You are on page 1of 431

Translations, Bibliographies, etc.



by the following




MORRIS JASTROW LL.D., Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania; JAMES H. BREASTED. LL.D., Professor of Egyptology. University of
Chicago; CHARLES C. TORREY. D.D., Professor of Semitic Languages Yale


University; A. V.


Professor of Indo-Iranian, Columbia UniLL.D.. Professor of Sanskrit. Harvard University;

CHARLES F. AIKEN, S.T.D.. Dean of the Faculty of Theology, Catholic
University; FRIEDRICH HIRTH, LL.D., Professor of Chinese, Columbia University; REV. WILLIAM E. GRIFFIS, D.D., former Professor at the Imperial


University, Tokio.

E. A.




Director of Egyptology in the British Museum; SIR
MASPERO. D.C.L., Member of the Royal Institute of France; REV. A. H.
LL.D., Professor of Comparative Philology, Oxford University; W.


LL.D., Professor of Egyptology. Univvjrsity College, London;

STEPHEN LANGDON. Fh.D.. Professor of Assyriology, Oxford University; SIR
ERNEST SATOW, LL.D., G.C.M.G. British Minister to Japan; H. OLDENBERG,
LL.D., Professor of Sanskrit, Kid University; T. W. RHYS-DAVIDS, LL.D..
Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society; ARMINIUS VAMBERY, LL.D.. Professor
of Oriental Languages, University of Budapest.





Legislative Council of Ceylon;
DUTT, C.I.E., Author of the History of Civilization in Ancient India;
D. P. SANJANA, Educational Society of Bombay; VISCOUNT


LL.M.. Japanese Minister of the

Head Master

of the Schools of Anjuman-i-Islam;



Benares College, India;
de I'Acadgmie Frangaise.

versity, Officier


the editorship


of a staff of specialists directed by







This Volume


one of a complete set of the Sacred Books

and Early Literature
volumes. In Volume
tificate as to


of the East, consisting of fourteen

be found a certhe limitation of the edition and the registered
I of the series will

of this set.

Copyright, 1917,
Parke, Austin, and Lipscomb, Inc.

STANLEY LANE-POOLE. With an Historical Survey and Descriptions by PROF. Professor of Arabic. Litt. CLAUD FIELD.. and PROF. JOHNS.A. University.. Dublin. University of Budapest. J. Former Professor of Arabic at Oxford ERNEST RENAN.. THOMAS CHENERY.D. LL.D. W. Trinity College.. AND TURKISH In Translations by E. AND LIPSCOMB. HORNE. AUSTIN. PARKE. of With Briqf Bibliographies by PROF. CHARLES C. Professor of Oriental Languages.THE SACRED BOOKS AND EARLY LITERATURE OF THE EAST VOLUME VI MEDIEVAL ARABIC. Former Professor of Hebrew. Ph. ARMINIUS VAMBERY. College France. TORREY. GIBB of the Royal Asiatic Society. EDWARD H.D. M. NEW YORK LONDON INC.. M.D. LL. PH.D. and other authorities. CHARLES F. MOORISH. .A.

3." really call a child a . nor was there ever a false religion." " Let there be light" GENESIS I. There never was a false god. unless you MAX MULLER. false man.

1 MEDIEVAL ARAB LITERATURE I.. Zamakhshari's "Golden Necklaces" Mohammedan Precepts of Morality. 138 ...CONTENTS OF VOLUME VI LITERATURES DESCENDED FROM THE ARABIC PAOX INTRODUCTION Spread into Literatures How the Teaching of Mohammed Many Lands and Created Many . The Chief Work (A. The First Effort at Scientific Study of the Past. 9 " Autobiography (A. 1020) . " 37 Early Caliphs...D... PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION Al Ghazali's Spiritual Teacher.. 102 Great Zamakhshari's "Kashshaf. EARLY HISTORY AND SCIENCE Masoudi's "Golden Meadows" Legends of the (A.... Or Holy Traditions of Mohammed II. 92 97 Rescuer from Error The 90 of the Arabs' Chief Scientist.." or "Discoverer of Truth" 134 (A.D. 956) .D. 1140) The Boldest Commentary on the Koran. THE SUNAN. .D. 1106) of a ..D. .... 850-890) 33 (A. 1040).D. Al Biruni's "Existing Monuments" (A. Avicenna on "Medicine" III.

D... 1449) Poems by Turkish Sultans .. 1412) The Loves of Shirin (A. 1426) The Book of Mohammed (A. 1332) Book of Alexander the Great (A. .D.D. . 243 TURKISH LITERATURE VIII. ..D. SCIENCE AND HISTORY Averroes' "Philosophy" (A.CONTENTS vi FAGB IV. 1195) Al Maqqari's "Breath of Perfumes" VII.D. .D.280 290 292 Turkish Poetesses The Great Turkish Poets IX. 1122) . an Old Folk-lore Tale The Earliest Turkish Poem (A. 332 397 . LEGENDS AND POETRY 257 The Queen of Night.. . . 1628) 241 LOVE POETRY OF THE SPANISH MOORS .. 1556) BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARABIC LITERATURE 262 272 273 275 277 327 . ROMANCE 141 The "Assemblies" of Al Hariri (A. .D. . THE POETS OF ARABIA . 145 The Most Renowned Piece of Pure Literature in Arabic..D. 203 MOORISH LITERATURE VI. ... 239 (A.. V. THE TRAVELS OF The "Mirror SIDI ALI REIS of Countries" (A. 235 .

.The Slave Abu Zayd Abu Mustem Girl of The Death of .. ..... . Sophia Frontispiece 42 The Song of Abu Al Salam The Queen of Night The Ancient Church FACING PAGE ... 264 320 .. . -. 210 .. of St.. .


retained their own language and wrote in it a literature of Mohammedan religious spirit. of Egypt. therefore. i. with the primitive Arabic literature of even earlier date. Even in our own day. Arabic became the common speech. That tremendously important work. and of can scarcely. with the expanding of the Mohammedan empire. vi. however. and northward through Asia Minor to all the Turkish possessions. Our will confine itself to present task. We have now to trace the Arabic literature and thought which. regard as a unit Mohammedan literatures of these many all all North the vary- lands. southward A through Egypt into the wilds of Central Africa. MOORS. Geographically that empire reached from its Arabian center eastward through Babylonia and Persia into India. We ing Turkey in Asia. AND TURKS INTRODUCTION HOW THE TEACHING OP MOHAMMED SPREAD INTO MANY LANDS AND CREATED MANY LITERATURES rilHE wide-spread Arabic empire and religion originated with Mohammed and was founded on his book. so impor- we shall devote to it a later separate volume. the Koran. Arabic continues as the language of a considerable part of Africa. formed the theme of our preceding volume.SACKED BOOKS AND EAELY LITERATURE OF THE MEDIEVAL ARABS. tracing through VOL. Through much of this vast region. spread over a large part of the Eastern world. and books were written in its tongue. for example. westward through all North Africa into Spain. 1 tant that . The Persians.

Instead.D. the Caliph Omar." or traditions about Mohammed. but had given forth in ordinary conversation between man and man. Omar ordered the thousands of manuscripts to be used to feed the fires of the public baths and he based " If the destruction upon this verdict these books disagree with the Koran they are evil if they agree they are unneces. Thus sprang up the " Sunan. there is a well-known legend which may be untrue in fact but is intensely true to the fanatic spirit of the Caliph and his followers." . or semi-Arabic peoAnd third. among includes the literature of the Moors. it the Turks. For a long time the Arabs developed no other religious litOf the third leader of their new faith. After the prophet's death in A. the last Mohammedan conquerors. while his followers were spreading his teachings by force of arms. The details of his life were also treasured. or among those people who Second. and teaching. It says that when Omar's armies conquered Egypt the scholars of Alexandria entreated him to protect the books of their great library. erature than this. as from the Koran we learn of Mohammed the poet and of the poetic spirit of Arabia." from which we may learn as much of Mohammed the man. the spread of literature and thought the Arabs themselves. long after his own writings had been gathered in the official form of the Koran. : . who took up and carried on Arabic tradition. it leads us to ples. the largest in the world. that is of all his remembered words. they talked much of the doings and sayings of their adored master. of North Africa and Spain. sary. the ideas which he had not proclaimed as inspired by God. and of the daily life and thought of his people. though in a language and spirit more Tartar than Arabian.THE SACRED BOOKS fc the Middle Ages the more strictly Arabian development This includes first. that is for the literature and thought that sprang directly from Mohammed's we turn first to the " Sunan. a similar collection was made of what might be termed his unofficial teach- ing. completely adopted the Arabic faith and speech. 632. Then. For the purely Arabic development.

it expressed itself pre-Mohammedan in brief in only personal poems. That is. the sufferings of its victims. gathered from successive ages of gay and dashing singers. " satiric couplets. One might of course speak cynically of mankind's having found this somewhat true in every age. became unknown in human intercourse. which he would indeed have been the first to reUnrestrained power bred a callous indifference to pudiate. Under these gorgeous Caliphs of Bagdad. and from the fanatic frenzy of faith which had been their pride. lured them from both the high moral strength which they had really attained. the wonderful dream-city of splendor which they built upon the banks of the ancient Tigris river. Truth. men talked much of the virtues. typical of the time and place. The warriors lost their intense religious inspira- Arab They fought among themselves for place and power. however. a new visible literature Here were cen- . From inflicting torture. weakened them. The enormous wealth which they had conquered. casion. while surrendering themselves almost wholly to the passions. Gradually. first the cities capital empire holy to Damascus and then to Bagdad. From this fertile though unhealthy soil sprang up. except as a poetic ideal. skilfully phrased epigrams. a civilization de- veloped which Mohammed would never have recognized as his own. resulting temptations to luxury and ease and empty vanity. is given at the close of our Arabic section. such as Haroun " al Raschid of Arabian Nights' " fame." called forth by a sudden ocits literary spirit old A collection of the best known of these poems. the chief virtue in Mohammed's teaching. and even a barbarous delight in The tyranny of the ruling classes bred a in their corresponding falsity helpless but supple servitors. or rubaiyat. but seldom has the tragic contrast between the ideal form and the actual been brought into such sharp and as in the medieval world of Bagdad.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The Arabic 3 was thus compelled to cling to form. with its tion. a change came over the victorious race. They removed the of their from of Arabia. through all the ranks of society. their priest-king down.

or as a rather crude form of virtues these collections of anecdotes purporting to give the lives of former caliphs. poems. 957). As yet the various fields of science were scarcely differentiated the student took all knowledge for his province. His huge work. on logic. ." Of even greater fame in science than Al Biruni was Avicenna (980-1037). He is famed as the most versatile and brilliant member of a versatile and brilliant race. and on astronomy. They began to examine more carefully the faith which they had To this age therefore we owe the before accepted blindly. and chief events in the Among the writers of these semi-biographic tales. on physics. a sort of universal genius. The earliest Arab writer. in con- was Al Biruni (973-1048). So wit and learning journeyed there as well. known first as a physician. While such tales must not be taken as genuine history. on matheHe was also a statesman and a matics. there sprang up among the Eastern Mohammedans a new religious impulse. works on philosophy. eleventh and twelfth centuries far outranked that of their European and Christian contemporaries. the " Golden Meadows. who may perhaps be regarded as a genuine historian. To his works on medicine he afterward added religious tracts. With the increasing freedom of scientific thought and speech which Avicenna typifies. whose " Chronology " our volume quotes. whom some of his soldier. from which we give the most attractive anecdotes. his work on being trast to the previous romancers. own writings of Al Ghazali (1049-1111). " almost as celebrated as his Chronology." fills many volumes. After these loose histories. . But Al Bimni was far more than an historian he was a leading scientist of " India " his day and also a geographer. a more careful science de- The real learning of the Arab scholars of the veloped. . At first the new literature found voice mainly as history or biography.D. and he is said to have died of debauchery. by far the most noted and most noteworthy is Masoudi (died A.4 THE SACRED BOOKS tered the wealth and leisure and most of what survived of the culture of ancient Asia and Africa. they teach us very clearly the spirit of their age.

seemed half-fanatical discussions would have philosophical." a sort of spiritual autobiography.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 5 as second only to Mohammed as a teacher of their religion. it was a common saying " If there were still prophets in the world of his day that Al Ghazali would be one. or even from before his time. Al Baidawi. Zamakhshari (1074-1143) was perhaps the most learned and the shrewdest. however. Among these commentators two are chiefly celebrated. as and therefore as had been originally accepted perfect. but his ideas have seemed to his coreligionists a little too radical. From Al Ghazali. This striking book our volume gives in full. Mohammedan The Koran age. will distinctly prefer the independence of Zamakhshari. dates These halfthe great flow of commentaries on the Koran. declaring him to have heen their admiration of one of the world's greatest thinkers. we need had their They wholly unreligious and fanromances such as the " Arabian Nights. too independent of Mohammed. the work of Zamakhshari's more submissive successor of a century later." countrymen have regarded Western scholars have." This famous Into the lighter literature of the medieval Arabs not look too far. some of them. whom his Mohammedan contemporaries never sufficiently appreciated. began to draw deductions from their law. so now the Mohammedan " mullahs. Among his writings the most interesting and " useful to modern readers is his Rescuer from Error. gone still further in Al Ghazali. has gradually superseded the older book as the favorite exposition of the Koran. and to whose high moral stature the Mohammedan world has not even yet grown up." or priests. now of the the analytic spirit Semite completely clear. The Western reader. But irreligious to the earliest reasserted itself. to interpret and so develop it. and even as the Hebrews in their Biblical " commentaries weighed every and " and " but " and every carelessly made letter in their Holy Book. tastic . Indeed. daring almost to Therefore question the divine inspiration of the prophet. his account of his own growth in religious faith.

a caliph whose capital was scholarship was carried to invaders of Europe. Al Ghazali for philosophy. but with followers mainly of the semi-Arabic. ended definitely with the fall of Bagdad. MOORISH LITERATURE In the year 1258 Bagdad was stormed and conquered by a Tartar general. This ever. His " Assemblies " is the Arabs' chief purely literary achievement. From the time of that disaster we must look to other lands for the continuation of a semi-Arabic literature. semi- poetic romances is the work presented in this volume. mined by Persian influences. Just as Masoudi stands to his race for history. and so the region continued to obey in religious matters a Mohammedan caliph but the rule of the Arabs. 712. just as the earlier historians had mingled it with history. people of North Africa. peculiarly is the mingling of romance with poetry and moral teachings. may best be studied in the Persian books. medan its .D. stock climax by these first MohamIn the first wild onrush of Arabian conquest most of Spain was captured in the year A. Chief of the secondary developments from the Arabian was the remarkable and justly celebrated civilization The fame of medieval Arabic of the Moors in Spain. and Zamakhshari and Al Baidawi for religious study. In the year 756 this Moorish kingdom in Spain broke completely from the Arabian Caliph and set up a priest-king of its own. and There is. captured by an army having leaders of pure Arab blood. so does Al Hariri stand for literary skill. Avicenna for science. for brilliancy and humor. as our later Persian volume will emphasize. Most celebrated in this peculiar class of semi-religious. Indeed. most of the pure romance of later Arab literature is of Persian origin. or Moorish. It is true that most of the ravaging Tartars finally adopted the religion of the conquered. the " Assemblies " of Al Hariri (1054-1122). which had been long under. draws largely upon Persian sources. howan intermediate class of tale Arabian. Al Biruni for geography.

