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METEOROLOGY MANUAL

PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE
FOR EXAMINATION PURPOSES ONLY

Please! Do not mark or damage this manual in any way

SOUTH AFRICAN

CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY

PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE METEOROLOGY MANUAL

CONTENTS
PAGE 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Synoptic Symbols Present Weather Synoptic Symbols - 1 Present Weather Synoptic Symbols - 2 Present Weather Synoptic Symbols - 3 Synoptic Weather Station Models - 1 Synoptic Weather Station Models - 1 Significant Present Weather TAF - Aerodrome Forecast METAR’s - Aerodrome Actuals Significant Weather Symbols - 1 Significant Weather Symbols - 2 Forecast Weather Abbreviations Significant Weather Chart - 1 Significant Weather Chart - 2 Significant Weather Chart - 3 Upper Winds and Temperatures

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SYNOPTIC SYMBOLS

LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH CLOUD

CL

LOW CLOUD
Cu Small cumulus Cu Moderate or large Cumulus Cb Cumulonimbus without anvil Sc formed by the spreading out of Cu Sc Stratocumulus St Stratus Fs Fractus stratus Cu and Sc with bases at different levels Cb With anvil

CM

MEDIUM CLOUD
As Thin As Thick or Ns Ac Thin at one level Ac Thin patches at more than one level Ac In bands and in increasing amounts Ac Formed from spreading Cu Ac Layered or with As and/or Ns Ac Castellanus Ac Several layers in a chaotic sky

CH

HIGH CLOUD
Ci Strands, not increasing Ci Dense Ci Dense, anvil shaped from Cb Ci Hooked, increasing amounts Ci and/or Cs, below 45°, thickening Ci and/or Cs above 45° thickening Cs Covering entire sky Cs Not increasing Cc Cirrocumulus

TOTAL CLOUD COVER

h 0 1 2 3 4

HEIGHT IN FEET (Rounded off) 0 - 149 150 - 299 300 - 599 600 - 999 1 000 - 1 999

SKY COVERAGE (Total amount) No Clouds One okta or less Two oktas Three oktas Four oktas

HEIGHT IN FEET (Rounded off)

SKY COVERAGE (Total amount) Five oktas Six oktas Seven oktas or more but not overcast Completely overcast Sky obscured

5 6 7 8 9

2 000 - 3 499 3 500 - 4 999 5 000 - 6 499 6 500 - 7 999 8 000 or more or no clouds

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PRESENT WEATHER SYNPOTIC SYMBOLS - 1

a
Code Number

PRESSURE TENDENCY - PREVIOUS 3 HOURS
Meaning

Code Number

Meaning

0 2 4 6 8

Rising, then falling. Rising steadily. Steady. Falling, then steady. Rising, then falling.

1 3 5 7

Rising, then steady. Falling then rising, Falling, then rising. Falling steadily.

PAST WEATHER Duststorm/Sandstorm Fog Rain Shower (s) Hail Storm of drifting snow Drizzle Snow Thunderstorms

VV VISIBILITY CODE
00 to 50 = metres x 100 (e.g. 03 = 300 m) 56 to 80 = subtract 50, visibility in km (e.g. 58 = 8 km) 81 to 89 = subtract 80, then multiply by 5 and add 30 (e.g. 83 - 80 = 3 x 5 = 15 + 30 = 45 km)

