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**Non-Linear and Dynamic Systems
**

Prof. Dr. Eleni Chatzi

Lecture 1 - 18 September, 2010

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 1

Course Information

Instructor

Prof. Dr. Eleni Chatzi, email: chatzi@ibk.baug.ethz.ch

Oﬃce Hours: HIL E14.3, Wednesday 10:00-12:00 or by email

Assistant

Savvas Triantafyllou, HIL E14.2, email: savvast@ibk.baug.ethz.ch

Course Website

Lecture Notes and Homeworks will be posted at:

http://www.ibk.ethz.ch/ch/education

Suggested Reading

Nonlinear Finite Elements for Continua and Structures by T.

Belytschko, W. K. Liu, and B. Moran, John Wiley and Sons, 2000

The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and Dynamic Finite

Element Analysis by T. J. R. Hughes, Dover Publications, 2000

The Finite Element Method Vol. 2 Solid Mechanics by O.C.

Zienkiewicz and R.L. Taylor, Oxford : Butterworth Heinemann, 2000

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 2

Course Outline

Review of the Finite Element method - Introduction to

Non-Linear Analysis

Non-Linear Finite Elements in solids and Structural Mechanics

- Overview of Solution Methods

- Continuum Mechanics & Finite Deformations

- Lagrangian Formulation

- Structural Elements

Dynamic Finite Element Calculations

- Integration Methods

- Mode Superposition

Eigenvalue Problems

Special Topics

- Extended Finite Elements, Multigrid Methods, Meshless Methods

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 3

Grading Policy

Performance Evaluation - Homeworks (100%)

Homework

Homeworks are due in class 2 weeks after assignment

Computer Assignments may be done using any coding language

(MATLAB, Fortran, C, MAPLE) - example code will be

provided in MATLAB

Commercial software such as ABAQUS and ANSYS will also be

used for certain Assignments

Homework Sessions will be pre-announced and it is advised to bring

a laptop along for those sessions

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 4

Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)

Classiﬁcation of Engineering Systems

Discrete Continuous

F = KX

Direct Stiﬀness Method

h

2

h

1

Permeable Soil

Flow

of water

L

Impermeable Rock

dx

dy

q|

y

q|

x+dx

q|

y+dy

q|

x

k

_

∂

2

φ

∂

2

x

+

∂

2

φ

∂

2

y

_

= 0

Laplace Equation

FEM: Numerical Technique for solution of continuous systems.

We will use a displacement based formulation and a stiﬀness based solution

(direct stiﬀness method).

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 5

Review of the Finite Element Method (FEM)

Diﬀerential Formulation (Strong Form) in 2 Dimensions

Obtained through Equilibrium and Constitutive Requirements

(governing equations)

Governing Diﬀerential Equation ex: general 2nd order PDE

A(x, y)

∂

2

u

∂

2

x

+ 2B(x, y)

∂

2

u

∂x∂y

+ C(x, y)

∂

2

u

∂

2

y

= φ(x, y, u,

∂u

∂y

,

∂u

∂y

)

Problem Classiﬁcation

B

2

−AC < 0 ⇒ elliptic

B

2

−AC = 0 ⇒

parabolic

B

2

−AC > 0 ⇒

hyperbolic

Boundary Condition Classiﬁcation

Essential (Dirichlet): u(x

0

, y

0

) = u

0

order m −1 at most for C

m−1

Natural (Neumann):

∂u

∂y

(x

0

, y

0

) = ˙ u

0

order m to 2m −1 for C

m−1

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 6

Strong Form - 1D FEM

Consider the following 1 Dimensional (1D) strong form

(parabolic)

d

dx

(c(x)

du

dx

) +f(x) = 0

−c(0)

d

dx

u(0) = C

1

(Neumann BC)

u(L) = 0 (Dirichlet BC)

Physical Problem (1D) Diff. Equation Quantities

Constitutive

Law

One dimensional Heat

flow

�

� + = 0

T=temperature

A=area

k=thermal

conductivity

Q=heat supply

Fourier

= − /

= heat flux

Axially Loaded Bar

�

� + = 0

u=displacement

A=area

E=Young’s

modulus

B=axial loading

Hooke

= /

= stress

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 7

Weak Form - 1D FEM

From Strong Form to Weak form

The strong form requires strong continuity on the dependent ﬁeld

variables (usually displacements). Whatever functions deﬁne these

variables have to be diﬀerentiable up to the order of the PDE that

exist in the strong form of the system equations. Obtaining the

exact solution for a strong form of the system equation is a quite

diﬃcult task for practical engineering problems.

