown frames and are to be flanked by them. 5. an angle lug is to be fitted in way of the throat. • for grown frames: 20% in width throughout the length of the frame. except where increased width is required for local strengthening in way of masts. The Table scantlings. When a frame spacing other than that specified in the Table is adopted. When they are arranged with a flange inside. Type III3. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 201 .1 Floors may be made of wood or metal (steel or aluminium alloy). respectively. the frames are to be wedged into and fastened at the heels of the centreline structural member of the hull. their depth is in any case to be assumed as not less than 2/3 of the width. or equivalent arrangements are to be provided. but with constant depth equal to that indicated in Table 3.1. with a cross-section increased by 50% in respect of that required for the heel in the above-mentioned Table and constant depth. Sec 4 4.1. three are to be stiffened by reverse frames with scantlings as required for the frames of plate floors.6 of the hull length amidships. Type II : all equal frames.1 The admissible framing systems and the frame scantlings are indicated in Tables 2 and 3: Type I : all equal frames. When internal ballast supported by the frames is arranged. Frames may have a reduction in strength of 25% where cold laminated planking is adopted in loco. six consecutive bent frames with a cross-section increased by 60% in respect of that shown in the above-mentioned Table may be fitted.1 Floors General The width of frames is to be not less than that necessary for the fastening. two or three bent frames. 4. Their width is to be uniform.2 Framing systems and scantlings 4. For wooden rectangular sections. and 20% in depth of the head.4 Metal frames Steel frames consist of angles properly curved and bevelled such that the flange to planking is closely fayed to the same planking. These types are hereafter referred to. 4. of grown. it follows that: 2 2 s a 1 b 1 = a ⋅ b --s 1 5 5. they are to be stiffened by reverse frames of scantlings as prescribed for the reverse frames of plate floors. and constant depth. in accordance with the provisions of 8. Such frames are to be arranged instead of alternate bent frames. • Angle floors may be employed with either bent. the following reductions may be applied: • for bent or laminated frames: 10% in width. as a rule.2 Grown frames Grown frames consist of naturally curved timbers connected by means of scarfs. If alternate frames are adopted. If steel frames are adopted. • Plate floors may be employed in association with either grown or angle frames (see the above-mentioned Table).1. 4.

The frame spacing is intended as that measured amidships of the frames widths.5 width mm 57 62 67 72 77 82 - depth mm 40 43 46 49 52 55 - width mm 61 68 75 81 87 94 100 depth mm at heel 74 83 91 100 112 124 140 at head 53 58 68 80 92 100 117 depth mm 52 59 66 74 84 94 102 Scantlings mm (2) 50x50x5 60x30x6 65x50x7 75x50x6 80x60x7 90x60x7 90x60x8 3.15 D is taken in lieu of D1. Sec 4 5. (1) 202 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .3 Scantlings and fastenings 5. and the 5. or steel frames only Grown frames spacing mm 305 322 340 355 375 390 408 Depth D1 mm (1) Laminated frames width mm 81 93 103 117 122 131 143 Steel frames Section modulus cm3 3. and their height at the ends is to be not less than half the height of the throat. a floor is to be fitted in way of every grown.1 Where Type I framing with bent frames is adopted (see Tables 2 and 3). and outside such area over an extent corresponding to the length on the waterline.6 L amidships.60 3. • on every second frame inside 0.60 metres. the value 1.40 3.9 10.2 Arrangement of floors depth D exceeds 2. For yachts with a drop keel.25. laminated or angle frame.20 Bent frames length mm 43 45 48 50 53 56 - 2 bent frames mm 620 650 690 725 765 800 - 3 bent frames mm 695 730 770 800 840 870 - depth mm 33 35 39 43 47 51 - For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel. if necessary. Where three intermediate bent frames are arranged.Pt B.40 metres.20 For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel.3. For yachts with a drop keel. floors are to be fitted on bent frames located inside 0. (1) Table 3 : Frames TYPE III Main frames (grown or laminated) alternated with bent frames Spacing between main frames and intermediate frames 1 bent frame mm 515 560 590 620 650 680 - Depth D1 mm (1) 3.75 metres and on every frame in hulls of greater depth.4 6 7.80 4. Where the ballast keel bolts cross wooden floors. the value 1.2 12.1 4.5 14. Table 2 : Frames (1/1/2009) TYPE I Bent frames only spacing mm 215 225 235 245 255 265 - TYPE II Grown frames. the width of the latter at the throat is to be locally increased. a floor is to be fitted on the central frame.6 L amidships.00 4.00 3.15 D is taken in lieu of D1.40 3.60 metres. Solution I is only applicable where D1 does not exceed 3. Wooden floors are to be made of suitably grained or laminated timber.00 4. so as to be not less than three and a half times the diameter of the bolt.25.20 3. or laminated frames. (2) The scantlings of bars are given for guidance purposes.20 3.75 D1 may be assumed in place of D1 where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0.2. The frame spacing is intended as that measured amidships of the frames widths.60 3.6 L amidships as follows: • on every second frame if the hull depth does not exceed 2.1 The scantlings of floors are given in Tables 4 and 5. floors are to be fitted inside 0. 0. Where one or two intermediate bent frames are arranged. Solution I is only applicable where D1 does not exceed 3.75 D1 may be assumed in place of D1 where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0. Ch 5. • on every third frame elsewhere.00 3. 5. At the hull ends. the length of arms need not exceed one third of the frame span. Where Type III framing is adopted.80 4. 0.

alternatively.25.6 L amidships is to be not less than that indicated in Table 6. the frames are to be attached to the centre structure by means of three through-bolts.60 3.5 1.00 10.75 D1. may be assumed in place of 0. The scantlings of angle floors are given for guidance purposes.4 1.00 4.75 D1 may be assumed in place of D1. stiffeners are to be fitted to prevent excessive discontinuity due to the interruption of the deck.20 3. bolting of the shelf is to be effected on a reverse lug. reverse lugs are to be fitted in order to allow connection to the beam shelf. Sec 4 Table 4 : Frames FLOORS ON BENT FRAMES Depth D1 mm (1) Length of arms mm 430 465 495 530 - forged at throat mm 29x15 31x16 33x17 35x17 - steel angle floors (2) section modulus cm3 1.0 scantlings mm 45x45x5 50x50x6 55x55x8 60x60x8 60x60x8 65x65x9 70x70x9 3. the value 1. Table 5 : Frames FLOORS ON GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES Depth D1 mm (1) Length of arms forged floors at throat mm 56x22 60x24 64x26 69x28 73x30 77x31 80x31 wooden floors width mm 51 56 60 64 70 75 80 steel angle floors (2) for 3/5 L amidships mm 580 610 650 680 720 750 780 outside 3/5 L amidships mm 430 460 500 530 560 590 620 at the ends mm 50x12 52x13 54x14 56x16 58x17 61x18 63x20 depth mm 135 148 160 170 180 190 200 section modulus cm3 2.40 3.20 (1) (2) For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel. When Type III framing is adopted.80 4. a value equal to 75% of that shown.00 4. If metal frames are adopted.40 3.25 circa. waterway and bracket joints. 0. floors need not be fitted. Lugs for the connection of angle or plate floors to the wooden keel.70 6. Where beam shelves are made of two or more pieces.15 D is taken in lieu of D1. The scantlings of frames may be required to be increased. where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0. are to have a flange width at least three times the diameter of the bolt and thickness equal to that of the plate floor plus 2.40 3. the shelf is to extend to the hull end or.60 5. beam clamps in way of masts. the shelf is to rest on the bent frames with interposition of suitable chocks.1 Beam shelves. Ch 5. at the end.1 The cross-sectional area of beam shelves through 0. for diameters of bolts. At the end of the hull. when frames are continuous through the centre structure. The cross-section to be considered is to be inclusive of the dappings for fixing of beams. When the weather deck is not continuous owing to the presence of raised decks. see Table 10. Floors are to be connected to frames by at least three bolts for arms with length l < 250 mm and at least 6 bolts for greater l.1.4 1.90 6. however. The scantlings of angle floors are given for guidance purposes. The shelves are to be connected to each frame by a through bolt for heights < 180 mm and by two through bolts for greater heights. 0. if penetrated by the ballast keel bolts.00 3.Pt B.00 3. For bolt scantlings. where the ballast/light displacement ratio is less than approximately 0. the connection is to be effected by means of glued scarfs adequately arranged so as to be staggered in respect of the sheerstrake. Where angle frames are employed. 6 6.20 3. bilge stringers Beam shelves 6. see Table 10. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 203 .15 D is taken in lieu of D1.5 - Plate floors on grown or steel floors for 2/3 L amidships mm 300x5 320x5 330x5 340x6 345x6 350x6 360x6 at the ends mm 24x6 25x6 27x6 28x6 - scantlings mm 40x40x4 40x40x4 40x40x4 40x40x4 - outside 2/3 L amidships mm 200x4 220x4 230x4 240x4 245x4 250x4 260x4 3.5 mm.60 3. Scarfs are generally arranged vertically. the cross-section may be gradually decreased to reach. For yachts with a drop keel. Outside such zone. For yachts with a drop keel.90 9. the value 1. whenever practicable.80 4.25.20 (1) (2) For hulls fitted with external ballast in the keel.