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PRESENT WEATHER SYNPOTIC SYMBOLS - 2

ww PRESENT WEATHER
Smoke Duststorm or Sandstorm Fog, thinned in last hour Fog patches Fog, sky visible, thickened in last hour Drizzle, intermittent Moderate Drizzle, continuous Heavy Rain, intermittent Moderate Rain, continuous Heavy Slight drizzle, freezing Heavy rain, freezing Snow, intermittent Moderate Snow, continuous Heavy Showers of rain and snow - Slight Snow showers Heavy Ice pellets Thunderstorm with rain - Slight Thunderstorm with hail - Heavy Haze Mist Fog, thickened in last hour Fog, sky visible, thinned in last hour Drizzle, intermittent Slight Drizzle, continuous Moderate Rain, intermittent Slight Rain, continuous Moderate Rain and drizzle, slight Heavy drizzle, freezing Snow, intermittent Slight Snow, continuous Moderate Rain, shower (s) Slight Showers of rain and snow - Heavy Showers of hail Slight Widespread dust in suspension Fog, no change in last hour Fog within sight Fog, sky visible,no change in last hour Drizzle, continuous Slight Drizzle, intermittent Heavy Rain, continuous Slight Rain, intermittent Heavy Drizzle and rain, heavy Slight rain, freezing Snow, continuous Slight Snow, intermittent Heavy Rain, shower (s) Heavy Snow showers Slight Showers of hail Heavy Lightning visible, but no thunder heard Thunderstorm with hail - Slight Thunderstorm with snow - Heavy

( )

Thunderstorm, no precipitation Thunderstorm with rain - Heavy Thunderstorm with snow -Slight

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PRESENT WEATHER SYNPOTIC SYMBOLS - 3

SURFACE WIND Calm 5 kt 10 kt 15 kt 20 kt 25 kt 50 kt 65 kt

ww PRESENT WEATHER
Weather during the past hour and not at the time of observation Rain in the last hour Rain and snow in the last hour Showers of rain in the last hour Showers of hail in the last hour Thunderstorm in the last hour Drizzle in the last hour Snow in the last hour Freezing rain or drizzle in the last hour Showers of snow in the last hour Fog in the last hour

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SYNOPTIC WEATHER STATION MODELS - 1
STATION 1 STATION 2
21 30 7 2 140 15 5

25 50 16 3

220 10 4

STATION 3
28 80 2 280 13

STATION 4

23 60 4 4 5

200 12

STATION 5

STATION 6

20 02 01 1

150 30 8

25 28 15 3

200

5

STATION 7

STATION 8

22 60 3 8 1

230 10

10 01 10

160 08

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SYNOPTIC WEATHER STATION MODELS - 2
STATION 9
30 80
-5

STATION 10
18 35 12 170 10 8 4

170 15 9

STATION 11

STATION 12

15 40 12 4

160 20 7

31

195 10 4 5

( ( 75
8

STATION 13

STATION 14
17 02 15 230 15

30 35 05 2

220 10 6

STATION 15

STATION 16

27 75 12 2

180 15 5

06 20 2 1

120 17 8

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SIGNIFICANT PRESENT WEATHER

QUALIFIER
INTENSITY OF PROXIMITY DESCRIPTOR

WEATHER PHENOMENA
PRECIPITATION OBSCURATION OTHER

1
Light

2
MI Shallow BC Patches DR Drifting

3
DZ Drizzle RA Rain SN Snow SG Snow grains IC
Diamond dust (Ice crystal)

4
BR Mist FG Fog FU Smoke VA Volcanic ash

5
PO Well-developed
dust/sand whirls

MODERATE (no qualifier)

SQ Squalls FC Funnel cloud

(tornado or waterspout)

+

Heavy

BL Blowing SH Shower(s)

[well-developed in the case of dust/sand whirls (dust devils) and funnel clouds]

DU Widespread SS Sandstorm
dust

TS Thunderstorm PE Ice pellets FZ Supercooled GR Hail GS Small hail and/or
snow pellets

SA Sand HZ Haze

DS Duststorm

VC In the
vicinity

PR Partial
covering part of the aerodrome

The significant present and forecast weather groups are constructed by considering columns 1 to 5 in the table above in sequence, that is intensity, followed by description, followed by weather phenomena. An example could be: +SHRA (heavy shower (s) of rain).

