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12/7/12

ILS Approaches

Flying the ILS

Although it looks like a DC-3, it's a DC-2. Douglas Aircraft Company manufactured only 156 DC-2s before introducing the DC-3. An ILS is an ILS is an ILS. Well, not exactly. Here follows eight ILS approaches, each differing from the other in some manner. As you fly these approaches, hopefully without benefit of the autopilot, except for the final flight, you can't help but notice that tracking the localizer and glide slope is getting easier and easier. As you come to the end of this section, you might find that keeping the needles centered within half a dot is no longer much challenge. The only method to achieve that level of flying, is "flying by the numbers." Without consistency little success can be achieved. While flying, keep a chart near at hand that contains the important flight settings. Here's the chart that I use for the Cessna Nav Trainer. Note
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12/7/12

ILS Approaches

that the power settings are only approximate and will vary with altitude, but they are a good place to begin. Cessna Nav Trainer Flight Settings Nav Trainer Climb Cruise-Level, 5000 ft Cruise-Descend Approach-Level Approach-Descend Approach-Glide Slope RPM 2500 2500 2350 2050 1800 1750 Flaps – – – one notch one notch one notch KTs 90 110 110 75 75 75 FPM Maintain 90 kts – 500 – 500 400

Click here to print the table. Note that your flight settings may vary. Prepare a chart similar to this for each aircraft you fly. Add a Manifold Pressure column if the aircraft has a constant speed propeller. Print this, or make your own, and fasten it to a piece of cardboard. Construct such a chart for every aircraft that you fly and keep them next to your monitor for easy access. * * * The ILS Approaches Before beginning the ILS approaches, firmly understand the meaning of DH, Decision Height. The DH is the lowest height to which the approach can be conducted by instrument reference alone. From that point on you must be able to see either the runway or the approach lights and be able to execute a safe visual landing. If not, a missed approach is required. NOTE: YOU WILL GET THE GREATEST BENEFIT FROM THIS SECTION IF YOU FLY EACH APPROACH A SECOND TIME BEFORE MOVING TO THE NEXT FLIGHT. FLYING EACH A THIRD TIME IS EVEN BETTER. ALL FLIGHTS ARE VERY SHORT. * * *
www.navfltsm.addr.com/ils-appr.htm

"Florida?" I repeated, dumbfounded. "Yeah," The Boss answered, "Mrs. Grayson wants her ferrets flown down there, to Palatka, to be with her for the winter—wants personal handling, know that they won't be sitting out beside the baggage compartment of some plane in this subfreezing temperature." It had all happened so fast. Florida looked mighty good now after the fourteen-inch snowfall in New England a few days back. I was ready to go in an hour. Mrs. Grayson's chauffeur had brought the ferrets to the airport with their cage, and I left for Palatka in my Nav Trainer. Ferrets delivered, I was now at the motel, pool-side to be exact, enjoying the warm sun and beautiful temperature. Life was good. "Sir, are you the charter pilot?" The desk clerk had approached with a sheet of paper in his hand. "A fax for you," he said, handing it to me, and left. "Tried reaching you since early this morning. Please answer your phone. Had to get the motel fax number from your Boss." "I'll be there in an hour. Need a flight to Gainesville. Want to catch a sunset hot air balloon ride tonight." It was boldly signed "Counter." Very boldly signed. The weather was going to change in a few hours, be uncharacteristically
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do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts. and Rwy 29 for FSX). Maybe it would be a bumpy flight. I'd get Counter to Gainesville. Larkin airport. Palatka.zip. Click the image to access the complete flight-information package. I grabbed my towel and headed for the room to change.navfltsm. As usual. the Gainesville ILS approach plate for both Rwy 28. Once on the localizer beam it is a straight-in landing to Gainesville's Runway 28 (Rwy 29 in FSX). 28J. The zip-file includes the IFR chart. KGNV. with a destination of Gainesville. 28j gnv. Click on the image in the main text to download the flight-information package. Florida to Gainesville. Florida. 28J.com/ils-appr. but wondered whether he'd be ballooning tonight or not. but you will visualize them in your mind. and this text description of the flight. a critical part of instrument flight. Fla. KGNV. www. This first flight is easy and enjoyable.. to Gainesville. The ILS approach is to Runway 28 (Rwy 29 imnFSX). Larkin airport. with ILS approach to Runway 28 (Rwy 29 in FSX).htm .12/7/12 ILS Approaches overcast.addr. Only by doing this will you both understand the purpose of each step. Fla. We proceed southwest from Larkin to intersect the localizer to Gainesville's Runway 28 (Rwy 29 in FSX).. Palatka. The flight begins at Larkin airport in Palatka. Florida. Fla.

Tune your ADF to 269 kHz.0 NM from the Outer Marker. Turn on your MKR BCN Receiver with the switch near the OMI lights. Ident-GNV. After the Gainesville localizer is received on Nav-1 monitor your ADF needle. Takeoff from Runway 27.htm 5/33 . Tune Nav-2 to 116. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 017°.000 ft.. Fla. Your ADF will keep you informed on how close you are to intercepting the Gainesville localizer..addr. and the Blue OM light will appear on the marker beacon receiver's indicator.. • Stay on the glide slope and localizer until you reach your DH of 322 ft. descend to 1700 ft. Don't look away from the gauges until very shortly before www. airport 28J.com/ils-appr. 113. and retract the flaps to 0°.navfltsm. ident GN. and drop one notch of flaps. Runway 27. Intercept the localizer 285° inbound to Runway 28 (286° for Rwy 29 in FSX). Turn left to 260°. This will provide DME info to the airport for fs9. Climb to 3000 ft. When it nearly points to 285° (or 286° for FSX) you know the localizer intercept is very near.3 MHz.. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to Gainesville's localizer. Slow to 75 kts.2 mHz. Begin your descent to 2100 ft. keeping the localizer needle centered. This is the Dante Intersection with the localizer where you will make an altitude change. • Maintain 1700 ft. the Gainesville VOR. until intercepting the glide slope at the OM. The VOR-2 OBS setting is not a factor.12/7/12 Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 500 ft overcast. 111. Palatka. It's vital to stabilize the approach well before beginning your descent down the ILS. The wind is calm. At Dante Intersection. Move the aircraft to Larkin Airport. ident OCF. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the Ocala VOR. Descent rate should be no more than 500 to 700 fpm. the localizer track to Runway 28 (286° for Rwy 29 in FSX). • The Outer Marker beacon will sound out dashes at the FAF.7 MHz. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 285°. on the localizer intercept. when the VOR-2 needle centers. Switch the DME to Nav-1 (FSX) or to Nav-2 for fs9 to monitor progress towards Gainesville. cloud tops at 10. You are now 6. and one-half mile visibility.

