Parker

Industrial Hydraulics

Commission ng Instructions
Hydraulic Installations

Contents

1

General.3

1.1 2 13 14 15 16
1
. . . .

.

Safety instructions.3 Transport.3 Storage.3 Assembly.3 Hydraulic fluids.3 Warranty.3

2
2
.

Commissioning.4
1
.

Filling.4
Electrical connections .4 Drive motor.4

22
.

22 1
.

222
. .

Solenoids.4

2

.

3
.

23
.
.

1

Pumps and equipment.4 Pumps .4
Pressure valves.4
Flow control valves.4 Directional control valves.4

232
.

233
. .

234
. .

23
. .

.

5

Proportional valves.4
Accumulator .4

236
.

24
.

2 2

.

.

5 6

Pressure adjustment at pressure switching valves.4 Start-up.4 Bleeding .5
Filter.5

27
.

28
.

Flushing.5

3
31
.

Maintenance and service.5
Routine maintenance.5

32
.

33
.

Oil changes.5 Spare parts.5

4
4 1
.

Troubleshooting.6
Excessive noise in the installation
.

6

42
.

No pressure or insufficient pressure.7
Pressure and flow fluctuations.8
8 Insufficient or no defiveiy Fluid temperature loo high.9
.

43
.

4

4 45
. .

Parker Addresses:
Kaarst:

Chemnitz:

Parker Hannifin GmbH

Parker Hannifin GmbH
Vertriebsbûro

GutenbergstraGe 38
D-41564 Kaarst

Vertriebsbûro

Phone Fax

(+2131)5 13-0 (+2131)5 13-2 30

WeberstraBe 17 D-72622 Nûrtingen

Otto-Schmerbach-StraBe 19 D-09117 Chemnitz

Phone Fax

(+ 70 22) 7 03 - 0 (+ 70 22) 7 03 -1 81

Phone Fax

(+371)8141-0 (+3 71)81 41 -2 50

AL106B
Hyt*au(cs

1

General
Industrial

Hydraulics

1

General

1

.

2

Transport

Careful planning together with correct assembly and commissioning are important factors in ensuring an economic, reliable and efficient hydraulic installation. Conscientious maintenance will significantly prolong the service life of all hydraulic elements.

The hydraulic unit and the attached control blocks have been packed and handed over to the carriers correctly. Please contact the manufacturer or your carriers in the event of damages.
1
.

. An adequate number of pipe clips should be used to prevent vibrations.
. We recommend providing a vent connection at the highest point of the pipe

grid.
1
.

5

Hydraulic fluids

3

Storage

The following instructions should be observed during commissioning and maintenance. Useful tips on how to remedy faults have been compiled in the troubleshooting
section.

The hydraulic installation or control block
has been checked and set to the values

Please refer to brochure AL 103, Table of Lubricants, to facilitate a choice of suitable

hydraulic fluids.

specified in the circuit diagrams in the manufacturer s works. If stored before use, it
'

1

.

1

Safety instructions

must be protected against contamination, mechanical damage and the effects of weathering.
1
.

This lists suitable oil grades from the best known mineral oil producers. In principle, the hydraulic fluid must meet the requirements of DIN-51 524 Part 1 and 2.

The hydraulic installation has been planned and designed so that the operating personnel are not endangered by possible faults. This assumes that the various

4

Assembly

Pay attention to separate instructions when using other hydraulic fluids (e.g. compatibility with the sealing materials).
1
.

pumps and equipment are operated within their permissible working pressure ranges. Together with the electric control, any possible damage to the installation must be
kept to a minimum.

The pipe unions of the unit are numbered according to the hydraulic plan and should be connected to the external appliances
and control blocks or machine.

6

Warranty
,

free of charge, is only possible within the dscope of the
az-eez a-art\ The information in these

Rectification of faults

Pay attention to the following points:
. Use cold drawn precision steel pipes the only exception being internal diameters of more than 50 mm.
.

nstructions is only of a general nature and assumes a professional approach to work.

Hydraulic accumulators must only be filled with nitrogen. The test documents for the hydraulic accumulator and safety valves are included with the delivery and should be kept separately. These are to be presented to the safety officer if necessary. Sealed safety valves may not be opened pay attention to the warning signs.
Accumulators with a pressure-litre product < 200 must be officially accepted by a competent authority and > 200 by an ex-

Assistance from our personnel during assembly. commissioning and maintenance can be agreed according to our service
conditions.