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TAF (Aerodrome Forecasts)
WESTERN CAPE FACT 200600Z 200718 21010KT 9999 BKN035 FM0900 21020G30KT 9999 FEW035 TX28/12ZTN19/07Z= FAGG 200600Z 200718 25015KT 5000 -RA OVC015 TEMPO 1018 2000 +RA OVC008 TX18/12ZTN14/18Z= EASTERN CAPE FAEL 200600Z 200718 25015G25KT 9999 SCT030 SCT040 TEMPO 0710 5000 -RA BKN015 BKN025 BECMG 0809 240G30KT TX20/12ZTN16/18Z= FAPE 200600Z 200718 21015KT 9000 HZ SCT010 BKN020 PROB30 TEMPO 0710 4000 -DZRA BKN008 BECMG 1113 9999 SCT015 BKN035 PROB30 TEMPO 1618 BKN015 TX26/12ZTN22/18Z= FAUT 200600Z 200718 24008KT 9999 OVC008 TEMPO 5000 RA OVC005 TX19/12ZTN15/18Z= KWAZULU-NATAL FADN 200600Z 200718 04007KT CAVOK BECMG 0810 04012KT TEMPO 1518 SCT018 BECMG 1618 14012KT TX34/11ZTN27/18Z= FAPM 200600Z 200718 03010KT 9999 FEW015 SCT025 TEMPO 1618 5000 TSRA BKN012 SCT040CB TX32/12ZTN23/18Z= NORTHERN CAPE FAKM 200600Z 200718 20005KT CAVOK TX21/13ZTN14/18Z= FAUP 200600Z 200718 20005KT CAVOK TX22/13ZTN16/18Z= FREESTATE FABL 200600Z 200718 350107KT CAVOK BECMG 0911 9999 SCT050 PROB40 TEMPO 1218 5000 TSRA FEW055CB TX34/13ZTN20/07Z= NORTH WEST PROVINCE FAMM 200600Z 200718 23010KT CAVOK TX29/12ZTN15/18Z= FAPN 200600Z 200718 32006KT 9999 SCT040 BECMG 1618 21010KT CAVOK TX34/12ZTN25/18Z= GAUTENG FAJS FAJS 200600Z 200718 06008KT CAVOK BECMG 0709 06012KT TX31/12ZTN23/07Z= FAWB 200600Z 200718 29010KT 9999 SCT045 BECMG 1618 23010KT CAVOK TX33/12ZTN27/18Z= MPUMALANGA FAKN 200600Z TEMPO FAEO 200600Z PROB40 200718 06007KT 9999 SCT035 BECMG 1113 FEW035CB SCT040 1318 5000 TSRA BKN040 TX32/12ZTN24/18Z= 200718 34010KT 9999 BKN020 BECMG 1012 FEW035CB SCT040 TEMPO 1218 5000 TSRA BKN050 TX29/12ZTN18/18Z=

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METAR (Aerodrome Actuals)
WESTERN CAPE FACT 200700Z 16016KT 9999 SCT030 21/11 Q1022 NOSIG= FAGG 200700Z 00000KT 1000 VCFG FEW000 BKN025 16/15 Q1022= FALW 200700Z AUTO 16009KT //// // ////// 21/10 Q1020= EASTERN CAPE FAEL 200700Z 25007KT 9999 FEW020 SCT100 21/13 Q1012= FAPE 200700Z 30022G33KT 9999 SCT019 BKN040 19/13 Q1008 NOSIG= FAUT 200700Z 06002KT 9999 FEW008 BKN015 19/16 Q1015= KWAZULU-NATAL FADN 200700Z 10010KT 9999 FEW018 27/23 Q1010 NOSIG= FARB 200700Z 36008KT 9999 SCT025 32/21 Q1010= NORTHERN CAPE FAUP 200700Z 21005KT CAVOK 21/M01 Q1019= FAKM 200700Z 27004KT 9999 FEW045 17/05 Q1021= FREESTATE FABL 200700Z 24005KT 200V270 9999 FEW020 17/06 Q1021 NOSIG= FABM 200700Z 28005KT 9999 BKN012 22/16 Q1020= NORTH WEST PROVINCE FAMM 200700Z 21005KT 9999 FEW030 24/M00 Q1019= FAPN 200700Z 00000KT CAVOK 31/14 Q1016= GAUTENG FAJS 200730Z 02008KT 350V070 CAVOK 26/M02 Q1025 NOSIG= FALA 200730Z 06011KT 9999 BKN018 20/16 Q1023= FAGM 200730Z 07010KT 6000BR+ BKN050 OVC020 16/15 Q1025= MPUMALANGA FAKN 200700Z 09006KT 9999 FEW030 27/14 Q1019= FAEO 200700Z 33007KT 9999 BKN020 SCT100 22/13 Q1021= LIMPOPO PROVINCE FAPP 200700Z 35005KT 9999 FEW040 29/13 Q1017= FAHS 200700Z AUTO 08004KT //// // ////// 29/17 Q1013=