To the European world he is the celebrated commentator on that greatest of philosophers. Others will be found included in our volume. the chief scientific teacher of all the thus united forever with that of the great Arab world. and whose connection with the older at Arab world was only one of race and religion and not of emOur Hebraic volume has already spoken of the repire. under the sunny skies of Southern Spain.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 7 Cordova in Spain. Averroes. have in our previous volumes traced the growth of Semi- We thought and of the Semitic religious progress from their earliest home by the Euphrates river. possess. The name of Aristotle. was the last brilliant blossoming of distinctively Semitic thought. As the voice of Aristotle. Moorish literature was also a shrine of poetry and rois mance. Aristotle. and who opposed his practical. and the last are ready to glance briefly at the last strong kingdom they were to literature of note which the Semites. Averroes thus became the leading teacher and philosopher of his day. markable Hebrew writers and philosophers who flourished within the shelter of this Cordova caliphate. where the Babylonian and the desert Arab warred in unrecognized brotherhood of tic race. Here then. Now we them in Spain. To Mohammedans he is the religious thinker. he is the link which connects our present thought and science with the first splendor of independent inquiry under the Greeks. except as scattered bers of other communities. The Arabs themselves were not less able than their Hebrew servitors. teacher. . rational spirit to the mysticism of Al Ghazali. Among mem- the Arabic writers of Spain the most noted is the scientist and philosopher. far indeed from the first centers of Semitic civilization. Averroes (1126-1198). far. though most of these lighter writings have only been Our own Washpreserved to us through the Spanish tongue. who strove to harmonize their faith with the advancing science of a later day. in these Moorish tales found an inspiration ington Irving for his genius. and has turned many of them into English. were to give the world.

our Turkish section with what is perhaps the most valuable piece of early Turkish literature. but the Turks brought faith only the dubious glory of victory in war. only childish tales. after wandering Of the Turkish literature hammedan faith about A. At the very moment when the vast Mohammedan empire was crumbling to pieces. 1288. the celebrated autobiography of Sidi Ali Keis. and withering from spiritual decadence within. The not but a Tartar or East Asiatic stock Turks were Semites. not rising to poet. a nation still semi-barbaric. assailed by pagan Tartar hordes and crusading Christian armies from without. . the Turks took up the waning faith. at first. more thoughtful and elaborate writings. either to its thought or to its literature. but wholly lacking in the subtlety and intellectual keenness which could have advanced Mohammedan thought. little. in fact. but full of a warm Later we come to remarkable heights in any one great human love of romance and justice. into Western Asia. and with the energy of new and younger converts carried it onward to the military conquests which built up the Turkish Empire. echoes of the childhood of the world. strong in the natural virtues of faith and honesty and a rude kindliness. to their new They added They were. Hence we shall find in their literature. a work of travel. Then comes a native poetry. This new empire soon included geographically most of the older Arab Empire. accepted the Mowho.D.THE SACRED BOOKS 8 TURKISH LITERATURE we need speak but briefly. magic stories close akin to those of our own fairyland. but these incline to deal with the practical world rather than with So that we close that of religion and speculative thought.

but STANLEY LANE-POOLE. . and he said to 'Write. " it." SUNAN OF ABU DA'UD. " The sayings [of the Sunari] are very numerous and very dehow far they are genuine it is not easy to determine." tailed.AEABIC LITERATURE THE SUNAN THE DEEDS AND SAYINGS OF MOHAMMED AS PRESERVED BY HIS FOLLOWERS " The proof heed to what is of a Mohammedan's sincerity is that he pays no not his business. The first thing which God created was a pen.'" THE SUNAN.


we have seen." of Mohammed are now in six books. Moreover. came exaggerated in the telling. or "sincere books. That is the Koran. dictated by the prophet himself. Moreover. each claiming rightful heirship from the prophet. the main source of teaching. which. every listener who had ever heard him speak. That is to say. when rival caliphs fought and slew one another.THE SUNAN (INTRODUCTION) " Sunan. narrated to Naturally these beeager audiences each remembered trifle. is Mohammed's own book. that of Mohammed sprang immediately into world-wide power . their followers would inevitably invent traditions to justify each leader's claim." works bear to Mohammedanism much the same relation as THE Four Gospels do to Christianity. the Sunan do not approach not the as Mohammed with anything like the same accuracy and ness with which the Gospels approach Jesus. hence no sooner was the prophet dead than every companion of the revered teacher. gathered from every possible source at an interval of more than two centuries after their prophet's death. they are the accounts of the prophet's life as handed down by his Of course to the Mohammedans the Sunan are disciples. They have. however. and they are taught in basis of many law of to-day all is founded on the schools and made the a hair-splitting argument about right and wrong. Much of the Mohammedan religious them. been accepted " canons " of the as holy books or Mohammedan faith. Exaggeration. though two of these are more spegathered the called These six cifically Sahihs. close- The Sunan are slight and fragmentary traditions. 11 . Unlike the Christian religion. or traditions.

the first Sahih. the modern reader must not think of this as implying modern scientific criticism cal and analytical accuracy. These four laws Abu Da'ud gives as follows: . Each tale was chiefly accepted on the ground that. they sought to sift these manifold traditions and decide which were worthy of belief. 870. later on. until his death in A. down He these sifted traditions in a traveled all over the Arab Em- pire to gather all the tales he could. When. however. The man who first set book was Al Bukhari. and written after an even wider gathering of all the legends of the empire. written by a follower of Al Bukhari. firmer basis. Of slightly later date than these two works were the four Sunan. extending back through many links years. who sums up his own work by declaring that only four of all the thousands of religious rules he has gathered need be remembered by each man for his own religious guidance. Al Bukhari himself tells us that in his travels he gathered six hundred thousand tales about Mohammed. That is to say. was accepted as the ultimate proof of truth.D. founded partly on the earlier books. The most widely read and quoted of the Sunan is that of Abu Da'ud. all the men were known and all were of reputed trustworth- iness. but built upon a stricter critical analysis of what should be accepted. we speak of these Sunan as a " criti- " selection from the million legends. The second Sahih. soon became inextricably mixed with When. in an age already become notorious for its lack of veracity. a little over seven thousand. as being most trustworthy. Of these he admitted to his Sahih. men tried to set their faith upon a if fact. a superficial confidence in individual verafor over two hundred city. and the entire collection is commonly spoken of by the later name. and he continued elaborating on his book. was garnered from three hundred thousand tales. Hence the Sunan include the earlier books.THE SACRED BOOKS 1* not direct falsehood. in the series of men by whom it was said to have been handed down through the generations.

and that which is unlawful likewise. from which it is well to abstain. but there are certain doubtful things between the two. which he desires for himself.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 18 " Actions will be judged according to intentions. The proof of a Moslem's sincerity is that he pays no heed to that which No man is a true believer unless he is not his business." desires for his brother that That which is lawful is clear. .

and he who cometh before me with the earth full of sins. but joineth no partner to me. if people do good to us. . you will do good to them. I will run toward him. a man who remembereth God when he is alone. on : . who fixeth his heart on the mosque till he return to it the fourth. There are seven people whom God will draw under his that day when there will be no other shadow one a just king. and he who seeketh to approach me one cubit. a man who hath given alms and concealed it. 14 . . which near him upon the sovran throne . and if they oppress you. so that his left hand knoweth not what his right hand doeth. we will do good to them. and weepeth the sixth. own shadow. oppress them not again. Verily I fear God. whether together or separate the fifth. I will seek to approach him two fathoms and he who walketh toward me. two men whose friendship is to please God. the seventh. who hath employed himself in devotion from his youth the third.SELECTIONS FBOM THE STJNAN OB." is is Say not. another. and if people oppress us. and I doth ill. for him are ten re- wards. we will oppress them: but resolve that if people do good to you. SAYINGS AND TRADITIONS OF MOHAMMED When God created the creation he wrote a book. . . I will come before him with an equal front of forgiveness. God saith : Whoso doth one good act. or else I forgive him. and what is written in it " this : Verily my compassion overcometh my wrath. a man who is tempted by a rich and beautiful woman. and saith. and whoso its retaliation is equal to it. also give more to whomsoever I will .

when any of you forget your prayers. it When a Moslem performeth his face those faults the ablution. sleep. ye will be ruined. Concerning Prayer Angels come among you both night and day. Verily ye are in an age in which if ye abandon one-tenth After this a time will of what is ordered. ber God." it . the devil tieth three and saith over every knot. for neglect can only take place when one is awake: therefore. " The night knots upon his neck is long. left them at prayer. openeth another. for the prayers which are performed by peoare double of those which are said at assembled together ple home. then those of the night ascend to heaven. The rewards Ye must of the sun : not say your prayers at the rising or the setting so when a limb of the sun appeareth. come when he who shall observe one-tenth of what is now ordered will be redeemed.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 15 The most excellent of all actions is to befriend any one on God's account. if a servant awake and rememopeneth one knot and if he perform the ablution. it washeth from which he may have cast his eyes upon. leave your prayers until her whole orb is up : and when the sun beginneth to set. and God asketh them how they left his creatures: they say. No neglect of duty is imputable during sleep. say them when ye recollect. Therefore. and he riseth in the morning in gladness and purity: otherwise he riseth in a lethargic state. and We we found them at prayer. . verily she riseth between the two horns of the devil. . for. quit your prayers until the whole orb hath disappeared . When any one of you goeth to sleep. and if he say prayers. and to be at enmity with whosoever is the enemy of God. it openeth the other.

such as stones and thorns. Yes. is alms. which he is near the pleasure of shall enter into. is " O our Lord is there anything of thy creation " harder than wind ? " He said. it removeth the faults they have committed. . Think not that any good act is contemptible. though it be but your brother's coming to you with an open countenance and good humor. and answering a questioner with mildness is alms. and the angels were then astonished at the hardness of the hills. and with his baggage. and near the fire and verily a liberal ignorant man is more beloved by God than a niggardly The liberal paradise. may Of Charity When God created the earth it began to shake and tremble . There is alms for a man's every joint. and the land became firm and fixed. it dispelleth the faults toward which they may have carried him: so that he will rise up in purity from the place of ablution. water is harder than the hills. because Then eth them." " O is and God it break- there anything " of thy creation harder than water ? He said. is alms and pure words. Lord. and when he washeth his feet. and alms: those giving give conceal from their left. . and put them upon the earth." the angel said. God created mountains. and removing that which is an inconvenience to man. " Yes. . . every day in which the sun riseth doing justice between two people is alms and assisting a man upon his beast. the children of Adam who with their right hand. overcome all." They said. " O God.THE SACRED BOOKS 16 and when he washeth his hands. and said. A man's giving in is better for alms one piece of silver in- his lifetime him than giving one hundred when about to die. ! man God and is near and is near the hearts of men as a friend. Yes. . . worshiper. wind overcometh water: it doth agitate it and put it in motion. and every step which is made toward prayer is alms. for which are rewards. " there anything of thy creation harder than hills ? " said. and far from the hearts of men. and he is distant from hell but the niggard is far from God's pleasure and from paradise.

except a shoulder which remaineth. awake at night and sleep also. 2. but a who is readeth the Koran and the hypocrite the sweet bazil.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The people of the Prophet's house " What reniaineth 17 killed a goat. a duty on you to your body. and that of doth not read the Koran is like a date which hath no smell. is like sweet. Read the Koran of whose might is faster than a camel VOL. is fleeting. whose smell bitter taste. sometimes sleep and give them rest and verily there is a duty on you to your wife. not to labor overmuch. but a sweet taste. a Of Reading the Koran Moslem who readeth the Koran is like the whose smell and Moslem who taste are pleasant . away . Of Fasting A keeper of fasts. it ? . of and the " They said. and what resaid. Prophet " for whole to the shoulder have sent but the they Nothing the poor and neighbors. if he be unjustly bound. God careth not about his leaving off eating and drinking." and free the captive visit the sick. who doth not abandon lying and slandering. and the condition of any hypocrite who doth not read the Koran is like the colocynth which hath no smell. but taste bitter. I sware by him in the hands verily the Koran runneth is not tied by the leg. . it is the whole goat that remaineth except its shoulder: that remaineth which they have given away. niaineth in the house Feed the hungry. " Nay. the rewards of which will be eternal. ye must Keep fast and eat because verily there also. constantly my which . . . life. VI. : The state of a orange fruit. . so that ye may not get ill and destroy yourselves and verily there is a duty on you to your eyes. stay is . and to your visitors and guests that come to see you ye must talk to them and nobody hath kept fast who fasted always the fast of three days in every month is equal to constant fasting then keep three days' fast in every month." The Prophet said.