. Pay attention to the pipe cross sections and permissible operating pressures.

. Only remove the plastic sealing plugs immediately before connecting the pipes. . Use a fixti.'5 :: ~ = bends.

pert authority (TÙV).
Any additional commissioning instructions from the supplier of the accumulator take priority over these instructions.
Attention: Hydraulic accumulators > 1 litre nominal volume may only be filled with a max. of 10 bar for transportation.

. The pice r:s.; duced dL"g oerdrc

:e

. The pipes must be cut aacSy *> length, oeoj~ec arc ÿ eanec
. Use p0e JManw punfciy to the pressure and eaanKnlal conditions
.

of the instalafion: always follow the
-

=

t

s asse

-"

structions.

Subsequent welding work on hydraulic fluid tanks may only be carried out by experts on their own responsibility. The oil
contents and manhole cover should al-

. = Zt

ÿ T-

.

: :e aid and fixed free

from tension.

. -ea"-"ea:ea p ces must be mechani-

ways be removed. Further measures have to be agreed depending on the place of insta ation for the

cal v cteaned and descaled (this also ape es after welding).
. Lea< oil lines should be laid to enter

the tank above the oil level wherever

hydraulic installation, e.g. an oil trough must be provided in areas designated for
the preservation of groundwater. Or nonflammable fluids must be used in the event
of an increased risk of fire.

possible, should have a suitable drop
and present no restrictions to the flow.
. If hose lines have to be used

the types should suit the pressure and envi,

ronmental conditions of the installation
,

.

Pay attention to the wear resistance operating pressure and internal diameter.

AL 106 B
Industrial

2

Commissioning

2

Commissioning

2 3 2 Pressure valves
.

.

Commissioning may only be carried out by qualified personnel. It may be necessary to
observe certain special instructions of the supplier. The hydraulic plan equipment list and functional plan must also be available. The planned pressure settings must be specified in the hydraulic plan for all pressure
,

Start with the minimum pressure setting depending on the machine function. Only enter the pressure in the measuring station plate when the final pressure is reached.
2 3 3 Flow control valves
.

.

valves.

Set each drive element (cylinder, etc.) to the desired speed or stroke time in stages using restrictor or flow control valves.
2 3 4 Directional control valves
.

Turn unloading valve fully to the left. Set pressure control valve of the pressure maintenance pump to the desired relief pressure. Now turn the unloading valve clockwise until the valve pressurizes the delivery. Set the pressure relief valve on the pump approx. 8-10 bars higher. Check whether the pressure in the delivery has been relieved by measuring the pressure at the test point of the unloading valve. If the measured pressure is higher than

3 bar, set the unloading valve slightly hig2
.

1

Filling

her.

.

Before filling the tank with hydraulic fluid check and, if necessary, clean the inside
of the tank.

In the case of electrically operated valves, select the direction directly via the electric
control.

25
.

Start-up

Always fill the tank through a fine filter to guarantee the desired purity class of the hydraulic fluid at the start.

Attention: Only activate the emergency hand operation on the solenoid with suitable tools.

The drive motor should initially only be operated in jog-skip mode to determine the
direction of rotation. The correct direction

Special filling devices or equipment already provided in the installation - e.g. the return filter - are ideal for filling purposes.
The grade of oil is specified on a separate plate alongside the filler opening.
22
.

23
.

.

5 Proportional valves

Electrical connections

Proportional pressure, flow and directional control valves should initially be operated with a low electric set point. Please refer to the separate commissioning instructions for the amplifier system.
2 3 6 Accumulator
. .

of rotation is indicated by an arrow on the pump casing. Change the phases of the electric motor if necessary. Start the pump by repeated jogging. The working pressure can be set to its nominal value after approx. 1 min running. (See also Chapter 4 Troubleshooting in particular 4.1 and 4.2)
, ,

Are the right currents and voltages
available?

The starting instructions of the pump manufacturer should be given priority over
these instructions.

If the installation contains acajraJafexs.

2 2 1 Drive motor
. .

these should be checked for tie correct

Check the mains current against that specified on the electric motor s ratings
'

gas charging pressure and tapped up as

required. Suitable checking and changing
equipment is required for this work.

plate.
2 2 2 Solenoids
. .

Are the type of current (~ or =) and voltage correct? Check name plates on
equipment.
2

Attention: Accumulators must only be charged with nitrogen for safety reasons. The charging pressure to provide the correct working pressure is specified in the hydraulic plan.