50 7. Where the spacing adopted is other than that shown in the Table.50 5. alternatively. such breasthooks are to be given adequate attention. and s1 the assumed spacing. 6. a value equal to 75% of that required. the scantlings.00 3.2. 6. Such scarfs are to be properly staggered in the port and starboard stringers and arranged clear of the joints of other longitudinal elements.4 End breasthooks 6.2 Beam clamps in way of masts 6.1 The beam shelves and the stringers are to be connected to each other at the hull ends. at the ends.50 6. Such clamp. In hulls with exceptionally raked ends. 7.50 4.1 In hulls with Type I or Type III framing. The greater dimension of the stringer is to be arranged against the frames.3. chocks are to be fitted for the connection between stringer and intermediate bent frames. When Type III framing is adopted. Strong beams are to be fitted in way of openings which cause more than two beams to be cut and in way of masts.50 350 390 430 480 520 560 600 640 680 720 204 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .1 In way of masts. it may be arranged below the shelf.1 Beams Scantlings of beams 6.1. Where angle frames are adopted. two side stringers having crosssection equal to 60% of that required for the bilge stringer may be fitted.3 Bilge stringers 7 7. a1 and b2 are the width and height of the modified section.00 5. these are to be connected to the stringer by means of a reverse lug.00 4. with cross-section equal to approximately 75% of that required for shelves. mm 61 72 78 85 93 98 107 116 128 140 Depth at midbeam mm 72 80 90 99 106 114 121 129 132 146 at beam ends mm 50 57 63 69 75 80 86 92 96 105 at midbeam mm 54 61 67 74 80 87 95 103 113 125 at beam ends mm 43 48 53 57 62 65 69 71 74 76 at mid-beam mm 81 91 101 111 120 128 136 144 156 168 at beam ends mm 61 72 78 85 93 98 107 116 128 140 3.1 The scantlings of beams are given in Table 7. HALF BEAMS Depth Width mm 39 47 48 52 57 59 62 64 67 69 STRONG BEAMS Depth Width. when deemed necessary by RINA. a beam clamp is to be arranged. Outside such zone. of length approximately equal to the hull breadth in the same position.00 7. following correction as necessary for the weight of the timber employed. In lieu of a bilge stringer.6 L amidships not less than that given in Table 6. Ch 5. having cross-section for 0.Pt B. the cross-section may be decreased to reach. Table 6 : Beam shelves and bilge stringers Length L (m) 24 26 28 30 Cross-sectional area of beam shelves cm2 190 220 250 280 Cross-sectional area of bilge stringers cm2 140 160 175 190 Table 7 : Beams ORDINARY BEAMS FOR 3/5 L AMIDSHIPS Length of beam m Spacing mm Widt h mm 45 51 57 62 68 72 78 83 86 95 ORDINARY BEAMS OUTSIDE 3/5 L AMIDSHIPS.4. s is the Rule spacing. Sec 4 6. Laminated beams may be reduced in width by 15%. When the stringer is built of two or more pieces. these are to be connected by means of glued scarfs parallel to the planking. a bilge stringer is to be arranged.00 6. may be arranged so that its wider side is faying to the beams and leaning against the shelf or. are to be modified in accordance with the following relationship: 2 2 s a 1 b 1 = a ⋅ b --s 1 where a and b are the width and height of the Rule crosssection. by means of suitable breasthooks or brackets. and with the centreline structure.

vertical knees are to be arranged no smaller in scantlings than prescribed in Table 8 as a function of the beam span.1 Beams are to be dovetailed on the shelf.4 h for laminated wooden knees.00 7. Sheathing of the hull is not required.30 11.00 PLATE KNEES thickness mm 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 (1) (2) The number of knees is given on the basis of the maximum breadth B of the hull. in place of the dovetail a simple dapping may be adopted. and in number equal to half of those required for the weather deck. when the frames are reduced in scantlings by 25% in respect of the value given in Table 2.00 3.00 6.00 4. bollards and cleats.00 4. the scantlings of forged plate knees are given.6 h for naturally curved wooden knees and not less than. and for the weight of the timber.90 7. If the frame spacing is other than that indicated in Table 2.00 5. All openings on deck are to be properly framed so as to constitute an effective support for half beams.1 The beams and decks are to be locally strengthened at the attachments of halliards. having depth not less than 1/4 of the beam depth. measured from the upper side of the wooden keel to the weather deck beam at side. Bulkheads of adequate scantlings. para. 7.4. 7.2 End attachments of beams 7. 8 8. to strong beams and to suitably distributed ordinary beams.50 9. with a diameter as shown in Table 10. 7. by 10% if laminated and cold moulded in loco. exceeds 4. connected to the beam and frame.50 7. where necessary. Vertical knees are to be fitted. Ch 5.Pt B. which need not go through the planking.00 19.50 4. the length of knee arms may be not more than one third of the span of the beam or frame. as far as practicable. in this case.1 In hulls with depth. using the column for the length of beam. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 205 . When the depth. Such thickness is to be modified as follows. four strong beams are to be fitted.3 Local strengthening 7. it will be considered by RINA on a case-by-case basis (see Sec 6. Horizontal knees are to be fitted in way of hatch-end beams and beams adjacent to mast wedgings. Each arm of the knees is to be connected to the shelf and the frame by means of 4 bolts.3. . 1. h being the depth at heel of a grown frame. at skylight ends. The scantlings of angles are only given as indications. to the extent required in Table 8. and in way of foundations of winches.8).6 mm for every 100 mm of difference if Type I framing is adopted.2. by: . At the ends of the hull. In way of mast weldings.4 mm for every 100 mm of difference if Type II or III framing is adopted. > 3 metres. but constant section equal to that indicated for amidships. in copper or reinforced plastics. measured as specified above. where envisaged. a lower deck or cabin deck is to be arranged and fitted with beams having scantlings not less than 60% of those of the weather deck.00 16. These knees need not be arranged when plywood deck planking is adopted. or may be reduced where there is smaller spacing. When plywood deck planking is employed. the thickness may be reduced in relation to the type of framing adopted. 1. After correction for spacing as indicated above.50 5. the thickness may be decreased by 25% where the frames have not been reduced in respect of the requirements of the Table. Sec 4 Table 8 : Vertical knees of beams Length of beams m 3.50 Number (1) of knees on each side 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 LENGTH OF ARMS for 3/5 L amidships mm 400 440 490 530 570 610 650 700 740 780 FORGED KNEES at throat mm 34x17 41x20 48x23 53x26 57x28 62x30 67x32 72x34 78x35 81x37 STEEL ANGLE KNEES scantlings (2) mm 40x40x5 50x50x5 55x55x5 60x60x6 75x50x6 75x50x7 90x60x7 90x60x8 100x65x7 100x65x8 outside 3/5 L amidships mm 320 350 390 420 450 490 520 560 590 620 at the ends mm 30x7 37x7 42x8 46x9 49x10 52x11 54x12 55x14 57x16 58x17 section modulus cm3 1. the maximum reduction permitted is 25%.4 Lower deck and associated beams 7. the planking thickness may be reduced: by 10% if arranged in diagonal or longitudinal double skin. the thickness is to be increased where there is greater spacing. When plywood is employed.3 metres. the depth at the throat is to be not less than 1.2.g. in proximity of the web frames dealt with in 4.1 The basic thickness of shell planking is given in Table 9. the beam is to be fastened to the shelf by means of a screw or pin.50 14. In the above-mentioned Table.1 Planking Shell planking 8.70 3. can be considered as substitutes for knees.1. with scantlings as prescribed in Table 7. e. The beams are to be arranged.50 6.30 5.

are to be well secured on suitable basements and isolated by means of coatings of appropriate materials.6 3. Table 9 : Planking .2 Deck planking 8. the thickness is to be modified by 3 mm for every 100 mm of variation in spacing. the specific mass of the plywood/planking assembly is to be not less than 430 kg/m3.2. the seams are to be made watertight by the application of a suitable elastic compound approved by RINA.5 47. Guardrail stanchions are to be fastened by at least two pins. the timber is to be protected by suitable preservative solutions or paints. the thickness may be reduced by 30%.2 FASTENINGS OF LONGITUDINAL STRUCTURES Diameter of bolts Length of yacht L m Centreline structures of yachts mm Scarfs and breasthook arms mm 14 14 16 18 Beamshelves and beam knees mm 11 11 12 14 24 26 28 30 20 20 22 22 206 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .4 3.5 mm may be applied to the deck thickness when the deck is sheathed with nylon. • plywood.2 3.8 3 3. or laminated. and the combined thickness may be reduced by 30%. A further reduction of 1. windlasses. in particular winches. Sec 4 8. reinforced plastics or other approved coverings.Pt B.8 4 4. or steel frames mm 12 12 14 14 16 18 20 20 20 22 in the arms Bent frames mm 8 9 10 12 12 14 14 - Grown. the plywood thickness is to be not less than 30% of the combined thickness.basic thickness Length L m 24 26 28 30 Shell and deck planking mm 45. Ch 5. when the planking thickness is less than 19 mm.4 2. one of which is to be a through pin. In addition. or laminated. The fixed fittings on deck. or less than 6. ballards and fairleads.1 Deck planking may be: • constituted by planks parallel to the gunwale limited by a stringer board at side and by a kingplank at the centreline.5 50 52 Deck planking in deckhouses and coachroofs mm 26 27 28 29 Coamings of coachroofs mm 36 36 36 36 Table 10 : Floor fastenings Diameter of bolts Depth of yacht D m at throat Grown.6 2. The thickness of the deck is given in Table 9 and is subject to the following modifications: • if the beam spacing is other than that indicated in Table 7. • if plywood is employed. Before applying such insulating materials to the basements. • if plywood is adopted in association with planking. or steel frames mm 8 9 10 12 12 14 14 14 16 16 Bent frames mm 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 - ≤2.5 mm. • plywood with associated planks as above.