" I will take them at one silver buy them ? He said. " Who will " A man said." " I will take peated twice or thrice. " Buy food with one of these pieces. and said. and give it to your family. He said. whether they give him or not . " Bring me And the man brought them. A man came to the Prophet. large carpet. is better for you than coming on the day of resurrection with black marks on your face. and it he to the Prophet.THE SACRED BOOKS 18 Of Labor and Profit Verily the best things which ye eat are those which ye earn yourselves or which your children earn. Then the Prophet said. begging of him something. them for two pieces of silver. " Go. and making your livelihood by it. Verily it is better for one of you to take a rope and bring a bundle of wood upon his back and sell it." Then the Prophet said. the carpet and the cup. part myself. and gave them to the helper. that they may make it their sustenance for a few days and buy a hatchet with the And the man brought it. " This cutting and selling of wood. and spread the other." and the Prophet put a handle to it with his own hands. than to beg of people. and there is a wooden cup in which I drink water. " Who will give more ? " This he repiece. and let me not see you for fifteen days. it is worse than that. . you nothing at home ? " with of I cover one which there is a Yes. cut wood. . and " " Have the Prophet said." Acts of begging are scratches and wounds by which a man woundeth his own face." and the Prophet took them in his hand. in which case God guardeth his honor. then he who wisheth to guard his face from scratches and wounds must not beg. if they do not give him. for it layeth him under obligations. other piece and bring it to me. and sell it. unless that a . and took the two pieces of silver. and food with part. when verily he had and came selling ten of got silver. his reputation suffereth and he returneth disappointed . and said. and he bought a garment with part pieces of it." Then the man went cutting wood." Then the Prophet gave the carpet and cup to that man. and then said. Another man said. and if they give him.

that person who hath purchased it for another. He He said. The holder of a monopoly is a sinner and offender. God should redeem desireth that him from the sorrows and difficulties of the day of resurrection must delay in calling on poor debtors. anything to discharge them ? They " " No. and refuseth to do it. the eighth. said." " Hath he left " said. and retire dure. and he said in his heart. Say ye prayers over him . except he who abstaineth from that which is unlawful. the seventh. it is right to dishonor and punish him. the waiter. the seller of it. the fourth. The Prophet hath cursed ten persons on account of wine : one. Of Fighting We for the Faith came out with the Prophet. the drinker of it. The bringers of grain to the city to sell at a cheap rate gain immense advantage by it. of Merchants shall be raised up liars on the day of resurrection. and the writer of its papers and the witness to it. " Hath he left any debts ? " They said. but speaketh true in the price of his goods. the first extractor of the juice of the grape for others. are equal in crime. Whosoever has a thing with which to discharge a debt." Give the laborer his wage before his perspiration be dry. the eater of its price.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 19 man asketh from his prince. the ninth. to say prayers over it. A martyr shall be pardoned every fault but debt. I shall not. or forgive the debt in part or whole. for himself. The taker of interest and the giver of it. the tenth. the bearer of it. passed by a cavern in which were water and ver" I shall stay here. the third. and a man . with a part of the army. or in an affair in which there is no remedy. and doth not swear falsely." The Prophet said. A bier was brought to the Prophet. the second. and he who keepeth back grain in order to He who sell at a high rate is cursed. the fifth. " Yes. the person to whom it is brought. the sixth. the buyer it.

The first Of Judgments judgment that God will pass on man at the day of resurrection will be for murder. . his iron shall be in his hand. but put your spoils together and quarrel not among . name of God and by his aid and on the religion in the of the Messenger of God. he would say. " Verily I have not been sent on the Jewish religion. but be good to one another. There is no judge who hath decided between men." the Prophet's permission to but he said. and steal not the spoils of war. and if God ordereth to throw him into hell. Would to God that I had not decided between two persons in a trial for a single date. marching about morning and evening to fight for religion is better than the world and everything that is in it and verily truth. Ko judge must decide between two persons whilst he is angry. for God loveth the doer of good. the angel will do it from a height of forty years' journey. and that which is easy. : the standing of one of you in the line of battle is better than supererogatory prayers performed in your house for sixty years. . that he will wish. that terity.THE SACRED BOOKS 20 Then he asked from the world. and the angel will raise his head toward the heavens and wait for God's orders . yourselves. to quit the delights of society but I have been sent on the religion inclining to live in the cavern . nor the Christian. nor young children nor women . and he will stab his belly with it in hell fire everlastingly. When March the Prophet sent an army out to fight. Whosoever throweth himself from the top of a mountain and killeth himself is in hell fire forever. Verily liiere will come on a just judge at the day of resurrection such fear and horror. wherein is no difficulty or ausI swear by God. Kill not the old man who can not fight. and whosoever killeth himself with iron. in whose hand is my life. whether just or unjust. but will come to God's court on the day of resurrection held by the neck by an angel .

nor shall a virgin be married until her consent be asked. on account of her . A woman may be married by four qualifications: one. whose but consent is by her silence. if ye do it from be rubbed in dirt. A widow shall not be married until she be consulted. therefore look out for religious women. tribe that constitutes a woman its ruler will not find re- demption. her pedigree account of her faith . ye straighten . and her husband is pleased with her. Verily the best of with women are those who are content little. he said. Admonish your wives with kindness for women were creAdam. A Moslem can not obtain (after righteousness) anything better than a well-disposed. . may your hands . When had The the Prophet was informed that the people of Persia made the daughter of Chosroes their queen. .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 21 Of Women and Slaves The world and all things in it are valuable. any other consideration. I have not left any calamity more hurtful to man than woman. on account of her beauty a fourth. on account of the nobility of another. be always crooked. shall enter into paradise. . Every woman who dieth. and if her husband look at her. That which is lawful but disliked by God is divorce. ated out of a crooked rib of . when ordered by her husband to do anything. it will it. she wisheth him well in her own person by guarding herself from inchastity. is happy and if her husband swear by her to do a thing. on money another. obeyeth . beautiful wife: such a wife as. therefore if ye wish to will it break and if ye let it alone. but the most valuable thing in the world is a virtuous woman. Do not prevent your women from coming to the mosque but their homes are better for them. . of his property. and taketh care . she doth it to make his oath true and if he be absent from her.

so that your wives to comb their disheveled hair. go not to your houses. and there are the " young which I have. their mother joined them: and the Prophet said." And when he did so. although it be of your silver ornaments. " O Prophet I passed through a wood. Verily there are rewards for our doing good to dumb aniAn adulteress was mals. He who beateth his slave without fault. and heard the voices of the young of birds and I took and put them into my carpet and their mother came fluttering round my head. or slappeth him in the face. and said. . When ye return from a journey and enter your town at night. then I wrapped them up in my carpet. he must himself assist him in doing it. : therefore himself. and of the clothes wherewith he clotheth himself. and the mother fell down upon them. may have time God has ordained that your brothers should be your slaves him whom God hath ordained to be the slave of his his brother must give him of the food which he eateth brother. for verily ye are mostly of hell and gold on the day of resurrection. A man came before the Prophet with a carpet. " Do you wonder at the affection of I swear by him who hath the mother toward her young? sent me. and let their mother be with them. and if he doth order such a work. Keturn them to the place from which ye took them.animals ride them when they are to be ridden. his atonement for this is freeing him. give alms. Forgive thy servant seventy times a day. and I uncovered the young. Put them down. verily God is more loving to his servants than the mother to these young birds. and get off when they are tired. forgiven who passed by a dog at a well . and not order him to do anything beyond his power." : fit ! .THE SACRED BOOKS 22 O assembly of women. for the dog was hold- . and giving them water to drink." Then the Prophet said. Of Dumb Animals Fear God in respect of . man who behaveth ill to his slave will not enter into A paradise.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 23 ing out his tongue from thirst. I heard this. unless is who hath taken it be worthy of it and have acted justly and done good. : but. and he jects then tjie leader : . . pressed resignation. nor him there into his saith to night in. guest. the devil " You have his followers. and after that. and the period of entertaining him is three days. and verily government day of resurrection a cause of inquiry. and the woman took off her boot. if the king oppresseth. That is the best of on him is his sin. Beware! and ye will be asked about your subye are all guardians. if he doth it longer. and she was forgiven for that act. which was near killing him ." And when a man cometh house without remembering God's name. houses. Of When a man cometh and repeateth his is to Hospitality into his house and remembereth God name at eating his meals. got a place to spend the to his followers. and loveth munificence: then keep the courts of your house clean. " Here any supper for you. is the guardian of the subject. and loveth purity . Verily a king is God's shadow upon the earth and every one oppressed turneth to him then when the king doeth justice. and God and loveth liberality God is munificent. and do not be like Jews who do not clean the courts of their is liberal. he benefiteth him more. that God is pure. and gave drink. for him are rewards and gratitude from his subjects: . and tied it to the end of her garment. the devil saith is no place for you to stay in to-night. and the time of being kind to him is one day and one night." Whosoever believeth in God and the day of resurrection must respect his. and drew water for the dog. and for the op- men who disliketh power. It is not right for a guest to stay in the house of the host so long as to inconvenience him. Of Government Government will be at the he a trust from God.

if we have princes over us. O Prophet of God. not put to the trouble at the means do it. Whosoever shall tell a dream. and withholding our rights from us. If a negro slave is appointed to rule over you. but strong who withholds himself from anger. and will be interrogated about them and a slave is a shepherd to his master's property. whether he took good care of it or not. then what do you order us? He Said. and will be asked about it. Then if you must make pictures. wanting our rights.THE SACRED BOOKS 24 will be asked respecting the subject . he must sit down. nor that which there are pictures. hear him. him lie down. sitting. no prince who oppresseth the subject and dieth. and will be asked how they behaved." He he is not strong or powerful who throws people down. his anger goeth let Of Vanities and Sundry Matters The angels are not with the company with which is a dog. "Ye must hear them and obey their orders: it is on them to be just and good. . and a man is a shepherd to his own family. if not. to punish him. Every painter is in hell fire and God will appoint a person at the day of resurrection for every picture he shall have drawn. There but is God and obey him. and a wife is guardian to her husband's house and children. and he can by no punished. nor to any other than what is lawful. There is no obedience due to sinful commands. A bell is the devil's musical instrument. barleycorns. is When one of you getteth angry. though his head should be like a dried grape. forbiddeth paradise to him. The angels do not enter a house in which is a dog. and on you to be obedient and submissive. make them of trees and in . and his conduct to them . and he will be whosoever listeneth to others' conversation. and they will punish him in hell. so much the better. shall be day of resurrection of joining two . things without souls. nor with the company with which is a bell. And having dreamed. and if away from.

Verily he who believeth fighteth with his sword and tongue : I swear by God. and to lose knowledge is this. but he did not throw down the is : tables. God will direct him to the road of paradise . but when Moses went to his tribe. use medicine: because God hath not dislike to be heard into his ears at the created a pain without a remedy for it. and avoid him. and vain talking and embellishing are two branches of hypocrisy. what relation is most " of He said. not like seeing verily God acquainted Moses of Hearing his tribe's worshiping a calf. . " Your mother " this worthy doing good to ? . and this he can never do. and his messenger. Mary's Son. he repeated thrice " and after her your father. as the Christians are in praising Jesus." dren. The calamity of knowledge is forgetfulness. He who is not loving to God's creatures and to his own chil- God will not be loving to him. and after him your other relations by propinquity. except age . . and so he will be punished as long as God wills. by calling him God. and every- thing in heaven and earth will ask grace for him and verily the superiority of a learned man over a mere worshiper is like . who said. " Know that everything is vanity except God. O servants of God. O Messenger of God. And shall be punished by ordering whosoever draweth a picture him to breathe a spirit into it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST who 25 by him. and saw with his eyes the calf they had made. verily abuse of infidels in verse is worse to them than arrows. he threw down the tables and broke them. and the Son of God I am only the Lord's servant then call me the servant of God. to be the means of curing it. to speak of it to the unworthy. The truest words spoken by any poet are those of Lebid. that of the full moon over all the stars. and verily the angels spread their arms to receive him who seeketh after knowledge . Meekness and shame are two branches of faith. Be not extravagant in praising me. for that is a pain without a remedy. Who pursueth the road to knowledge. " It was asked. boiling lead will be poured day of resurrection." : .

THE SACRED BOOKS 26 God's pleasure is in a father's pleasure. " a one done. or an offender. Then if he Verily one of you is a mirror to his brother : see a vice in his brother he must tell him to get rid of it. for peradventure he may increase them by an increase of life. and say to the soul of the " Come out. and they are very happy at its coming. so that verily it is handed from one angel to another. angels of mercy come. and length of hope. for perhaps he may obtain the forgiveness of God by repentance. the best of neighbors near God is the best person in his The and own neighborhood. till they bring it to the sion. And some it of them " say." Then the soul cometh out like the smell of the best musk. When a believer is nearly dead. When the soul is taken from the body the eyes follow it. which is with God. and came from thence aggrieved ask it when it is at rest. Of Death Wish not for death any one of you . O thou who art satisfied with God. " What hath such ney. " What a wonderful." Then the soul saith when it is . and the sustenance of God's mercy and compas- and to the Lord. and with whom he is satisfied. Let it alone . clothed in white silk garments. The heart of the old is is pleasing to God. more than ! ye are at the coming of one of your family after a long jour- And the souls of the faithful ask it. and look toward it : on this account the eyes remain open. doors of the celestial regions. dying man. and God's displeasure is a father's displeasure. come out to rest. and such a one ? how are they ? and they mention the names of their friends who are left in the world. because was grieved in the world. who is not angry. and haste always young in two things in love : for the world. is Deliberation in undertaking pleasing to the devil. Then the angels say. at . do not ask it. either a doer of good works. pleasant smell this is which is come to you from the earth " Then they bring it to the souls of the faithful. best person near God is the best among his friends.