The following applies in general:
.

3

Pumps and equipment

Gas charging pressure = min. working
pressure x 0.9.

Pay attention to the special commissioning instructions for pumps and hydraulic and
electrical equipment.

After testing or filling the hydraulic accu,

mulator can be switched into the installati-

Only the most important instructions are listed in the following.
23
.
.

on via the stop valve.
2
.

4

1 Pumps

Pressure adjustment at unloading valves

It is best to keep the pressure setting tow the first time the pumps are started. In the case of variable displacement pumps, the pressure compensator is set to 15-20 bar. and in the case of constant displacement pumps the pressure control valve should be adjusted to this setting. However, one exception here are the homologated and pre-set accumulator safety valves.
4

In order to keep the heat generated by constant déplacement pumps to a mini-

mum. any delivery not required is switched to depressurized circulation by unloading
valves.

The correct adjustment of such a unloading valve operation according to the pressures indicated on the hydraulic plan is
best carried out as follows:

AL106 B
industrial Hyb-aJcs

2
3

Commissioning
Maintainance and service

Industrial

Hydraulics

2

.

6

Bleeding

Air in hydraulic installations affects the
control behaviour and is thus undesirable.

using mechanical or electrical indicators during operation.
For further information please refer to Section 3.2, Oil changes.
2

Oil change periods
. Installations used continuously over a number of shifts must include working filters to guarantee the specified purity class for the hydraulic fluid. The required purity class in accordance with ISO 4406 or NAS 1638 de-

The installation must be carefully bled du-

ring initial commissioning, after oil changes or after opening lines and valves. All functions should hereby be performed in succession, over the full stroke of the cylinder without load, and keeping the pressure as low as possible. The installation should be bled at the highest point of the pipe grid. Loosen the pipe union slightly so that air can escape with a small quantity of oil. As soon as the escaping fluid shows no signs

.

8

Flushing

of air bubbles, tighten the union. If the hydraulic cylinder has a bleeding screw
this should be used for bleeding. However. care must be taken to ensure that the piston is moved several times over the entire

Long pipelines, particularly in large central pressure oil stations, should be flushed by short circuiting the pressure and return lines. This prevents the assembly contamination from reaching the control valves (very important with servo or proportional valves) and the drive elements (cylinder, hydraulic motors, etc.). The various measures should be co-ordinated in the project,s circuitry. 3 Maintenance and service

pends on the use of the hydraulic components. It assumes a certain planning of the filtration and a regular check of the hydraulic fluid so as to guarantee the desired service life of the pumps and equipment. Under these conditions, an oil change can be significantly delayed or may even be dispensed with completely following evaluation of the laboratory tests. . We refer you to the services of the known suppliers of oil and filters in connection with laboratory testing of the hydraulic fluid.
3
.

stroke. In horizontally-mounted c> nders the bleeding screws should be at the top. After filling the cylinders chec< and if necessary top up, the oil leve in the tank.
27
.

Maintenance work may only be carried out by qualified personnel. This assumes a knowledge of the machine,s function when switched on and off and the safety measures.

3

Spare parts

Only use original spare parts for repairs.
Routine maintenance

Filter
31
.

The function and life of pumps and hydraulic equipment depends to a arge extent on the cleanliness of the hydraulic fluid.

The hydraulic installation should be subjected to simple checks at regular, short
intervals.

Please consult our service department should you have questions relating to spare parts or faults.

Contamination is the biggest enemy of hydraulic installations.
There are three main sources of contamination:

Please specify hydraulic plan no. HRP ... and order no. A ... (see ratings plate on
unit).

An automatic, electrical monitoring system may already been provided for some
checks.

. the contamination produced during assembly - assembly contamination

These include:
. Oil level in ta"»

. the contamination produced during operation - operating contamination
. contamination from the environment
.

. Operating temperahxe This shotid
.

not exceed a -.= =

zf f I I

:

. State c;

c -

_

c

. s-a

The correct filter concept is specified during planning of the installation or is determined by the necessary purity class. Pressure or return filters are used depending on the requirements. In the case of
uncritical installations a return filter with a

check of cotour and smefl of of)
. C-e:- s ~e : - ~
_

e;

. Check of tie gas charging pressure in
the accÿ r-ijator.

. Leaks in pumps valves and pipelines.
,

mesh of B25 > 75 (25 um filter) is usually used. This prevents contamination of the tank and the pump only draws in clean 0
Pressure filters are used in installations

. Che:- : easi ness of filter elements

(see Section 2.7).
. CrecK hose lines
.

with high requirements - e.g. very small c

3

.

