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MAGNETIC REFERIGERATION

BY R.V.SUDHAKAR NAIDU

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which means that they increase and decrease in temperature when magnetized/demagnetized. no working fluid. 2 .ABSTRACT The objective of this effort is to study the Magnetic Refrigeration which uses solid materials as the refrigerant. offices and automobiles and virtually any places where refrigeration is needed.heat pumps. longer life. air conditioning for homes. home and commercial refrigerator . no pumps. The unit uses no gas compressor. no valves and no ozone destroying chlorofluorocarbons/hydro chlorofluorocarbons. This effect has been observed for many years and was used for cooling near absolute zero. These materials demonstrate the unique property known as magneto caloric effect. super conducting components used in telecommunications equipment. lower weight and higher efficiency because it only requires one moving part-the rotating disc on which the magneto caloric material is mounted. potential commercial applications include cooling of electronics. Recently materials are being developed which have sufficient temperature and entropy change to make them useful for a wide range temperature applications. Benefits of magnetic refrigeration are lower cost.

The high efficiency arises because the analogues to the compression and expansion parts of the vapour cycle are accomplished by the magnetization and demagnetization. reliable & relatively low cost technology. some liquids used as refrigerants are hazardous chemicals. 3 . Modern refrigeration is almost entirely based on a compression/ expansion refrigeration cycle. beverage dispensing and ice making without refrigeration the food supply wood still be seasonal and limited to locally produced non-perishable items.INTRODUCTION: Our society is highly dependent on reliable cooling technology. It is a mature. Further more. Consumer application includes air-conditioning. Over the years. air dehumidification. conventional refrigeration ultimately promotes deleterious trends in the global climate. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging technology that has the potential for high energy efficiency. This technique can be used to attain extremely low temp. . Refrigeration is critical to our health and the global economy. Magnetic refrigeration is commonly cooling technology based on the magnetocaloric effect. all parts of a conventional refrigerator were considerably improved due to extended research and development efforts. food preservation. (Well below 1 Kelvin) as the ranges used in common refrigerators depending on the design of the system. while other eventually escape into the environment contributing towards ozone layer depletion and global warming and therefore. respectively of magnetic material.

Jr. NEED OF MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION: To develop more efficient and cost effective small scale H2 liquefiers as an alternative to vaporcompression cycles using magnetic refrigeration. Giauque and his colleague Dr. The term used for such a device is magnetic liquefier. The hydrogen can be liquefied at a low temperature and the low temperature is achieved with the help of magnetic refrigeration. a number of advances in utilization of the MCE for cooling occurred. D.5 to 2 K/T. Originally. This is also known as adiabatic demagnetization by low temperature physicists. We provide the cooling for the hydrogen storage by liquefying it. due to the application of the process specifically to affect a temperature drop. Refrigerators based on the magnetocaloric effect have been demonstrated in laboratories. by the Iowa State University at Ames Laboratory. This cooling technology was first demonstrated experimentally by chemist Nobel Laureate William F. Between 1933 and 1997. Warburg. With the help of magnetic refrigeration our objective is to solve the problem of hydrogen storage as it ignites on a very low temperature. a number of advances occurred which have been described in some reviews. In 1997.25 K. This event attracted interest from scientists and companies worldwide that started developing new kinds of room temperature materials and magnetic refrigerator designs. Karl A. Gschneidner.6 T up to 10 teslas.HISTORY The effect was discovered in pure iron in 1881 by E. from magnet and calorie) is a magneto-thermodynamic phenomenon in which a reversible change in temperature of a suitable material is caused by exposing the material to a changing magnetic field. The process was demonstrated a few years later when Giauque and MacDougall in 1933 used it to reach a temperature of 0. the magnetic refrigeration also provides a method to store hydrogen by liquefying it. Magnetic fields above 2 T are difficult to produce with permanent magnets and are produced by a superconducting magnet (1 tesla is about 20. MAGNETO CALORIC EFFECT The Magneto caloric effect (MCE. Thus.P.000 times the Earth's magnetic field). Hydrogen Research Institute (HRI) is studying it with the help of magnetic refrigeration. In 4 . the first near room temperature proof of concept magnetic refrigerator was demonstrated by Prof. using magnetic fields starting at 0.25 K) Between 1933 and 1997. Major advances first appeared in the late 1920s when cooling via adiabatic demagnetization was independently proposed by two scientists: Debye (1926) and Giauque (1927). the cooling effect varied between 0. MacDougall in 1933 for cryogenic purposes (they reached 0.