htm 6/33 . • Nice start on an easy flight. • Remember. Monroeville. lower than the field elevation. about one-half mile from the runway. The Runway 28 (Rwy 29 in FSX) TDZE at Gainesville is 30 ft. • Gainesville's Runway 28 (or 29) TDZE.addr. Don't chase the needles. • Flight time: About 20 minutes. Just try to keep them from moving. on an ILS. Thus with a 322 ft DH you are 200 ft above the ground.com/ils-appr. Florida www. It should be an easy coast in from there if you've stayed on top of the needles. they will be very sensitive as you near the runway.navfltsm. is 122 ft. Alabama to Pensacola Regional. a very significant difference. if a little busy.12/7/12 ILS Approaches reaching the DH. Take a look at the plan view of the airport on the approach plate to see the difference. not the field elevation. • You've heard this before. * * * Monroe County. Touch Down Zone Elevation. the TDZE is the important elevation.

climbing out with a left turn to intercept MVC's 160° radial.000 ft. mvc-pns.. then cruise at 110 kts. 108. with some intersection work thrown in for a change of pace. with an ILS approach to Runway 17. Pensacola. The flight begins at Monroe County airport. ATC has cleared you to 5000 ft. Monroeville. This will monitor distance from MVC VOR. ident NUN.. Fla. Ala. 1. KMVC.8 MHz. with a destination of Pensacola Regional airport.htm 7/33 .zip. but you will visualize them in your mind. and this text description of the flight. Only by doing this will you both understand the purpose of each step. KPNS. Ala.8 MHz. cloud tops at 10. The wind is calm. Fly Nav-1. Pay close attention to VOR-2. do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts. airport KMVC. Turn on and leave on the VOR-2 ident so that you will hear when it becomes active. a critical part of instrument flight. Then it's a left turn for a straight-in ILS approach to Pensacola's Runway 17. Fla. This flight is also easy and enjoyable. the approach plate for ILS Rwy 17 at Pensacola. Move the aircraft to Monroe County's (Monroeville. The OFF flag will be showing because the aircraft is out of range of the NUN Omni (range is 39 NM). Set the VOR-1 OBS to 160°.12/7/12 ILS Approaches Monroe County airport. Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 500 ft overcast.. Switch the DME to Nav. As usual. The flight requires some modest VOR/DME work to identify intersections. and retract the flaps to 0°.addr. Ident-MVC. you are very close to the VOR. Takeoff from Runway 21. Ala. Pensacola. Click on the image above to download the flightinformation package. Click the image to access the complete flightinformation package. The zip-file includes the IFR chart. and one-mile visibility. Check that the OFF flag is no longer www.) Runway 21. Climb at 90 kts. after reaching your assigned altitude. The ILS approach is to Runway 17.. Intercept with a very shallow angle. 116. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to Monroeville VOR. Monroeville.navfltsm.com/ils-appr. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the Saufley VOR. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 188°. We proceed southeast and then south from Monroe County airport to the PENSI intersection. to Pensacola Regional airport.

Ident I-PNS. Check that the Nav-2 receiver is still tuned to Saufley VOR..visible before relying on this gauge. 8/33 .. At PENSI intersection immediately turn left to a 166° heading. until intercept of the glide slope. Pensacola's localizer frequency for Runway 17. Land and take satisfaction in the challenge of a busy flight. Pensacola's Runway 17 TDZE. Fly Nav-1. Track the localizer inbound. shortly before arrival at the Brent intersection. You will reach the DH near the Middle Marker. to identify the Brent Intersection. The DME will read 5.. Ident CEW. Don't descend below that point if the runway is not in sight. below you at the DH. with both VOR1 and VOR-2 needles centered. Drop one notch of flaps and slow to 75 kts. Maintain 1700 ft. about one-half mile from the runway. turn right to 188° and track that radial southward. There is no OM. Descend to 1700 ft.. Fly the MVC 160° radial until the VOR-2 needle centers. Touch Down Zone Elevation. When the VOR-2 needle centers. Retune the Nav-1 receiver to 111. Fly Nav-2. When both the VOR-1 and VOR-2 needles center. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 263°.1 MHz. Reset the VOR-1 OBS to 166°. Reset the VOR-2 OBS to 052°. Brent intersection is the FAF for the ILS approach to Runway 17. amber light on the panel. 108.8 MHz. 200 ft. Reduce power and descend down the glide slope upon intercept. The DME will read 23 to 24 NM at the intersection. Flight time: About 37 minutes. It should be an easy coast in from there if you've stayed on top of the needles. about 13-14 NM to the FAF. the heading for Pensacola's Runway 17. The DME will read 19-20 NM. Don't look away from the gauges until very shortly before reaching the DH. Stay on the glide slope and localizer until you reach your DH of 321 ft. The DME should read about 30 NM from CEW. retune the Nav-1 receiver to Crestview VOR.9 MHz. Ident NUN. After intercepting NUN's 188° radial. Descent rate should be no more than 500 to 700 fpm. DH is 321 ft. alternating dots and dashes sounding from the speaker. you are at PENSI intersection. 115.9 NM at Brent intersection. is 121 ft. Descend to 4000 ft.