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SIGNIFICANT WEATHER SYMBOLS - 1

SYMBOLS FOR SIGNIFICANT WEATHER CHARTS
Thunderstorms Tropical cyclone Drizzle Rain Snow Shower Widespread blowing snow Severe sand or dust haze Widespread sandstorm or duststorm Widespread haze Widespread mist Widespread smoke Freezing precipitation**

vv

Severe line squall* Moderate turbulence Severe turbulence Mountain waves Slight aircraft icing Moderate aircraft icing Heavy aircraft icing Widespread fog Hail

* In flight documentation for flights operating up to FL 100, this symbol refers to "line squall". ** This symbol does not refer to icing due to precipitation coming into contact with an aircraft which is at a very low temperature. NOTE: Height indications between which phenomena are expected, top above base, as per chart legend.

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER - LOW CHARTS (BELOW FL180) Scalloped lines = Used to demarcate significant cloud boundaries X XXX XXX = position of pressure centres given in hPa

= Indicates cloud base or tops which are outside the parameters of specific SIG WX charts

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SIGNIFICANT WEATHER SYMBOLS - 2

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER CHARTS - SYMBOLS
Cold front at the surface Cold front above the surface Warm front at the surface Warm front above the surface Occluded front at the surface Occluded front above the surface Quasi-stationary front at the surface Quasi-stationary front above the surface Position, speed and level of maximum wind Convergence line Intertropical convergence zone Volcanic eruption

300
H 460 20

Tropopause level Tropopause high Isotherm (°C)

270 L

Tropopause low Freezing level

0° = 090
12

Temperature at selected points (°C)

Wind at selected points (half a barb = 5 knots, full barb = 10 knots and a triangle 50 knots) Zone of maximum wind Cloud border 030 Cloud tops 005

H

Centre of high altitude of the isobaric surface

L

Centre of low altitude of the isobaric surface

FL 310

FL 340

The double bar denotes changes of level by 3 000 ft or less and/or wind speeds by 37 km/h - 20 kts. In the example, at the double bar the wind speed is 225 km/h - 120 kts. The heavy line delineating the jet axis begins/ends at the points where a wind speed of 150 km/h - 80 kts is forecast.

ISOL CB: Individual Cells

OCNL CB: Well separated Cells LYR: Layered Cloud

FRQ CB: Little or No Separation NSW: No Sig Weather

EMBD: Embedded in Cloud and Haze

NSC: No SIg Cloud

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FORECAST WEATHER ABBREVIATIONS
VISIBILITY
BR MIFG FU Mist Shallow fog Smoke FG VCFG HZ Fog Vicinity fog Dust haze BCFG PRFG SA Fog patches Partial Fog Dust or Sandstorm

PRECIPITATION
DZ* Drizzle RA* FZRA* SN* Rain Freezing rain Snow RASH GR* Showers Hail FZDZ* Freezing drizzle XXSH Heavy showers