Praseodymium alloyed with nickel (PrNi5) has such a strong magnetocaloric effect that it has allowed scientists to approach within one thousandth of a degree of absolute zero. the temperature returns to normal. Magnetic Refrigeration is also called as Adiabatic Magnetizationmagnetic field). instead of magnetic domains being disrupted from internal ferromagnetism as energy is added. The randomization of the domains occurs in a similar fashion to the randomization at the curie temperature. If the material is isolated so that no energy is allowed to (e) migrate into the material during this time (i. an adiabatic process).e.that part of the overall refrigeration process. the temperature drops as the domains absorb the thermal energy to perform their reorientation. The effect is considerably stronger for the gadolinium alloy Gd5(Si2Ge2). Gadolinium's temperature is observed to increase when it enters certain magnetic fields. WORKING PRINCIPLE: when the magnetic material is placed in the magnetic field. except that magnetic dipoles overcome a decreasing external magnetic field while energy remains constant. When it leaves the magnetic field. the thermometer shows low temperature as its temperature decreases CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING 5 . One of the most notable examples of the magnetocaloric effect is in the chemical element gadolinium and some of its alloys. a decrease in the strength of an externally applied magnetic field allows the magnetic domains of a chosen (magnetocaloric) material to become disoriented from the magnetic field by the agitating action of the thermal energy (phonons) present in the material. But on the other side when the magnetic material is removed from the magnetic field. the thermometer attached to it shows a high temperature as the temperature of it increases.

6 .COMPONENTS REQUIRED 1. 3. 4. 5. 2. Magnets provide the magnetic field to the material so that they can loose or gain the heat to the surrounding and from the space to be cooled respectively. Magnets Hot Heat exchanger Cold Heat Exchanger Drive Magneto caloric wheel MAGNETS: .Magnets are the main functioning element of the magnetic refrigeration.

This reversibility combined with the ability to create devices with inherent work recovery. The efficiency of magnetic refrigeration can be as much as 50% greater than for con ventional refrigerators. MAGNETO CALORIC WHEEL: . It makes the transfer of heat much effective. This phenomenon is practically reversible for some magnetic materials. Due to this heat flows in the right desired direction.The hot heat exchanger absorbs the heat from the material used and gives off to the surrounding. Near the phase transition of the magnetic materials.It forms the structure of the whole device. WORKING: The magnetic refrigeration is mainly based on magneto caloric effect according to which some materials change in temperature when they are magnetized and demagnetized. It joins both the two magnets to work properly. and starts in thermal equilibrium with 7 .Drive provides the right rotation to the heat to rightly handle it. COLD HEAT EXCHANGER:-The cold heat exchanger absorbs the heat from the space to be cooled and gives it to the magnetic material.HOT HEAT EXCHANGER: . makes magnetic refrigeration a potentially more efficient process than gas compression and expansion. It helps to make the absorption of heat effective. adiabatic removal of the field revert the magnetic entropy to its original state and cools the material accordingly. This results in a temperature increase of the magnetic material. the magnetic flux density is increased). the adiabatic application of a magnetic field reduces the magnetic entropy by ordering the magnetic moments. The working material is the refrigerant. thus.e. analogous to the Carnot cycle. DRIVE: . and can be described at a starting point whereby the chosen working substance is introduced into a magnetic field (i. The process is performed as a refrigeration cycle.