The ﬁnite diﬀerence method can be used to solve the system

equations of the string form and obtain an approximate solution.

However, this method usually works well for problems with simple

and regular geometry and boundary conditions.

Alternatively we can use the ﬁnite element method on a weak form

of the system. This is usually obtained through energy principles

which is why it is also known as variational form.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 8

Weak Form - 1D FEM

From Strong Form to Weak form

Three are the approaches commonly used to go from strong to weak

form:

Principle of Virtual Work

Principle of Minimum Potential Energy

Methods of weighted residuals (Galerkin, Collocation, Least

Squares methods, etc)

*We will mainly focus on the third approach.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 9

Weak Form - 1D FEM

From Strong Form to Weak form - Approach #1

Principle of Virtual Work

For any set of compatible small virtual displacements imposed on the body

in its state of equilibrium, the total internal virtual work is equal to the

total external virtual work.

W

int

=

_

Ω

¯

T

τdΩ = W

ext

=

_

Ω

¯ u

T

bdΩ +

_

Γ

¯ u

ST

T

S

dΓ +

i

¯ u

iT

R

C

i

where

T

S

: surface traction (along boundary Γ)

b: body force per unit area

R

C

: nodal loads

¯ u: virtual displacement

¯ : virtual strain

τ: stresses

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 10

Weak Form - 1D FEM

From Strong Form to Weak form - Approach #2

Principle of Minimum Potential Energy

Applies to elastic problems where since the elasticity matrix is positive

deﬁnite, hence the energy functional Π has a minimum (stable equilibrium).

Approach #1 applies in general.

The potential energy Π is deﬁned as the strain energy U minus the work of

the external loads W

Π = U−W

U =

1

2

_

Ω

T

CdΩ

W =

_

Ω

¯ u

T

bdΩ +

_

Γ

T

¯ u

ST

T

s

dΓ

T

+

i

¯ u

T

i

R

C

i

(b T

s

, R

C

as deﬁned previously)

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 11

Weak Form - 1D FEM

From Strong Form to Weak form - Approach #3

Given an arbitrary weight function w, where

S = {u|u ∈ C

0

, u(l ) = 0}, S

0

= {w|w ∈ C

0

, w(l ) = 0}

C

0

is the collection of all continuous functions.

Multiplying by w and integrating over Ω

_

l

0

w(x)[(c(x)u

(x))

+ f (x)]dx = 0

[w(0)(c(0)u

(0) + C

1

] = 0

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 12

Weak Form - 1D FEM

Using the divergence theorem (integration by parts) we reduce the

order of the diﬀerential:

_

l

0

wg

dx = [wg]

l

0

−

_

l

0

gw

dx

The weak form is then reduced to the following problem.

Find u(x) ∈ S such that:

_

l

0

w

cu

dx =

_

l

0

wfdx + w(0)C

1

S = {u|u ∈ C

0

, u(l ) = 0}

S

0

= {w|w ∈ C

0

, w(l ) = 0}

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 13

FE formulation: Discretization

Divide the body into ﬁnite elements, e, connected to each other

through nodes

1

2

Break the overall integral into a summation over the ﬁnite elements:

e

_

_

x

e

2

x

e

1

w

cu

dx −

_

x

e

2

x

e

1

wfdx −w(0)C

1

_

= 0

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 14

1D FE formulation: Galerkin’s Method

Galerkin’s method assumes that the approximate (or trial) solution, u, can

be expressed as a linear combination of the nodal point displacements u

i

,

where i refers to the corresponding node number.

u(x) ≈ u

h

(x) =

i

N

i

(x)u

i

= N(x)u

where bold notation signiﬁes a vector and N

i

(x) are the shape functions

(per node) which are deﬁned as follows, enabling the linear combination.

