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ASSIGNMENT 1

DEFINITIONS OF CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

1).

A contemporary society is defined as a setting characterized by technological innovation and increasing human interconnection and globalization. It brings about changes such as increased life expectancy, literacy and gender equality, bringing a natural equilibrium.

2).

Contemporary society, according to social and political scientists, is characterized by at least three fundamental directions: 1increasing human interconnection through a network of relationships that is progressively covering the whole planet; 2the pace and depth of the evolution of human ways of life determined by technological innovation represent an absolute novelty in human history; 3the scale of anthropological and ecological transformation due to the interaction between evolutionary factors (social, cultural, economic, and technological) has no historical precedent.

even if it is carried on by local advertising agencies in Tokyo. the driving engines of much contemporary advertising are those large American corporations that perceive advertising as an indispensable element in their companies' profitability. Both the manufacturer and the advertising agency share in advertising. on the other. By its nature. The ultimate responsibility for advertising. The kind of advertising being discussed therefore can be appropriately called "American". is a process of persuading a mass audience through the mass media to buy commercial products. Hyundai. even those who do not doubt the general morality of that effect. lies with the manufacturer. call into question the ethics of many of the means employed and the appropriateness of particular campaigns. Such local advertising as announcements of food prices in supermarkets or of sales in department stores is ethically less problematic than the expensive. although its only intention is to sell. or Volvo.RELATION OF ADVERTISING IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY Nature of Advertising “Advertising". Moreover. or in the broader sense of what forms of advertising are doing to human discourse in general. health warnings sponsored by non-profit organizations.. Their dependence on advertising has set a precedent which others feel they must follow in order to remain competitive. Volkswagen. however. as we usually understand it in contemporary society. even if it is used to sell the products of Sony. Large-scale commercial advertising is characteristically Western. advertising changes and directs human behavior and culture. and from "public service announcements" such as the times of church services. An agency only devises a format which the . Toyota. on the other hand. The main criticisms leveled against advertising deal with ethics in the narrow sense of conscious distortion and manipulation. It is distinguished from direct selling-the hawker of merchandise in a public market. Nestle. Shell. its pattern is overwhelmingly American in origin. Singapore or Nairobi. The manufacturer devises the marketing strategy. wide ranging advertising campaigns of national or multinational corporations. Furthermore. who purchases it. The critics. and the agency develops ways to carry it out. etc.

but they represent an assumption on the part of the advertiser that the majority of potential buyers of that particular product are men. etc. . and consequently take pains to avoid offending them. but it would be selfdestructive for the beer industry to advertise it as such. Beer commercials are only one form in which the myth appears. how men relate to each other and to women. just that it is used more subtly. Beer-drinking itself is never portrayed as a challenge. If dissatisfied with one agency's approach. self. what kinds of things men do. or can devise its own campaign. Most advertisers now realize that women have at least as much buying power as men. Also. take part in its continuity construction". The advertising works both as a mirror and as a reinforcement for the myth. even though it poses many challenges. we can discuss the ways in which the myth of masculinity is expressed in beer commercials. and in this sense. beer-drinking is a challenge in itself. Drawing on research on the relationship between alcohol advertising and drunken driving.manufacturer can accept or reject. what environments are to be preferred by men. Changes have occurred in the use of gender references in advertising in recent years which are owed more to the advertiser's perception of their audience than to any considerations of morality. Therefore. ethics in advertising is essentially tied to ethics in marketing. Alcohol affects judgment. mastery over nature. slows reaction time and threatens selfcontrol. Gender stereotypes and myths are interwoven in beer commercials and their contexts. Beer is a reward for challenges met and overcome. since it is found in ordinary non-mediated communication as well as in all sorts of mass media contents. The ads both reflect and reinforce the culture's conception of "the man's man". This does not mean that there is less sex in contemporary advertising. technology. Since the manufacturer's role is so great. others. Myths in any culture tell the boys and men of that society what it means to be a man. the manufacturer can go another until satisfied. decency or good taste. dominate the image of masculine activity portrayed by the commercials. The motives are obvious. Gender The origin of the use of pictures of women as sex symbols in advertising is lost in the early history of the industry. so beer ads "reshape the myth of masculinity. or even to the influence of the feminist movement. how boys become men. myths take different forms each time they are related. Challenge. Each of these concerns is defined in beer commercials. risk.

The myth of masculinity has a number of redeeming features. For the most part.org/book/Series05/V-4/chapter_vi. but the beer commercials present only one dimension of masculinity. given the social problems which stem from alcohol abuse.In the world of beer commercials. advertisers also promote and perpetuate these images and myths. an association that is particularly alarming. but without doubt sobering. in promoting beer. possibly laughable.htm . stereotypical images of men.crvp. which is clearly antagonistic. Furthermore. masculinity revolves around the theme of challenge. Thus. the commercials are highly accessible and attractive to children and offer answers to their questions about gender and adulthood. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www. They have real impact on social learning and attitude formation. and uphold the prevailing myths of masculinity and femininity. beer commercials present traditional.