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# Permutations

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– 2 ways to select y ∈ {a. c} . – 1 way to select z ∈ {a. b.Permutations • A permutation of a set of distinct objects is an ordered arrangement of the objects. b.{x. c} . c} of xyz.{x} of xyz. c} • How many permutations are there? – 3 ways to select x ∈ {a. 2 . • Example: Permutations of {a. b. b. y} of xyz.

b. c} a b c b c a c a b c b c a b a abc acb bac bca cab cba 3 .Example: Permutations of {a.

Permutations Theorem 1.. Proof Sketch. • By the Product Rule. For any integer n with n ≥ 0. there are n(n – 1)(n – 2) · · · 1 = n! ways of selecting the n elements of the sequence • That is. 4 . There are n − k ways of selecting the (k+1)-th element of the sequence. there is 1 way to choose the n-th element. . There are n − 1 ways of selecting the second element of the sequence. there are n! permutations.. the number of permutations of a set A with n elements is n!. • Each permutation of A is a sequence of n elements – – – – – There are n ways of selecting the ﬁrst element of the sequence. Finally.

r-Permutations • An r-permutation of a set of n elements is an ordered selection of r elements from the set of n elements. • The number of r-permutations of a set of n elements is denoted P(n. 5 . r) . • Note: Recall that the members of a set are distinct.

If n and r are integers and 0 ≤ r ≤ n. then the number of r-permutations of a set of n elements is given by . 6 .r-Permutations Theorem 2.

• By the Product Rule. the total number of ways is 7 . • An r-permutation is a sequence of r objects. • There are n ways of selecting the ﬁrst object. • There are n – k ways of selecting the (k +1)-th object. • There are n − 1 ways of selecting the second object.r-Permutations Proof Sketch. there are n − r + 1 ways of selecting the last r-th object. • Finally. regardless of how the previous k objects was selected. regardless of how the previous r − 1 objects was selected. regardless of how the ﬁrst object was selected.

r-Permutations Corollary 1. If n and r are integers and 0 ≤ r ≤ n. It is easy to see that 8 . then Proof Sketch.

b.Example: r-Permutation • There are 3!/1! = 6 ways of arranging 2 members of {a. c} a b c b c a c a b ab ac ba bc ca cb 9 .

T. • There are 4 × 3 = 12 ways of arranging 3 of the 5 letters of BYTES such that the ﬁrst letter must be B.E. b ∈ { Y.S }. 10 . • Explanation: – How many ways to form the sequence Bab where a.Example: r-Permutation • There are 5 × 4 × 3 = 60 ways of arranging 3 of the 5 letters of BYTES.

So. Proof. Suppose n is an integer that is greater than or equal to 2. 11 . By Corollary 1.Proving Property of P(n. r) Prove that for all integers n ≥ 2.

There are n ways to select an element of the set for each of the r positions in r-permutation when repetition is allowed. there are nr r-permutations. 12 . The number of r-permutations of a set of n elements with repetition allowed is nr Proof. By the Product Rule.r-Permutations with Repetition Theorem 3.

1}: 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 13 .Example • There are 23=8 3-permutations of the set {0.