" Do not abuse or speak ill of the dead. and this is a sign of its poison . it to the souls of the infidels. Surely he was carried to his mother. mention them as sinful and bad. Verily death is dreadful : therefore when ye see a bier. " O Prophet verily this bier is of a Jewish woman. and with whom God is Then it cometh displeased. clothed in sackcloth. before us. you must not . forgiven. his wealth will be made into the shape of a serpent on the day of resurrection. because they have arrived at what they sent before them . and we are following you. for him is a reward equal to that of the sufferer. fire." Of the State after Death To whomsoever God giveth wealth. angels of punishment come to him. Whoso comforteth a woman who has lost her child will Sit not upon Whoso be covered with a garment in paradise. and turned his " Peace be to face toward them. which shall not have any hair upon its head. which is hell ease. graves. perhaps they may be your mentioning their badness is of no . nor say your prayers fronting them. they say to one an" other. if it is use. worse than the worst stench of a dead body." And as they do not see him among themselves. until they bring it upon the earth. out. but if not. and say to his " Come soul. we must not respect it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 27 " Verily such a one about whom ye ask is dead. they have received the rewards of their actions if the reward is good. A was passing." And verily when an infidel is near death." Then the we bier . come to God's punishments. and the Prophet stood up for it and him and said. consoleth one in misfortune." out with a disagreeable smell. " What an extraordinarily bad smell this is " till they bring . The Prophet passed by graves in Medina. and he doth not perform the charity due from it. stood with Prophet ! " said. O people of God forgive us and you! Ye have passed on the graves. and they say. you. stand up. and said. thou discontented.

and another man on the bank. : . with which he was breaking the other's head. the charity for which thou and will say. and made him return. and put into a house which was in the middle of it a better house I have never seen and there were old men. and I said. " I am thy wealth. What is this ? ' They said. and then did the same with the other lip. then the serpent will seize the man's jaw-bones." " us. ' . in which was a large tree. till we came to a hole like an oven. : * ' ' ' . and there were naked men and women in it. and near it was a man lighting a fire. with stones in his hands and when the man in the river attempted to come out. and afterward rolled the stone about and then followed it. No. and the man kept on from one lip to the other. and round his neck like a chain on the day of resurrection. and had not yet reThen he turned. with its top narrow and its bottom wide. What is this ? ' They said. What is this ? They said. the other threw stones in his face. and will be twisted not separate any alms. I said. and another standing at his head with a stone in his hand. and when the fire subsided they subsided also. and split it to the back of the neck.THE SACRED BOOKS 28 it hath two black spots upon its eyes. young men. Then I was carried upon the tree. After me and took hold of : ' ' ' * ' ' . didst not give. Advance and we moved forward. and when the fire burned high the people mounted also. and was hooking the other in the lip. with a man standing in the middle of it. and children. and an old man and children sitting on the roots of it.' and we did so till we reached a man sleeping on his back. Walk on and we walked. And I said. from which thou didst and long it life. While this was doing the first healed. and I am thy treasure. Two men came to He said. Then I said. " Did any one of you dream ? " But I did. there was a man sitting and another standing: the first had an iron hook in his hand. What is this ? They said. Move on. broke it again. when the man's head was healed and well. ' Move on ' and we went on till we came to a river of blood. women. my hands." The Prophet asked We " said. and fire was burning under it. and carried me to a pure land and behold. till we arrived at a green garden.

it is children of for the martyrs: and we who conducted you are one of us ' Gabriel. " O my Lord I swear by thy that Gabriel came and said." and returned and said. and the person you saw getting his head broken is a man whom God taught the Koran. he said to Gabriel. Verily ye have shown me a great many things to-night. and the old man you saw under the tree is Abraham. and those you saw in the river . and he did not repeat it in the night. it. * Call it here. where were men and young men. And he went and looked at it. and said. and will be treated in that way till the day of resurrection. Verily your life remaineth. you will come into your ' ' ' . glory no one will hear a description of paradise but will be ambitious of entering it. .' I said. go and dise with distress and troubles.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 29 that they brought me out of the house and carried me to the top of the tree. look at paradise. and the first house you entered was for the common believers . and saw above it as it were a cloud: and they That is your dwelling. Yes as to the man whom you saw with split lips. I swear by thy glory that no one who shall hear a description of hell fire will wish Then God surrounded it with sins. " O my Lord." . and then re" O my Lord. and the other Michael then raise up your head . that I said. I fear that verily no one will turned and said. and I did so. And I said to my two conductors. old * l : nor practise what is in it by day. keeper of hell. and the children around them are the men : and the person who was lighting the fire was the Malik. he was a liar.' ' When God look at it " . and put me into a better house." And he went and looked." After that God surrounded para" O Gabriel. may enter it and they said. but when you have completed it. house. desires. then inform me of what I have seen. are receivers of usury.' They said. and he will be treated as you saw till the day of resurrection and the people you saw in the oven are adulterers." " Go and And when God take a look at created hell fire he said to Gabriel. ! enter it. Go and then Gabriel went and looked at it and at the After things which God had prepared for the people of it. and to enter it. and as to the second house. " created paradise.

"Write." it. and there being many women. full of milk. The first thing which God created was a pen. . Then God will quickly send a punishment upon them." And it wrote all that was and all that will be heart. waiting in expectation of orders to blow it ? Of Destiny The hearts of men are at the disposal of God like unto one and he turneth them about in any way that he pleaseth. verily ye would weep much and laugh little. Verily among the signs of the resurrection will be the tak- among men and their being in ignorance and much wickedness and much drinking ing away of knowledge from great . and he went and looked at " Go and and " look at hell O my Lord. because sins are so sweet that there is none but will incline to them. If ye knew what I know of the condition of the resurrection and futurity. and their milch-animals will come to them in the evening. to such a degree that there will be fifty women to one man.THE SACRED BOOKS 30 vices after that he said to Gabriel. O Director of hearts. when the wickamong us ? edness shall be excessive. Come to-morrow. Yes. of liquor. turn our hearts to obey thee. said. to eternity. and hath already knit his brow. leaning his ear toward the true God for orders. and he will work for a livelihood for the women. and wearing of and drinking and there will be silks will listen to the lute: men with magnificent houses. Then I " O messenger of God shall we perish while " He said." It said. and diminution of men. and a man will come begging a little and they will say. when Israfil hath put the trumpet to his mouth to blow it. unto the day of resurrection. . I swear by thy glory I am afraid that every one will enter hell. "What shall I write?" God said. and will change others into the shape of monkeys and swine. " Write down the quantity of every separate thing to be created. verily there will be tribes of my said." fire. and he said And to it. ! the virtuous are sects that will consider the liquor lawful. How can I be happy.

O Prophet?" teenth of Ramadan). from the fault which thou committedst. because the happy will and moral duty ? do good works. and their up Then I said. written by God. O Ayesha the excellence of this night ? I said. " No. may we confide in this and abandon our religious " He said. whom God created by the power of his hands." Then Adam thee. enter favor he said none No. and those who are of the miserable will do bad ! works. except " this he said thrice." " He said. none enter Paradise except by God's mercy ? " " God's this thrice. except by " will I said. and to converse with. whether " O Prophet since God hath appointed companions said. " Dost thou then reproach me on a matter which God wrote in the Bible forty said." Adam said. " O Prophet. and all the actions of the children heaven in this night. . and God made thee his confidant. " Forty years. excepting by God's compassion ? " put his hand on his head. and made the angels bow before and gave thee an habitation in his own paradise after man upon the earth. and breathed into thee from his own spirit. ! He of " said. God ? " years before creating me " ? " Do you Ayesha relates that the Prophet said to her. : that thou threwest : " Didst thou see in the Bible that Adam disobeyed He said. God cover me with his mercy of are carried to : ! : . " Thou art that Moses whom God elected for his prophecy. "What is it. I shall not enter. and he gave to thee twelve tables. Prophet you para" Then the Prophet dise. not enter into O You. do allowances are sent down. and the bearer of his secrets then how long was the Bible written before I was created ? " Moses said." Adam said. that all the children born in the year are written down.LITERATURE OF THE EAST There is not one 31 among you whose sitting-place is not The in the fire or in paradise. also. " (the fifknow. our place. " Yes. and also are to die in it. and Adam " Thou art that Adam got the better of Moses who said. in which are explained everything. Adam those who Adam One to be thing in this night is. and said." The Prophet of God said that Adam and Moses (in the world of spirits) maintained a debate before God.

then I am . forsake it. He said. " If thou derive pleasure from the good which thou hast done. receive it. . " When anything pricketh thy conconsist in ? science. nothing more than man.THE SACRED BOOKS S2 A man asked the Prophet what was the mark whereby a man might know the reality of his faith. " What doth a fault really " He said. and the affairs of the world. thou art a true believer. and be grieved for the evil which thou hast committed." The man said." I am no more than man when : I order you anything with when I order you about respect to religion.



Eastern subtlety. but was. the AMONG already Meadows." It is a collection of interesting and sometimes scandalous anecdotes about anything and everything in the These." followed by the usual preface praising Mohammed and the author's own Then follow. so Masoudi devoted himself to gathering other legends. In other words. He was born at Bagdad. His book begins. like many of his countrymen. in order that he may praise with a convincing air where he thinks praise will be especially pleasing to the powerful own day. called. most of which has disappeared. with true past. Al Bukhari and other earlier travel- had collected all the tales of the Prophet. the author is an accom- of his plished courtier as well as a witty and entertaining writer. After visiting all lands. by far the most celebrated is the many" Book of Golden volumed work of Masoudi. and explaining its origin. Masoudi criticises where criticism will be safe. " In the name of the most merciful God.D. probably in A. a man of prominence descended from one of the comrades of Mohammed.ARABIC LITERATURE (INTRODUCTION) the early chronicles of the Arabs. refer to the best-known caliphs. as we have stated. of the anecdotes which we quote some that ically arranged. and there died. a wanderer. as do all Arab books. chronologwork. 957. Masoudi himself was of the genuine Arab blood. He then selected from this the 35 . From the vast ers bulk of these he made a thirty-volume historical work. with the formula. but chiefly about the earlier caliphs. he selected as his finally Egypt dwelling-place.

we who give ." Of the more careful historians and genuine scientists followed. from whose philosophical work an extract here. and then. Avicenna. must assuredly be ranked the first.THE SACRED BOOKS 86 material for a briefer work. gathered the best of his anecdotes into the " Golden Meadows. by a third process of distillation.

and 754. THE BUILDEB OF BAGDAD Al Mansur. It is said that he could remember a poem after having only once heard it. they followed his example and renounced their gorgeous attire.EARLY HISTORY AND SCIENCE THE BOOK OF GOLDEN MEADOWS AND OF MINES OF PRECIOUS STONES IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD. suc" ceeded his brother Es-Saffah ("the blood-shedder ) A. and was endowed with a remarkable memory. and the simplicity of his life and outward his frugality. appearance. tronized poets and learned men. garment to the chiefs of the noblest Arab tribes and to the kings of Yemen.D. shamed by his mingling of pious humility and earnest gravity. THE TRUTHFUL Abu Bekr surpassed all the Mohammedans in his austerity. discretion. He was a prince of great prudence. and a slave-girl who could do the same with what she had heard three times. 37 . May God grant his blessing and his to Mohammed. During his rule he wore but a single linen In this simple dress he gave audience and a cloak. celebrate THE CALIPHATE OF ABU BEKB. and and glorify. PITIFUL AND HELPFUL: Let us praise God. MANSUB. chief of the prophets. and to all his peace holy posterity. but these good qualities were sullied by his exHe patraordinary covetousness and occasional cruelty. integrity. THE CALIPHATE OF AI. the third Caliph of the house of Abbas. He also had a slave who could commit to memory anything that he had heard twice. whose works we should study. But at sight of the Caliph. covered with gold embroideries and wearing splendid crowns. The latter appeared before him dressed in richest robes.

He composed some very difficult verses. brother of the Arabs! bring hither that whereon it is written. and the Caliph at once committed it to memory. it . So he cried : " O they had neither of them learned it. narily intricate and difficult. El Asmai'y. and scratched them upon a fragment of a marble pillar. peated every Another poet. or that any one composed it that is to say. as he had slave." So the poet repeated his poem. she also recollects it. and Al anybody knows : by heart. : ! . too. was visible but his eyes. father's death a piece of a marble col- . Then he said to the poet me. so that nothing fastened foreign Arab. which." as it was extraordiEl Asmai'y recited the Kasidah. once from the poet and once from the Caliph. we will give thee the weight in money of that upon which it is written." heard it twice. Then said Al Mansur " O brother of the Arabs if the been brought by any one beside thee. 'Kasidah'" (ode). we will give poem has thee no recompense for it otherwise we will bestow on thee So the weight in money of that upon which it is written. that we may give thee its weight. although it contained a thousand " Listen to it from lines.THE SACRED BOOKS 38 One day came to him a poet bringing a congratulaMansur said to him " If it appears that there tory ode. and came to the Caliph and said: " Verily I have lauded the Commander of the Faithful in a the back of a camel." Then : who is So she conre- it." Then said the seeming Arab " O my Lord of a truth I ! : could find no paper to write things left me at my it upon but I had amongst the . but to memory. that it was brought here by some other person before thee we will give thee no recompense for it but if no one knows it. cealed by the curtain. knows it by heart. Then he added " And this This was the case." and he recited it perfectly. which he wrapped in a cloak and placed on letter of Then he disguised himself like a and on a face-cloth. : : " the Caliph said And this slave-girl. the Caliph could not commit He looked toward the slave and the girl. was among the intimate friends and table-companions of the Caliph. and the poet went away unrewarded.

and thou dost debar them from receiving anything by the power of thy memory and the memories of this slave and this slave-girl." One day the poet Thalibi recited an ode in the presence When he had finished." Very from my my well. or hear three wise sayings from lips ? " to favor with his said the anxious master. for it looks " there " Alas alas " wailed the badly." cried the poet in an agony: "keep the third piece of advice to yourself and let clothes." poet." Then the Caliph laughed outright and ordered five hundred dinars to be paid the treasury. they might with it support their families. of Al Mansur." " Ah ! : me have the last hundred dinars. hoping for a reward." The Caliph smiled. he had gone away. don't sew on a new patch. Al Mansur's brother and predecessor." So he com: self upon my mind that this is manded him to be brought back. so I scratched the Kasidah upon that. who said " O Commander of the Faithful verily the poets ! : and are fathers of families. But wert thou to bestow upon them what thou couldst easily spare. " Will you have three hundred dinars the Caliph said to him : " treasury. and lo! it was El Asmai'y. hundred. and con! tinued " : ! The second piece of advice your beard. and continued " The " " third piece of advice O Caliph. " " durable wisdom is better than transitory treasure. " the first word of wisdom is : When your garment is worn." curry poet." said the Caliph. and this nearly exhausted his treasury. On his accession Al . don't anoint the bottom of is When you : it. and it could not are poor injure thee." Again the Caliph smiled. the Caliph said " It forces itEl Asma'iy.LITERATURE OF THE EAST umn which had been thrown aside as 39 useless." Then the Caliph had no help for it but to give him its weight in gold. Oh. lest " you anoint soil your " there go the second sighed the poet. go a hundred dinars at one blow. The poet took When it and departed. him from Al Mansur and Abu Muslim Abu Muslim was one of the chief generals of Es-Saffah.