2 for the weather deck.1 Each yacht is to be provided with masts. the opening on deck is to be well framed and the coaming on the weather deck is to be not less in thickness than that required in Table 9.5 29.2 21. deckhouses are to be adequately stiffened to the satisfaction of RINA.97 83. The scantlings of masts and rigging are left to the experience of builders and shipowners.60 29.63 7.1 When coachroofs are adopted.Skylights 8. Depending on their size. Table 11 Breaking load kN Diameter (mm) Metallic cross-section (mm2) 5. and is to be extended so as not to be connected to the transverse and longitudinal framing of the bottom of the hull.73 21. When deckhouses are adopted.37 9.7 86. For shrouds and stays in wire and not in rod. The coachroof deck is to have sheathing as prescribed in Table 9.90 41. If the mast rests on a coachroof.60 54. 2 8. Sec 4 8. 2) are included below for information purposes.39 117. 1).22 52.55 14. they are to have a coaming fastened to the beams and carlings by means of through bolts. though such sheathing may be reduced in thickness in accordance with the specifications in 8.73 122.43 40. shrouds and stays to the hull are such as to withstand at least twice the load expected on such rigging.3.0 Col. Care will be taken by the RINA Surveyor.10 30. The structure of deckhouses is to be similar to that required for coachroofs.2 59. and in stainless steel AISI 316 18/10 (ASTM-A 368-55) 1x19 wires. the hull is to be strengthened in way by means of a bulkhead or a stiffened frame. in spiral shape.36 13. The mast step is to be of strong construction. 1x19 wires (col. in verifying that the attachments of 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 7. If the beam spacing is other than that indicated in Table 5. 1 Col.3 Superstructures . the underlying structure is to be strengthened in way such as to avoid giving way. rigging and sails sufficient in number and in good condition.75 13. Ch 5. The wedging on deck is to be provided with watertight means.4 Masts and rigging 8. the thickness is to be modified by 3 mm for every 100 mm of difference in spacing.72 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 207 . in spiral shape (col.2 38. however. Deck openings for skylights are to be well framed and provided with shutters of adequate thickness.73 20. When the mast rests on deck.94 65. the breaking loads of wires in galvanised steel 160 UNI 4434.Pt B.4.

Beams 2 .Stempost RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 6 .Upper stern 15 .Sternpost .208 Pt B.Shelves 18 .Mizzen step 7 .Rabbet 5 .Rudder 9 . Ch 5.Mainmast step 12 .Stringers 17 .Knee 13 .Propeller aperture 10 .Wood keel 8 .Stern counter 14 .Constructional profile 3 .Frames 16 .External ballast Figure 1 : Sailing yachts .Floors 11 . Sec 4 1 .Hog 4 .

Top "Coachroof" RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 209 .Half beams 13 . Sec 4 Figure 2 : Midship section 1 .Ballast 3 .Wood keel 2 .Shelf "Coachroof" 22 .Seam 16 .Sheerstrake 10 .Carling 18 .Beam clamp 12 .Beam "Coachroof" 21 .Side planking "Coachroof" 20 .Coaming "Coachroof" 19 .Planking inner skin 8 .Stringers 6 . Ch 5.Pt B.Waterway 15 .Floor 5 .Frame 4 .Shelf 11 .Deck planking 14 .Stay seam 17 .Bottom simple planking 7 .Planking outer skin 9 .

Stern counter 10 .Knee .Heel piecedl 7 . Ch 5.External ballast 3 .Propeller aperture 9 . Sec 4 1 .Hog Pt B.Rabbet 4 .Sternpost RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 5 .210 Figure 3 : Sternframe 6 .Rudder 8 .Wood keel 2 .

Sec 4 Figure 4 : Typical floors L = length of arms ANGLE FLOOR WOOD FLOOR h = height of floor ANGLE FLOOR PLATE FLOOR RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 211 .Pt B. Ch 5.

comprising those between the keel and the chine stringers.1 Keel . beams. the sternpost is replaced by a transom. The keel scarfs are to be spaced not less than 1. are to have a cross-section with a height equal to that of the side frames and width increased by 50%. one port and one starboard of the keel. moreover. Ch 5. A keel cross-section reduced such as to be not less than 0. Table 1 : Keel and stempost KEEL Length L m 1 24 26 28 30 STEMPOST Cross-section at heel cm2 5 413 462 516 570 Minimum breadth mm 2 230 245 260 280 Cross-section of keel or keel and hog (1) cm2 3 413 462 516 570 Width at heel and at head mm 4 230 245 260 280 Cross-section at head cm2 6 289 324 361 399 (1) Where there is no hog frame. 3 may be accepted provided that the difference is compensated by an increased cross-section of girders.1. The thickness of transom planking is to be equal to that given in Table 2 (col.Pt B. 212 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . comprising those between the chine stringers and the waterways. The beams are connected to the side frames by means of double plywood brackets. a reduction in keel area of 10% in respect of that prescribed may be permitted. side frames. For yacht which differ substantially from the above as regards dimensions and/or speed. side frames or beams.1. or yachts with round keels. The side frames are in one piece connected to the bottom frames by means of double plywood brackets.1 In chine hulls.1.1 The scantlings in this Section apply to yachts of length L ≤ 35 metres with a chine hull of the type shown in Figures 1 and 2 and speed not exceeding 40 knots.1 General 1. are butted in way of the centreline and connected by means of a double plywood floor. 3 3. Where they are made from a number of pieces. The scarfs are to be 6 times the thickness and of hooked or tabled type. while they may be reduced by 30% at the stern end.stempost 4 4. generally made of two pieces.5 metres apart from those of the hog frame. with any modifications required in accordance with those specified for shell planking. the length may be reduced to not less than 4 times the thickness where the scarf is bolted and glued. 2). The bottom frames.1 The minimum breadth of the keel and the aggregate cross-sectional area of keel and hog frame are given in Table 1. the scantlings are determined by equivalence criteria.1.85 of that given in col. 4. 2 2.1 The ordinary framing of the hull is divided into three parts: bottom frames.1 Transom 3. the structure's vertical stiffeners. The transom structure consists of a frame having profile parts with a cross-section not less than 120% of bottom frames.1 Floors and frames General 2. Such scantlings are to be maintained up to the stem end. Sec 5 SECTION 5 STRUCTURAL SCANTLINGS OF MOTOR YACHTS 1 1. if glued. or of plain type. if bolted. the keel and hog frame are to be scarfed. Stempost scantlings are given in Table 1 and a typical sternframe is shown in Figure 3. The stiffeners above are generally to be spaced not more than 600 mm apart. arranged in way of keel and bottom girders.

3. 4. lap the frames by a distance not less than 2. associated with bent longitudinals.5 Deck of superstructures (quarterdeck. Ch 5. where three different types of frames are considered: Type I : solid or laminated frames. see Figure 4. preferably dovetailing the beam on the shelf (with glueing and pivoting).5 30 32 33. coachroofs.3 Floors 4. Only the former are connected by means of floors and brackets. deckhouses.1 The floors connecting bottom frames (see 4. and that no superstructure is arranged on the weather deck.4. and provided that transverse bulkheads are arranged. extend at the yacht's centreline to a height not less than twice that prescribed for the heel of such frames and over- Table 2 : Shell and deck planking Lenght L m 1 24 26 28 30 SHELL PLANKING Type I and II framing mm 2 32 34 36 37. Sec 5 4.2. with plywood planking. In lieu of the brackets above. this type of framing is to be associated with double-skin cross planking or cold moulded laminated multi-layer planking or. but overlapping both frames and beams by a distance not less than twice their respective depths (see Figures 5 and 6). 4 and 5.4 Frame and beam brackets 4. trunks) mm 5 21 21 21 21 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 213 . Type II : solid or laminated frames.5 times their depth so as to constitute an effective connection by means of glue and clenched bolts. The space between the two floors above the frames is to be fitted with a chock. For floors.5 Weather deck planking mm 4 32 34 36 37. the frames may be shaped so as to have. alternated with one or two bent frames. alternatively. at the centreline. a depth above the keel equal to that required for the heel of the frames. the scantlings are as prescribed for Type I frames.Pt B. of constant scantlings throughout the length of the hull.1) are to have thickness equal to half that required for the latter. Type III : solid or laminated frames.1 The connection of bottom frames to side frames and of the latter to beams is to be achieved be means of double brackets similar to those described for floors.1 Frame scantlings are given in Tables 3. with spacing not exceeding approximately 2 metres. 4.2 Bottom and side frames 4. alternatively.5 Type III framing mm 3 28. the frame-beam connection may be effected by simply overlapping. so as to constitute main transverse strengthening elements of the hull.

