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What is the difference between diffusion and radiation heat transfer?

Diffusion heat transfer is due to random molecular motion. Neighboring molecules move randomly and transfer energy between one another - however there is no bulk motion. Radiation heat transfer, on the other hand, is the transport of heat energy by electromagnetic waves. All bodies emit thermal radiation. In particular, notice that unlike diffusion, radiation heat transfer does not require a medium and is thus the only mode of heat transfer in space. The time scale for radiative heat transfer is much smaller than diffusive heat transfer. • How is natural convection different from forced convection ? In natural convection, the movement of the fluid is due entirely to density gradients within the fluid (e.g. hot air rises over cold air). There is no external device or phenomenon which causes fluid motion. In forced convection, the fluid is forced to flow by an external factor - e.g. wind in the atmosphere, a fan blowing air, water being pumped through a pipe. Typically heat transfer under forced convection conditions is higher than natural convection for the same fluid. • Define a black surface A black surface is defined by three criteria: • it absorbs all radiation that is incident on it • it emits the maximum energy possible for a given temperature and wavelength of radiation (according to Planck's law) • the radiation emitted by a blackbody is not directional (it is a diffuse emitter) A black surface is the perfect emitter and absorber of radiation. It is an idealized concept (no surface is exactly a black surface), and the characteristics of real surfaces are compared to that of an ideal black surface. • What is the range of values for the emissivity of a surface ? The emissivity e ranges between 0 and 1. • What are the conditions to be satisfied for the application of a thermal circuit? The problem must be a steady state, one-dimensional heat transfer problem. • Will the thermal resistance of a rectangular slab be increased or decreased if:

• What is the Fourier number ? The Fourier number is defined as: Fo = at/L2 .where a = thermal diffusivity = time . one can consider that the temperature gradient in the thickness direction is very small and the analysis can be considered as one-dimensional. When ht/k <<1 where h is the convective heat transfer coefficient. • Define and state the physical interpretation of the Biot number. most of the temperature drop is in the fluid and the solid may be considered isothermal.L = characterisitic length . The Biot number is given by: Bi = hL/k .k = thermal conductivity . So when the Bi <<1 .1).where h = convective heat transfer coefficient . t is the thickness of the fin and k is the thermal conductivity of the fin. It is a ratio of the temperature drop in the solid material and the temperature dropthe solid and the fluid. • What is a lumped system? A lumped system is one in which the dependence of temperature on position (spatial dependence) is disregarded. temperature is modeled as a function of time only . That is.L = characteristic length.• the thermal conductivity is increased ? • the cross sectional area is increased ? • the thickness of the slab is increased ? • resistance will decrease • resistance will decrease • resistance will increase • State the condition which must be satisfied to treat the temperature distribution in a fin as one-dimensional. • When can the unsteady temperature in a spatial body be considered uniform ? When the Biot number is small (Bi << 0.

for an interior node in a two dimensional system the stability criterion is : Fo < 1/4 or aDt/(Dx)2 < 1/4 14 Both the Nusselt number and the Biot number have the same form.e. The Biot number is a measure of the ratio of the temnperature drop in the solid material and the temperature drop between the solid and the fluid. microwave heating and the generation of heat within the Earth. Examples are the heating of a nuclear fuel rod (due to fission within the rod). and it thus provides a measure of the convection occurring from the surface. it is possible that the solution undergoes numerically induced oscillations and becomes unstable i. the thermal conductivity k used is that for the solid. for calculating Nusselt number the k value as that of the fluid. The criterion is usually expressed as a function of Fourier's number. The stability criterion is a restriction on the values of Dt and Dx which ensures that the solution remains stable and converges. What do you understand by stability criterion for the solution of transient problems ? When solving transient problems using finite-difference methods. 15 What is the effect of the Prandtl number of a fluid on the relative thicknesses of velocity and temperature boundary layers when the fluid flow is parallel to a flat plate ? . The Nusselt number is a dimensionless version of the temperature gradient at the surface between the fluid and the solid. What are the differences between them in terms of the variables employed and their physical significance ? Both the Biot number and the Nusselt number are of the form (hL/k). for the Biot number. the temperature values diverge.The Fourier number is a dimensionless measure of time used in transient conduction problems. the heating of electrical wires (due to the conversion of electrical to heat energy). However. electrical or nuclear process. • What is internal energy generation ? Give examples where internal energy generation occurs. Internal energy generation is the generation of heat within a body by a chemical. 13. For example. The heat generated in each case is being converted from some other form of energy.

is given by: d/dt µ Prn The higher the Prandtl number. In the fully developed region. What property of the fluid determines whether the velocity boundary layer of one is thicker than the other ? The thickness of the boundary layer depends on the Reynolds number: 17. Near the tube entrance. dt.e. 18. implying high rates of convective heat transfer. As the flow develops. flow with equal free stream velocities parallel to a flat plate. You are told that in a particulat case of fluid flow over a flat plate the temperature boundary layer thickness is much smaller than the velocity boundary layer thickness. We should expect that the convective heat transfer coefficient is higher in the thermally developing region. hence the heat diffusion is much faster than momentum diffusion. Do you expect the convective heat transfer coefficient in the thermally developing region to be higher or lower than the convective heat transfer coefficient in the fully developed temperature profile region ? Support your answer with qualitative logic. Liquid metals are characterised by very low Prandtl numbers since their thermal conductivity is high. . Two fluids. the temperature gradients are constant and h is also a constant. 16. the ratio of the boundary layer thickness d to that of the thermal boundary layer. What do you understand by the terms fully developed velocity and temperature profile regions in internal flow ? In the fully developed region. 20. the larger is the ratio. 19. Explain why the temperature boundary layer grows much more rapidly than the velocity boundary layer in liquid metals. the cross-sectional velocity/temperature profile is of a constant shape at any axial location. the thickness of the boundary layer increases and the temperature gradients decreases. Also there is no radial component of velocity i. decreasing h. every particle of fluid is flowing purely in the axial direction.oil. Thus the profile has ceased to change. What can you conclude about the nature of the fluid ? You can conclude that the fluid is a high Prandtl number fluid e. the thickness of the boundary layer is very small. with different properties.g.For laminar flow. and the temperature gradients at the surface will be high.