" he had resolved to revolt against Al Mansur." answered the messenger. Emir " "A murrain on thee. but would not go. who had already made the acquaintance of Abu Muslim in Khorassan. Abu Mesopotamia. son of Yezid. Al Mansur sent Yaktin bin Musa to take charge of the treasure." Abu Muslim read the letter. and I shall not detain you long. -he said to his officers " By Allah ! : I know this man will divorce his wife. "I wish to consult you on matters sage to Abu Muslim When Muslim left : which can not be confided to a letter ." " My lord. he ad- you have fought hitherto My for the Abbassides (Al Mansur's family) why faithfully should you now turn against them ? No information has reached the Caliph which should inspire you with any sort of fear. . when he had bidden him farewell. When Djerir came into " follows him Abu Muslim's presence.40 THE SACRED BOOKS Mansur became jealous of influence." Caliph's agent. . " They can use me to prostitute raised Abd Allah : ! ! shed my blood. simply out of fidelity to his master. On appearing before Abu Muslim. the most accomplished diplomatist of his time. " " into my possession ? May my wife be divorced for" said the if he has not sent me simply ever. the whole of his camp and treasure falling into the hands of Abu Muslim. Notwithstanding this. come hither. but not to guard a treasure. and encamped near the From thence he sent the following mescity of Rumiyeh. fled and took refuge in Bassorah. however. and set out for Khorassan." answered Abu Mus" sent thee to all the treasure which has come confiscate lim. in my belief. no reason to pursue dressed as : lord. the son of Ali. you have really. " what has put such thoughts into " " Has not your head ? thy master. Al Mansur then sent to him Djerir. and cess solely to congratulate " you upon your victory and suc- On these words Abu Muslim embraced him and made ! him sit by his side. by Abd Allah. Yaktin said to him " Peace be to thee. while on his part Al Mansur left Anbar. son of a " answered the general. but sent Abu Muslim's him notwithstanding great power and to put down a revolt After several battles.

" " and services ? Son of a prostitute " exclaimed Al Man" thou owest thy success to our own good fortune. this line of conduct. . consulted astrologers. On entering into Al Mansur's presence. " said he. but the Caliph only waited a favorable opportunity to take him unawares." sundry reproaches against him. being before. 1 and be slain in the land of Rum (Asia Minor). his seat and. to strike off on the throne. Al Mansur then permitted him to sit. and thou hast done that. " I can resist the suggestions of the devil. whose manner appeared less cordial than At last he went to the palace one day. meanwhile Al Mansur had posted some persons behind a curtain near to the sofa where Abu Muslim was sitting. and was then told to retire to his tent." replied Abu Muslim. Had sur. but him. Al Mansur was then at a founded al-Madain. which the Caliph returned. made his salutation." persuasions 41 in fact Djerir did not cease his induced him to proceed to the Caliph. Abu Muslim then rode a number of times to visit Al Mansur." the chief pressed him not to do so. informed that the Caliph was making his ablutions preIn the viously to his prayers. and. as he fancied that it was Asia Minor which was meant by the oracle. he met with a most favorable reception. Rumaiyat by one of the Persian place kings. when one of his " My friend. create a dynasty. a negress slave been in thy place. and Abu Muslim never suspected that he should meet with his death there. she would have done as much as thou! Was it not thou who soughtest to obtain in ! i Abu Muslim had been the chief means of transferring the Caliphate from the Omeyyads to the family of Abbas." of a man till he had Abu Muslim had point of intimates answered not those And like this. with the orders not to appear On this signal they were Al Mansur then took till the Caliph clapped his hands.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Abu Muslim was on the promising to return with him. having commenced the conversation. who told him that he was to destroy a dynasty. Abu Muslim's head. being introduced. proceeded to level " Thou hast done this." " Why does my lord " after all my efforts speak so to me. sat down in an antechamber. and Abu Muslim.

Jafar Ibn Hancarpet. infamous wretch! to mount where thou canst not reach. After journey. and to kill him again. but Al Mansur shouted " May God not spare me if I spare thee " He then clapped his hands. rascals Strike receiving the first blow Abu Muslim said " Commander of the me : ! : ! ! Faithful. offering excuses for his conduct.THE SACRED BOOKS 42 6 marriage my aunt." replied Al Mansur he is in the carpet. you but single " God to kill him." " here has given thee understanding. was one of the most Father of a villain " : a play upoo the name Abu Muslim. the translator of the book " from Pehlevi into Arabic. which he kissed and pressed. you is no for of his there resource hair out head. " " think of Abu Muslim ? the What entered. spare : be useful against thy enemies. Aasiya. Hanzala said: " Commander of the Faithful. and to kill him. O Abu Mujrim. " Commander of the Faithful." anCaliph said to him. his body was rolled up in a after Al Mansur's and soon general. you zala. 2 Receive paid! away his staff of Drink of that draught which thou didst so often serve others a draught more bitter to the throat than gall." On seeing him dead." On this Abu Muslim seized him by the hand. the son of Abd Allah Ibn Abbas ? Thou hast undertaken." and recited these lines over the prostrate body: " Thou didst pretend that our debt to thee could never be now thy account in full. Al Mansur exclaiming all the time " On hands off. pretending indeed that thou wast a descendant of Salit. and found repose after a long this he turned toward the persons present. count this as the first day of " Al Mansur then recited this verse: He threw your reign." : travel." Al Mansur and Ibn Ibn al Dimnah * " al to Mukaffa " Kalilah and Mukaffa." " plied May God never spare me if I do " a greater enemy than thee ? that I may : ! The Caliph reWhere have I When Abu Muslim was slain. " if have ever the misfortune to pull a swered the other. . on which the assassins rushed out upon Abu Muslim and cut him to pieces with their " God cut your swords.

mmander of the Faithful. of that drai. ^erve to other. the time: " g the first our blow me re- 3HT .: he tot He s I spare hands me and cut him to out up< if "i :ch the assa- ig all On kel" p.. ed these lines over 1 that o im." replied Al Mansur: "here a in the carpet" On seeing him dead. Dn . count this as the fir*' i insur then r aw.. !ah r >on UM t^u. 1 it i .ago wast rr.M5CT8UM UHA iO HTA3CI f *AT' lanthe lim aga : i iod has given thee understanding.> Aim Mu<- and most . r this In present. Ilanzala ?. cord.



These two then interceded for him with the Caliph. had revolted against his nephew. and asked who wrote it. he took to flight." allegiance slaves shall brother's secretary. he sent a letter to Sofyan. and drew up the letter in the most binding terms. lay concealed at the house of his brothers. and the Moslems loosed from their The other conditions of the deed were in a manner Al Mansur. On being informed that it was Ibn al Mukaffa. and ere long he had an opportunity of glutting his vengeance on Ibn al Mukaffa. letter of pardon. who had been sent against him at the head of an army. to draw up the al Mukaffa. Abdallah Ibn Ali. Ibn al Mukaffa used to say to him when he visited him : " How are you both ? " meaning him and his nose. his and to : horses shall be confiscated for the service of God in war. word it in the strongest terms. the governor of Basra." And Ibn al Mukaffa replied: Dumbness becomes you .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 43 men during the reign of Al Mansur. ordering him to put Ibn al Mukaffa to death. or free-thinking. among " And if at any time the Comothers. but being defeated by Abu Muslim. and aspired to the Caliphate. As Sofyan had a large nose. Abdallah. his free. Sulaiman and Isa. was highly displeased. the governor of Basra. Ibn al Mukaffa obeyed their directions. his become to him. the uncle of Al Mansur. why should you repent of it ? " These gibes rankled in Sofyan's mind. having expressed equally strict. and dreading the vengeance of Al Mansur. once said : " I had never reason to Sofyan keeping silence. but suspected Al Mansur is reported to of Zendikism. read the paper. and it was decided that a letter of pardon should be granted by repent " Al Mansur. who consented to forgive what had passed. " I never found a book on Zendikism which did have said : learned The latter used to not owe its origin to Ibn al Mukaffa. On coming who was to Basra the two brothers told Ibn secretary to Isa. inserting in it. the following clause mander of the Faithful act perfidiously toward his uncle. Sof- . his wives shall be divorced from him." be a thorn in the side of Sofyan. so as to leave no pretext to Al Mansur for making an attempt against Abdallah' s life.

" On this he ordered an oven to be heated. there were not wanting on occasion those among his subjects who had the courage to rebuke him. these he cast into the oven before his and he then threw him in bodily. were informed that he had gone into the palace of Sofyan in good health and that he had not come out." Salaiman and Isa. and." Isa and Sulaiman ceased to speak of their secretary. Terrible as was the wrath of Al Mansur when roused. who declared that they saw Ibn al Mukaffa enter Sofyan's palace. having made inquiries about their secretary. " I implore you in the name of God to spare my life. off. on him. ." " May my mother be disgraced. He summoned him. and brought him with them in chains. and Sofyan. They therefore cited Sofyan before Al Mansur. disregarding his promise. ! none was ever killed in before. reminded him of his gibes. For verily since I he has taken away the plague which began had come amongst you. and closed the oven eyes." " if I do not kill thee in a manner such as replied Sofyan. and the limbs of Ibn al Mukaffa to be cut by joint. " Emir " exclaimed Ibn al Mukaffa. and Al Mansur promised to examine He then said to them " Suppose that I into the matter. who. and that Ibn al Mukaffa himself then came forth from that door" (pointing to one which was behind him) " and what should I do to you in that case ? spoke to you : I should put you to death in retaliation for the death of On this the witnesses retraced their evidence." But a certain Arab cried out to to reign over you. Once the Caliph was " O ye peoaddressing an audience at Damascus. (free-thinker) who corrupted the people. saying " It is not a crime in me to punish you thus.THE SACKED BOOKS 44 yan was already filled with rancor against Ibn al Mukaffa. know- ing that he had been killed by order of Al Mansur. Witnesses were produced. for the reasons mentioned above. put Sofyan to death in retaliation for the death of Ibn al Mukaffa. and that he never came out after. joint for you are a Zindik . and said to it is on to the Most incumbent High ple you give praise : ! that he has sent me to reign over you. when he appeared. cast Abdallah Ibn Ali into prison.

sponsibility. in which he said.' he said. then. and was told by him to draw near and sit down. of that night which shall When Mansur came : . against Caliph whom he was known to entertain a grudge." I trembled. among " other things The power which thou now wieldest." cisely Amr Ibn Obaid had been his companion and intimate friend. on whom be peace. and I do not wish to share the rel ' PreGet up and go. lest any of the blood of Ibn Taous. had it remained in the hands of thy predecessors. He then raised it.' the Caliph growled. The Caliph then asked to hear an exhortation from him. and turning to Ibn Taous. " The replied : worst punished criminals in the day of judgment will be those to whom God has entrusted authority and who have The Caliph was silent. and drew my garments close round me. on which it was customary to behead criminals.' answered Ibn Taous. The Caliph signed to us to seat ourselves.LITERATURE OF THE EAST him " Of a truth Allah : 45 too merciful to give us both thee is " On another occasion the theand the plague at one time " Ibn Anas relates Malik the One day the following: ologian for sent me and friend Mansur Ibn my Taous. Amr addressed him an admonition. ets. of whom it was said that he had " educated by the angels and brought up by the prophbeen Before Al Mansur's elevation to the Caliphate. said: 'Recite me a saying of the Prophet. Amr Ibn Obaid. ' Why ' : Hand me that ink- ' you hand it ? I fear you may don't ' * asked the Caliph. to the throne Amr went one day into his presence. we beheld the executioner with his sword drawn and the leather carpet spread." Another bold rebuker of Al Mansur was the saint and mystic. When we entered ! the presence-chamber.' But he never stirred. write some wrong order. and when we had done so he remained a long time with his head bent in meditation. " Then the Caliph said to Ibn Taous pot. whom I expected to see instantly executed. Because.' ' " Ibn Taous The Prophet of God has said. and there was a pause. of whose courage and coolness I from that day formed a high opinion. abused it. Be warned. should spurt upon them.' what we were desiring. would never have come to thee.

By Allah." That. : have ordered ten thousand pieces of silver to be given thee. disregard- ing the promise of pardon he had made to his uncle. " sur. not wishing to kill Abdallah. " i. petitioned Al set out to the care of Isa Al Mahdi." replied Manhim in raiment. When Amr more to be followed by another Al Mansur said " We rose to depart. and yet thou art bold " " is this youth ? enough to swear that it shall not. and thou hast given smoothed for him a path wherein the more profit the less my cessor to the Caliphate." He then withdrew. " which is not the raiment of the righteous.e. where he remained a long time. On this Al Mansur's son. he committed Abdallah Ibn Musa. Al Mahdi." said Amr. say that he had been put to death. who happened to be ! ! " The Commander of the Faithful present. and thou hast 3 him a name he which deserveth not. Thou hast clothed son." Al Mansur then asked him if there was anything he " Send not for me." said Mansur. with private orders to put him to death. By Allah. and Amr made answer " till I come to thee. the partisans of Abdallah. Abdallah Ibn Ali. who had revolted against him. " thou " " is wilt never meet me." replied Amr." " I stand not in need " thereof." replied Amr. the rightly directed. How Al Mansur Was It has before been Tricked mentioned that Al Mansur." . cast him into When the Caliph prison. and Al Mansur looked " All after him and said of you walk with stealthy steps all of you are in pursuit of prey all except Amr Ibn Obaid!" : : . and the Alides.. precisely what I desire. Isa.THE SACRED BOOKS 46 give birth to a day never night. said to Amr : swears that a thing shall be done. on the pilgrimage to Mecca." said Amr. but wait wished. heed." In that case. sending a message to the Caliph to This rumor spread about. turning to Al Mansur. I " shall not take it answered the other. " " thou shalt take it exclaimed the Caliph. contented himself with concealing him. " Who He is the declared suc- Al Mahdi.