65 of those described above and not fastened to the planking. A similar longitudinal. Table 5 : Frames TYPE III FRAMING (GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES OR BENTWOOD LONGITUDINALS) Depth D m Spacing of web mm width mm 3.Pt B. Sec 5 Table 3 : Frames TYPE I FRAMING (EITHER GROWN.0 3.9 Spacing between main frames and alternate frames one bent frame mm 560 590 620 two bent frames mm 650 690 725 three bent frames mm 730 770 800 width mm 36 38 40 Bent frames depth mm 25 27 30 - 5 5.0 3. at least two continuous girders are to be fitted each side.1 3.7 3.5 3.5 3. Such girders.3 3.1 3.1 3. but with a cross-section reduced to 0.5 3.1 Side girders and longitudinals 5.1. Such longitudinal may be omitted where Type III framing is adopted. with a cross-section not less than 90 cm 2. continuous over bottom frames. are to be connected to the bottom planking by means of chocks between frames.0 3.7 3. The chocks and the bent longitudinal may be omitted. is to be fitted on side frames. mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 depth mm 85 94 103 114 125 143 3. set on a bent longitudinal continuous through the floors and connected to the planking.9 640 680 710 750 780 820 37 41 46 52 58 62 BETWEEN KEEL AND CHINE Grown frames depth at heel mm 148 160 176 192 208 232 at head mm 126 136 150 163 176 197 width mm 37 41 46 52 58 62 depth mm 92 103 112 124 135 156 Laminated frames width mm 37 41 46 52 58 62 BETWEEN CHINE AND DECK Grown frames depth at heel mm 104 112 122 135 146 160 at head mm 94 106 110 115 122 129 width mm 37 41 46 52 58 62 depth mm 84 93 103 113 123 142 Laminated frames 214 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Ch 5.7 3. but in such case the bottom planking thickness given in Table 2 is to be augmented such as to achieve a cross-section throughout the bottom increased by at least half that of the longitudinals.3 3.3 3.1 On bottom frames. OR LAMINATED FRAMES ONLY) BETWEEN KEEL AND CHINE Depth D m Spacing of web mm 322 340 355 375 390 408 Grown frames width mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 depth at heel mm 127 140 148 162 178 200 at head mm 116 127 135 148 162 182 Laminated frames width mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 depth mm 93 104 113 125 135 157 width mm 35 39 44 50 55 60 BETWEEN CHINE AND DECK Grown frames depth at heel mm 103 117 122 131 143 156 at head mm 90 108 110 115 123 130 Laminated frames width.9 Table 4 : Frames TYPE II FRAMING (EITHER GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES WITH BENT FRAMES IN BETWEEN) Depth D mm 3.

9 6 6. Sec 5 Table 6 : Frames TYPE III FRAMING (GROWN OR LAMINATED FRAMES OR BENTWOOD LONGITUDINALS) Depth D m BENTWOOD LONGITUDINALS spacing mm 285 300 315 330 345 360 between keel and chine width mm 45 48 50 53 55 58 depth mm 30 33 36 39 42 45 between chine and deck width mm 45 48 50 53 55 58 depth mm 25 27 30 33 36 39 3.2 27.5 14.4 15.Pt B. without brackets.1 19.8 35 40.7 52. The cross-section of shelves and stringers is to be considered as inclusive of the dappings for beam and frame ends.5 3 3.1 18. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 215 .K2 : section modulus of beams without planking contribution.7 31.5 6.6 25.7 39.9 38.1 Beam shelves and chine stringers Where laminated beams are arranged.6 40.5 20.7 28.1 The cross-sectional area of beam shelves and chine stringers is to be not less than that given by Table 8 below as a function of L and to have the ratio h/t < 3.Z2 a s K1. not less than: Z2 = K2 ⋅ a ⋅ s where: Z1.1.1 3.4 35.5 5 5.0 3.5 4 4. 7. for hulls with Type II or III framing: beams in way of solid or laminated frames. with bracket connection and intermediate beams.5 6 6. beams are to be fitted having a section modulus.5 81 K2 At the end 11.5 13. in cm : coefficient given by Table 7 as a function of the beam span.5 23 23 31 38. Beams are to have width equal to that of the frames to which they are connected and section modulus.3 18 22.6 32.5 3.7 12.4 6. in cm3 : width of beams.2 45.6 43.5 7 7. 7 7. Ch 5.5 70 73.6 48.3 17.2 23.1 36. the section moduli Z1 and Z2 may be reduced to 0.1 17.2 24.9 14.5 10. in cm3.5 56. in cm : beam spacing.3 30.1 Beams Table 7 Coefficients for calculation of beam section modulus Beam span (m) K1 At the At the At the ends centreline centreline ≤2 2.9 16.43 8.7 3. not less than: Z1 = K1 ⋅ a ⋅ s At the ends of large openings. where h is the depth and t the thickness of the bar.7 28.7 22.85 of those indicated above. let into the shelf.8 60 63.1.1 The arrangement of beams is generally to be carried out as follows: for hulls with Type I framing: beams on every frame. in cm 3.3 3.

Moreover. 9. the plywood thickness is to be not less than 30% of the total thickness or less than 6 mm. as measured above.3.1 Deck planking Weather deck 8 8. If the beam spacing is other than that prescribed in 4. If the frame spacing is other than that shown in Table 3. by 10% for every 100 mm of difference. accordingly. After correction for spacing. by 25% if laminated planking (i. the planking thickness is to be increased or may be reduced. 9 9.2 Superstructure decks 9. the planking thickness may be reduced by 30% if plywood or plywood associated with planking is employed.1 The thickness of planking of superstructure decks is given in Table 2. accordingly.Pt B. 8. at least three coldmoulded layers) or plywood is adopted. the planking thickness may be reduced: by 10% if a diagonal or longitudinal double-skin planking is adopted.1. Such thickness is subject to the reductions and increases for weather deck planking as provided for in 9. Such planking may be solely plywood or plywood with associated planking arranged as described above. the plywood thickness is to be not less than 30% of the total thickness or less than 6 mm. the planking thickness is to be increased or may be reduced.2. by 10% for every 100 mm of difference. The scantlings of the deck planking are to be not less than those required in 9.1.3 Lower deck Moreover.1 Shell planking Thickness of shell planking 9.10 metres. greater than or equal to 3.1 Deck planking may be constituted by planks flanked by a stringer board at side and by a kingplank at the centreline.1. by 15% if composite planking constituted by inner plywood skin and one or two outer longitudinal diagonal strakes is adopted. measured between the upper keel side and the weather deck beam. Ch 5. exceeds 4.2. Yachts with speed > 25 knots are to have bottom frames (floors and longitudinals) stiffened in respect of the scantlings in this Section and planking thickness increased as follows (for deadrise = 25°) in respect of the values in Table 2: speed from 26 to 30 knots: 5% speed from 31 to 35 knots: 10% speed from 36 to 40 knots: 15%. the above 216 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . When the deadrise is between 25° and 30° and outer longitudinal strakes are fitted on the bottom planking.1 In hulls with depth. The thickness of deck planking is given in Table 2. the fastening of beams to side is to be completed by means of plywood brackets arranged at least at every second beam and having scantlings as prescribed in 4. After correction for spacing. - 9. with beams having a section modulus not less than 60% of that prescribed in Article 6 for weather deck beams and effectively fastened to the sides by means of a shelf with a cross-sectional area not less than 2/3 of that required in Table 8. a lower or cabin deck is to be arranged.e. Sec 5 Table 8 Length L of the hull (m) 24 26 28 30 32 35 Cross-sectional area of beam shelves (cm2) 95 110 125 140 155 177 Cross-sectional area of chine stringers (cm2) 112 128 140 152 164 182 increase in thickness may be reduced but is generally to be no less than half of the percentage values above.30 metres.2. When the depth.1 The basic thickness of shell planking is given in Table 2.4. 9.

Beam 2 .Knee 11 .Chine stringer 5 .Transom stiffeners 12 .Grown frame Figure 1 : Motor yachts .Keel 8 .Shelf 10 .Stem 9 .Floors 16 .Transom frame 14 .Transom frame 7 .Apron 13 .Beam knees 17 .Bent frame 6 .Stempost Pt B. Sec 5 217 .RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 1 . Ch 5.Constructional profile 4 .Chine knees 15 .Hog 3 .

Waterway RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 3 .Keel 2 . Sec 5 1 .Chine 7 .Shelf 14.Inner skin 18.218 Figure 2 : Midship section Pt B.Deck planking .Hog 8 .Bottom frame 4 .Bottom and side planking Outer skin 17.Deadwood 12.Deck planking .Bottom stringers 11 .Double knee 6 .Beam 9 .Side stringers 13.Outer skin 19.Bent frame .Bottom and side planking Inner skin 16.Carling 15.Double knee 10. Ch 5.Side frame 5 .

Apron 3 .Stempost 5 . Sec 5 Figure 3 : Stem 4 .Stem 2 .Keel RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 219 .Pt B. Ch 5.Hog 1 .