2 Oil changes

flows (Q < 200 cm3/min) or a constant high
pressure in pressure valves. Filter gauges of B10 < 75 (10 urn) or B3 > 75 (3 um) are typically used. Filters can only fulfil their task if the filter cartridges used are cleaned or replaced in due time, particularly during the initial period of operation. The degree
of filter contamination can be checked

The frequency of an oil change depends
on:

. The type of hydraulic fluid (ageing)
. Filtration

. The working and ambient conditions (operating temperature)

AL 106 B
Industrial

5

4

Troubleshooting

4 1
.

Excessive noise in installation

Cause
41
.

Reason

Remedy Clean or replace

.

1

Cavitation in the pump

. Suction filter clogged (if present)
1/ . Internal diameter of suction line too

Fit pipes with greater internal diameter

small or foreign bodies in suction line . Too many bends in suction line
. Local restrictions in the suction line
e.g.

j
Lay pipes anew or use pipes with larger
internal diameter

,

Open valves or change pipes or repair
or replace hoses

partly closed valves, excessive resistance in return valve, damaged pipe or bent hose

. Hydraulic fluid too cold . Viscosity of hydraulic fluid too high
. Generation of vapour

Fit electric heater to heat hydraulic fluid to recommended temperature

Check hydraulic fluid Reduce operating temperature to correct level: top up hydraulic fluid or replace
with correct fluid

. Feed pt*np failure

Repair or replace feed pump

. Pimp rus at too high a speed
. Seaieciar*
412
. .

Check speed of drive motor (see also
data in hydraulic plan)
Fit a vent filter

Hydraulic fluid foams or
contains air

. Hydraulic llud level r îantt nc o«

Top up oil. In installations with greatly fluctuating oil levels: only top up between
max. and min. level

. Wrong layout of tank . Return line ends above the hydra jic
-

Improve the design

Lay entry of return line below the
lydraulic fluid level

fluid level in the tank

. Wrong hydraulic fluid . Air enters through shaft seal on pump

Replace with correct hydraulic fluid : 3 : "stallation supplier if necessary
,
_

-

Reptece seal

. Air enters through unions in suction line Tighten or replace unions
. Porous suction hose

Replace hose
Bleed the installation

. Incorrect bleeding

j ; ! !___!

6

AL106B

HytraJcs

4

Troubleshooting

Industrial

Hydraulics

4 1
.

Excessive noise in installation

Cause

Reason

Remedy

4 13
. .

Mechanical vibrations

. Coupling incorrectly aligned or loose
. Pipeline vibration . Pump faulty or damaged . Unsuitable type of pump . Drive faulty or damaged . Unsuitable type of drive . Pressure valve unstable (flutters)

Re-align or tighten Tighten or improve the pipe clips
Repair or replace Replace by suitable type
Repair or replace

Replace by suitable type

Adjust correctly or replace by
a suitable valve

4

.

2

No pressure or insufficient pressure

Cause
42
.

Reason . Air enters suction line

Remedy
See fault 4.1.2

.

1

Incorrect pump delivery
High pump temperature

422
. .

. Worn or damaged pump

Repair or replace
See Fault 4.1.1

. Viscosity of hydraulic fluid too low

. Insufficient or incorrectly adjusted cooling
42
. .

Improve or adjust cooling line correctly. Ensure flow of cooling water
Repair defect
Use correct drive motor

3

Speed of pump too low
or insufficient drive power

. Coupling c zets : :;e :
defective

e -

.
424
. .

Drive motor too smai

Leaks from pressure side
to return line

. Incorrectry set pressure

Correct setting Clean, determine damage, repair or
replace

. Safety valve does not dose because
of conta'-atxx! of faulty part

. Directional control or other valve open
because of contamination or other

Find the damaged appliance adjust, clean, repair or replace
,

faulty part or electrical failure . Damaged cylinder bore piston rods or
,

Repair or replace damaged parts
Fit seals made of correct material

piston seal

. Piston ring failure since material unsuitable for hydraulic fluid used
42
. .

5

Feed pump failure (only reciprocating pump used)

. Damaged pump faulty drive, unsuitable viscosity of fluid
,

See fault 4.1.3

AL 106 B

4

Troubleshooting

43
.

Pressure and flow fluctuations

Cause
43
.

Reason

Remedy
See fault 4.1.1

.