" " said. " Is it true that accordingly sent for Isa. but when he was proceeding to strangle the slave also. The Caliph then ordered him to hand Abdallah over to the keeping of Abou '1 Azhar. Isa. came again with complaints to Al Mansur. and : make any During their excur- observations unless asked by . you " I never gave such an yourself ordered me to do so. I the kill She while order to her." Abou '1 Azhar I that I felt pity in carrying out a death-sentence." I never wrote it. gave my eyes turned away was strangled and placed by the side of her master. I then had the house demolished." " " order cried the Caliph. The Alides then went to Isa. here is the letter you " sent me." replied Isa . He strangled him first." The Caliph secretly desired that Isa should have perpetrated this murder. on entering the city intelligent person who sions of the place it is : of my can point out now me some learned and to me the chief mansaw the dwellings was discovered by so long since I An sion the guide did not to his chamberlain. " latter feigned to be in a rage. and Abdallah remained in prison till his death was decided on. he : shall perish in his turn. and hearing from him that Abdallah had been put to The death. " " " you have killed my uncle ? Yes. family. and said. and exclaimed Since Isa has killed my uncle without my authorizing him to do so." Al Mansur visited Medina." Ar-Rabi. " Find intelligent youth presented to the Caliph. and they remained buried in the ruins. which was accordingly done. " Servant of God.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 47 Mansur on the subject. lord. and fearing for his own life. he found Abdallah with one of his female slaves. and was in safe-keeping. so that he might have a reasonable pretext for killing him. He My ! confessed at last that the prisoner had been spared. The Caliph declared that he had been committed to the care of Isa. seeing the mood the Caliph was in. When Abou '1 Azhar came to execute the sentence. she cried out : kind of death. and said Ar-Rabi. I pray thee for another " It was the only time. and thus ridding himself of two enemies at once." said Mansur.

passage by pasage. but yet unconsciously I turn toward thee ! ! ' again. he fulfilled his object in the following ingenious manner: As they passed by the house which belonged to Aatika. I turn away and fly thee. Death of Al Mansur Al Mansur was in the habit of saying the month of Caliphate in it. the young man " This." He immediately asked his chamberlain if he had given the youth what had been awarded him." . and he said to himself that the youth here must have some reason for giving information. Al Mansur was so highly pleased with him that he ordered him a considerable sum of money. He therefore turned over the leaves of the the verses were taken. Z'ul hajja. but there are persons with deceitful tongues who promise but never per- form. the granddaughter of Abu Sofyan.THE SACRED BOOKS 48 Al Mansur to do so. shall die in the attained the same month. The youth had most ingeniously hinted the circumstance. and Al Mansur showed great penetration in perceiving it. The Caliph then ordered Ar-Rabi to give him immediately the double of what had been promised. but he then proceeded with great preand eloquence to furnish every requisite information. without being asked for it. contrary to. cision Mansur. O Commander of the Faithful. which he mentioned. and was informed by him that a particular circumstance. had caused delay in the payment.' These words caused Al Mansur to reflect. his habit. : circumcised in and I think I " I was born in it. that Aatika to whom Ibn Muhammad al Ansari alluded in these lines: " ' Dwelling of Aatika mansion which I avoid through dread of foes although my heart be fixed on thee. but the payment was delayed so long that the youth found himself under the necesOn being asked again to accompany Al sity of asking for it. following line: " We see that poem from which he came to the till you do what you promise. is the house of said.

son of Rabi. He was as prodigal as his father was avaricious. 774. not told you to prevent people coming into this room and * : What do you writing doleful sentences upon the wall ? ' ' Don't you see what is written mean. relates the following: it befell. by God a warning given me to prepare for my approaching demise. then. I did so. Prince ? I asked.' * Swear ' he said. When we arrived at the well of Maimun. . thy years are God must be done. and rapidly squandered his vast inheritance. obey. ' It is. full l. He ' said. May protect you. 4 thou art about to die . or art thou entirely blind " l ' I can see no inscription Truly. as his instructor. I told him the name of the place. the third Caliph of the Abbasside dynasty. Prince. on this wall : its surface is smooth and quite white. One evening Al Mahdi asked his preceptor to di"I vert him with some amusing anecdote. I found him seated in his pavilion. before he succeeded to the throne. Sharki Ibn Kotami. VI. ' on the wall " ' " ' ' ? Abu Jafar. " God answered Sharki. Prince. it. he sent for me.D. " ? fulfilled: the will of " ' " Abu Jafar. and that we had reached the sacred territory.' " We continued our journey.' I replied. during which the Caliph suffered great pain." THE CAXJPHATE OF AL MAHDI Al Mahdi.' he replied. that I may place myself under the protection of God." They relate that a certain King of Hirah had two courtiers whom he * The Caliph's VOL. Abu Jafar al Mansur. name was Abu Jafar Al Mansur. who was learned in all the lore and traditions of the Arabs. * ! Let us hasten to reach the sacred territory. Al Mansur had appointed succeeded his father. can any astrologer bind the decrees of God. A. " I accompanied Al Mansur in the journey during which he When we had arrived at one of the stages of the march died. God be ' praised ! and died the same day. with He said to me Have I his face turned toward the wall. and ask pardon for that wherein I have exceeded.LITERATURE OF THE EAST And so 49 Fadl.

expressing two wishes. He refused. drew his sword from the sheath. and then you will die. lying/ Express two wishes they shall be granted. He fasted for some days. of low and high degree. cast himself upon the earth. no matter what they were. that no perhis friends. Two Effigies). can save me from death after those men ' ! . never passed before the double tomb without prostrating themThis usage gradually acquired the binding force of a religious rite. " Now. l sons should pass this monument without ' prostrating them- selves. They brought him before the King. biting it in his fury. and. ' . bearing on his back a bundle The guardians of the mausoleum of clothes and a mallet. " The next morning. handed on from generation to generation. which would be granted. but one with evening the King. palace cision without consulting them.' 1 Nothing. having drunk to excess. He persisted in his refusal. he . him to kneel down. therefore. when told of what he had done. to which he gave the title. but became a hard-and-fast tradition. then.THE SACRED BOOKS 50 loved equally with himself. " One day a fuller passed. They never quitted his society the or on a journey. weeping for and bewailing the loss of them. * No . The command. They threatened him with death. every custom set up by a King of Hirah could not be changed. killed them then he fell into a drunken slumber. and his wishes coincided theirs. Why did you refuse to bow down ? asked the I did bow down. they are ordered ' * ' * . of the King was rigidly obeyed: his subjects. The King had ordered that any one who refused to conform to it should be punished with death after selves.' answered the man King. like the laws of the Medes and Persians. and swore that for the rest of his life he would abstain from the beverage which had deprived him of reason. Then he had them buried. and erected a shrine over their El-Ghareiain (The remains. you are the liar said the King. He took no deor in night day. He commanded. whom they informed of the matter. rushing upon his two friends. in addition. Thus they lived together a long time.

' The King replied Get this man to ask anything he likes he lets me provided off. after having violated one law. you will violate a second. he declared that he had no other wish but to strike the King.' " l Since it is absolutely necessary that I must die. They The latter. fuller King on He the back of the head blow that he fell from his throne and lay stretched on the ground unconscious. a crime which involves damnation. then a third. On being told that he was in There is still a wish prison. head.' wish I wish to strike : ' Fool answered King on the head with this mallet. recovered the use of his tongue and could eat and drink. his ministers ' : What do you madman ? ' of the wish of this ' Your Majesty. and was so severely injured that he could only drink a drop at a time.' rethe I wish to strike you another blow on the fuller. he summoned him and said so violent a ' : remaining to you express : it. you yourself have instituted this law: your Majesty knows better than any one ' that the violation of law is a shame. At last he got well. Besides.' ' It were better worth your while to let me enthe King. and all our laws will be profaned. ' well. I am ready to grant all his requests. rich those whom you leave behind you. Subsequently he lay ill with fever for six months. He asked for news of the fuller.' replied the fuller. con- was introduced.LITERATURE OF THE EAST me ? have accused ' ' asked the fuller.' they answered. ' : all it ! King was seized with over with him. f : even to the half of " .' At these words the was Wretch exclaimed that the fuller to you. but in vain . my kingdom. At dismay and he said to last renounce a claim which is profitless What advantage have you reaped from your first . your successors will do the same. plied ' head. a calamity.' " The King then addressed l think. so that I may order your death according to law.' No/ said the fuller I only wish to strike the King on the back of his ' the ! * * . seeing that the man was The voked a public assembly.' laid these proposals before the fuller. here is my 51 ' Very Nothing.' he said to them. took his mallet and struck the thoroughly resolved.

' said the King. ' We Majesty. and exclaimed 1 swear that you are more truthful than these rascals. and that they have lied at your expense. and to which was attached a seal composed of clay mixed with ashes and bearing the impression ' of the Caliph's signet-ring.' The King jumped fuller. I will ' No. complimented the narrator.' " The King again consulted his ministers. the daughil We were one day with the Caliph Al ter of Abd Allah who returned from Anbar.' * can not help that.THE SACRED BOOKS 52 for something else.' answered the but you would not believe me. for it is to him that he told me to deliver it " Al Mahdi took the letter and laughed he then : ! . written in charcoal. embraced the fuller. " Finding himself in this extremity. and whatever it is.' ' Al Madhi laughed heartily on hearing this story. fellow that day when you were brought ! hither by the guardians of the mausoleum. and authorize you to inflict upon them the punishment they have ' 1 : deserved. if he strikes me again. than this document I received it from an Arab of the desert . replied : . to which he had had Mahdi. I know what I have already suffered. just : made came a pleasure excursion. The following anecdotes are related by Faika. holding a piece of leather on which some words were in. when Ar-Eabi. I give you their place. I shall never be able to drink any more. " This is the Commander of the Faithwho was crying out ful's letter! Show me where to find the man who is called " Ar-Rabi. the chamberlain. said : Shall f I It is true relate : how this is my writing and this ' it happened ? To this is we my seal. and rewarded him generously. who answered Ask wish? ' him was to resign himself to death. your that the best thing for in obedience to the law.' answered the ministers.' said Ar-Rabi. Commander of the Faith1 1 never saw anything more extraordinary ful. from his seat. did not I hear you declare that you had prostrated yourself and that they ' ' had slandered you ? Yes.' the right to strike you once more.' said the man. I did say so. the King said to the ( fuller : Answer. I only demand my right grant it. ' But.

and I took out the liver. me and she a drink " and he brought me a skin in which was a little milk mixed with water. fered such cold. and I laid my head on it. Muhammad. I placed it upon the fire and I ate thereof." On this he brought me . and yet thou hast killed it! ! . " then said to him : Dost thou want anything ? I shall give thee a written order for it. and lo! I found this very Arab of the desert in his tent. did I sleep a sounder sleep. wretched ' : man thou hast slain thyself and thy children our nourishment came from this sheep. I saw him seize on a poor miserable sheep " kill and it. and from evil death " " When I had uttered these words.' ' : . had learned it from his grandfather. and she brought began to grind it.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ' Commander 68 Then he I went out to hunt yesterday evening when the said shower was over." said I. who had been taught it by his father. hunger. and healeth. from the fall of house. sufficeth. Abd Allah. the son of Abbas. directeth. " On this I said " Do then have we to live upon ? " not mind. " " withal to treat a guest ? Dismount ! " said he. with a fire which he had been ! ! ' " " Arab of the desert. " On awaking. " Grind I then said to him it. and having What : . and I went toward it. and I lost sight of my companions I then sufIf it please the of the Faithful. it was so sweet! and he gave me one of his saddle-cloths. from fire and flood. had taught me. and I drank thereof a drink such as I had never drunk before. and I opened it with the Bring the sheep here knife I wore in my boot. It was this: " In We the name of God. and he said to his wife Bring here that : " barley . Al Mansur." : said he " Give . moment came to my mind a form of prayer which my father. and thirst as and I lost my way besides." and " By the might of God have no power or force but in God! I fly to God for protection! I confide in God: God sufBceth me! He protecteth. hast thou just lighting up. Ali. The next morning a thick mist overwhelmed us. and never of water . it. God raised up a light before me. At that God only knows. Then I " dismounted. I split it open. saying that his father. when his wife said to him Beware.