Keel 4 .Double floor 2. Ch 5.Bent frame 6 .Bottom frame .Bottom stringer 5 .Outer skin 8 .Hog RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 3 .Planking .220 Figure 4 : Detail of floor Pt B. Sec 5 1 .Planking .Inner skin 7 .

Chine stringer 5 .Planking .Side frame 3 .Planking . Sec 5 221 .Double knees 4 .RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 Figure 5 : Detail of floor 1 .Outer skin 7 . Ch 5.Chine Pt B.Inner skin 6 .Bottom frame 2 .

Beam 3 .Double knees 4 .Hull planking .Outer skin 7 .Side frame 2 .222 Figure 6 : Detail of gunwale connection Pt B.Outer skin 9 . Ch 5.Deck planking .Hull planking .Deck planking .Rubbing piece RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . Sec 5 1 .Inner skin 8 .Inner skin 6 .Waterway 10 .Shelf 5 .

Limber holes are to be provided in the bottom structures such as to allow the drainage of bilge liquids into suction wells.5 mm for every 100 mm of difference in spacing.1 The scantlings of floors. easily removable for maintenance and painting of the underlying structures. 4 4. attention is drawn to the provisions of Chap 1. If the spacing is other than that shown in the Table.Pt B. The plywood. is to be scarfed or strapped in way of vertical stiffeners. On completion. Linings are to allow sufficient ventilation of air spaces between them and planking. Sec 1.1. Ch 5.1 Wooden bulkheads where: Z h s S : : : : section modulus of vertical stiffener with associated strip of plating one spacing wide. in cm .e. 1. they are to be fitted so as to be. Bulkheads are to be caulked or made watertight by means of suitable gaskets. The scantlings are given on the assumption that the lowest strake is horizontal and subsequent strakes vertical. Glues for timber fastenings are to be of resorcinic or phenolic type. i.1. As regards the number of watertight bulkheads.1 Steel watertight bulkheads are to be of thickness as shown in Table 1 as a function of the spacing of stiffeners and the height of the bulkhead. 2 + 4h )s ⋅ S 2 3. the thickness of the third and higher strakes may be decreased by a maximum of 0. in cm3 distance from midpoint of stiffener to top of bulkhead.1 Machinery space structures 3 4. The scantlings of vertical stiffeners.1. Sec 6 SECTION 6 WATERTIGHT BULKHEADS. The spacing of vertical stiffeners is not to exceed 600 mm for the collision bulkhead. power and type of machinery. Connection to the hull is to be effected by means of a grown or laminated frame and made watertight by packing where necessary.1 Steel bulkheads 2. without end connections are to be not less than: Z = ( 4.1 Internal lining of hull and drainage 2 2. their suitability and that of associated connections is to be satisfactory with particular regard to engine running and navigation tests when required by these Rule.1 Wooden watertight bulkheads normally consist of plywood boards of adequate thickness in relation to the hull size and the spacing and strength of stiffeners. When all strakes are horizontal.1.5 mm per strake so as to reach a reduction of 25%. for the highest strake. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 223 . web frames and foundation girders are to be adequate for the weight. the thickness is to be modified by 0. as far as practicable. in respect of the Table thickness. and provided with watertight packing where necessary. in m spacing of vertical stiffeners. MACHINERY SPACE 1 1. 3 3. durable and water-resistant in particular.1 Where ceilings or internal linings are arranged. The connection of the bulkhead to planking is to be effected on grown or laminated frames. normally arranged in vertical panels. LINING. any watertight bulkheads and doors are to be tested using a strong jet of water. in m aggregate span of vertical stiffeners.

40 3.60 2.5 6 6 6 6 6.80 5.5 5.5 5 5 5 5. Ch 5.20 4.5 6.5 6.5 6.60 4.00 Spacing of vertical stiffeners mm 375 390 410 425 440 460 475 490 510 525 540 560 575 590 Thickness of lower strake mm 4 5 5 5.5 5.00 3. Sec 6 Table 1 : Watertight steel bulkheads Height of bulkhead mm ≤2.5 6 6 6 6 224 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .5 5.80 4.00 4.5 4.80 3.5 Thickness of other strakes mm 3.60 3.5 5.5 4.5 5.20 3.40 2.40 4.Pt B.

Part B Hull Chapter 6 STABILITY SECTION 1 APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 STABILITY INCLINING TEST AND LIGHTWEIGHT CHECK STABILITY INFORMATION BOOKLET RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 225 .

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e) after correction for free surface effects. 2.20 metres at an angle of heel equal to or greater than 30º.1. 1. 2 2. the doors of which do not comply with the requirements of regulation 12 of ICLL.03 metre-radians.1. is not to be less than 0.1.qmax) metre radians.20 metres at an angle of heel where it reaches its maximum. if this angle is less. permanent ballast is to be located in accordance with a plan approved by RINA and in a manner that prevents shifting of position.03 metre-radians. d) the maximum GZ is to occur at an angle of heel not less than 20º. 1. Permanent ballast particulars are to be noted in the ship's stability booklet.055 metre-radians up to 30º angle of heel and not less than 0. GZ curves are to be produced for the loading conditions applicable to the operation of the vessel.09 metre-radians up to 40º angle of heel.1. c) the righting lever (GZ) is to be at least 0.1 2. Ch 6.1. where qmax is the angle of heel in degrees where the GZ curve reaches its maximum. is not to be less than 0. not less than 0. When the maximum GZ occurs at angles between 20º and 30º the corresponding area under the GZ curve. Sec 1 SECTION 1 STABILITY 1 1. Attention is to be paid to local or global hull strength requirements from the fitting of additional ballast.1.3 For the purpose of assessing whether the stability criteria are met. b) Superstructures. approval of the stability is to be considered by RINA as a special case. Areq is to be taken as follows: Areq={0. b) the area under the GZ curve between the angles of heel of 30º and 40º or between 30º and the angle of downflooding if this is less than 40º.3 If used.4 Superstructures a) The buoyancy of enclosed superstructures complying with regulation 3(10)(b) of the ICLL may be taken into account when producing GZ curves. For ships less than 20 m in length. e) after correction for free surface effects.5 High Speed Vessels g) crowding of passengers In addition to the criteria above. or the angle of downflooding. Designers and builders are to address the following hazards which are known to effect RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 227 . the angle of heel is not to be greater than the angle corresponding to a freeboard of 0. b) the area under the GZ curve between the angles of heel of 30º and 40º or between 30º and the angle of downflooding if this is less than 40º. the initial metacentric height (GM) is not to be less than 0.Pt B.1 Intact Stability Standards Motor vessels Monohull Vessels The curves of statical stability for seagoing conditions are to meet the following criteria: a) the area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) is not to be less than 0. are not to be taken into account.075 metre-radians up to an angle of 20º when the maximum righting lever (GZ) occurs at 20º and.055 + 0.1 m before the deck’s immersion.002(30 . c) the righting lever (GZ) is to be at least 0. 1.2 An intact stability standard proposed for assessment of a vessel type not covered by the standards defined in this Section is to be submitted to RINA for approval at the earliest opportunity.15 metres.1 This Section outlines the minimum requirements for intact stability for both motor and sailing vessels. the initial metacentric height (GM) is not to be less than 0. f) if the maximum righting lever (GZ) occurs at an angle of less than 20º. f) in the event that the vessels intact stability standard fails to comply with the criteria defined in a) to e) RINA may be consulted for the purpose of specifying alternative but equivalent criteria. This Section deals with the standards for intact stability. d) the maximum GZ is to be occur at an angle of heel preferably exceeding 30º but not less than 25º.1.15 metres. 2. Permanent ballast is not to be removed from the ship or relocated within the ship without the approval of RINA.1. or 12° if less. 2. 2.055 metre-radians up to an angle of 30º when the maximum righting lever (GZ) occurs at 30º or above.2 Multi-hulls The curves of statical stability for seagoing conditions are to meet the following criteria: a) the area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) is not to be less than 0.1 General The angle of heel on account of crowding of passengers to one side is not to exceed 10° and in any event the freeboard deck is not to be immersed.