Shape function Properties:

Bounded and Continuous

One for each node

N

e

i

(x

e

j

) = δ

ij

, where

δ

ij

=

_

1 if i = j

0 if i = j

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 15

1D FE formulation: Galerkin’s Method

The weighting function, w is usually (although not necessarily)

chosen to be of the same form as u

w(x) ≈ w

h

(x) =

i

N

i

(x)w

i

= N(x)w

i.e. for 2 nodes:

N = [N

1

N

2

] u = [u

1

u

2

]

T

w = [w

1

w

2

]

T

Alternatively we could have a Petrov-Galerkin formulation, where

w(x) is obtained through the following relationships:

w(x) =

i

(N

i

+ δ

h

e

σ

dN

i

dx

)w

i

δ = coth(

Pe

e

2

) −

2

Pe

e

coth =

e

x

+ e

−x

e

x

−e

−x

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 16

1D FE formulation: Galerkin’s Method

Substituting into the weak formulation and rearranging terms we obtain the

following in matrix notation:

_

l

0

w

cu

dx −

_

l

0

wfdx −w(0)C

1

= 0 ⇒

_

l

0

(w

T

N

T

)

c(Nu)

dx −

_

l

0

w

T

N

T

fdx −w

T

N(0)

T

C

1

= 0

Since w, w are vectors, each one containing a set of discrete values

corresponding at the nodes i , it follows that the above set of equations can

be rewritten in the following form, i.e. as a summation over the w

i

, u

i

components (vector notation):

_

l

0

_

i

u

i

dN

i

(x)

dx

_

c

_

_

j

w

j

dN

j

(x)

dx

_

_

dx

−

_

l

0

f

j

w

j

N

j

(x)dx −

j

w

j

N

j

(x)C

1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

x=0

= 0

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 17

1D FE formulation: Galerkin’s Method

This is rewritten as,

j

w

j

_

_

l

0

_

i

cu

i

dN

i

(x)

dx

dN

j

(x)

dx

_

−fN

j

(x)dx + (N

j

(x)C

1

)|

x=0

_

= 0

The above equation has to hold ∀w

j

since the weighting function w(x) is

an arbitrary one. Therefore the following system of equations has to hold:

_

l

0

_

i

cu

i

dN

i

(x)

dx

dN

j

(x)

dx

_

−fN

j

(x)dx + (N

j

(x)C

1

)|

x=0

= 0 j = 1, ..., n

After reorganizing and moving the summation outside the integral, this

becomes:

i

_

_

l

0

c

dN

i

(x)

dx

dN

j

(x)

dx

_

u

i

=

_

l

0

fN

j

(x)dx + (N

j

(x)C

1

)|

x=0

= 0 j = 1, ..., n

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 18

1D FE formulation: Galerkin’s Method

We ﬁnally obtain the following discrete system in matrix notation:

Ku = f

where writing the intagral from 0 to l as a summation over the

subelements we obtain:

K = A

e

K

e

−→ K

e

=

_

x

e

2

x

e

1

N

T

,x

cN

,x

dx =

_

x

e

2

x

e

1

B

T

cBdx

f = A

e

f

e

−→ f

e

=

_

x

e

2

x

e

1

N

T

fdx +N

T

h|

x=0

where A is not a sum but an assembly and, x denotes diﬀerentiation

with respect to x.

In addition, B = N

,x

=

dN(x)

dx

is known as the strain displacement

matrix.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 19

1D FE formulation: Iso-Parametric Formulation

Iso-Parametric Mapping

This is a way to move from the use of global coordinates (i.e.in

(x, y)) into normalized coordinates (usually (ξ, η)) so that the ﬁnally

derived stiﬀness expressions are uniform for elements of the same

type.

1

2

−1 1

Shape Functions in Natural Coordinates

x(ξ) =

i =1,2

N

i

(ξ)x

e

i

= N

1

(ξ)x

e

1

+ N

2

(ξ)x

e

2

N

1

(ξ) =

1

2

(1 −ξ), N

2

(ξ) =

1

2

(1 + ξ)

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 20

1D FE formulation: Iso-Parametric Formulation

Map the integrals to the natural domain −→ element stiﬀness matrix.

Using the chain rule of diﬀerentiation for N(ξ(x)) we obtain:

K

e

=

_

x

e

2

x

e

1

N

T

,x

cN

,x

dx =

_

1

−1

(N

,ξ

ξ

,x

)

T

c(N

,ξ

ξ

,x

)x

,ξ

dξ

where N

,ξ

=

d

dξ

_

1

2

(1 −ξ)

1

2

(1 + ξ)

_

=

_

−1

2

1

2

_

and x

,ξ

=

dx

dξ

=

x

e

2

−x

e

1

2

=

h

2

= J (Jacobian) and h is the element length

ξ

,x

=

dξ

dx

= J

−1

= 2/h

From all the above,

K

e

=

c

x

e

2

−x

e

1

_

1 −1

−1 1

_

Similary, we obtain the element load vector:

f

e

=

_

x

e

2

x

e

1

N

T

fdx + N

T

h|

x=0

=

_

1

−1

N

T

(ξ)fx

,ξ

dξ + N

T

(x)h|

x=0

Note: the iso-parametric mapping is only done for the integral.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 21

Axially Loaded Bar Example

A. Constant End Load

Given: Length L, Section Area A, Young’s modulus E

Find: stresses and deformations.