"TheWildOne. I clicked on the Icon.addr. Petersburg.navfltsm. "The Buccos have always been my team . With their history. not far south of St. wondering the nature of his present crisis. check back after lunch. Short and to the point. "The Pirates will be back in the hunt again for division championship.12/7/12 ILS Approaches * * * My laptop computer was open in front of me. it read: "Nothing this morning. but a long drive around the inlet.htm . It was from Counter. a baseball team with heritage.com/ils-appr. and maybe more. McKechnie had been the Pirates' spring-training home for over thirty years." I opened the message. Earned www. Petersburg. "I have to be at McKechnie Field today in time to see the Pittsburgh Pirates play. across Tampa Bay. I read Counter's message. Can't watch them play in New England since they're in the National League." McKechnie Field was in Bradenton." the e-mail began. it's only a matter of time." The AOL Instant-Messenger Icon flashed as I was about to disconnect. Only American League sissies up there.. I spotted The Boss's e-mail message right away. I went back to the e-mail. They head north for the regular season after this game.. I was at my motel after a charter to bring a WW II history buff to visit the Holocaust Memorial Museum here in St. but didn't recognize the screen name.

I thought about Counter's e-mail. from 1909 to 1970. 457 ft.com/ils-appr. Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson were the other original members. against the Boston Pilgrims. high target for many Major League sluggers. The Bucs have the most players with 3000 hits. www. So much nostalgia surrounds the Bucs.12/7/12 ILS Approaches their name in 1890 because they 'Pirated' a star player from the Philadelphia A's.300 for his first 17 years as a big leaguer. Pitchers had a challenging task in Forbes Field. Pirate Willie Stargell led the charge with seven round-trippers. Ty Cobb. His last four-bagger. with twentyfour. In its sixtyone year history. Ruth hit three home runs against the Bucs. Pirate Bill Mazeroski was the first player to decide a World Series with a home run in the 7th game.addr. Left-center field was so deep. Recreation Park. for a total of seventeen in the ball park. too. Honus Wagner. 1935. on May 25. Forbes Field was home for the Pirates for sixty-one years. He never batted below . number 714. it was a "Man's" field. that the batting cage was stored there during ball games. In their first stadium. The Pirates always struggled for attendance.. Paul Waner and Roberto Clemente. Babe Ruth was another legendary long-ball hitter to clear that roof. Pirate "Chief" Owen Wilson set the major league record for triples (36) in a single season in this park. The right-field roof was an 86 ft. Ten different players launched eighteen home runs over that roof. That deep center field allowed a lot of room for triples and inside-the-park home runs. I gotta be at the game. was the first player to have his signature branded in a Louisville Slugger. Babe Ruth was the first to launch one over the roof. As he finished his career with the Boston Braves. It happened against the Yankees and was one of the greatest moments in World Series history. Hey. With a twelve-foot brick outfield fence. plus eleven hanger-ons. Honus Wagner. one game showed a paid attendance of six.htm 10/33 . cleared the right field roof. there was never a no-hitter thrown.navfltsm. The Pirates have the most batting championships. Pirate shortstop. He sounded a believer in the Pittsburgh Pirates. Honus Wagner was also in the first class to be inducted into the Hall of Fame. Babe Ruth. what other team can boast all this? They played the first World Series game ever in 1903.

and this text description of the flight. but with some interesting variations.addr. Click on the image above to download the flightinformation package. no OM. Petersburg Int'l airport. Again.zip. Fla. pie-srq. Florida St. Fla. Click the image to access the complete flight-information package. We proceed southwest from St. Fla. www. but must rely on a VOR radial and DME distance for the FAF. KPIE.com/ils-appr. Petersburg Int'l airport. simulated ATC instructions will be given in the form of change of altitude at certain DME distances. KSRQ. We have a nice long straight-in ILS approach to Sarasota's Runway 14.htm 11/33 .navfltsm. Florida to Sarasota/Bradenton. but pretty busy during the ILS approach. This flight is less busy. Petersburg. Petersburg. and McKechnie Field was the place to watch it played the way it should be: In the sun and on the grass. St. The flight requires some modest VOR/DME work to identify intersections. The flight originates at St. The previous flights were easy. The ILS approach is to Runway 14. The zip-file includes the IFR chart. with a destination of Sarasota/Bradenton Int'l airport. and intercept Sarasota's ILS at a rather sharp angle. to Sarasota/Bradenton Int'l airport. Fla. the approach plate for ILS Rwy 14 at Sarasota. with an ILS approach to Runway 14. KPIE. too.12/7/12 ILS Approaches I loved baseball. Also.

Petersburg's Runway 17L. Retune the Nav-2 receiver to 115. Drop one notch of flaps and slow to 75 kts. and retract the flaps to 0°. Ident SRQ. turn left and track inbound at 136°. The wind is calm. . FRUGL intersection is 6. Only by doing this will you both understand the purpose of each step. Petersburg VOR.. Set VOR-2 OBS to 135°.As usual. Begin descent to 2000 ft.. Move the aircraft to St. 111. That is because of the location of the VOR on the field relative to the runway. Fly Nav-2. Ignore that for the moment and climb straight out until intercepting the 188° radial. Stay on the glide slope and localizer until you reach your DH of 224 ft. but you will visualize them in your mind. until intercept of the glide slope. It is the FAF for the ILS approach to Runway 14. Don't look away from the gauges until very shortly before reaching the DH... climbing straight out to intercept PIE's 188° radial. Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 400 ft overcast. Sarasota's VOR. do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 136°. about one-half mile from the runway. Don't descend below that point if the runway is not .4 MHz. On intercept of Sarasota's Localizer for Runway 14. NOTE: You may be surprised to see that the VOR-2 needle indicates a left turn to intercept the 188° radial. Climb at 90 kts. Switch the DME to Nav-2..000 ft.6 NM on your DME. after reaching your assigned altitude. Fly Nav-1. You are about 13 NM from the field. airport KPIE. as a reminder of runway heading. 116. ATC has cleared you to 3000 ft. about 0. Monitor the DME along with the other flight instruments—there is no OM. and one-mile visibility. Reduce power and descend down the glide slope upon intercept. a critical part of instrument flight. Takeoff from Runway 17L. Ident I-FFV. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 188°. DH is 224 ft. cloud tops at 10.3 MHz.2 MHz. Maintain 2000 ft.3 NM from SRQ VOR. This will monitor the distance from PIE VOR. Fly the first leg with Nav-2. shortly before arrival at FRUGL intersection. ident PIE. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to Sarasota's localizer. then cruise at 110 kts. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the St.