c) In addition to the requirements of b).4 times the actual wind velocity (i.1. The VCG is to be obtained by one of the three methods listed below: 1) inclining of complete craft in air on load cells. it should be capable of withstanding a wind gust equal to 1. GZf is the lever of the vessel's GZ at the down flooding angle (θf ) or 60º whichever is the lesser.Pt B. If. Sec 1 vessels operating in planing modes or those achieving relatively high speeds: a) directional instability.1. It might be noted that provided the vessel complies with the requirements of [2. or GZ Curve Figure 1 GZ Lever (M) WLO Derived Heel Angle d 0 >15 f 3) detailed calculation of the weight and CG position of all components of the vessel. 2. b) The GZ curves required by a) should have a positive range of not less than 90º. No opening regardless of size which may lead to progressive flooding is to be immersed at an angle of heel of less than 40º. a range of less than 90º may be considered but may be subject to agreed operational criteria. however.3] and is sailed with an angle of heel which is no greater than the 'derived angle of heel'. and that the VCG of the rig is at half the length of the mast (or a weighted mean of the lengths of more than one mast).2. b) bow diving of planing vessels due to dynamic loss of longitudinal stability in calm seas.2 Multi-hull θ where: GZ f WLO = ------------------1. The angle of steady heel is obtained from the intersection of a 'derived wind heeling lever' curve with the GZ curve required by a). 3 Cos θ f a) Curves of statical stability in both roll and pitch are to be prepared for at least the Loaded Arrival with 10% consumables. 3 All regularly used openings for access and for ventilation are to be considered when determining the downflooding angle. the angle of steady heel is to be greater than 15 degrees (see figure).1]. The curve can then be derived as follows: GZ in pitch = CG' x cos (trim angle) dwhl GZf 90 Heel Angle (º) Noting that: 228 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .e. Ch 6. be disregarded. [2. then the trim angle must be found for a series of longitudinal centre of gravity (LCG) positions forward of that necessary for the design waterline. or 2) separate determination of weights of hull and rig (comprising masts and all running and standing rigging). those superstructure openings may be ignored and the openings in the weather deck used instead to determine f). WLO is the magnitude of the actual wind heeling lever at 0º which would cause the vessel to heel to the 'down flooding angle' θf or 60º whichever is the lesser. 5 × WLO × Cos 1.2 2. Air pipes to tanks can.2.1. (If θd is less than 15º the vessel will be considered as having insufficient stability). b) If naval architecture software is used to obtain a curve of pitch restoring moments. greater than: Δ -----------1500 where Δ = vessels displacement in tonnes. θd the 'down-flooding angle' is the angle of heel causing immersion of the lower edge of openings having an aggregate area. the VCG being calculated from the moments generated by the measured forces. θf is the angle at which the 'derived wind heeling' curve intersects the GZ curve. in square metres. plus a 15% margin of the resulting VCG height above the underside of canoe body. twice the actual wind pressure) without immersing the 'down flooding openings'. often coupled to roll and pitch instabilities. and subsequent calculation assuming that the hull VCG is 75% of the hull depth above the bottom of the canoe body. d) porpoising of planing monohulls being coupled with pitch and heave oscillations. 2. or heeling to an angle greater than 60º. e) generation of capsizing moments due to immersion of chines in planing monohulls (chine tripping).1 Sailing vessels Monohull a) Curves of statical stability (GZ curves) for at least the Loaded Departure with 100% consumables and the Loaded Arrival with 10% consumables are to be produced. In the figure: 'dwhl' = the 'derived wind heeling lever' at any angle qº dwhl = 0. In such cases the GZ curve is to be derived without the benefit of the buoyancy of the superstructure. a vessel cannot meet the required standard. as a result of immersion of openings in a superstructure.2] and [2. For vessels of more than 45m. c) reduction in transverse stability with increasing speed in monohulls.

5) the precautions to be taken when altering course from a following to a beam wind. 3) the need to reduce the tabulated safe wind speeds by the vessel speed in following winds. Sec 1 where: CG' = shift of LCG forward of that required for design trim. the volume of buoyancy.3. 2.1 Unless otherwise specified.3 The inclining experiment and the lightweight check are to be conducted in accordance with the provisions of App 1. g) The stability information booklet is to include information and guidance on: 1) the stability hazards to which these craft are vulnerable. 4) the choice of sails to be set with respect to the prevailing wind strength.3. or 2) angle at which foredeck is immersed 3) 10º from design trim A'S = area of sails set including mast and boom (square metres) h = height of combined centre of effort of sails and spars above the waterline fR = heel angle at maximum roll righting moment (in conjunction with LMR) fP = limiting pitch angle used when calculating LMP (in conjunction with LMP) AD = plan area of the hulls and deck (square metres) b = distance from centroid of AD to the centreline of the leeward hull This data is to be accompanied by the note: In following winds.Pt B. the lightship weight. such wind speeds being calculated as the lesser of the following: vw L MR = 1.5 For sister vessels. h) In vessels required to demonstrate the ability to float after inversion (according to c) above). 5 -----------------------------------------A' S h cos φ P + A D b where: vw = maximum advised apparent wind speed (knots) LMR = maximum restoring moment in roll (N-m) LMp = limiting restoring moment in pitch (N-m). 5 -----------------------------------------A' S h cos φR + A D b or LM P v w = 1. Ch 6.4 The report of the inclining experiment and the lightship particulars derived are to be approved by RINA prior to their use in stability calculations. measured parallel to base line TFP = draught at forward perpendicular TAP = draught at aft perpendicular LBP = length between perpendiculars Approximations to maximum roll or pitch moments are not acceptable. in the presence of a RINA Surveyor.2 An inclining experiment is to be conducted in accordance with a detailed standard which is approved by RINA and. 2) the importance of complying with the maximum advised apparent wind speed information supplied. An inclining experiment is to be carried out this firts ship (prototype) and.3. 2. fittings and equipment is greater than: 1. defined as the pitch restoring moment at the least angle of the following: 1) angle of maximum pitch restoring moment. it is to be demonstrated by calculation using annex D of ISO 12217-2 (2002) that. 2. the tabulated safe wind speed for each sail combination should be reduced by the boat speed. d) If the maximum safe wind speed under full fore-and-aft sail is less than 27 knots. on the basis of the results. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 ⎠ ⎞ T FP – T A P trim angle = tan – 1 --------------------L BP ⎝ ⎛ when inverted and/or fully flooded. c) Data is to be provided to the user showing the maximum advised mean apparent wind speed appropriate to each combination of sails. including the risk of capsize in roll and/or pitch.3.3. an emergency escape hatch is to be fitted to each main inhabited watertight compartment such that it is above both upright and inverted waterlines. and sea state. 2. a full 229 . f) Trimarans used for unrestricted operations are to have sidehulls each having a total buoyant volume of at least 150% of the displacement volume in the fully loaded condition. Allowance for trapped bubbles of air (apart from dedicated air tanks and watertight compartments) is not to be included. relative wind direction. in the hull. 2. vertical centre of gravity (KG) and longitudinal centre of gravity (LCG) of a vessel are to be determined from the results of an inclining experiment. expressed in cubic metres (m3).2 x (fully loaded mass in tonnes) thus ensuring that it is sufficient to support the mass of the fully loaded vessel by a margin.3 Element of Stability 2. in order to verify the stability documentation the following procedure is to be applied: a) the shipyard declares that a ship is dealt with as a prototype. e) The maximum safe wind speed with no sails set calculated in accordance with c) above is to exceed 36 knots.

2.2 The stability information booklet is to be contain the information specified in App 2. b) stability booklet as photocopy of the prototype.Pt B. 3) when the sister ship is built the light ship displacement difference in comparison to the prototype is not greater than + 2-3%. Ch 6.5 The overall sail area and spar weights and dimensions are to be as documented in the vessel's stability information booklet. the values of maximum advised mean apparent windspeed. machinery. 2. b) In the case of a declared sister ship (same hull. 2) the same drawings are used. only updatef for the general description (ship’s name. or in the case of a multihull. The above documents are to be examined and approved. 230 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .3 A vessel with previously approved stability information which undergoes a major refit or alterations is to be subjected to a complete reassessment of stability and provided with newly approved stability information. This should be a direct copy taken from that contained in the approved stability booklet.4. 2. etc.).4. Should a ship be declared a sister ship of a prototype. which is to be approved by RINA. flag. thus formalising the request to waive the inclining experiment for the sister ship. a copy of the Curves of Maximum Steady Heel Angle to Prevent Downflooding in Squalls.4.4.1 A vessel is to be provided with a stability information booklet for the Master. 4) a sister ship statement is communicated to RINA.4 Stability Documents 2. A major refit or major alteration is one which results in a change in the lightship weight of 2% and above and/or a change in the longitudinal centre of gravity of 1% and above (measured from the aft perpendicular). for the reference of the watchkeeper. or the weight/dimensions of the rig aloft.25% and above (measured from the keel). subdivision. Sec 1 stability booklet is to be prepared. 2.4.4 Sailing vessels are to have. readily available. port of registry. a lightweight survey is to be carried out instead of an inclining test. the following documentation is to be sent for approval: a) light-ship weight report (duly signed by the attending RINA Surveyor and by the shipyard representative). provided that: 1) the ship is built by the same shipyard. taking into account the Rule stability requirements. Any rigging modifications that increase the overall sail area. must be accompanied by an approved updating of the stability information booklet. and/or an increase in the calculated vertical centre of gravity of 0. general arrangement and furniture (as far as reasonable). 2.

