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09/12/2010

Integration

Integration

There is no simple geometric formula for calculating the areas of shapes having curved boundaries like the region R.

Applied Engineering Mathematics

Applied Engineering Mathematics

Integration

Integration

Applied Engineering Mathematics

Applied Engineering Mathematics

1

09/12/2010

Integration

Integration

Applied Engineering Mathematics

Applied Engineering Mathematics

Integration tips

Integration tips

Applied Engineering Mathematics

Applied Engineering Mathematics

2

09/12/2010 Integration tips Integration tips Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration tips Integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 3 .

09/12/2010 Integration Integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration Integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 4 .

09/12/2010 Integration Örnek Integration Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration Örnek Integration Örnek Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 5 .

but here we will have a first look at what we might be able to do with the integrand in some simple cases. we concentrate on the simplest kinds of rearrangements. In general f (x) may be a polynomial or rational function. log or exponential. For example: Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 6 . later under various substitution methods. or any combination of these. We would first look at f (x) to see if it can be simplified or rearranged to our advantage. x.09/12/2010 Integration Örnek Integration Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration Simplifying the integrand Integration We consider changes of variable. trig or hyperbolic.

09/12/2010 Integration Integration Linear substitution in integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration Integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 7 .

09/12/2010 Integration Integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration Integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 8 .

Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration Integration Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 9 . These questions all involve linear substitutions. In no case is it necessary to do anything to the function before substitution.09/12/2010 Integration Integration So. greater care is needed with other types of substitutions.

09/12/2010 Integration Örnek Integration by substitution The du= f’ (x)/ dx substitution yada Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration by substitution Integration by substitution Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 10 .

09/12/2010 Integration by substitution Integration by substitution Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration by substitution Integration by substitution Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 11 .

09/12/2010 Integration by substitution Integration by substitution Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration by substitution Integration by substitution Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 12 .

09/12/2010 Integration by substitution Integration by substitution Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration by substitution Örnek Integration by substitution Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 13 .

çözüm Integration by substitution Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 14 .09/12/2010 Integration by substitution Örnek Integration by substitution Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration by substitution 2.

09/12/2010 Integration by parts Integration by parts Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration by parts Integration by parts Örnek Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 15 .

09/12/2010 Integration by parts Örnek Integration by parts Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Integration by parts Örnek Integration by parts Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 16 .

Let (xr. bounded region in the x . Then denoting the area δxr — δyr = δSr Thus. The generalization of definite integrals is known as “multiple integral”. y plane... The N rectangles lying entirely within R (the shaded ones in the figure). Consider the region R in the x. . y plane we assume that R is a closed. by the curve y = f1(x). Let us lay down a rectangular grid on R consisting of a finite number of lines parallel to the coordinate axes. N. x = b. y = f2(x) and the lines x = a. yr) be an arbitrarily selected point in the rth partition rectangle for each r = 1.09/12/2010 Integration by parts Integration by parts Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Multiple Integrals The process of integration for one variable can be extended to the functions of more than one variable. 2. the total sum of areas Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 17 ..

Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 18 . we may interpret the double integral of ƒ over R as the volume of the 3-dimensional solid region over the xy-plane bounded below by R and above by the surface z=f(x.09/12/2010 Multiple Integrals Let the maximum linear dimensions of each portion of areas approach zero. “namely the double integral and the value of this limit is given by Multiple Integrals Double integration for polar curves or Integrals in Polar Coordinates Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Multiple Integrals Multiple Integrals Double Integrals as Volumes When ƒ(x.y). y) is a positive function over a rectangular region R in the xy-plane. and n increases indefinitely then the sum SN will approach a limit.

09/12/2010 Multiple Integrals Örnek Multiple Integrals Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Multiple Integrals Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 19 .

09/12/2010 Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 20 .

09/12/2010 Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics Applied Engineering Mathematics 21 .