Pat yourself on the back for a good flight. Flight time: About 22 minutes. You will reach the DH near the Middle Marker.. Touch Down Zone Elevation. Click the image to access the complete flight-information package. ism-mlb. Fla. An ILS approach doesn't get much simpler than this one. Click on the image above to download the flightinformation package. is 24 ft. to Melbourne Int'l airport. Florida to Melbourne. It should be an easy coast in from there if you've stayed on top of the needles. below you at the DH. with an ILS approach to Runway 9R. Florida Kissimmee Municipal airport.zip. The ILS approach is to Runway 9R. the approach plate for ILS Rwy 9R . Sarasota's Runway 14 TDZE.. The zip-file includes the IFR chart.in sight. The flight originates at Kissimmee Municipal airport. Fla. * * * Kissimmee. KMLB. with a destination of Melbourne Int'l airport. KISM. Fla. amber light on the panel. 200 ft. Fla. alternating dots and dashes sounding from the speaker..

Only by doing this will you both understand the purpose of each step. and retract the flaps to 0°.12/7/12 ILS Approaches at Melbourne.. You should use it for every flight where a wind is present. and this text description of the flight. The wind is almost directly on the aircraft nose during this first leg. Intercept VRB's 129° radial when the VOR gauge becomes "active.0 MHz." which will be about 3000 ft. ident MLB. slowing the ground speed to 96 kts. Set the wind at 150° at 15 kts. Near the intercept point of the 089° radial to MLB retune Nav-1 receiver to Melbourne's Localizer. At about DME 42 the VOR-1 needle should be nearly centered. airport KISM. Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 400 ft overcast.3 MHz. Climb at 90 kts. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to the Melbourne VOR.000 ft. Turn Nav-2 Ident on.. then cruise at 110 kts.. ATC has cleared you to 5000 ft. 117. Fly the first leg with Nav-2. Ident I-MLB. Except that it's time for a real-world cross wind. and placed an icon on the desktop. to recognize when that VOR becomes "active. and Ground Speeds in a matter of seconds. This will monitor the distance to VRB VOR. The Virtual E6-B calculates 3°R WCA for this cross wind and heading at 110 kts. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the Vero Beach VOR. We proceed southeast from Kissimmee and intercept Melbourne's Localizer 21 NM from the field providing a nice long straight-in ILS approach to Runway 9R. do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts. Move the aircraft to Kissimmee's Runway 15.htm 14/33 . Set the VOR-2 OBS to 129°. but you will visualize them in your mind. 110. cloud tops at 10. TAS. and leave it on. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 089°. climbing out left to 135° Fly Nav-2. a critical part of instrument flight.3 MHz. Then you will know in advance what action is necessary to counteract the effects of the wind. Takeoff from Runway 15."—hear ident and OFF flag no longer visible. This marvelous utility calculates Wind Correction Angle—WCA. and one-mile visibility. As usual.com/ils-appr. www.addr. The previous flights will make this seem very easy. By now you should have downloaded and installed the virtual E6-B computer. 108. MSL. Ident VRB.navfltsm. after reaching your assigned altitude.. Switch the DME to Nav-2..

110. amber light on the panel. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 089°. The ground speed will be 66 kts. TAS. DH is 233 ft. Inbound track is 090° but roll out on 097° heading to compensate for the cross wind You are about 17 NM from the FAF. your WCA is 10°R. Maintain 2100 ft.htm 15/33 .navfltsm. which is 330 fpm. Maintain 110 kts.8 NM on the DME. Reduce power and descend down the glide slope upon intercept. a shallower rate of descent than you are accustomed to. on final. ident MLB. The FAF. Use this level-flight part of the approach to stabilize the air speed and WCA before reaching the FAF. Melbourne's Runway 9R TDZE. Less power reduction will be needed than for a no-wind approach. Use the rule of thumb of five times ground speed for rate of descent on the glide slope.0 MHz.12/7/12 ILS Approaches Set the VOR-1 OBS to 090° as a reminder of the runway heading. It should be an easy coast in from there if you've stayed on top of the needles. Don't look away from the gauges until very shortly before reaching the DH. until instructed otherwise.addr. Flight time: About 35 minutes. The Virtual E6-B calculates 10°R WCA for this cross wind and heading at 75 kts. is 33 ft. Change Nav-2 to the Melbourne VOR.. Stay on the glide slope and localizer until you reach your DH of 233 ft. until intercept of the glide slope. Begin descent to 2100 ft. Therefore you must look slightly left to spot the runway since you are crabbing down on the approach. alternating dots and dashes sounding from the speaker. Don't descend below that point if the runway is not in sight.com/ils-appr. about one-half mile from the runway. Be attentive to this rate of descent while coming down the glide slope.. Turn left and intercept Melbourne's Localizer for Runway 9R. Remember. 200 ft. You will reach the DH near the Middle Marker. Outer Marker. www. below you at the DH. is at 7. Touch Down Zone Elevation. Fly Nav-1. Drop one notch of flaps at DME 13 and slow to 75 kts.

with an ILS approach to Runway 15. South Carolina.htm 16/33 . www. SC to Charleston. KCHS. Vance. A maintenance problem last night forced an unscheduled landing at Avinger Field in Vance. It was quickly repaired this morning and we can continue our flight to Charleston. our destination after the flight and once the weather clears. Click the image to access the flightinformation package.navfltsm.12/7/12 Melbourne Beach.addr. * * * Avinger Field. SC to Charleston. SC Avinger Field. SC87. SC.com/ils-appr. Vance. SC.