Test weights are to be compact and of such a configuration that the VCG (vertical centre of gravity) of the weights can be accurately determined. debris. c) the yacht is to be transversely upright and the trim is to be taken not more than 1% of the length between perpendiculars. j) g) vertical. If the yacht's piping layout is unsuitable for internal transfer. Temporary material. If this condition is not satisfied. d) pipelines to inclining tanks are to be full. f) all inclining tanks must be manually sounded before and after each shift. stream and tide. RINA may. located in the correct place. all tanks are to be empty and clean. tool boxes. e) main and auxiliary boilers. however. hydrostatic data and sounding tables are to be available for the actual trim. 2 2. portable pumps and pipes/hoses may be used. such as to allow unrestricted heeling. b) tanks are to be directly opposite to maintain the yacht's trim. RINA's Surveyor is to be satisfied of the following: a) the weather conditions are to be favourable. the yacht is to be as complete as possible at the time of the test. Re-certification of the test weights is to be carried out prior to the incline. etc. The shape of the tank is to be such that the free surface effect can be accurately determined and remains almost constant during the test. f) the bilge and the decks are to be thoroughly dried.1. on board is to be reduced to an absolute minimum. derrick. longitudinal and transverse centres are to be calculated for each movement. U-tube difference in height specified in [3] is complied with.1 General Aim of the Appendix 1. Continuous valve control must be maintained during the test.1.1 Prior to the test. If time requirements for transfer of liquids are considered too long. The number of tanks containing liquids is to be reduced to a minimum taking into account the above-mentioned trim. accept a smaller inclination angle for large yachts provided that the requirement on pendulum deflection or RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 231 . A crane of sufficient capacity and reach. c) specific gravity of ballast water is to be measured and recorded. d) cranes. The yacht is to be positioned in order to minimise the effects of possible wind. Ch 6. Water ballast and people are generally not acceptable as inclining weight. sand. h) accurate sounding/ullage tables are to be provided. added or shifted is to be limited to a minimum.Pt B. h) the weights necessary for the inclination are to be already on board. and approval of the test procedure by RINA is required. is to be available during the inclining test to shift weights on the deck in an expeditious and safe manner.1 The total weight used is preferably to be sufficient to provide a minimum inclination of one degree and a maximum of four degrees of heel to each side. sheltered area free from extraneous forces. the movement of ballast water may be permitted as an alternative method. or some other means. i) all work on board is to be suspended and crew or personnel not directly involved in the inclining test are to leave the yacht. e) blanks must be inserted in transverse manifolds to prevent the possibility of liquids being "leaked" during transfer. or completely full. g) preferably. The number of weights to be removed. The following conditions are to be met: a) inclining tanks are to be wall-sided and free of large stringers or other internal members that create air pockets. The draught marks amidships (port and starboard) are to be used when establishing the initial heel angle.2 Where the use of solid weights to produce the inclining moment is demonstrated to be impracticable. lifeboats and liferafts capable of inducing oscillations are to be secured. Each weight is to be marked with an identification number and its weight. b) the yacht is to be moored in a quiet. pipes and any other system containing liquids are to be filled. App 1 APPENDIX 1 INCLINING TEST AND LIGHTWEIGHT CHECK 1 1. The yacht's initial heel angle is to be established prior to the incline in order to produce accurate values for volumes and transverse and vertical centres of gravity for the inclining tanks at every angle of heel. All cross connections are to be closed. staging. water may be unacceptable because of the possibility of wind shifts over long periods of time. This acceptance would be granted for a specific test only. 2.1. the time to conduct the inclining is to be evaluated.1 Inclining weights 2. i) j) verification of the quantity shifted may be achieved by a flowmeter or similar device.

1 Calculation of the displacement 3. b) general arrangement plan of decks. When water ballast is used as inclining weights. must be available. only one pendulum can be accepted. and the readings averaged. Samples are to be taken from a sufficient depth of the water to ensure a true representation of the sea water and not merely surface water. removed or relocated to bring the yacht to the lightship condition. h) the possible solid permanent ballast is to be clearly identified and listed in the report. The temperature of the water is to be taken and the measured specific gravity corrected for deviation from the standard. it is recommended that samples of the sea water be taken forward. 6. are to be checked.1 Means of communication 4. Where the value of the average calculated specific gravity is different from that reported in the hydrostatic curves. A hydrometer is to be placed in a water sample and the specific gravity read and recorded.1 The following operations are to be carried out for the calculation of the displacement: a) draught mark readings are to be taken at aft.Pt B. remaining in the pipes. as well as all tanks and compartments which can contain liquids. adequate corrections are to be made to the displacement curve. is to be carried out. boilers. The use of an inclinometer or U-tube is to be considered in each separate case. b) the mean draught (average of port and starboard reading) is to be calculated for each of the locations where draught readings are taken and plotted on the yacht's lines drawing or outboard profile to ensure that all readings are consistent and together define the correct waterline. To ensure recordings from individual instruments are kept separate. and an evaluation of the liquids which cannot be pumped. paying particular attention to air pockets which may accumulate due to the yacht's trim and the position of air pipes.1 Pendulums 6 6.1. if necessary. inner bottoms. c) the specific gravity of the sea water is to be determined. if available. It is recommended that inclinometers or other measuring devices only be used in conjunction with at least one pendulum. However. it is suggested that the pendulums be physically located as far apart as practical.. f) docking drawing with keel profile and draught mark corrections.1 Efficient two-way communications are to be provided between central control and the weight handlers and between central control and each pendulum station. The resulting plot is to yield either a straight line or a waterline which is either hogged or sagged. holds. The pendulums are to be long enough to give a measured deflection. 5 5. at starboard and port sides. for yachts of a length equal to or less than 30 m. e) draught mark locations. for each angle of inclination.1. They are each to be located in an area protected from the wind. d) A correction to water specific gravity is not necessary if the specific gravity is determined at the inclining experiment site. the transverse and vertical centres of gravity for the applicable tanks. 232 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . midship and aft. which could contain fresh water from run off of rain. of at least 10 cm. c) capacity plan showing capacities and vertical and longitudinal centres of gravity of cargo spaces and tanks. f) it is to be checked that the bilge is dry. 4 4. e) all double bottoms. one sample taken from midship is sufficient. For large yachts.1. Ch 6.1. App 1 3 3.1 Documentation 5. midship and forward.1 The person in charge of the inclining test is to have available a copy of the following plans at the time of the test: a) hydrostatic curves or hydrostatic data. For small yachts. condenser. g) the entire yacht is to be surveyed in order to identify all items which need to be added. the freeboards/ draughts are to be taken again. etc. to each side of upright. One person at a central control station is to have complete control over all personnel involved in the test.1 The use of three pendulums is recommended but a minimum of two are to be used to allow identification of bad readings at any one pendulum station. Each item is to be clearly identified by weight and location of the centre of gravity. If inconsistent readings are obtained. Correction is necessary if specific gravity is measured when the sample temperature differs from the temperature at the time of the inclining test. d) tank sounding tables.

For yachts with a length equal to or less than 30 m. The tangent is calculated for each pendulum by dividing the deflection by the length of the pendulum. the distance the weight was moved (centre to centre) is to be measured and the heeling Lightweight check 8. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 233 . provided that basic stability data are available from the inclining test of a sister yacht and a satisfactory lightweight check is performed in order to prove that the sister yacht corresponds to the prototype yacht. no movements of personnel are allowed. After each weiht shifting. App 1 7 7. During the reading.1. After each weight movement. The pendulum deflection is to be read when the yacht has reached a final position after each weight shifting.1 The standard test generally employs eight distinct weight movements as shown in Fig 1. six distinct weight movements may be accepted. The resultant tangents are plotted on the graph as shown in Fig 2. Figure 2 8 The weights are to be transversally shifted. Ch 6.1 Inclining procedure 7.1 8.1 An inclining test for an individual yacht may be dispensed with by RINA on a case by case basis. Figure 1 moment calculated by multiplying the distance by the amount of weight moved.Pt B. so as not to modify the yacht's trim and vertical position of the centre of gravity. the new position of the transverse center of gravity of the weihts is to be accurately determined.1.

1. b) clear instructions on the use of the booklet. A clear reference relevant to the sea density. reporting a comparison between the actual and the required values) are to be available for each of the above-mentioned operating conditions. d) a sketch indicating the position of the draught marks referred to the yacht's perpendiculars. Such loading cases are considered as a minimum requirement and additional loading cases may be included as deemed necessary or useful. e) hydrostatic curves or tables corresponding to the design trim.1 Information to be included General i) ter yacht. the port of registry. etc. such change in trim is to be taken into account. accommodation. in t/m 3. with full stores and fuel and the full number of guests. pipes or other progressive flooding sources. h) lightship data from the inclining test. n) any other necessary guidance for the safe operation of the yacht.1 Hydrostatic and stability curves are normally prepared on a designed trim basis. to be approved by RINA.2. the international call sign • the moulded dimensions • the design draft • the displacement corresponding to the above-mentioned draughts. However. m) information concerning the use of any special crossflooding fittings with descriptions of damage conditions which may require cross-flooding. curves or tables corresponding to such range of trim. with only 10% stores and fuel remaining and the full number of guests. place and date of the inclining test. and a copy of the approved inclining test report relevant to this sister yacht is to be included. GM.1. GZ values and curve when applicable. tightness. GM corrected for free surfaces effect. l) k) information on loading restrictions when applicable. draughts at perpendiculars. and. with indication of the volumes which have been considered in the computation of these curves. including lightship displacement. and free surface data for each tank. f) cross curves (or tables) of stability calculated on a free trimming basis.Pt B. b) lightship condition. centre of gravity co-ordinates.). for the ranges of displacement and trim anticipated in normal operating conditions. 1. if significant trim angles are foreseen during the normal operation of the yacht.1 A stability information booklet is a stability manual. including: • the yacht's name and RINA classification number • the yacht type and service notation • the class notations • the yard. App 2 APPENDIX 2 STABILITY INFORMATION BOOKLET 1 1. standard loading conditions and examples for developing other acceptable loading conditions using the information contained in the booklet intact stability results (total displacement and its center of gravity co-ordinates. 3 3. c) general arrangement and capacity plans indicating the assigned use of compartments and spaces (stores. c) yacht in the fully loaded arrival condition. Ch 6.2 List of information 1. It is recommended that a copy of the approved test report be enclosed with the stability information booklet. as well as RINA approval details specified in the inclining test report. o) a table of contents and index for each booklet. means of closure). centre of gravity. 2 2. Where the above-mentioned information is derived from a sis- 3. information about openings (location. The calculations are to take into account the volume to the upper surface of the deck sheathing.1 The standard loading conditions to be included in the stability information booklet are: a) yacht in the fully loaded departure condition. j) 1. when applicable. the reference to this sister yacht is to be clearly indicated. 234 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 . the hull number and the year of delivery • the flag.1 The following information is to be included in the stability information booklet: a) a general description of the yacht. which is to contain sufficient information to enable the Master to operate the yacht in compliance with the applicable requirements contained in the Rules. is to be included as well as the draught measure (from keel or underkeel).1 Loading conditions 2.1.1 Stability curve calculation General g) tank sounding tables or curves showing capacities. where the operating trim or the form and arrangement of the yacht are such that change in trim has an appreciable effect on righting arms.