this time the magnetic field is decreased. for example. Energy (and entropy) transfers from thermal entropy to magnetic entropy (disorder of the magnetic dipoles). La(FexSi1−x)13Hx and MnFeP1−xAsx alloys. alloys of gadolinium producing 3 to 4 K per tesla (K/T) of change in a magnetic field can be used for magnetic refrigeration or power generation purposes. This thermal response of a solid to the application or removal of magnetic fields is maximized when the solid is near its magnetic ordering temperature. and it is generally the largest for a ferromagnet which undergoes a first order magnetic transition. Once sufficiently cooled. ferrimagnets and spin glass systems. Recent research on materials that exhibit a giant entropy change showed that Gd5(SixGe1−x)4. it will absorb heat from that place and by taking the magnetic material outside in the surroundings. we will remove the magnetic material from magnetic field and thus it will loose heat as its temperature decreases and hence the cycle repeats over and again to provide the cooling effect at the desired place. The increasing external magnetic field (+H) causes the magnetic dipoles of the atoms to align. Also. Adiabatic demagnetization: The substance is returned to another adiabatic (insulated) condition so the total entropy remains constant. Isomagnetic enthalpic transfer: This added heat can then be removed by a fluid like water or helium for example (-Q). the net result is that the item heats up (T + ΔTad).the refrigerated environment. The material is placed in thermal contact with the environment being refrigerated. Isomagnetic entropic transfer: The magnetic field is held constant to prevent the material from heating back up. The magnitudes of the magnetic entropy and the adiabatic temperature changes are strongly dependent upon the magnetic order process: the magnitude is generally small in antiferromagnets. Adiabatic magnetization: The substance is placed in an insulated environment. Because the working material is cooler than the refrigerated environment (by design). we will apply magnetic field to the material in that place and as its temperature increases. However. Once the refrigerant and refrigerated environment is in thermal equilibrium. WORKING MATERIALS The magneto caloric effect is an intrinsic property of a magnetic solid. heat energy migrates into the working material (+Q). the cycle begins a new one. thereby decreasing the material's magnetic entropy and heat capacity. PROPER FUNCTIONING The place we want to cool it. the thermal energy causes the domains to overcome the field. it can be substantial for normal ferromagnets which undergo a second order magnetic transition. Since overall energy is not lost (yet) and therefore total entropy is not reduced (according to thermodynamic laws). crystalline electric fields and pressure can have a substantial influence on magnetic entropy and adiabatic temperature changes. an adiabatic temperature change). Currently.e. are some of the most promising substitutes 8 . and thus the sample cools (i. The magnetic field is held constant to prevent the dipoles from 8 Magnetic Refrigeration reabsorbing the heat. the magnetocaloric material and the coolant are separated (H=0).

4. 8. Gadolinium and its alloys are the best material available today for magnetic refrigeration near room temperature since they undergo second-order phase transitions which have no magnetic or thermal hysteresis involved. 6. 3. APPLICATIONS Magnetic Refrigeration systems are proposed to be used in the following applications: 1. 2. GdTy. Further development of magnetic refrigeration could lead to the production of cheap liquid hydrogen and high energy saving operations. Automotive seat coolers: Seat coolers provide more comfort then cabin air-cooling systems. etc. Heating. Required pressures are obtained without the aid of a compressor. thus reducing ozone layer depletion. air 9 . 3. 2. 4. 5. such as home refrigerators. Air conditioning and cool air blowers Liquor distilling and grain drying. Large-scale refrigeration. Larger temperature swings that will allow the technology to provide the Cooling power required for specific markets. Food processing. Efficiency and compactness are increased where as power consumption is reduced. These materials are called giant magnetocaloric effect materials (GMCE). 7. Waste separation and treatment systems.for gadolinium and its alloys — GdDy. Very low temperatures of the order of 001K can be obtained. 5. ADVANTAGES The major advantages of Magnetic Refrigeration Systems over Compressor-Based Refrigeration Systems are 1. Does not produce toxic gases and chloro-fluoro carbons.

models have shown 25% efficiency improvement over vapor compression systems. For magnetic refrigeration to attain widespread acceptance its costs must be made competitive with vapor cycle technology. Two advantages to using Magnetic Refrigeration over vapor compressed systems are no hazardous chemicals used and they can be up to 60% efficient. 7. electronics cooling. There are still some thermal and magnetic hysteresis problems to be solved for these first-order phase transition materials that exhibit the GMCE to become really useful. When a better magnetic material is developed. 6. This technique is already used to achieve cryogenic temperatures in the laboratory setting (below 10K). the refrigerator will not need to be redesigned. CONCLUSION: Magnetic refrigeration is a technology that has proven to be environmentally safe. In order to make the Magnetic Refrigerator commercially viable. DISADVANTAGES 1. scientists need to know how to achieve larger temperature swings. 10 . This effect is currently being explored to produce better refrigeration techniques. this is a subject of current research. 8.conditioning. The unit runs virtually silent and is vibration free. especially for use in spacecraft. The magnetic material in the regenerator bed will ever need to be replaced when changing refrigerant to achieve a different temperature range. and fluid chilling can be obtained.