A greenhouse has an enclosure that has a high transmissivity at short wavelengths and a very low transmissivity (almost opaque) for high wavelengths. What is a diffuse surface ? A diffuse surface is defined as one for which the emissivity (e) and the absorptivity (a) are independent of direction (q). Define a view factor. Explain how such frost formulation takes place. On a clear day the glass of the greenhouse admits a large proportion of the incident radiation. The frost is created because of radiative losses to the sky 26. Inside the greenhouse. You might have observed early morning frost on a clear day even when the minimum air temperature during the night was above 0° C. A view factor must be defined in terms of surface A to surface B (FAB). • Explain the second law of thermodynamics. . 23. On a clear day. how much energy will it emit at a temperature of 2T ? Since E µ T4. Why does a greenhouse get warmer than the surrounding air during clear days ? Will it have a similar effect during clear nights ? Solar radiation is skewed towards shorter wavelengths. since there is no solar radiation. The interior heats up due to this 'trapped' radiation. 24. having more of a high wavelength contribution. the various surfaces (plants etc. The entropy of the universe increases over time and moves towards a maximum value. What is a gray surface ? A gray surface is defined as one for which the emissivity (e) and the absorptivity (a) are independent of wavelength (l). 25. The same effect will not be seen on a clear night. the effective sky temperature can be as low as -45° C.21. Thus the reflected radiation is not transmitted well by the glass.) reflect the radiation. a 2-fold increase of temperature brings a (24) = 16-fold increase in energy. and is reflected back into the greenhouse. Thus the surface will emit (16)(200) = 3200 W. A view factor is defined in the context of two surfaces A and B. If a surface emits 200 W at a temperature of T. but the reflected radiation is spectrally different. It is defined as the fraction of radiation leaving A which is incident directly on surface B. 22.

starting of combustion. which shows it is a single-row ball bearing. Define Reynolds number. It was designed by Nicolas Otto. Explain Otto cycle. How many joules is 1 BTU? 1 BTU is equal to 1055. Otto cycle can be explained by a pressure volume relationship diagram. a German engineer. What is annealing? It is a process of heating a material above the re-crystallization temperature • • • • • • • • • • . 03 is the bore. It determines the type of fluid flow. closing the intake and moving to the compression stroke. What is PS? PS is Pferdestarke. means light. power stroke. The fluid properties of a Newtonian fluid do not change when any force acts upon it. 2 is the series. a bending moment exists in the element What are the points in the stress strain curve for steel? Proportional limit. What is a Newtonian fluid? A Newtonian fluid possesses a linear stress strain relationship curve and it passes through the origin. Explain the nomenclature of a 6203-ZZ bearing. the German unit for Horsepower. 6 is the type code. heat exchange stroke where heat is rejected and the exhaust stroke.• How do you measure temperature in a wet bulb thermometer? Wet bulb temperature is measured in a wet bulb thermometer by covering the bulb with a wick and wetting it with water.056 joules. which is 17 mm and ZZ is the suffix meaning double shielded bearing. elastic limit or yield point. The cycle starts with an intake stroke. It is a dimensionless number. It corresponds to the dew point temperature and relative humidity. What is gear ratio? It is the ratio of the number of revolutions of the pinion gear to one revolution of the idler gear. Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial force and viscous force. It shows the functioning cycle of a four stroke engine. ultimate stress and stress at failure. What is bending moment? When a moment is applied to bend an element.

Can temperature of the hot fluid drop below the inlet temperature of the cold fluid at any location in a heat exchanger? 8. It is also called Nil Ductility Temperature. This increases the hardness and strength if the material. Consider two double pipe counterflow heat exchangers that are identical except that one is twice as long as the other one. Would you put the fins on the air side or on the water side? 3. Under what conditions is the effectiveness NTU method preferred over LMTD method as a method of analysis of a heat exchanger? 7. Can temperature of the cold fluid rise above the inlet temperature of the hot fluid at any location in a heat exchanger? 9. In heat exchange between air and water across a tube wall. Below this temperature the material loses its ductility. What is the role of baffles in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger? What is the implication about pressure drop? 6. What are the heat transfer mechanisms involved during heat transfer from the hot fluid to the cold fluid? 2. it is proposed to use fins to enhance the overall heat transfer coefficient. Torque is defined as a force applied to an object that results in rotational motion. Which of the exchangers is more likely to have a higher effectiveness? . How does a cross flow heat exchanger differ from a counter flow one? 5. • What is ductile-brittle transition temperature? It is the temperature below which the tendency of a material to fracture increases rather than forming.and cooling after a specific time interval. • Define torque. Module 7: Short questions 1. When is a heat exchanger classified as compact? 4.

Under what conditions can a counter flow heat exchanger have an effectiveness of one? What would be your answer for a parallel flow heat exchanger? . Can effectiveness be greater than one? 11.10.

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