and fresh water.1 Free surface effects are to be considered whenever the filling level in a tank is less than 98% of full condition. however. be taken into account in stability calculations up to the angle at which their openings are flooded (at this angle.3].3. calculated at 0 degrees angle of heel. therefore.1 In calculating the free surfaces effect in tanks containing consumable liquids. Free surface effects need not be considered where a tank is nominally full. 4. provided that they comply with the conditions for enclosed superstructures laid down in the ILCC.4 Consumable liquids 4.g. Small openings such as those for passing wires or chains. In determining the correction to the initial metacentric height. such openings are to be considered on a case by case basis.8].Pt B.5. filling level is 98% or above. discharge and sanitary pipes are not to be considered as open if they submerge at an angle of inclination more than 30°. liquid cargo. The righting lever curve may be corrected by any of the following methods: a) Correction based on the actual moment of fluid transfer for each angle of heel calculated. Deckhouses on the freeboard deck may be taken into account. The free surface correction is to be defined for the actual filling level to be used in each tank. consumable liquids such as fuel oil.1 The corrections to the initial metacentric height and to the righting lever curve are to be addressed separately. corrections may be calculated according to the categories indicated in [4.2 Superstructures and deckhouses which may be taken into account 4.2. the transverse moments of inertia of the tanks are to be calculated at 0 degrees angle of heel according to the categories indicated in [4. diesel oil. 4. the free surface correction is to be the maximum value attainable among the filling limits envisaged for each tank.3. Free surface effects for small tanks may be ignored under the condition in [4. b) Tanks with variable filling level (e. and in subsequent computations the flooded space is to be considered non-existent). Trunks may be taken into account. 4. except that no additional exit is provided to a deck above. modified at each angle of 4 Effects of free surfaces of liquids in tanks General 4.3 Angle of flooding 4. 3. 4. Superstructures and deckhouses not regarded as enclosed may. it is to be assumed that for each type of liquid at least one transverse pair or a single centreline tank has a free surface and the tank or combination of tanks taken into account are to be those where the effect of free surface is the greatest. and also holes of scuppers. RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 235 .4.e.6. consistent with any operating instructions.6]. Deckhouses. App 2 3. Hatchways may also be taken into account having regard to the effectiveness of their closures. however. tackle and anchors.3].6 GMo and GZ curve corrections 4. including anti-rolling tanks and anti-heeling tanks.1 Where water ballast tanks. the stability curve is to be cut short at the corresponding angle of flooding and the yacht is to be considered to have entirely lost its stability.1 Tanks which are taken into consideration when determining the free surface correction may be one of two categories: a) Tanks with fixed filling level (e.g.1 In cases where the yacht would sink due to flooding through any openings. If they submerge at an angle of 30° or less.2 Consideration of free surface effects 3. Except as permitted in [4.1. such deckhouses are not to be taken into account.1 Enclosed superstructures complying with the International Load Line Convention (ILLC) may be taken into account.2. these openings are to be assumed open if RINA considers this to be a source of significant progressive flooding. i. 4. water ballast). Ch 6. any deck openings inside the deckhouse are regarded as closed where their means of closure comply with the requirements of the ILCC. but openings within them may be regarded as closed. Deckhouses on decks above the freeboard deck are not to be taken into account. the free surfaces effect is to be calculated to take account of the most onerous transitory stage relating to such operations. the doors of which do not comply with the requirements in the ILCC. The second tier of similarly enclosed superstructures may also be taken into account. b) Correction based on the moment of inertia. and also liquid cargo and water ballast during liquid transfer operations). the initial metacentric height and the righting lever curve are to be corrected for the effect of free surfaces of liquids in tanks. the statical stability curve is to show one or more steps. are not to be taken into account. are to be filled or discharged during the course of a voyage.3 Categories of tanks 4. Where deckhouses comply with the above conditions.1 For all loading conditions. any deck openings inside such deckhouses are to be considered as closed even where no means of closure are provided. however.5 Water ballast tanks 3.1 4.

13 0.04 0.10 0..0 3.9.01 0.01 0.11 0.05 0.07 0. in t/m3 k : Dimensionless coefficient to be determined from Tab 5 according to the ratio b/h.2 0.11 0. as well as an example correction for each alternative.10 0.12 0.18 0. with 10% stores and minimum water ballast.0 3.05 0.07 0.10 0.1 5° 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.11 0.03 0.12 0.13 0.01 0.⋅ 1 + -----------------.03 0.10 0. are to be included.09 0.04 0.01 0. as specified in [4.11 0.Pt B.01 0. However.11 0.45 0.09 0.01 0.11 0.13 0.07 0.3 0. in m h : Tank maximum height.12 0.02 0.00 30° 0.7.00 0.11 0.00 10° 0.75 0.3].⋅ 1 + -----------------.01 0.10 0.0 1.02 0.10 0.09 0.02 0. where an alternative method is described for use in manually calculated loading conditions. c) Correction based on the summation of Mfs values for all tanks taken into consideration.09 0.10 0.09 0. in m.02 70° 0.13 0.02 0.03 0. 01m Δ m in Δmin : Minimum yacht displacement. providing the total of such residual liquids does not constitute a significant free surface effect.19 0.04 0.02 0.0 2.01 45° 0.08 0.k = ---------.01 50° 0.18 0. in t.07 0.00 0.06 0.05 0.09 0.10 0.⋅ -.07 0. of yacht without cargo.3 0.00 40° 0.8 Small tanks 4.5 1.09 0.07 0. 12 h 2 ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ ⎠ ⎞ ⎝ ⎛ 2 where 2 b cot θ ≥ -h where b cot θ < -h tan θ cos θ cos θ ( cot θ ) k = -----------.14 85° 0.⋅ 1 + ----------.05 0.05 0. only that method is to be presented in the yacht's stability information booklet.10 0. in m3 b : Tank maximum breadth.11 0.05 0.01 0. an explanation of the differences which may be found in the results.27 0.09 0. in m. Whichever method is selected for correcting the righting lever curve.00 15° 0.03 0.01 0.5 0.09 0.11 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.11 0. corrections may be calculated according to the categories indicated in [4.9 Remainder of liquid 4.0 0.11 0.1 The usual remainder of liquids in the empty tanks need not to be taken into account in calculating the corrections.06 0.– ---------------------------.10 0.11 0. The intermediate values are determined by interpolation.04 0. App 2 heel calculated.10 0.04 0.23 0.01 0.03 0.04 75° 0.01 0.00 20° 0.21 0.34 0.11 0.02 0.5 1.12 0.0 2.08 0. where: v : Tank total capacity.12 0.10 0.16 0.04 0.11 0. equal to: 4. δ : Tank block coefficient.00 0.2 0.04 0. v δ = -------blh l : Tank maximum length.05 0.09 0. 2 b⁄h 8 2 12 ⋅ ( b ⁄ h ) θ b/h 20 10 5.02 0.01 0.0 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.5 0.75 0.11 0.3].05 0.8..09 0. 4.02 0.06 0.04 0.11 0.11 0. Ch 6.7 Free surface moment 4.01 0.27 0.01 0.02 0. if required.1 Small tanks which satisfy the following condition using the values of k corresponding to an angle of inclination of 30° need not be included in the correction: 4.13 0.05 0.16 0.0 1.12 0.03 0.53 θ b/h 20 10 5.06 80° 0. Table 1 : Value of coefficient k for calculating free surface corrections ( tan θ ) sin θ b .01 0.09 0. calculated at dmin dmin : Minimum mean service draught.16 0.21 0.01 236 ⎠ ⎞ 60° 0.07 0.1 The values for the free surface moment at any inclination in metre-tonnes for each tank may be derived from the formula: where: M fS = vb ρkδ · 05 M fS --------.< 0.1 RINA Rules for Pleasure Yachts 2011 .07 0. in m ρ : Mass density of liquid in the tank.02 0.09 0.04 0.07 0.00 0.11 0.