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# 06/10/2011

Aritmetik
In general, an arithmetic expression, containing numbers, ( ), x, ÷, +, −, must be evaluated according to the following priorities:

Aritmetik

If an expression contains only multiplication and division we work from left to right. If it contains only addition and subtraction we again work from left to right. If an expression contains powers or indices then these are evaluated after any brackets.
Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics

Aritmetik

Aritmetik

Applied Engineering Mathematics

Applied Engineering Mathematics

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B. but only until we have chosen r objects: The first may be chosen in n ways The second may be chosen in (n − 1) ways The third may be chosen in (n − 2) ways . . BCA. An obvious question is how many different permutations of r objects chosen from n can be formed in this way? This number is denoted by nPr . . for example. It provides some nice practice in manipulation of numbers and fractions.. there are 3! = 6 permutations. Last object can only be chosen in 1 way. It can be used to count the number permutations of n objects.. Also.06/10/2011 Aritmetik (3 + 7) ÷ 5 + (7 − 3) × (2 − 4)=? = 10 ÷ 5 + (4) × (−2) =2−8 = −6 Aritmetik Factorial and combinatorial notation – permutations and combinations The factorial notation is a shorthand for a commonly-occurring expression involving positive integers. For example 5! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120 Note that 1! = 1. CBA Each of these is the same combination of the objects A. the number of ways of arranging n objects in a given order: First object can be chosen in n ways Second object can be chosen in (n − 1) ways Third object can be chosen in (n − 2) ways .e. 2 × 1 read as ‘n factorial’. ACB. while the above definition does not define 0!. Applied Engineering Mathematics Aritmetik Now suppose we select just r objects from the n. B. If n is some positive integer ≥1 then we write n! = n(n − 1)(n − 2) . BAC. Each such selection is a different combination of r objects from n. i. . C. the convention is 0! = 1 Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Aritmetik The factorial notation is useful in the binomial theorem and in statistics. C – that is a selection of three objects in which order is not important. which are: ABC. CAB. So the total number of permutations of n objects is n × (n − 1) × (n − 2) . 2 × 1 = n! Note that n! = n × (n − 1)! For 3 objects A.. and gently introduces algebraic ideas. . The rth may be chosen in (n − (r − 1)) ways Applied Engineering Mathematics 2 .. It may be evaluated by repeating the previous counting procedure.

06/10/2011 Aritmetik Aritmetik Number Systems 1-) Decimal (Denary) System Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Aritmetik 2-) Binary System Aritmetik 3-) Octal System (Base 8) Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 3 .

4-) Hexadecimal System (Base 16) Example: Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Aritmetik Conversion of denary to binary Aritmetik Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 4 .06/10/2011 Aritmetik =? Aritmetik Example: Convert 110112 to a denary number.

subtraction. Algebra An algebraic expression is any quantity built up from such a finite number of symbols using only the arithmetic operations of addition. and an algebraic equation such as x2 − 1 = 0. This includes integer powers which are simply successive multiplication. An expression tells you nothing about the variables involved. this is expressed algebraically as A = lxb. the area of a rectangle is found by multiplying the length by the breadth. Example: Be careful to distinguish between an algebraic expression. it stands alone. • Bir sayı düşünün • Ona 15 ekleyin • Bunun iki katını alın • Bunu ilk düşündüğünüz sayıya ekleyin • Sonucu 3’e bölün • İlk düşündüğünüz sayıyı çıkartın Cevap? Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Algebra Düşündüğümüz sayı Buna 15 ekleyelim Bunu iki katına çıkartalım Buna ilk düşündüğümüz sayıyı ekleyelim Bunu 3 ile bölelim Bundan ilk düşündüğümüz sayıyı çıkartalım a a+15 2x(a+15)=(2xa)+30 a+(2a)+30=3a+30 (3a+30)/30=a+10 a+10-a=10 Algebra Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 5 . For example. whereas an equation can fix the values of the variables. and roots of variables. where A represents the area.06/10/2011 Algebra Algebra is that part of mathematics in which the relations and properties of numbers are investigated by means of general symbols. The basic laws introduced in arithmetic are generalized in algebra. Aslında algebrayı şu şekilde de görebiliriz. such as √x. such as x2 − 1. multiplication or division. l the length and b the width.

06/10/2011 Algebra Algebra Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Algebra Example: Algebra Example: Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 6 .

06/10/2011 Algebra Algebra Laws of Indices Example: Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Algebra Example: Limits Limits of Function Values Let ƒ(x) be defined on an open interval about except possibly at itself. 2) removed. If ƒ(x) gets arbitrarily close to L (as close to L as we like) for all x sufficiently close to we say that ƒ approaches the limit L as x approaches and we write which is read “the limit of ƒ(x) as x approaches is L”. For any we can simplify the formula by factoring the numerator and canceling common factors: The graph of ƒ is thus the line x+1 with the point (1. Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 7 . the definition says that the values of ƒ(x) are close to the number L whenever x is close to (on either side of ). Essentially. Örnek: fonksiyonu x=1 civarında nasıl davranır? The given formula defines ƒ for all real numbers x except (we cannot divide by zero).