I shall not diminish the sum one single dirhem. and it received the name of the Dwelling of the host of Al Mahdi. and his horse ran away with him until he came to the hut of an Arab. dost thou know who I ! am?" He answered : " Thou hast stated that thou art one of the personal attendants of the Commander of the Faithful. and I wrote on it wood which I picked up at his feet then set this seal on it." " " No. he said to O " " brother of the Arabs. and ask for one to go This note contained an order for five hundred thousand dirhems." he replied. drink. the Com' : ! ' mander of On the Faithful. and when Al Mahdi had drunk it. and his dwelling became a halting-place for those who were going on the pilgrimage. " Yes. dost thou know who I am ? No." "May thy country be " exclaimed the Arab. thousand. So give him beasts of burden. Then he poured out a second glass. and Al Mahdi I meant only fifty exclaimed on hearing it By Allah but since five hundred thousand are written in it. he cried : " O Arab. he said : " O Arab dost thou know " " made me bewho I ! ! am ? The man Thou hast replied lieve thou art one of the chief officers of the : Commander . And when Al Mahdi had drunk and gave him " it. but I am one of the chief officers of the Commander of the Faithful. by " I am one of the personal attendants Allah. " of the Commander of the Faithful. enlarged and thy wishes fulfilled Then he poured out a third glass for him. which Al Mahdi ! ate. And the Caliph cried : " O Arab " hast thou wherewith to feed a guest ? The Arab replied. May " Allah prosper thee in thy situation returned the Arab.' with a bit of burnt I that very note. to whom he was to give it.THE SACRED BOOKS 54 that piece of leather." said Al Mahdi. then he brought some wine in a bottle. he should have it. and were there no more in the treasury. and told him Ar-Eabi. and when Al Mahdi had drained it." and produced for him a barley loaf.' another occasion ' it is recorded that Al Mahdi went out hunting. and let him take it away/ " In a very short time that Arab had numerous flocks of camels and sheep." said Al Mahdi.

enjoy all sorts of pleasures." He then dispatched messengers to all quarters in order to press the payment of the revenues. he left in the treasury nine hundred million and sixty thousand dirhems ($112. and the Princes and nobles dismounted before him. himself." of the Faithful of the Faithful. Al Mansur. died.500). thou wouldst " of God clare thyself to be Mohammed the Prophet Then Al Mahdi laughed till he could laugh no more. advised the Caliph to be moderate in his expenses and to spare the public money. and in a very short time sums arrived." ! ! Abu Haritha. and encouraged him to spend money.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 55 " " Not but I so. my keeping these keys? Give or- Al Mahdi replied: ders that they be taken from me. They were so abundant that Abu Haritha had enough to do in receiving them and verifying the amount. waited on Al Mahdi with ing " Since you have spent all your treasthe keys.507. money coming in to you. and said : is of what the use ures. the guardian of the treasure-chambers." said Al Mahdi. By this means he succeeded in obtaining the One tration of the State. entire adminis- of the poets of the time com- posed an ode containing the following lines: " If you Family of Abbas your Caliphate is ruined seek for the \r icar of God. and listen to music. you will find him with a wineflask on one side and a lute on the other. Yakub ibn Daud." And he ordered a robe and a sum of money to be given him. During three days he did not appear before Al these . Al Mahdi and His Vizier Ydkub ibn Daud When Al Mahdi's father. And " ! ! lo! the horsemen surrounded them. and the heart of the Arab stood still." " them for will be Keep still. But Al Mahdi said to him : " Fear not ! thou hast done no wrong. and Abu Obaid Allah. seethat they had become empty. drink wine." am the Commander Then the Arab took the bottle and put it away and said: deBy Allah wert thou to drink the fourth. When Abu Obaid Allah was deposed. the first Vizier of Al Mahdi. flattered the inclinations of the Caliph. his successor.

he sent for him and said prevented your " " The arrival of cash. appears to have been the case. He stopped to see what it was. " if some unforeseen event happened which could not be surmounted without the aid of money.000) out of the public money. he stopped at the same milestone. Another time Al Mahdi was about to execute some proj: : ! : ! : ! : when Yakub ful. and they reminded the Caliph of his having seconded Ibn Abd Allah the Alide 5 in the revolt against Al Mansur. because the verse had probably made an impression on his mind . His enemies had discovered a point by which he might be attacked. who at length said " Bedouin Arab ? Being informed of the cause which kept " What him away. One of Yakub's servants informed Al Mahdi that he had " The heard his master say Caliph has built a pleasurehouse." replied the coming to see us ? " How foolish it was in you. that silly Mahdi.e." He then said to a person who was with him: "Write l It shall still be so." said Al Mahdi. in fact.. that is mere ect " Evil betide you " race said to him " : To Commander of the Faiththis Al Mahdi answered: profusion." does not profusion befit persons of a noble ! ? At last * I. and spent on it fifty millions of dirhems ($6. and passed by a milestone on which he saw something written." replied Abu Haritha." The fact was that Al Hahdi had just founded the town of Isabad. we should not have time to wait till you sent to have the cash brought in. " " Comsuppose that money would not come in to us mander of the Faithful.THE SACRED BOOKS 56 " What is he about. and read the following line " O Mahdi you would be truly excellent if you had not taken for a favorite Yakub." It is related that Al Mahdi made the pilgrimage one year. Yakub got so tired of the post which he filled that descendant of AH. .250. the son of Daud. and such. for very soon after he let his vengeance fall on Yakub. " to other. Rumors unfavorable to this minister had greatly multiplied. in spite of the fellow underneath that who wrote that bad luck attend him ' On his return from the pilgrimage.

" Yakub answered " Swear by Allah.500). " lest you have my blood to anbeware he said Yakub." Yakub did so. to with this crown yours." said long Mahdi. swer for before God. and promise that could be made. Tell me. Yakub stood up " from his seat. and thus set my mind at rest. moreover. : : him up to you." sir. and exclaimed Commander of the Faithful. I shall be grateful and pray for your hap: " piness. " Swear Allah. with all the furniture that was When the Alide was alone with in the salon and the money. girl your happiness." He swore. Swear . hear. and the " Caliph then said to him Lay your hand on my head and swear again. I am descended from Fatima. May God pro" I wish tect me from your wrath.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 57 he requested of Al Mahdi permission to give it up. and. I give causes me. after taking his seat in a salon of which all the furniHe himself had on red clothes. such words can only proceed from anger. To this Yakub replied : vors always repose. " a sum of one hundred thousand dirhems ($12. Yakub invoked God's blessing on the Caliph. having thus obtained from him the firmest " There is an Alide. him. May the Commander of the Faithful to enjoy it God permit " " " Al all that it contains is Well. and shall obey." On this. Al Mahdi. on whom God's blessings and fa: " Tell me. him stood a young female slave dressed in red before him was " a garden filled with roses of all sorts." " said he. and sent for him." Receive the money. he was still inclined toward the party of the Alides." said the Caliph. said I wish you to deliver me from the uneasiness which he Here he is . the daughter of Mohammed." " If Alide in The answered there be if you." He then delivered the Alide over to him." said Yakub. : ! : : : : again by again by Allah. what do you think of this salon of ours ? " The " It is the other replied very perfection of beauty. good you do good to me." " He swore. but that Al Mahdi then wished to try if favor he could not obtain." Al Mahdi replied " I you to promise to do what I ask." He swore for the third time. and bestowed on him the girl. who then said to him " I have something to ask of you. Yakub. and behind ture was red. " and take .

" Is he dead ? He is. Yakub remained there during the rest of Al Mahdi's reign (over two years)." said Yakub. the Some This young girl complained to her chief wife of the Caliph. : Al Mahdi and the Poet Abu'l Atahiyah historians relate that the poet Abu'l Atahiyah had conceived a passion for Otbah. but I will not." Yakub did so. He questioned her. . bring out to us those who are in that room. " Your life. sent for Abu'l Atahiyah. Shut him up in the maibak. " What has for Yakub. and during five years and seven months of the reign of Haroun al Kashid. " Depart with my good wishes. the slave of Khayzuran. and having discovered the cause of her When the poet came and grief. and during the reign of Musa-al-Hadi." The boy opened the door." Allah. Al " Mahdi then said to an attendant Boy. One mistress of the gossip to which this affair gave rise. day Al Mahdi found her seated near her mistress in tears. Yakub was so much astounded that he was unable to utter a word. and said to him become of that " " : man ? Yakub I have delivered you from the replied " " " uneasiness he gave you. so that the Alide was taken prisoner.THE SACRED BOOKS 58 whatever road you like. and told a servant of hers to go and relate it to Al Mahdi." naming " it." said the Alide. the son of Al Mahdi." " " Swear " I swear Allah. and it is in my power to shed your blood. The girl heard all this conversation. such is the return he makes you for your kindness. 6 An underground dungeon." said Al Mahdi." Al Mahdi immediately had the road He then sent watched." " Such a road. and gave orders that no one should ever speak to him or to any other about him. and there the Alide was seen with the very money which Yakub had given him. " is justly forfeited. and swore by his head." 6 He had him confined in that dungeon. and to say in her name : " Such is the conduct of one whom in giving me to him you preferred to yourself." by by Lay your hand : upon my head. is the safest.

but of these: " ' O my camel. Abu'l Atahiyah replied in the same flat" How tering style: " Royalty has come to do him obeisance. and there met the Caliph.' Al Mahdi sat silent for some time. " O wind.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 59 " stood before him. she ran sobbing to her mistress. and trailing her robe majestically. as he for her. be not beguiled by what thou deem- est repose me to a Prince to whom God has given the gift of working miracles . Otbah! Tears shed the blood of a man already dying of love. which he tapped with his staff. Khayzuran. looking at the ground." : started to Otbah's eyes.' do you know what she conceals beneath her veil ? " the Caliph asked. She only is fit for him. since she shows me nothing but and reproach He then continued " What kindness has Otbah ever shown you that you have the right to tween ' disdain : ! " complain of her disdainfulness ? " " I Sire. and was condemned to expiate his temerity by a flogging. carry me am not the author of rapidly . It is because of thee that the Caliph has to thee. hast thou partaken " of benefits ? Carry A my Two crowns adorn his brow " the crown of beauty and the diadem of humility. He asked why she ." answered Abu'l Atahiyah. Prince who. when the wind rises. then he lifted his head and " continued You have also said : " ' What does : my mistress think upon when she displays her charms and allurements? There is among the slaves of Princes a young girl who conceals beneath her veil Beauty itself. that verse." But as the Caliph continued to ply him with questions Abu'l Atahiyah became embarrassed in his answers. He had just undergone his punishment when Otbah met him in The this " Praise be poet reproached her thus piteous plight. says. Al Mahdi said to him : You are the au* thor of this verse concerning Otbah : May God judge be- me and my mistress.

" not think of the would loved Otbah. then he caused a sum of fifty thousand dirhems to be given to the former. " of giving Prince of the believers privileges." she said to him. bestow she said to spite of my me upon a a man who makes money out of his pottery merchant " " Al As ? Mahdi then sent a message to the poet poetry to Otbah. complishment of The Caliph thought him. passing by.THE SACRED BOOKS 60 wept. sent to verses " : soul is attached to one of the good things of this world the acits desires depends on God and Al Mahdi." : Death of Al MaJidi Tabari. and my him Otbah. my rights. you difference between gold and silver." : Al Mahdi him fifty thousand more dirhems. presented Al Mahdi with a Chinese vase On the vase were engraved these containing perfumes." Soon afterward Otbah. asked why he had thus disposed of the money he " I had received from the The answered met just Caliph. and hearing she had seen the poet after his flagellation. found the poet disputing with the clerks of the treasury. being informed of his genhim erosity. on a certain New Year's Day. Abu'l Atahiyah distributed them to all those whom he in the palace. consoled her . but thy contempt of the world and all which it contains reanimates my hope. the historian." My . I despair of obtaining my object. and maintaining that " " the by money Caliph meant gold dinars. poet did not wish to profit by what my love had won. in services. Another historian relates that Abu'l Atahiyah. Al Madhi. when ! would you. describes the death of Al Mahdi as taking place in the following tragic manner Among his entertained to have he seems for whom were two there wives : an equal degree of affection. his Vicar. but as one of them seemed to . making him swear not employ them in fresh benefactions. while they al" If you really that he leged only intended silver dirhems. you will never obtain her. but I have ordered the vase you sent to be filled with money.

especially eulogy by lay. . him. which was uncovered. The confectionery. and he used to perform the pilgrimage on foot. 'Fire. learning. gifted poets. sweets than any one else. As the damsel who was dispatched upon the errand happened to pass beneath one of the balconies of the palace. During the whole of his reign he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca or carried on war with the unbelievers nearly every year. Religious controversies were hateand learned erary ful to him. whom he appareled richly. He always repaid services done to him. Al Mahdi. 786. saying : I am sure. she prepared a dish of confectionery. and determined to be avenged on her." THE OAXIPH HABOUN AX RASHID Haroun al Kashid became Caliph in the year A. and sent it as an offering to her rival. and when he did not perform it himself he sent three hundred substitutes. he asked the messenger whither she was bound. saw her. When he went on pilgrimage he took with him a hundred learned men and their sons. His conduct generally resembled that of the Caliph Mansur. and generosity. The historian Asmai relates the following anecdote : One day the Caliph gave a feast in a magnificently decorated hall. and that without much de- He was fond of poetry and poets. and he ranks among the Caliphs who have been most distinguished by eloquence. She having informed " Hassanna will. he took and ate heartily of it. in which she mixed a malignant poison. Eulogy he relished highly. who was watching the sunset. an act which no previous Caliph had done. attracting his notice.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 01 the other to have the preference in his heart. whom he richly rewarded. complish her purpose. and patronized litmen. conceived a bitter jealousy against her In order to acrival. and whose expenses he defrayed with generosity.D. whose name was Hassanna. the latter. but he did not imitate the parsimony of the latter. His daily 7 prayers exceeded the number fixed by the law. be better pleased that I should partake of her In a few hours he was a corpse.

the latter poured water on his hands after the meal. and wished to hear performed an air which had suddenly occurred to his mind." Eashid burst into tears. one of the most learned men of his time. and " Abou said to him Moawia." Eashid inwashed your hands ? formed him that it was himself. Fadhl. but were tempted it. alas ! that all thy delights were a ! The shadow. Abou Moawia replied: " Prince. and tried to open our eyes. I and Meskin of Medina were among the performers. : properly/ " Meskin commenced at once to sing. to the great surprise ." Very good ! " Each morn and eve be poet continued : " tors swift to execute thy behests " Excellent " " Go on ! " said the The all thy servi- ! Caliph. related that when he was sitting one day at food with the Caliph. you doubtless act in this manner in order to do " You speak truth. Then the mander of do it ' The Comaddressing Meskin." be. Each of the singers present atno more successful than Ibn Jami. " The poet began Live. and you have plunged him " Let him " he saw us into melancholy. " But when the death-rattle chokes thy poet replied : breath thou wilt learn. (Haroun's Caliph sent for you to divert him. O Caliph. said the Faithful orders you to sing this air if you can officer.THE SACRED BOOKS 62 During the feast he sent for the poet Abu'l Atahiyah. Let us hear the rest. : : : to sing this piece. The officer stationed before the curtain which concealed the Caliph told Ibn Jami \7 said to the poet: . the son of Yahya "The izier)." This Prince treated learned men with great regard. do you know who has just " He answered " No." said Eashid in a state of blindness. Abou Moawia." answered Eashid. but did not succeed in pleasing the Caliph. homage to learning." " Eashid Ibrahim Mouseli relates the following story one day summoned all his musicians. commanded him to depict in verse the gorgeous scene. in the shelter of thy lofty palace! " " " exclaimed Eashid. seeing this. The latter obeyed. Eashid had partaken freely of wine. in the fulfilment : and of all " thy desire.