Set the VOR-2 OBS to 153°. The zip-file includes the approach plate for ILS Rwy 15 at Charleston. ATC has cleared you to 4000 ft.12/7/12 ILS Approaches our original destination. do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts.7 MHz. and this text description of the flight (No IFR Chart). until glide slope intercept at the Outer Marker. and leave it on. Only by doing this will you both understand the purpose of each step.htm 17/33 .000 ft.zip.5 MHz. 113. a critical part of instrument flight. You're not obligated to comply.com/ils-appr. Click on the image above to download the flight-information package. But the weather has turned sour so an IFR flight to Charleston is in order with an ILS approach to Runway 15. over twice that of your Nav Trainer. sc87kchs. 109. intermingled with the big iron and their 160 kts approach speed. Takeoff from Runway 13 with a right turn-out to 145°. about 27 DME from the CHS VOR. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the Charleston VOR. When the VOR-2 needle becomes alive. ident I-CHS. Turn on your MKR BCN Receiver (Switch is next to the OMI Lights). The controller has asked you to maintain 110 kts. intercept the 153° radial to CHS VOR. Turn on Nav-1 Ident. Move the aircraft to Avinger Field’s Runway 13. but you will visualize them in your mind. cloud tops at 10.. the jet jockeys can get a little testy when asked to line up over St. This flight will introduce you to the "Might is Right" rule. Ident CHS. Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 400 ft overcast. The wind is calm. Switch the DME to Nav-2. somewhere under 1500 ft MSL. As usual." You see. You fly this ILS approach into Charleston Int'l. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 153° as a reminder of the runway heading. When VOR-1 becomes active. Louis for their turn inbound behind you while you lollygog in at 75 kts.addr. airport SC87. to recognize when that VOR becomes "active." Fly Nav-2. and one-mile visibility. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to the Charleston ILS. a routine type of request at many very-busy airports. intercept the localizer and fly the rest of the way with Navwww. and to report over Atlanta for additional advisories before returning to the final approach course.navfltsm. from 20+ NM out. but if you don't the controller may ask you to do a "right 360 for spacing.

Your DH is 243 ft. Maintain 110 kts. Maintain 110 kts. In the extreme case. * * * The DME arc The next flight introduces the DME arc.com/ils-appr.addr. Charleston's Runway 15 TDZE. is 43 ft. below you at the DH. A DME-arc approach saves time. OMN. For a 16 NM DME arc the radius of the circle would be 16 NM centered on the VOR. A DME arc is a flight path that is flown at a constant distance from a VOR station. descend on the Glide Slope.htm 18/33 . Florida. at the MM. When you reach the Outer Marker. Do not descend below 243 ft unless Charleston’s Rwy 15 is in sight. it would be a 360° circle around the VOR. Flight time: About 23 minutes.navfltsm. 1 www. Lower one notch of flaps and slow to 75 kts. At DME 14 descend to 1600 ft. The illustration below shows the 16 NM DME arc from Ormond Beach VOR..12/7/12 ILS Approaches 1. Touch Down Zone Elevation. 200 ft. At DME 23 descend to 3100 ft. The time-consuming procedure turn is eliminated along with the frustration of flying away from the airport to set up the approach. It should be an easy coast in from there if you've stayed on top of the needles. entering from the north to the Runway 7L ILS approach at Daytona Beach.

navfltsm. Flying straight-line segments is the key to mastering the DME arc. The Lead Radial is 223°— 37° around the arc. This is the north-entry 16 NM DME arc. The entry point is HANAV intersection.addr. Other gauges on the panel demand attention and pre-landing duties are usually calling at this time.com/ils-appr. We will fly "15° straight-line segments." that is. constantly making small heading corrections towards the VOR. The pertinent information is written along the DME arc on the approach plate: 16 NM arc from Ormond Beach VOR. The aircraft enters the DME arc at HANAV intersection from V267 and continues around the arc until LR–223. the 223° Lead Radial. fly the route at 1600 ft.12/7/12 ILS Approaches Daytona Beach International has two DME arc approaches. To fly a DME arc perfectly accurately the pilot must concentrate solely on the DME. which Leads you into the ILS.htm 19/33 . also. no procedure turn required (or allowed). At LR–223 the pilot turns sharply to the left and intercepts the localizer." www. This is neither practical nor safe. The HANAV intersection is on OMN 260°. we will change heading by 15° increments to remain "on the arc. OMN. altitude.

do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts. and then follow a 16 NM DME arc around the Ormond Beach VOR.12/7/12 ILS Approaches Upon entering the arc. We proceed east from Larkin to V267. As usual. Lead Radial. OMN to the ILS to Daytona Beach's Runway 7L. then southbound to the HANAV intersection. the approach plate for ILS Rwy 7L at Daytona Beach. * * * Larkin airport. with an ILS approach to Runway 7L. Fla. and so forth until reaching the 223& deg. Then make a normal.1 mi.htm 20/33 . www. and this text description of the flight. Fla..navfltsm. The ILS approach is to Runway 7L. Florida Larkin airport. with a destination of Daytona Beach Int'l airport. KDAB.1 NM and make the next 15° change in heading to the left. Florida. This flight originates at Larkin airport in Palatka.addr. Palatka. Fla. turn left (in this case) by 15° and be alert again for the next shift of the DME to 16. 28J. include the DME in your instrument scan. 28j-dab. left turn to intercept the localizer.com/ils-appr. Click on the image above to download the flight-information package. Florida to Daytona Beach. The zip-file includes the IFR chart. Click the image to access the complete flight-information package. When the DME increases by 0. Palatka. to Daytona Beach Int'l airport.zip.

