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Noun

Noun is a word which names a person, a place or a thing. For example chair, table, book, New York, computer, cup, boy, John, hospital, Newton, garden, room, man, Paris, doctor, and pen are nouns because each of these words is a name of a person, a place or a thing. Examples. Chair, table, book, cup, computer, picture, (names of things) New York, Paris, Canada, Toronto, school, hospital, cinema, garden, (names of places) John, Newton, R.H Stephen, Einstein, man, boy, doctor (names of persons)

Types of Noun
There are two main types of noun.

 

Common Noun Proper Noun

Common Noun. Name of a common or a non-specific thing, place, or person is called common noun. Common noun refers to a non-specific or non-particular thing, place or person. For example book, pen, room, garden man, girl, road, camera, month, day, chair, school, boy, car, are common nouns because each of these nouns refers to a common thing, place or person. Proper Noun. Name of a particular or a specific thing, place or person is called proper Noun. For example BMW Car, April, Monday, Oxford University, New York, America, John, Newton, Einstein, R.H Stephen, are proper nouns because each of these nouns refers to a particular thing, place or person. If a common noun is specified it becomes a proper noun. For example day is a common noun but if it is specified like Monday or Friday, it becomes proper noun. Similarly car is a common noun but if it is specified like BMW Car, it becomes proper noun.

Use of CAPITAL LETTER for proper noun.

The first letter of proper noun is always written in capital letter. Examples. He lives in Paris. She studies in Oxford University. Author of this book is John Stephen. Laws of motion were presented by Newton The richest person of the world is Bill Gates.

Use of “THE” for proper noun.
The article “the” is used before some proper nouns. Here are some rules for the use of article “the” before proper nouns.

Article “the” is not used before the name of countries, cities, for example New York, America, Mexico, Canada, Toronto, London, Paris, America. But if the name of country or city or place expresses group of places or lands

“The” is used before the names of buildings. i.. for example Oxford University. an onion. room. Pen. cup. a cat. an hour. the North Pole “The” is usually used before the names of organizations for example. chair. Pen is countable noun because we can count it and can say one pen.e. (NOUN continued to NEXT PAGE) Countable and Uncountable Nouns Countable Nouns. no article will be used. But if the name of university is written in a order that it includes the word “of” then article “the” will be used before it.. dog. the Library of Congress. Plural noun (Countable Noun) Plural noun means more than one person... for example. the United States Article “the” is not used before the name of universities. A countable noun can be singular as well as plural. For example. a pen.. the Association of Chartered Accountants. Singular and Plural noun (Countable Noun) A countable noun can be singular as well as plural. the West.e. Article “a” or “an” is used before singular noun but not before plural noun. the Netherlands. bottle. baby.. for example Newton’s Laws of Motion. Yale University. If a singular noun starts with consonant letter then “a” is used before it. For example. man. baby. the Lahore Museum. Pen. a book. ...e. Hooke’s Law of Elasticity. bottle. the World Health Organization. the Fahrenheit Scale. two pens.. two books.... chair. Article “a” or “an” is used before singular noun but not before plural noun. libraries having particular names.. But if the proper noun is used in possessive form. for example. or Columbia University. "book" is countable noun because we can count it and can say one book. the Philippines. man... dog. cup. If a singular noun starts with consonant letter then “a” is used before it. “an” is used before it i. “The” is used before the name of a geographical region and points on globe. A noun which can be counted is called countable noun.. the River Nile “The” is used before the names of laws. place or thing.. a book. cat are examples countable nouns. hotels..      or states.. for example the Middle East. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures.. for example the New York city. If a singular noun starts with. for example the Brunel Hotel. cat are examples countable nouns. an umbrella... a pen. the University of Toronto. a cat. If a singular noun starts with a vowel letter or with consonant which sounds like vowel in that word. then article “the” will be used before it. three pens or more pens. Word “chair” is a singular noun but word “chairs” is plural noun. i.. the Pythagorean Theorem. the university of Oxford.. the Dominion of Canada. Article “the” is used before names composed of both common noun and proper noun. three books and so on.. A noun which can be counted is called countable noun. principles. the Law of Newton.. Countable and Uncountable Nouns Countable Nouns. the Equator. room. an apple. theories or devices.. the Allais effect. the University of British Colombia.