1

Cavitation in the pump
Foam or air inclusions in fluid Mechanical vibrations

. .

See fault 4 1 1
. .

432
. .

See fault 4 1 2
.

.

See fault 4.1.2 See fault 4.1.3
See fault 4.1.3

433
. .

. See fault 4 1 3
. .

434
. .

Pressure relief valve of safety
valve flutters

.

See fault 4 1 3
. .

. Damaged valve seat
. Valve has insufficient or no cushion

Repair or replace Fit a more suitable component or provide a cushion

435
. .

Valves stick

. Contamination

Drain hydraulic fluid, clean installation and parts, fill with clean fluid Replace device, remove the reason for
the distortion

. Damaged or distorted
43
.

.

6

Unequal pump delivery

. Unsuitable pump type or pump design

Replace with a suitable pump after
consultation with manufacturer of

installation or pumps
437
. .

Air inclusions in installation

. Installation not completely bled
. Electrical system faulty e.g. valves switch constantly
,

Bleed installation ,see 2.6 Bleeding Find and remedy the fault

which produce an uneven or stick-slip motion

44
.

Insufficient or no delivery

Cause
44
.

Reason . See fault 4 1 1
. .

Remedy
See fault 4.1.1

.

1

Cavitation in the pump
Foam or air inclusions in fluid

442
.

.

. See fault 4 1 2
. .

See fault 4.1.2
See fault 4.1.2

443
. .

Faulty pump Pump speed too low or insufficient drive power

.

See fault 4 1 2
. .

444
. .

. See fault 4 2 3
. .

See fault 4.2.3

44
.

.

5

Leaks from pressure side
to return line

.

See fault 4 2 4
. .

See fault 4.2.4

446
. .

Wrong direction of rotation of pump

. Incorrect direction of rotation for motor

Change phases of electric connection

8

AL 106 B
HVj

4

Troubleshooting

Hydraulics

4

.

5

Fluid temperature too high

Cause

Reason

Remedy

45
.

.

1

Bypass losses

. Pressure set at pump too high or at safety valve too low . Oil flows out of accumulator safety
block

Correct pressure setting
Close accumulator drain valve at

accumulator safety block
See fault 4.2.4

45
.

.

2

Leakage losses from pressure
side to return line

. Incorrect function of valves and faulty
seals

. Wrong viscosity of hydraulic fluid (too low) 3 Hydraulic fluid flows under pressure through safety or pressure relief valve to tank although no hydraulic f - a is required
. Incorrect control of the installation

Drain hydraulic fluid and fill installation with fluid which has the viscosity recommended by the manufacturer
Provide correct control, for instance

45
.

.

changeover to circulation without pressure . Incorrect function of bleeding
installation due to contamination

Clean or, if necessary, repair

or faulty parts

. Safety pressure set too low
45
. .

Correct setting
Remedy fault
Clean

4

Insufficient cooling

. Failure of cooling water supply or fan

. Sediment in the cooling water line
455
.
.

Insufficient heat removal

. The installation has insufficient cooling surfaces to remove the generated heat
. Increase in machine power with no corresponding increase in cooling
output

Fit a cooling system and/or enlarge tank
size and area

Improve cooling system and/or enlarge
tank size and area

45
.

.

6

Overheated puÿ c

. Worn pump . Use of hydraulic fiutd at iliuft ÿli viscosity

Repa' or replace
See fault 4.5.2

45
.

.

7

Excessive recirculation speed of hydraulic fluid

.

Insufficient fluid .odume
'
-

Enlarge hydraulic fluid tank
Top up to recommended level Fit pipes and valves of correct size

. Hydraulic
is too low
458
. .

eve r nstailation

Excessive fluid friction

. Cross section of pipelines and valves
too small

AL106 B
Industrial

raulics

Parker Addresses:
Kaarst: Parker Hannifin GmbH
GutenbergstraBe 38 D-41564 Kaarst Phone (+ 21 31) 5 13 - 0

Niirtingen:
Parker Hannifin GmbH
Vertriebsburo WeberstraBe 17 D-72622 Nudingen

Chemnitz: Parker Hannifin GmbH
Veftriebsburo Otto-Schmerbach-StraBe 1 9 D-09117 Chemnitz Phone (+ 3 71) 81 41 - 0 Fax (+ 3 71) 81 41 -250

Fax

(+21 31)513-230

Phone (+7022) 7 03 - 0 Fax (+7022)703-181

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