addr."—hear ident and OFF flag no longer visible. Ident IDAB. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to the Craig VOR. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 178°. Move the aircraft to Larkin's Runway 9. depending on the distance from the desired arc.. and one-mile visibility. 114. When the DME shows 16.0 NM.5 MHz. and leave it on. Fly Nav-2. Set the DME to Nav-2.6 MHz..1 NM turn left 15° and maintain the new heading until the DME again moves to 16. intercept V267. and retract the flaps to 0°. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 260° to identify HANAV intersection. airport 28J. MSL. When VOR-2 centers at HANAV. If the DME is more than 16. If the DME is less than 16. About 6 NM later.Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 400 ft overcast. Turn on Nav-2 Ident. Climb at 90 kts. Runway 7L Localizer. When VOR-2 centers turn right.navfltsm. Change the VOR-2 OBS to 223°. Ident OMN. and track CRG's 178° radial south bound. Tune your ADF to 263..0 NM. Change VOR-1 OBS to 070° as a reminder of the runway heading. TAS. turn right. to recognize when that VOR becomes "active." which will be about 1500 ft. begin descent to 1600 ft. ROYES intersection. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the Ormond Beach VOR. depending on the distance from the desired arc. Switch the DME to Nav-2. Maintain 110 kts. Switch the DME to Nav-1.htm . Intercept OMN's 135° radial after the VOR gauge becomes "active. If the DME keeps increasing. Fly the first leg with Nav-2.1 NM. then cruise at 110 kts. Fly Nav-2. 112. and track OMN's 135° radial south-east bound. 090°. the Daytona Beach Locator Outer Marker Beacon DA.. ident CRG. Maintain the heading determined above until the DME moves to 16.com/ils-appr. turn left to 10 to 30° to enter the DME arc. At DME 48. ATC has cleared you to 5000 ft. cut another 10° to the left and www. note the DME reading. the LR-223 radial from OMN. intercept. Change VOR-1 to 109. cloud tops at 10.0. after reaching your assigned altitude. anticipating intercept of the 135° radial to OMN. Fly Nav-1. The wind is calm. when VOR-1 centers.7 MHz.000 ft. turn right 10 to 30° to enter the DME arc.0 NM. Then return to original 178° heading. Takeoff from Runway 9 and fly due east. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 135°..

Fly Nav-1. on my way back home from Florida.htm 22/33 . with a detour tomorrow to Albany to pick up a package for The Boss. in New York. Monitor your ADF – as the needle nears 070° you are also nearing the localizer. this was my scheduled stopover for the night anyway. P-40s engaged Japanese aircraft during the attack on Pearl Harbor and also were flown in China early in 1942 by the famed Flying Tigers. * * * The P-40 was America's foremost fighter in service when WW-II began. at LR223°. It was raining like the dickens. Ohio.navfltsm.com/ils-appr.12/7/12 ILS Approaches proceed as before. The receptionist and I were waiting for the line-boy to bring the numbers www. Stay on the glide slope and localizer until you reach your DH of 230 ft.addr. I had just taxied in to Ithaca's Tompkins County airport. You will reach the DH near the Middle Marker. Drop one notch of flaps and slow to 75 kts. Daytona Beach's Runway 7L TDZE is 30 ft. Dayton. about one-half mile from the runway. wp-afb. Don't descend below that point if the runway is not in sight. Turn left to 090° to intercept the localizer to Runway 7L. Flight time: A busy 37 minutes. Don't look away from the gauges until very shortly before reaching the DH. Intercept the glide slope and descend normally. Courtesy Air Force Museum. The rain and low weather hadn't messed up my plans. Repeat this procedure around the arc until VOR-2 centers.

"Yes. in 1941. But back to the Tomahawk. I answered. Glen Curtiss invented and built that plane. It was pitch black outside except for the nearby blue taxiway lights and the reflections off the tarmac from the rain-weakened floodlights. I'd sure like to buy one of those P-40s for what Uncle Sam paid. and handed me the phone. too." I responded. said a few words.htm 23/33 ." "Albany's the other direction from Elmira. "Did you just fly in from Florida in a Nav Trainer?" she asked. then turned to me. The receptionist answered it." It was Counter. Our guys were there the summer before Pearl Harbor. puzzled. too." she responded. and get to my motel. Flew the P-40 Tomahawk. "The Boss didn't have your motel info so I would have missed you if you weren't at the airport." "How much was that?" www. I want to go see what it looks like and learn more about it. The line-boy would need a canoe to make it in with this downpour." Counter interrupted." I said. That ratio's never been equalled since. to the Glenn H. The Flying Tigers had a thirty to one kill ratio over the Japanese. over 14. either. "Lucky. 1400 HP engine pushed that baby along. "The government issued him Pilot's License #1." I glanced at the weather. great pilots you know.navfltsm.addr. Curtiss Museum. "And the weather's not looking good. "Glad I caught you." "Albany? Who wants to go to Albany? My father-in-law's brother was a Flying Tiger in World War II." "I need a lift to Elmira in the morning.000 of them. catch a taxi into town." "Sound's a worthwhile visit. The telephone rang." "Great plane." Counter went on. "Glad that didn't happen. with a glance out the window at the weather. shot down 300 Japanese aircraft. drily. Just about won the war for us in China. Curtiss was a great pilot." I said.12/7/12 ILS Approaches in for my refuel so I could settle the bill. Twelve cylinder. "You know. thinking only of my nice warm motel.com/ils-appr. I know that much. "They held back the Japanese planes from attacking the Burma road into China. Want to get over to the Hammondsport.

execute a tear-drop turn and return to intercept the localizer to Elmira's Runway 6.addr. As usual. with a destination of the Elmira/Corning Regional airport.zip. The zip-file includes the IFR chart. Elmira. "See you in the morning. New York to Elmira/Corning Regional airport. This flight originates at Tompkins County airport in Ithaca. New York. New York. We proceed southwest from Ithaca to the Elmira VOR via V426. Click on the image above to download the flight-information package.navfltsm." Ithaca. ith-elm. The ILS approach is to Runway 6.htm 24/33 ." Counter said with a laugh. New York Tompkins County airport. www. do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts. Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 1200 ft overcast. and this text description of the flight. Elmira. New York to Elmira. We're back in the north again. Click the image to access the complete flight-information package.000 and change. the approach plate for ILS Rwy 6 at Elmira. KITH. KELM.com/ils-appr. Ithaca.12/7/12 ILS Approaches "$55. New York with an ILS approach to Runway 6.