for example. warmth. baby–babies. This information is very helpful in solving the problem. Wheat – a grain of wheat. water is an uncountable noun because we cannot count it. We can change uncountable noun into countable noun if we specify a unit or measuring standard for it. honesty. the “y” is changed to “I” then –es is added to make it plural. Such plurals are called irregular plural forms. Water maintains its level. Uncountable nouns are usually treated as singular noun for auxiliary verbs in sentence but articles “a or an” are usually not used before uncountable nouns. In this example we selected a unit that is glass. Uncountable – countable Bread – a piece of bread. information. The warmth of sun causes evaporation of water.   Plurals are usually formed by adding –s or –es to singular noun for example book–books. bread. cat–cats. Uncountable noun refers to substances which cannot be counted. Uncountable Nouns. Some plural are formed in different ways for example. man–men. Use of Uncountable Nouns. The Weather is very pleasant today. lives. There is little milk in the glass. Examples. basis–bases. foot–feet. preparation. There may be some exceptions. If a word ends with “y”. wife–wives. Such substances which cannot be counted in terms of numbers are called uncountable noun. Examples. toot–teeth. rain. By selecting such units or measuring standards we can change uncountable noun in to countable which can be counted in terms of numbers. no. honey. deer–deer. For example “water” is an uncountable noun but we can make it countable by saying one glass of water or two glass of water etc. any. wheat are examples of uncountable nouns. little. We can also use word like “some. sheep–sheep. milk. For example life is uncountable noun but it be used as countable noun if refers to individual. Necessity is the mother of invention His preparation was not good. Examples. It was feared that two lives had been lost. Milk – a glass of milk Information – a piece of information . Uncountable nouns may be used as countable noun when it refers to an individual thing. leaf–leaves. Some nouns have same plural and singular form. furniture. box– boxes. music. for example. pleasure. Examples: Water. Example. We can also say one litre of water or one cup of water etc. weather. news. swine–swine. lady–ladies. child–children. We cannot say. tax–taxes. courage. more etc” before uncountable nouns if needed in sentence. Changing Uncountable nouns into countable nouns. They have no information about the accused. datum–data. For example. one water or two water.

such verbs are called “stative verb” and are not usually used in continuous tense for example be. V2 and V3 respectively. look—looked—looked. weep. impress. Examples. resemble. Formation of past simple and past participle On the basis formation of past simple and past participle. speak. Some verbs form their past simple and past participle form by adding ―-ed‖ to their base form. please. She looks very beautiful. which are denoted by V1. “went‖ is past simple form. the verb “write” tells us about the action (writing) of the subject (he).Verb Verb is a word which shows action or state of something. are some verbs He is writing a letter. go—going. Verbs describe action or state. catch. In the above example.  Base form 2. Write. clean. Most verbs describe action. eat. A verb has its subject in sentence and verb tells us what its subject does. Past participle For example. for example write. Some examples Verb Base form or V1 Past simple or V2 Past participle or Present participle . Example. He works in a factory(action) I boughta computer. Past Simple 4. Verb has three forms according to tense. such verbs are called “dynamic verb”. speak. (look as stative verb) She looked at black board. eat. (action) John seems happy. (state) He resembles his brother (state) Some verbs can be used as dynamic verb as well as stative verb. Some verbs describe state of something. run. 2nd form and 3rd form of verb. eat—eating. surprise. for example. drink. laugh—laughing. laugh. run. (look as dynamic verb) Forms of verb according to tense or time of action. belong to. ―ing‖ is added to base form verb to make present participle which can be used with auxiliary verb “to be” in continuous tense. go—went—gone. and “gone” is past participle form. did or will do. consist of. seem Examples. These three form may also be named as 1st form. verb is divided into   Regular verbs Irregular verbs Regular Verbs. “Go‖ is base form. for example laugh—laughed—laughed. such verbs are called regular verbs.

Some verbs form their past simple and participle in different ways for example.e. Some example Past participle or Present participle V3 cut shut spread put read Cutting Shutting Spreading Putting reading Verb To cut To shut To spread To put To read Base form or V1 cut shut spread put read Past simple or V2 cut shut spread put read Main Verbs and Auxiliary or Helping verbs A sentence can have both main verb and helping verb (auxiliary verb).V3 To advise To allow To enjoy To rain To smile advise allow enjoy rain smile advised allowed enjoyed rained smiled advised allowed enjoyed rained smiled Advising Allowing Enjoying Raining Smiling Irregular Verbs. such verbs are called irregular verbs. i. eat etc. buy. Main verb: A verb which has major meaning in terms of action are called main verb. . eat—ate— eaten. write. Some examples Past participle or V3 known gone drunk held written Verb To know To go To drink To hold To write Base form or V1 know go drink hold wriite Past simple or V2 knew went drank held wrote Present participle Knowing Going Drinking Holding Writing Some verbs remain same in past simple and past participle. buy—bought—bought.