THUNDERSTORMS
TS* ISOL EMBD Thunderstorm Isolated Embedded TSGR* OCNL LSQ Thunderstorm with hail Occasional Line Squall FRQ Frequent

TURBULENCE
MTW Mountain Wave TURB Turbulence WS Wind Shear

REGIONS
LOC CIT LOV Local Urban areas Over Lowveld MON VAL MAR Over mountains In valleys Maritime ESC HIV COT Along escarpment On Highveld Coastal

CLOUD COVER
LYR Layer FEW BKN 1 - 2 Oktas 5 - 7 Oktas SCT OVC 3 - 4 Oktas Overcast

NOTE: Those items which are marked with an asterisk (*) may be preceded by XX, which means HEAVY.

15

20 25 30 35

0°=130
HA

Symbols

FA

0°=140

BR

20

+ +

0°=130

+ + +

20

0°=110
SCT AC XXX 100 BKN SC 100 080

WH

BKN SC
P

090 060

0° =100 +
PR JS NS

25

+ +
MA

+

+

25

KT

BKN SC

040 010

0°=070
L

UP

AB KM

and CB imply moderate or severe turbulence, icing and hail.

30

+ +

+

BL

+

DN

+

30

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER - CHART 1

BKN CU

XXX 030

0°=110
BKN SC LYR 120 070

ISOL EMBD XXX CB 070 EL

SIGNIFICANT WX LOW (MSL - FL180) All heights above MSL FIXED TIME PROGNOSTIC CHART VALID - 12H00 UT 2000/04/23 COMPILED BY GS. - ISSUED AT 09H00 UT 2000/04/23

OVC SC

CT G
040 BKN SC 020

35

090 020 4000M 25

PE

2000M
30 35

35

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15

20

15

20 25 30 35

0° =130 0° =140

HA FA
BKN SC LYR XXX 050

Symbols

BR

20

+ +
0° =110

+ + +

20

0° =130

WH
BKN SC
P

100 070

25

+ +
PR JS NS

+
MA

0° = 100 +

+

25

BKN ST

030 050

KT

0° = 100
BKN SC

100 070

1000M
L

UP

AB KM

FREQ XXX EMBD 080 CB

30

+ +
OCNL XXX EMBD 070 CB

+

BL

+

and CB imply moderate or severe turbulence, icing and hail.
30

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER - CHART 2

DN 3000M

+
OVC SC 030 006

SIGNIFICANT WX LOW (MSL - FL180) All heights above MSL FIXED TIME PROGNOSTIC CHART VALID - 12H00 UT 2001/02/02 COMPILED BY GS. - ISSUED AT 09H00 UT 2001/02/02

070 BKN SC 030

0° =110

EL BKN SC PE
25 30

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

060 020
35 35

3000M

CT

35

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15

030 OVC SC 008

20

15

20 25 30 35

0°=140
BKN SC
120 070

HA

Symbols

0°=160
FA

BR

20

+ +

+ + +

20

SCT AC

XXX 120

WH
P

2500M LOC ESC 2000M

25

+ +
5000M
PR JS NS

+
MA

+

+

25

BKN ST

025 007

KT

0°=140
BKN SC L 080 040

ISOL XXX EMBD 080 CB

UP

AB KM
XXX 100

and CB imply moderate or severe turbulence, icing and hail.