At station passage of ULW. After localizer intercept. At 7 DME turn right to 040°. 109. the 236° radial of ITH. Intercept and track V428. Intercept the Runway 6 Localizer.1 MHz.1 MHz.. airport KITH.65 MHz. Elmira's Runway 6 TDZE is 944 ft. it will be very sensitive and may even drift off scale for a moment. You will reach the DH near the Middle Marker. Switch the DME to Nav-1. If you ident the localizer too early you will hear I-ELM for Runway 24. then cruise at 110 kts. and retract the flaps to 0°.. NOTE: Runway 6 and 24 Localizers are both on 109. Track the 235° radial to the Elmira VOR. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 235°. The wind is calm...addr. Don't chase the VOR-2 needle as you approach ULW..com/ils-appr.12/7/12 ILS Approaches cloud tops at 10. Fly Nav-2. Reset VOR-2 OBS to 223° and track that radial outbound. Descend to 3300 ft. Intercept the glide slope and descend normally. about one-half mile from the runway. Climb at 90 kts. Fly Nav-1. Don't look away from the gauges until very shortly before reaching the DH. ATC has cleared you to 4000 ft. 111.htm 25/33 . VILCU intersection. but have different idents because each is a front-course approach.8 MHz. switch navigation to VOR-2. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 236°. Switch the DME to Nav-2. ident ITH. Flight time: 34 minutes.navfltsm. Change VOR-1 OBS to 062° as a reminder of the runway heading. Don't descend below that point if the runway is not in sight. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the Elmira VOR. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to the Ithaca VOR. * * * www. 109.. Stay on the glide slope and localizer until you reach your DH of 1144 ft. Change Nav-1 to Elmira's Runway 6 Localizer.000 ft. and one-mile visibility. drop one notch of flaps and slow to 75 kts. ident I-UEK. Fly Nav-1. turn left to 223°. after reaching your assigned altitude. ident ULW. At 11 DME. Takeoff from Runway 32 with a climbing left turn. Ident ULW. Move the aircraft to Ithaca's Runway 32.

and a visibility limited to one-half mile was satisfactory for airline schedule maintenance. too. Note. Most passengers understand that delayed flights due to poor weather are beyond everyone's control. the ILS capability to land with a ceiling as low as 200 ft. As previously discussed. the absence of over-size luggage in the overhead bins. even if briefly. * * * CAT II Approaches For years. morning fog that will later burn off. etc.navfltsm.com/ils-appr.addr. multi-course meals were once served in the "back cabin. with CAT I being the existing minimums of 200 ft DH www." and on real china.. it is rarely for long periods of time. ILS landing conditions were segregated into three Categories. So the FAA went the extra step and developed a working system to allow aircraft to land all the way down to zero ceiling and zero visibility. or during heavy thunderstorms when no one should be attempting a landing anyway.e.htm 26/33 .12/7/12 ILS Approaches A reminder to the "young-uns" that flavorful. as seen in this DC-2. But the rapidly increasing number of passengers and aircraft showed how much chaos could result if weather shuts down an entire region to air travel. When conditions lower than this extreme exist. if not without a few grumbles. i.

www. IM.com/ils-appr. The FAA issues a CAT II authorization after the pilot satisfies certification and currency requirements. The flight test requires at least two ILS approaches to a DH of 100 ft. but will do). an Inner Marker beacon. The IM is located at the DH for a CAT II approach. See the illustration below.navfltsm.12/7/12 ILS Approaches and one-half-mile visibility. one to a full-stop landing and the other to include a missed-approach procedure. above the TDZE. A CAT II capability allows landings with seeing conditions as low as a DH of 100 ft. The minimum additional aircraft equipment requirements are a markerbeacon receiver capable of receiving the IM and a CAT II approved autopilot. a CAT II approach may only be flown in an aircraft meeting minimum equipment requirements and into fields with approved CAT II approaches. CAT II Approach Plates Five features distinguish a CAT II approach plate from a standard (CAT I) ILS approach plate. is required in addition to the OM and MM beacons. then another oral exam and flight test must be passed. In other words. At the IM a white light on the aircraft's instrument panel flashes and high-frequency dots sound from the loudspeaker. A CAT II authorization is only valid for six months. RVR. New York. slightly less than a quarter-mile. and 1200 ft. The CAT II approaches must be performed with an autopilot (over-simplification. CAT II cuts the CAT I minimums in half.addr. though.htm 27/33 . For a runway to be certified for a CAT II approach. In addition. from the CAT II ILS Rwy 9 approach Plate for Stewart Int'l airport in Newburgh. A pilot doesn't just jump into his favorite aircraft. and decide to shoot a CAT II approach because the weather has gone sour. The pilot must pass both an oral exam and a flight test to be certified.

DH points. Two "S-ILS 9" lines exist in the profile view. 1600 RVR. (482 ft MSL in this instance) Radio (Radar) Altimeter The radio altimeter. the Inner Marker denoted by a flashing White Light. one for 150 DH. The 100/1200 CAT II approach is authorized when the pilot confirms completion of three CAT II ILS approaches to a landing under actual or simulated conditions with a 150-foot DH within six months of the date of original issuance (after the first six months). a. however uneven. c. (or it's inop).Profile view. Touch-Down Zone Elevation also appears on the profile view. is an absolute altimeter. the pilot must adhere to the 150/16 limitation. New York. If the aircraft has no IM receiver. It . and the pilot relies on a barometric-pressure altimeter for DH. b. 1. (shown here as RA142 and RA92 respectively) 5. The approach plate is identified as a Category II ILS. Radio (Radar) Altimeter readings are shown on the approach plate for the 150 and 100 ft. For six months after the first issuance of a CAT II authorization. it indicates the actual altitude over terrain. and the other for 100 DH. The TDZE. Newburgh. 3. the pilot must adhere to the 150/16 limitation. 2. CAT II ILS Rwy 9 approach Plate. 4. The plate carries an aircrew and aircraft certification notice. See the numbered notes below. or terrain-clearance indicator. 1200 RVR. Stewart Int'l airport.