Main verb has real meaning and tells more about action while helping verb has no (or little) meaning if it is alone but it adds time information about action if used with main verb to specify the tense or time of the main verb. and have. They do not play chess. and was" tells us the about the time of action by referring to specific tense. according a specific tense.e. Example. (Present Continuous tense)  Have (have. There are three primary helping verbs. (Present simple tense) I did not see him. have.  Be (am. is.e. It means the MAIN VERB CONVEYS the meaning of action with a little information about its time. write. are). i. Helping verb: A verb which supports the main verb to form the structure of sentence (according to a specific tense) and give us information about the time of action expressed by main verb. but the HELPING VERB (also called auxilliary Verb) tell us more about the time of action. In first sentence with helping verb "is" action (eating an apple) is being done right now in the present time while in the second sentence with hepling verb "was" action (eating an apple) was being done in past. (“eat” is main verb while “was” is helping verb) The main verbs in these sentences “eat” convey the information about the action which is done on an apple. does. Forms of “have” are used in perfect tense. be. She is laughing. do. will etc. buy.Helping verb: A verb which supports the main verb to form the structure of sentence. (“eat” is main verb while “is” is helping verb) She was eating an apple. (VERB continued to NEXT PAGE) Main Verbs and Helping verbs (Axilliary) A sentence can have both main verb and helping verb (auxiliary verb). while the helping verbs in these sentences "is. am. is called helping verb or auxiliary verb. present simple tense or past simple tense.e. (Present prefect tense) He had bought a car. (Past simple) . has. i. is. The examples below will help in better understanding. have. i. did). is called helping verb or auxiliary verb. Forms of “do” are used in indefinite(simple) tenses i. was. He has completed his work. is. (Past perfect tense)  Do(do. eat etc. She is eating an apple. had. Forms of “be” are used for continuous tenses. Main verb: A verb which has major meaning in terms of action are called main verb. is. Example. was. had. will etc.e. which are majorly used in tenses. is. Example. am. had). Helping verbs and main verbs together make a structure of sentence of a specific tense (action and its time) Use of helping verbs.

Transitive and intransitive verbs Transitive Verbs. I will call you. More examples. Transitive verbs should have an object in sentence because without subject it does not covey complete meaning. I caught a bird in bushes. or He bought a computer. shall. You must learn the test-taking strategies. Examples. She wrote a story. A verb which needs to have object in sentence is called transitive verb. could (ability) May might (possibility) Will. or He bought a computer.       Can. To make it more meaningful we use some object for verb “bought” i. Without an object the verb “bought” does not give complete meaning. . John is eating a mango. possibility. Example. She is laughing. Intransitive verb can give complete meaning with an object in sentence for it. Example.Modal Verbs (Modal auxiliaries) Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as ability.e book or computer or car. He bought ______. Intransitive sentence. It may rain today. Examples I can play violin. He has completedhis work. A verb which does not need to have object in sentence is called intransitive. They arrived. There should be some object in this sentence for verb “buy”. He bought a book. It has rained. would (intention) Should (necessity) Must (necessity) Ought to Modal verbs can be used before main verb as helping verbs. He is running. He slept. intention or necessity.

Intelligent. Examples. ugly. taste. brave. Use of adjective in sentence. More than one adjective can also be used for a single noun in sentence. old house. tall man. courageous. beautiful girl entered into the room. She bought a red car. The tall. Poor can’t afford expensive clothes. thin. sound. and short are adjectives and they describe physical characteristic of a noun or pronoun. The tall. beautiful and intelligent girl entered into the room. old.   Before noun After some verbs (After stative verbs like seem. be (when used as stative verb). slim. The beautiful girl entered into the room. yellow. green. house. appear.    White. Adjective are used after such verbs which behaves like stative verbs.e. The words “tall. purple. For example. exuberant and diligent are adjective and they describe the personal traits of a noun or pronoun. For example. and black are adjectives because they mention the colour of noun or pronoun. brown. size. thin. beautiful girl entered into the room. characteristic. Beautiful. He is facing a difficult problem. The tall. orange. fat. I saw a cute baby. and car” in these examples. Some examples. red car. determined. Use of adjective after verbs. quality. Adjective is used in sentence at two places depending upon the structure of sentence. feel. red. Severe headache and fever are symptoms of malaria. black. A fat man was running in the street. quantity or personal traits of a noun or pronoun. Iron is hot “Hot” is adjective in the above sentence which comes after “is” and “is” behaves like a stative verb in this . I don’t like hot tea. look. feel etc) Use of adjective before noun (Examples): He ate a delicious mango. thin. They live in a small home. Adjectives may be used after stative verbs (i.Adjective Adjective is a word that modifies (gives more information about) a noun or pronoun. red” are adjectives which give more information about nouns “man. tall. seem. be). An adjective gives information about the colour. look. pretty.