Assumptions:

The cross-section of the bar does not change after loading.

The material is linear elastic, isotropic, and homogeneous.

The load is centric.

End-eﬀects are not of interest to us.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 22

Axially Loaded Bar Example

A. Constant End Load

Strength of Materials Approach (#3)

From the equilibrium equation, the axial force at a random point x

along the bar is:

f(x) = R(= const) ⇒ σ(x) =

R

A

From the constitutive equation (Hooke’s Law):

(x) =

σ(x)

E

=

R

AE

Hence, the deformation is obtained as:

δ(x) =

(x)

x

⇒ δ(x) =

Rx

AE

Note: The stress & strain is independent of x for this case of

loading.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 23

Axially Loaded Bar Example

B. Linearly Distributed Axial + Constant End Load

From the equilibrium equation, the axial force at random point x

along the bar is:

f(x) = R +

aL + ax

2

(L −x) = R +

a(L

2

−x

2

)

2

( depends on x)

In order to now ﬁnd stresses & deformations (which depend on x)

we have to repeat the process for every point in the bar. This is

computationally ineﬃcient.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 24

Axially Loaded Bar Example

From the equilibrium equation, for an inﬁnitesimal element:

Aσ = q(x)∆x + A(σ + ∆σ) ⇒A lim

.¸¸.

∆x→0

∆σ

∆x

+ q(x) = 0 ⇒A

dσ

dx

+ q(x) = 0

Also, =

du

dx

, σ = E, q(x) = ax ⇒AE

d

2

u

dx

2

+ ax = 0

Strong Form

AE

d

2

u

dx

2

+ ax = 0

u(0) = 0 essential BC

f(L) = R ⇒AE

du

dx

¸

¸

¸

¸

x=L

= R natural BC

Analytical Solution

u(x) = u

hom

+ u

p

⇒u(x) = C

1

x + C

2

−

ax

3

6AE

C

1

, C

2

are determined from the BC

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 25

Axially Loaded Bar Example

An analytical solution cannot always be found

Approximate Solution - The Galerkin Approach (#3): Multiply by the weight function

w and integrate over the domain

L

0

AE

d

2

u

dx

2

wdx +

L

0

axwdx = 0

Apply integration by parts

L

0

AE

d

2

u

dx

2

wdx =

AE

du

dx

w

l

0

−

L

0

AE

du

dx

dw

dx

dx ⇒

L

0

AE

d

2

u

dx

2

wdx =

AE

du

dx

(L)w(L) − AE

du

dx

(0)w(0)

−

L

0

AE

du

dx

dw

dx

dx

But from BC we have u(0) = 0, AE

du

dx

(L)w(L) = Rw(L), therefore the approximate

weak form can be written as

L

0

AE

du

dx

dw

dx

dx = Rw(L) +

L

0

axwdx

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 26

Axially Loaded Bar Example

Variational Approach (#2)

Let us signify displacement by u and a small (variation of the) displacement by δu. Then

the various works on this structure are listed below:

δW

int

= A

L

0

σδεdx

δW

ext

= Rδu|

x=L

δW

body

=

L

0

qδudx

In addition, σ = E

du

dx

Then, from equilibrium: δW

int

= δW

ext

+ δW

body

→ A

L

0

E

du

dx

d(δu)

dx

dx =

L

0

qδudx + Rδu|

x=L

This is the same form as earlier via another path.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 27

Axially Loaded Bar Example

In Galerkin’s method we assume that the approximate solution, u can be expressed as

u(x) =

n

j =1

u

j

N

j

(x)

w is chosen to be of the same form as the approximate solution (but with arbitrary

coeﬃcients w

i

),

w(x) =

n

i =1

w

i

N

i

(x)

Plug u(x),w(x) into the approximate weak form:

L

0

AE

n

j =1

u

j

dN

j

(x)

dx

n

i =1

w

i

dN

i

(x)

dx

dx = R

n

i =1

w

i

N

i

(L) +

L

0

ax

n

i =1

w

i

N

i

(x)dx

w

i

is arbitrary, so the above has to hold ∀ w

i

:

n

j =1

L

0

dN

j

(x)

dx

AE

dN

i

(x)

dx

dx

u

j

= RN

i

(L) +

L

0

axN

i

(x)dx i = 1 . . . n

which is a system of n equations that can be solved for the unknown coeﬃcients u

j

.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 28

Axially Loaded Bar Example

The matrix form of the previous system can be expressed as

K

ij

u

j

= f

i

where K

ij

=

_

L

0

dN

j

(x)

dx

AE

dN

i

(x)

dx

dx

and f

i

= RN

i

(L) +

_

L

0

axN

i

(x)dx

Finite Element Solution - using 2 discrete elements, of length h (3 nodes)

From the iso-parametric formulation we know the element stiﬀness matrix

K

e

=

AE

h

_

1 −1

−1 1

_

. Assembling the element stiﬀness matrices we get:

K

tot

=

_

_

K

e

11

K

1

12

0

K

1

12

K

1

22

+ K

2

11

K

2

12

0 K

2

12

K

2

22

_

_

⇒

K

tot

=

AE

h

_

_

1 −1 0

−1 2 −1

0 −1 1

_

_

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 29

Axially Loaded Bar Example

We also have that the element load vector is

f

i

= RN

i

(L) +

_

L

0

axN

i

(x)dx

Expressing the integral in iso-parametric coordinates N

i

(ξ) we have:

dξ

dx

=

2

h

, x = N

1

(ξ)x

e

1

+ N

2

(ξ)x

e

2

, ⇒

f

i

= R|

i =4

+

_

L

0

a(N

1

(ξ)x

e

1

+ N

2

(ξ)x

e

2

)N

i

(ξ)

2

h

dξ

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 30

Strong Form - 2D Linear Elasticity FEM

Governing Equations

Equilibrium Eq: ∇

s

σ +b = 0 ∈ Ω

Kinematic Eq: = ∇

s

u ∈ Ω

Constitutive Eq: σ = D · ∈ Ω

Traction B.C.: τ · n = T

s

∈ Γ

t

Displacement B.C: u = u

Γ

∈ Γ

u

Hooke’s Law - Constitutive Equation

Plane Stress

τ

zz

= τ

xz

= τ

yz

= 0,

zz

= 0

D =

E

1 −ν

2

_

_

1 ν 0

ν 1 0

0 0

1−ν

2

_

_

Plane Strain

zz

= γ

xz

= γ

yz

= 0, σ

zz

= 0

D =

E

(1 −ν)(1 + ν)

_

_

1 −ν ν 0

ν 1 −ν 0

0 0

1−2ν

2

_

_

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 31

2D FE formulation: Discretization

Divide the body into ﬁnite elements connected to each other through

nodes

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 32

2D FE formulation: Iso-Parametric Formulation

Shape Functions in Natural Coordinates

N

1

(ξ, η) =

1

4

(1 −ξ)(1 −η), N

2

(ξ, η) =

1

4

(1 + ξ)(1 −η)

N

3

(ξ, η) =

1

4

(1 + ξ)(1 + η), N

4

(ξ, η) =

1

4

(1 −ξ)(1 + η)

Iso-parametric Mapping

x =

4

i =1

N

i

(ξ, η)x

e

i

y =

4

i =1

N

i

(ξ, η)y

e

i

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 33

Bilinear Shape Functions

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 34

2D FE formulation: Matrices

from the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (see slide #9)

∂Π

∂d

= 0 ⇒ K· d = f

where

K

e

=

_

Ω

e

B

T

DBdΩ, f

e

=

_

Ω

e

N

T

BdΩ +

_

Γ

e

T

N

T

t

s

dΓ

Gauss Quadrature

I =

_

1

−1

_

1

−1

f (ξ, η)dξdη

=

Ngp

i =1

Ngp

i =1

W

i

W

j

f (ξ

i

, η

j

)

where W

i

, W

j

are the weights and

(ξ

i

, η

j

) are the integration points.

Institute of Structural Engineering Method of Finite Elements II 35

Structural mechanics

Structural mechanics

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