The autopilot must be switched off to allow manual flying. The time it takes for the signal to travel to the earth and back is converted into absolute altitude which is displayed on a gauge. when near the ground. The radio altimeter can be coupled to the autopilot.Y. The radio altimeter automatically switches off the autopilot when the aircraft has descended to the altitude set by the bug. the green indicator shows on the dial. The radio altimeter has several unique features: The altitude scale is non-linear.operates by first sending a radio signal from the aircraft to the earth's surface. The radio altimeter does not depend on barometric pressure settings. Modern radio altimeters are digital with an audio call-out at the bug setting in addition to the above features. This corresponds to the 100 ft. A receiver in the aircraft then picks up the reflection of the signal from the surface. The green indicator light switches to red when descending below the altitude set by the bug. but the fs9 and FSX versions display this information in digital form above the standard pressure altimeter. In a CAT I or CAT II approach. The radio altimeter only arms when the autopilot is coupled to the localizer of an ILS approach. the aircraft is manually flown on to the runway from the DH point. is where the greatest resolution is needed. The Nav Trainers do not have a conventional radio altimeter of the type shown above. DH. When coupled. as is used for 1000–2500 ft. N. Here the altitude bug is set at 92 ft. Notice that as much space on the dial is devoted to 0–100 ft. 1200 ft RVR CAT II minimums at Stewart Int'l airport in Newburgh. The low end of the scale. 29/33 .

com/ils-appr. the DA (Decision Altitude) is 120 ft. The DH is 100 ft. above the ground. MSL. above the terrain. If the terrain were absolutely flat. the Radio Altimeter would register 100 ft..12/7/12 ILS Approaches Consider this CAT II approach.addr. New York www. New York to Newburgh.htm 30/33 . 8 ft. But at the DA here the terrain is 28 ft. so the RA correctly shows that the aircraft is only 92 ft. and with a TDZE of 20 ft..navfltsm. at the DA point. * * * Monticello. above the TDZE.

Those living in the region will remember it as Stewart Air Force Base. followed by the CAT II approach. ident I-SWF. Check that the OFF flag is no longer visible before relying on this gauge. As usual. The OFF flag will be showing because the aircraft is out of range of the HUO Omni until you gain sufficient altitude.. and one-quarter mile visibility. Newburgh. the CAT II approach plate for ILS Rwy 9 at Stewart. Turn on and leave on the VOR-2 ident so that you will hear when this VOR becomes active. New York with a Cat II ILS approach to Runway 9.. an installation closed down for budget reasons. with a destination of Stewart Int'l airport. Set the flight simulator weather conditions to 630 ft overcast.com/ils-appr. Click the image to access the complete flight-information package.818 ft.zip. Newburgh. airport KMSV. Move the aircraft to Sullivan County's Runway 15. You may wonder why Stewart Int'l airport. We proceed south-bound from Monticello to the Huguenot VOR and turn east to intercept the localizer to Stewart's Runway 9. Set the VOR-2 OBS to 165°. and retract the flaps to 0°.addr. The CAT II ILS approach is to Runway 9. KSWF. This flight originates at Sullivan County airport. Click on the image above to download the flight-information package.12/7/12 ILS Approaches Sullivan County airport. www. New York. The final flight in this section culminates in a CAT II ILS approach. Monticello. KMSV. Monticello. The zip-file includes the IFR chart. Pay close attention to VOR-2. 116.1 MHz.1 MHz. runway. msv-swf. New York to Stewart Int'l airport.htm 31/33 .navfltsm. has an 11. Switch the DME to Nav-2. Fly the first leg with Nav-2. Ident HUO. Tune the Nav-2 receiver to the Huguenot VOR. The wind is calm.. This CAT II flight will use the autopilot. do nothing until you have gone through the step-by-step details of the flight with this text and your charts. Set the VOR-1 OBS to 092° as a reminder of the runway heading. New York. cloud tops at 10. Intercept and track the 165° radial to Huguenot VOR. and this text description of the flight. 110.000 ft. not near a major city. Fly Nav-2. Tune the Nav-1 receiver to Stewart's Runway 9 Localizer. Takeoff from Runway 15 with a right turn to 165° on climb-out.

Begin descent to 2900 ft. Turn On the autopilot and activate the Approach function–APR. after reaching your assigned altitude. Drop one notch of flaps and slow to 75 kts. turn right to 092°. above the runway.navfltsm. At Huguenot VOR turn left to heading 080°.htm 32/33 . (RA92).) At the DH. * * * CONGRATULATIONS! You've completed the Tutorial! Site best viewed at 600 × 800 resolution or higher. the intercept of Stewart's Runway 9 Localizer.com/ils-appr.addr. disconnect the autopilot (press "Z") and manually fly the aircraft to touchdown. then cruise at 110 kts. On localizer intercept. 100 ft. The DH is 582 ft. Track HUO's 080° radial to the MANEE intersection. www. Stewart's Runway 9 TDZE is 482 ft. Change VOR-2 OBS to 080°.. at the Inner Marker (series of high-speed dots from speaker. On glide slope intercept. reduce the RPMs to maintain 75 kts. Monitor the flight instruments to be certain that the autopilot is accurately tracking the localizer. Charles Wood.12/7/12 ILS Approaches ATC has cleared you to 5000 ft. Flight time: 28 minutes. Climb at 90 kts. Don't let anything wander. Descend to 2100 ft. © 1999 – 2008. Monitor Airspeed and all other flight gauges closely. Don't look away from the gauges until very shortly before reaching the DH. Fly Nav-1.

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