That book was good. Your problem seems difficult. Positive Adjective 2. The story sounds interesting. This pizza tastes delicious. He is stupid. Degrees of Adjectives and their use.sentence. 1. She looks attractive. Comparative Adjective 3. There are three degrees of adjectives. Superlative Adjective Some Examples: Positive Big Great Short Old Large Happy Lucky Heavy Beautiful Horrible Good Bad Little Many Bigger Greater Shorter Older Larger Happier Luckier Heavier More beautiful More horrible Better Worse Less More Comparative Biggest Greatest Shortest Oldest Largest Happiest Luckiest Heaviest Most beautiful Most horrible Best Worst Least Most Superlative (ADJECTIVE continued to NEXT PAGE) See Use of Comparative and Superlative Adjectives . “Hot” after verb “is” but it tells us about the noun (subject) “iron” Examples. The man became angry.

Bills Gate is Brunel is the Mount Everest is She is the Our generation His house is The winter is the coldest time of year. It makes comparison among things more than two. him its etc. he. world. See the following examples. Examples. He goes to school daily. than difficult a Use of Superlative adjective. Examples. the most the is the richest beautiful highest tallest the biggest person hotel mountain girl most in in in in in the world. his.g. So. Superlative is the highest degree of a thing in comparison to other things. For example. Example. street. England.Use of comparative adjective. Comparative adjectives are used to express characteristic of one thing in comparison to other things (many things). they. her. . A superlative adjective means that a object is surpassing all others (things in comparison) in quality or characteristic. John is the most intelligent student in his class. John is an intelligent student. she. It means John is surpassing all other students in his class and no other student in his class is as intelligent as John. me. He will get high marks examination. it. She is A cup is He is Chinese is more Paris is more beautiful than New York. Word “than” is mostly used after comparative adjective but sometimes other words “to” may be used after comparative adjective. modern. e. Article “the” is used before superlative degree. the purpose of pronoun is to avoid the repetition of a noun. In the above paragraph pronoun “he” is used instead of noun “John”. “In” or “of” etc is used after the superlative and modifying noun in sentence. Comparative adjectives are used to express characteristic of one thing in comparison to another thing (one thing). He is making preparation for examination. taller smaller junior than to than Mary. Pronoun Pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun. He studies a lot. It makes comparison between two things (only two things not more than two). English. class. If we do not use pronoun in above paragraph we will have to use the noun “John” again and again in each sentence. glass.

hers. our and whose. him. it. herself . Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I. 2. him. her. those Types of Pronoun There five types of pronoun 1. are the pronouns which are mostly used. one another Relative Pronouns: e. them. Demonstrative Pronoun Personal Possessive Reflixive Relative Pronoun Pronoun Pronoun Pronoun Personal Pronouns. that these. her. itself. they. me. it. ours.g. him. whom. Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I.g. Personal pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group. its. them). 4. theirs. which. they.g. his. myself.g. mine. themselves Reciprocal Pronoun: e. she. whose. her. 5. them.g. it. her. yourself. himself. they. him. me. ourselves. whom Possessive Pronouns: e. this. He. or the person or thing spoken about (he. (PRONOUN continued to NEXT PAGE) Types of Pronoun There five types of pronoun 1. 2. us. that. herself. this. each other. He. Reflexive Pronouns: e. myself. who. 3. she.Examples. 3. Personal Pronoun Possessive Pronoun Reflixive Pronoun Relative Pronoun Demonstrative Pronoun Personal Pronouns. yours. it. who. whom. we. we. you. me. I. she. or the person or thing spoken about (he. we. himself. they. me. you. the person spoken to (you). that Demonstrative Pronoun: e. those. 5. she. Examples.       Personal Pronouns: e. his. yourself. your. their. us). these. the person spoken to (you). Personal pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group. Pronoun can be divided into following groups. them). 4. who. I. which. . us). mine.g.