05 or 0. Applied Engineering Mathematics This holds. once it is developed. or some other value? Problems such as these demonstrate the power of mathematical reasoning. for example. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages in revealing nature’s realities. So what is the answer? Is it 0. Applied Engineering Mathematics Limits 4 3 10-3=7 Limits Örnek: The Identity and Constant Functions Have Limits at Every Point Some ways that limits can fail to exist are illustrated below. The function ƒ has limit x 2 as even though ƒ is not defined at x=1. whenever ƒ(x) is an algebraic combination of polynomials and trigonometric functions for which f(x0) is defined. Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 8 . and write The function g has limit 2 as x-> 1 even though 2 ≠g(1).06/10/2011 Limits Limits Bir başka örnek olarak: We say that ƒ(x) approaches the limit 2 as x approaches 1. over the conclusions we might draw from making a few observations.

06/10/2011 Limits Calculating Limits Using the Limit Laws Limits Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Limits Örnekler Limits Theorem 2: Limits of Polynomials Can Be Found by Substitution Theorem 3: Limits of Rational Functions Can Be Found by Substitution If the Limit of the Denominator Is Not Zero Örnek: We cannot substitute because it makes the denominator zero. too. so it has a factor of in common with the denominator. is zero at It is. Canceling the gives a simpler fraction with the same values as the original for x≠1 Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 9 . We test the numerator to see if it.

So ƒ(x) does not have a (two-sided) limit at 0. that is. If the approach is from the right. The Sandwich Theorem has limit 1 as x approaches 0 from the right. it is a left-hand limit.06/10/2011 Limits Limits Örnek: We cannot substitute x=0 and the numerator and denominator have no obvious common factors. the limit is a righthand limit. From the left. ordinary limits are called two-sided. Because of this. If ƒ fails to have a two-sided limit at c. and limit as x approaches 0 from the left. a function ƒ must be defined on both sides of c and its values ƒ(x) must approach L as x approaches c from either side. Since these onesided limit values are not the same. Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Limits Limits One-Sided Limits To have a limit L as x approaches c. We can create a common factor by multiplying both numerator and denominator. a limit if the approach is only from one side. there is no single number that ƒ(x) approaches as x approaches 0. Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 10 . it may still have a one-sided limit.

06/10/2011 Limits Limits Örnek: Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Limits Limits Involving (sin θ)/θ Limits Örnek Theorem Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 11 .

06/10/2011 Limits Asymptotes Horizontal Asymptote Limits Örnek: Finding an Oblique Asymptote Bir önceki örnekteki fonksiyonuna geri dönersek has the line as a horizontal asymptote on y=5/3 both the right and the left because Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Limits Örnekler Limits Vertical Asymptote Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 12 .

x=2 and x=4. Continuity at a Point The function ƒ is continuous at every point in its domain [0. Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Continuity (Süreklilik) Continuity (Süreklilik) Örnek To define continuity at a point in a function’s domain. we are assuming that we are working with a continuous function. there are breaks in the graph. In doing so. At these points. Note the relationship between the limit of ƒ and the value of ƒ at each point of the function’s domain. The limit of a continuous function as x approaches c can be found simply by calculating the value of the function at c.06/10/2011 Limits Örnek Continuity (Süreklilik) When we plot function values generated in a laboratory or collected in the field. Note the relationship between the limit of ƒ and the value of ƒ at each point of the function’s domain. 4] except at x=0. we need to define continuity at an interior point (which involves a two-sided limit) and continuity at an endpoint (which involves a one-sided limit) Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 13 . we often connect the plotted points with an unbroken curve to show what the function’s values are likely to have been at the times we did not measure. so its outputs vary continuously with the inputs and do not jump from one value to another without taking on the values in between.

The tangent to the curve at P is the line through P whose slope is the limit of the secant slopes as Q: P from either side. Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 14 .06/10/2011 Continuity (Süreklilik) Polynomial and Rational Functions Are Continuous Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Tanjantlar ve Türevler (Tangents and Derivatives) Tanjantlar ve Türevler (Tangents and Derivatives) The dynamic approach to tangency.

06/10/2011 Tanjantlar ve Türevler (Tangents and Derivatives) Tanjantlar ve Türevler (Tangents and Derivatives) Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Differentiation Örnek Differentiation Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 15 .

negative. 2. where the rate of change of ƒ is positive. 3.06/10/2011 Differentiation Örnek: Aşağıdaki şekildeki gibi bir y=f(x) fonksiyonunun türevini çiziniz. where the rate of change itself is increasing or decreasing. Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Örnek: There can be no derivative at the origin because the one-sided derivatives differ there: Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 16 . the rough size of the growth rate at any x and its size in relation to the size of ƒ(x). Differentiation What can we learn from the graph of At a glance we can see 1. or zero.

06/10/2011 Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 17 .

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