30

+ 0°=140 +

+

BKN AC

BL

+

DN

+

30

SIGNIFICANT WEATHER - CHART 3

BKN SC

070 020

0°=110
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

4000M
BKN SC 080 040 EL

SIGNIFICANT WX LOW (MSL - FL180) All heights above MSL FIXED TIME PROGNOSTIC CHART VALID - 09H00 UT 2001/03/02 COMPILED BY GS. - ISSUED AT 02H00 UT 2001/03/02

OVC SC OVC SC

080 007

CT

35

0° =100 2000M

35 30 35

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15

20

PE 070 020 25

15 E 25 E 30 E 35 E

20 E

20 S

24 21 17 15 13 10 7 24 60 12 -13 21 56 9 -8 17 50 5 -2 15 45 2 1 13 346 4 6 10 300 7 12 7 215 8 16 24 21 17 15 13 10 7 5 3 1 15 50 105 158 235 250 225 190 210 155 12 8 6 5 14 16 12 8 6 4 -12 -8 -1 1 10 10 16 16 23 25

310 10 -15 292 6 -10 220 5 -3 210 5 1 200 7 6 193 8 10 210 10 18

24 21 17 15 13 10 7 -14 -10 -3 2 6 12 16 24 330 8 -14 21 350 6 -9 17 36 9 -2 15 44 9 2 13 52 8 6 10 60 8 12 7 55 6 21

40 50 63 55 50 45 40

9 13 15 12 15 18 16

25 S

24 21 17 15 13 10 7 5 3 1 -16 -12 -4 0 6 11 19 24 350 20 -17 21 10 18 -12 17 16 15 -4 15 25 13 1 13 45 10 6 10 35 12 10 7 35 12 22 24 10 16 -17 21 17 13 -12 17 35 8 -4 15 50 5 -1 13 85 4 3 10 120 3 9 7 236 3 19 24 21 17 15 13 10 7 5 3 1 60 65 85 105 125 150 145 100 130 140 8 8 9 10 12 16 9 5 11 8 -14 -9 -2 3 5 10 16 19 22 25

290 280 285 278 256 230 218 196 246 200

30 28 27 23 20 14 10 12 10 7

-18 -12 -4 1 4 12 16 19 20 20

24 21 17 15 13 10 7

300 315 335 330 325 320 315

26 25 28 23 18 14 12

UPPER WINDS, TEMPERATURES FIXED TIME PROGNOSTIC CHART VALID : 20060304 12UTC BASED ON : 20060304 00UTC NEXT ISSUE: 20060304 18UTC

UPPER WINDS AND TEMPERATURES

30 S

24 21 17 15 13 10 7 5 3 1 24 21 17 15 13 10 7 335 340 345 338 320 310 310 36 38 40 36 28 22 17 -20 -17 -6 -1 4 10 20 24 21 17 15 13 10 7 330 20 -17 325 14 -12 320 9 -6 306 5 0 296 5 4 275 3 12 280 3 22

310 310 300 295 290 285 265 250 270 263

50 45 41 38 36 32 27 18 23 18

-21 -18 -11 -7 1 5 9 12 17 19

24 21 17 15 13 10 7

330 325 315 317 320 335 310

46 43 40 36 40 35 26

-20 -17 -6 -1 6 10 15

NATAL N.COAST 24 260 12 -17 21 272 8 -12 17 280 5 -3 15 250 6 3 13 195 8 7 10 185 10 12 7 142 7 15 5 115 5 21 3 133 3 23 1 105 8 26

35 S

24 21 17 15 13 10 7 5 3 1

340 330 325 320 315 306 294 280 285 255

64 58 52 48 42 33 25 28 23 17

-20 -16 -12 -7 -3 1 7 13 14 18

24 21 17 15 13 10 7 5 3 1 330 330 330 330 330 320 310 290 295 275 52 48 43 40 38 35 30 26 29 18 -20 -15 -7 -3 1 7 11 13 15 19 24 21 17 15 13 10 7 5 3 1

SE COAST 330 42 -21 330 40 -18 320 37 -6 330 33 -1 335 30 3 340 27 10 350 25 16 355 17 19 5 15 24 8 12 26

BOXES REFER TO SPOT WINDS DEGREES TRUE AND KNOTS AT INTERSECTIONS OF THE LAT/LONG LINES COVERED BY THE BOX, TEMPERATURES DEGREES C, HEIGHTS ABOVE MSL (THOUSANDS OF FEET)

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