letter. e. theirs. She They He It We The I He Did you go to home? sent are love teacher met is is me playing our appreciated him a gave her a intelligent chess.g. She. them. yours. Her. Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronoun indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/person to another thing/person. Personal Pronoun Namber Person Subject 1st Person Singular 2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person I You He. ours. Use of Personal Pronouns. raining. He helps poor. It We You They Object Me You Him.Example. The pronoun “mine” describes the relationship between book and a person (me) who possesses this book or who is the owner of this book. Example. his. country. hers. It Us You Them Examples. yesterday. hers. This book is mine. The pronoun “he” in above sentence describes a person who helps poor. Namber Singular Person 1st Person Possessive Pronoun Mine . gift. mine.

Namber Singular Person 1st Person 2nd Person Subject I You Reflive Pronoun Myself Yourself . yours. the cup camera. your) may be confused with possessive pronouns. Both possessive adjective and possessive show possession or ownership. Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects. Examples. its Ours Yours Theirs Examples. Possessive adjective modifies noun in terms of possession. and they require an interaction between the subject and an object. yourself. (Possessive adjective: “my” modifies the noun This book is mine. but possessive adjective is used (with noun) to modify the noun while Possessive pronoun is used instead (in place of) a noun. his. (Possessive pronoun: “mine” is used instead of noun “to whom the book belongs”) (Types of Pronoun Continued to NEXT PAGE) See "Reflixive. hers. This is my book. theirs. her. e. old. That car Your book is The pen on The smallest The voice The car is I have lost my They received your letter. Relative and Demonstrative Prounouns “book”) Reflexive Pronoun. ours is Mine table is May is I not is is use hers.g himself. mine. herself. themselves. Did you received theirs. yours? Note: Possessive adjectives (my. new. Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subject’s action affects the subject itself.2nd Person 3rd Person 1st Person Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person Yours Hers. ourselves. itself are reflexive pronouns.

John and Marry are talking to each other. more subjects act in same way to one another. She pleases herself by think that she will win the prize. He himself decided to go to New York. OR. See the following examples of intensive pronouns.3rd Person 1st Person Plural 2nd Person 3rd Person He. He bought a car for himself. There are two reciprocal pronouns   Each other One another. The car and the bus collided with each other. or Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects act in same way towards each other. she herself started to think about herself. Herself. Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Examples. For example. Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to the other. The students gave cards to one another. Two boys were pushing each other. I looked at myself in the mirror. She herself washed the clothes. Usage and function of intensive pronoun are different from that of reflexive pronoun. Examples. He who loves only himself is a selfish. Examples. A loves B and B love A. we can say that A and B loves each other. she. Relative Pronouns. Reciprocal Pronouns. The students in the class greeted one another. The people helped one another in hospital. it is called “Intensive Pronoun”. I myself did it. In the above sentence the first “herself” is used as intensive pronoun while the second “herself” is used as reflexive pronoun. . or. (Intensive Pronouns) I did it myself. They prepared themselves for completion. it We You They Himself. For example. Note: Reflexive noun can also be used to give more emphasis on subject or object. If a reflexive pronoun is used to give more emphasis on a subject or an object. He locked himself in the room. You should think about yourself. She herself told me.

Or Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences. which. Short distance or time: This. Adjective is a word that modifies noun. those. in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are ―it is the person‖ and ―who helped her‖. Examples. The most commonly used five relative pronouns are. Examples. “That” is used for people and things. these. Demonstrative pronouns “this and that” are used for singular thing while “these or those” are used for plural things.Relative Pronoun describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it. these. none. That is heavy. whom. It is the girl who got first position in class. whose. Those look attractive.g. It is the planning that makes succeed. For example. that. “who” and “whom” are used for people. In this sentence the word “who” is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun (the person) which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (It is the person) and more information (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the person). Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things. “Which” is used for things. It is the person. Demonstrative Pronouns. “Who” is for subject and “whom” is used for object. See "Personal and Possessive Pronoun" . The car which I like is red. Similarly. The man whom I met yesterday is a nice person. The boy who is laughing is my friend. that. Long distance or time: That. who. e. Examples This is black. neither These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long distance/time. Can you see these? Do you like this? John brought these. “Whose” is used to show possession and can be used for both people and things. who helped her. Have you tried this. those. It is the boy whose father is doctor. this.