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[Ancylostoma braziliense] [Ancylostoma caninum] [Ancylostoma duodenale] [Necator americanus

]

Causal Agents:
The human hookworms include the nematode species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. A larger group of hookworms infecting animals can invade and parasitize humans (A. ceylanicum) or can penetrate the human skin (causing cutaneous larva migrans), but do not develop any further (A. braziliense, A. caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala). Occasionally A. caninum larvae may migrate to the human intestine, causing eosinophilic enteritis. Ancylostoma caninum larvae have also been implicated as a cause of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis.

Life Cycle (intestinal hookworm infection):

Eggs are passed in the stool , and under favorable conditions (moisture, warmth, shade), larvae hatch in 1 to 2 days. The released rhabditiform larvae grow in the feces and/or the soil , and after 5 to 10 days (and two molts) they become filariform (third-stage) larvae that are infective . These infective larvae can survive 3 to 4 weeks in favorable environmental conditions. On contact with the human host, the larvae penetrate the skin and are carried through the blood vessels to the heart and then to the lungs. They penetrate into the pulmonary alveoli, ascend the bronchial tree to the pharynx, and are swallowed . The larvae reach the small intestine, where they reside and mature into

americanus. The released rhabditiform larvae grow in the feces and/or the soil . following penetration of the host skin. The normal definitive hosts for these species are dogs and cats. braziliense and A. the most common being A. duodenale larvae. N. and under favorable conditions (moisture.adults. Life Cycle (cutaneous larval migrans): Cutaneous larval migrans (also known as creeping eruption) is a zoonotic infection with hookworm species that do not use humans as a definitive host. and are swallowed. In addition. warmth. and serve as source of infection for pups via transmammary (and possibly . infection by A. but the longevity may reach several years. where they attach to the intestinal wall. ascend the bronchial tree to the pharynx. Eggs are passed in the stool . the larvae penetrate the skin and are carried through the blood vessels to the heart and then to the lungs. however. where they attach to the intestinal wall with resultant blood loss by the host . Some A. shade). caninum. requires a transpulmonary migration phase. The larvae reach the small intestine. Adult worms live in the lumen of the small intestine. These infective larvae can survive 3 to 4 weeks in favorable environmental conditions. Adult worms live in the lumen of the small intestine. They penetrate into the pulmonary alveoli. On contact with the animal host . The cycle in the definitive host is very similar to the cycle for the human species. duodenale may probably also occur by the oral and transmammary route. where they reside and mature into adults. Most adult worms are eliminated in 1 to 2 years. can become dormant (in the intestine or muscle). larvae hatch in 1 to 2 days. and after 5 to 10 days (and two molts) they become filariform (third-stage) larvae that are infective . Some larvae become arrested in the tissues.

transplacental) routes . Geographic Distribution: Hookworm is the second most common human helminthic infection (after ascariasis). americanus and A. Necator americanus predominates in the Americas and Australia. while only A. North Africa and southern Europe. Some larvae may persist in deeper tissue after finishing their skin migration. duodenale are found in Africa. mostly in areas with moist. duodenale is found in the Middle East. the larvae cannot mature further in the human host. and migrate aimlessly within the epidermis. With most species. warm climate. sometimes as much as several centimeters a day. Asia and the Americas. Both N. Hookworm species are worldwide in distribution. . Humans may also become infected when filariform larvae penetrate the skin .