caused my head and chin to be shaved. and singing the song you have just I was so delighted at it that. forgetting everything heard. setting her pitcher down. keeping time with her fingers on the pitcher. One day a descendant of Ali. paid me two dirhems for it. as an additional disgrace. liked. skies then he had the curtain behind which he had been sitting drawn aside." she answered. I will not it unless you pay me two dirhems. " that I will take no excuse. and carried on the trade of a tailor. ' me ! Verily. gave me fifty strokes of a rod. My master claimed from me a tax of two dirhems daily.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 63 of the audience. with which I had intended to pay my daily tax. The severe . O Prince. he laid me on the ground and. I passed a melancholy night. he demanded his two dirhems. and." " " : By By the Prophet. " Prince of the a believers/ then said Meskin to him." Then. . I adjure thee to teach " the Prophet. kept me to eat with him. ' : else. sat on the ground and. She. and made me drink generously. I me said to her that air. sang the piece. even if a farthing is missing 3 Saying this. " As soon as he saw I then proceeded to my master. As I left him I met a negress carrying her pitcher on her shoulder. and I related my adventure " " he said. ' ' ' . attaches to this and at the of invitation strange story piece the Caliph he narrated it in these words I was formerly a slave of a member of the family of Zobeir. with the utmost vigor of his arm. who could not understand how a musician him had the courage to attempt before us an air which none of us had been able to render to the satisfaction of the like As soon as he had finished I heard Rashid raise his Caliph. voice and ask to hear it a second time. and gave them to the negress. and repeated it till it was well impressed on my teach " ' memory. Prince of believers. I took out the two dirhems. " Have I not warned you Scoundrel to him. Meskin recommenced with a skill and spirit which won him everybody's apThe Caliph congratulated and praised him to the plause. after paying which I was free to do what I I was passionately fond of singing. for whom I had just completed a tunic.

: by . wrapping my head in a cloak. " of the Lord the she said to me: Kaaba." By Allah. " you have known an air like that for two days and told me nothing of it ? May my wife be divorced if it is not true that I would have let you go yesterday if you had ' ! ! I Your head and chin have been shaved sung it to me can not help that but I let you off your tax till your hair ' grows again. less than two dirhems. Yesterday's and to-day's dirhems went in payment for a song " . as before. I hid my large tailor's scissors in my sleeve. " We separated. and sight of her dispersed all my cares. while I stammered out excuses. and I began to sing it to him. accompanying herself. " What " he exclaimed. and this was the saddest of all. and began to sing as she had done the evening before but as " soon as she began. I waited there in perplexity." I answered." " I will not for she answered. how my head and chin had been ward I told her shaved." " Hearing this recital. Rashid laughed heartily." Then she added: "I am certain that the four dirhems you have spent will be worth to you four thousand dinars from the hand of the Caliph. and said to the musician I don't know which is better. I have." she said. All at once I saw her coming the I approached her." " ' I took out my scissors and ran and pawned them for two dirhems. gotten the song " " ! Yes. you shall not see them again. " " was not yesterday's lesson enough for you ? "I shouted. When he saw me he demanded his " " he Beast daily due. on her pitcher. which I gave her. you have forBy ." I an" swered.THE SACRED BOOKS G4 punishment I had undergone made me forget the piece I had learned. and did not cease repeating it till I had got it . but in a state of great apprehension. your song or ! * : . wish to speak to you frankly and without falsehood. and offered her a re- " if she would sing her song again." Then she resumed her song. don't think it. heart. She put down her pitcher. I said Give me back the two dirhems " " I don't need your song. I returned to my master. and directed my steps to the spot where I had met the negress. By the Prophet. not knowing her name nor her abode. In the morning.

Every kind of talent and learn- men of worth received welcome there. The family of the Barmecides had originally been Zoroas- from the time of their embracing Islam be good Mussulmen. son of Khaled. and." We have an example of the generosity of the Barmecides by Salih bin Muhran. one of the intimate attendants of Haroun al Rashid " One day Haroun sent for me. beneficent showers. we no longer see the ways crowded with travelers at sunrise and ing was represented in their court. and full of in the following story. Fortune showered upon them a prodigality of favors.' The Barmecides. Rashid conferred the Vizieron ship Yahya. but they continued to and ornament of their age. 5. and a hearty sunset. and very much When enraged. vast oceans. he lifted up his head." richer four by presence your story is . The poet Abou-Kowas said of them: " Since the world has lost you. related : thought. adherents thronged to their court from every side. and when I arrived in his presence I saw that he was vexed and perplexed. if not.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 65 I will see in my turn that the forecast of the neSo Meskin went out from the Caliph's gress thousand dinars. Their generosity passed into a proverb. . They were the crown trians in religion. and this was the foundation of the magnificence of the family of the Barmecides. son of Barmek. cut off his head VOL. The world was revived under their administration. VI. whose commencement and whose tragic fall we are about to narrate. They were a refuge for the afflicted and a haven for the distressed. and the empire reached its culminating point of splendor. and before night thou must have from him ten thousand thousand dirhems. Viziers of Haroun al Rashid On attaining the Caliphate. O sons of Barmek. verified. Yahya and his sons were like brilliant stars. and said ' : Go I stood this still moment awhile to Man- sur Bin Ziyad. impetuous torrents. Yahya had served him as secretary before his accession to the throne. and multitudes centered their hopes on them.

saying Faithful seeks my life. saying fore Haroun al Rashid was Caliph. that I may bid farewell to my children followers and clansmen. were sorrowful for them. for God's sake-. and put my hand in his. then. can I do it in one day? But do thou show me one favor. and my heart burned to see them. Nor could I in my whole life bring together so much how. and he is one ! : 1 men of Bagdad. and has a numerous following. They wept and bewailed so that jinns and men. But on a certain occasion he treated me with kindness. and sends Faithful be prolonged somewhat more to-morrow on the condition that he gives me ' He replied a pledge for the payment of the whole 1 No If he does not give thee to-day ten thousand thousand dirhems in coined money. of the most ^worthy and best-known : . I often vexed Yahya the Barmecide. and wild beasts and birds. and I went out from him in great perplexity and distress. and I knew that he had forgiven my fault. saying. and after- money and lion dirhems. as he desired. 'O Lord. taking him on one side. amounting to two mil' In days past. bring me his head.' " I took him to his house. At last he brought out what valuables he had. take and me to my house. and that there was no feeling of revenge remaining in his heart. : .' " At length I went to the house of Mansur. told him the whole story as it had happened.' for his courtiers and many others know there is no such sum in my house.THE SACRED BOOKS 66 and bring soul of to it Madhi me and if thou fail in this. I command thy head to be . and. and during this present reign also he suffered much annoyance and persecution from me. ' In truth the Commander of the and fell at my feet. and when his family and chief friends heard what had happened there was an outcry among them. When he heard he wept aloud. what has come to me ? It will be needful to slay Mansur. and what my commands were. beand gave it to me. What con' When he said this I knew cern hast thou in this matter ? he was aiming at the life of Mansur. and ask forgiveness of my of- fenses from my companions and acquaintances. I will swear by the severed from l May the life of the Commander of the thy body/ I said : If he gives a part to-day.

. for all the kindnesses with the Caliph. way for me . Yahya came up to me and inquired of me the state of the case. that they men of liberality. I will not and bade him keep up his heart For. ill-wisher may take his house are and they desire that even their enemy and misery. he had just finished : the afternoon prayer. He comforted Mansur. Then he wrote a note to Jafar.' At the same time he called his treasurer. and the amount " Then he wrote a letter to his eldest son. 8 When he saw Mansur. all that he The treasurer brought jewels. and to explain the case to her. By Allah the Most High. and bade her go to Fatima. which I revealed to him. his younger son. ' Bring me all that is in the treasury. Then he said to me to of the the Commander and Faithful. let us go. of the hour To-day. bidding him send immediately all the money he had. told Fatima how the matter stood. and it will be a delight to myself to take thee there. money represent to him that I will send to-morrow three million dirhems more into his treasury. If thou his house is at the head of the me It may members of be his heart will be touched refuge with them. for that an unfortunate man was waiting for it.' " I said 67 may help him in his distress and ' Thou speakest truly. Fadhl. who was a woman ' : ' : s Praise of God.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ward lie did me many wilt deal kindly with take me there. and said to him: ' ' . and he had explained to him his distress and misery. he immediately sent two hundred thousand dirhems. be wanting in doing all that is in my power to help thee. by evening prayer.' I replied This is not in my orders. I must be in the presence of the Caliph with the gold or the head. that lady.' " When Yahya heard this he sent for his slave Otbah. bidding him send what money he had. and was repeating the Tesbih. Come. When Fadhl had read the note.' When we arrived at the house of Yahya. the sister of the Commander of the When Otbah had Faithful.' said he.' had of coined money and was two hundred thousand dirhems. He also sent three hunTake this dred thousand dirhems. it must needs be they will cause thee to rejoice.

for he thought : Perchance he will reprove me for my want of respect in releasing Mansur. When he saw me.' So. of my sister's is a gift of mine. after some time. and I will so contrive as to render him again favorably disposed toward thee. When I had placed the money in the treasury. he said : Take courage. ' into exclamations of gladness when he heard this. For this reason I have long wished to strike off his head.THE SACRED BOOKS 68 much generosity. and sent it to Yahya. and conciliated the Caliph. and this What has any necklace. and he thanked Yahya fervently. he cried the money to Haroun al Kashid. and sent it was by me raised. one to do in this matter? Go and cut off Mansur's head. whereupon and go for Yahya." said : long! May For the life of the if the what could he have done and what could I have done ? ' . asking besides a thousand pardons that she could of do no more. But thou hast done as the generous always do. : ' I told him all that had Hast thou brought Mansur ? me the money to the treasury he bade send passed. I went to Yahya and told him that the Caliph had He broke out accepted the money. When Yahya arrived in the presence of the Caliph and saw his face averted. of which the value was estimated at two hundred thousand dinars of gold. he ' prayed for pardon of his offense. for thou art saved from destruction. and. Afterward he said Wilt thou tell me what was the crime ' * of which Mansur was guilty ? The Caliph replied His crime was his enmity against you and his evil-speaking concerning you. took off a collar set with jewels which she had received from the Caliph. calling l for Mansur. he was afraid. to the It was near the setting of the sun when I brought Caliph. too. " When at last the ten million of dirhems delivered Yahya it all to porters. To-day I was so incensed that I commanded either that he should pay this money or that his head should be cut off. and wished to see him.' " Then Mansur's soul again returned to his body.' Yahya * : : i Commander of the Faithful be Commander of the Faithful had said. The Commander of the Faithful has just asked for me. " The wealth of Yahya and his sons is of my gift.

and because Yahya He sent it to the treasury to meet the demand on Mansur. ceeded all in science posed to Abbasah." When Jafar heard this. on condition that you never meet except I am a third in the party. he " fell at the feet of Rashid. and could not bear to be long absent to She was a woman of extraordinary beauty. Abbasah. legalize your meetriage place one But all this is and authorize another. It would have been shame if I had not answered the plied of one who was in the place of a father to me." The Fall of the Barmecides Haroun al Rashid had such an extraordinary affection Jafar the Barmecide that he could not bear to be one hour Rashid loved his own sister Abbasah also apart from him. and he restored to Fatima the jeweled collar. O Commander of the Faithful.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 69 " This speech pleased Haroun al Rashid. and exand knowledge. the world on all sides grew black with darkness to his eyes. And what sin hath : . ing your beholding either of you. Distressed and confounded.' This request reply pleased the Caliph. and all men have counted him a bread-and-salt traitor. that . but he blamed he had asked for his sister's necklace. with an extreme affection. thy slave committed. who was the chief favorite of the Caliph. and " and also : how I have thought of an expedient whereby you both that a marmay accompany me in the same assembly will That take between you. One day Rashid is my said to Jafar Thou knowest how great greatly I love my sister that I can not live without the company of affection to thee. wilt thou slay me ? day no servant has been admitted to such confidence as that he should marry with the family of his lords and benefactors or if any one hath treacherously imagined such a thing. and all her dependents were opfrom her. She realso blamed his sister for giving away the necklace. very shortly he hath been reduced to nothingness. and said Commander of the From the time of Adam to our Faithful. and Yahya and Mansur were again glad at ' : heart. Zobeidah.

thou so favor Jafar the Barmecide that he may kill me. and he neither ate nor drank. do skirt. they would mourn for me. relates as follows One day I was in before his Rashid standing private apartment when no one besides was there. concealed for a time. and my enemies would rejoice. the son of a Persian Guebre (fire-worshiper). favorite and his sister were disreThe birth of the garded. when Jafar the Barmecide came in and : told his business to the Caliph. they were full of sorrow. who was one of his confi" dential attendants. how should I. besides. When Yahya. and retiring. but concealed his indignation for a time. or and from make me quickly powerful over : him that I may cut off his . and her union with Jafar was talked of currently among the people. and looked for the reversal of their fortune and the downfall of their power. Unable to help himself. he submitted and consented to a marriage on the terms before mentioned. down to rest. was revealed to Rashid by a reThe Caliph vengeful slave-girl whom Abbasah had struck. The cruel commands of Rashid to his. and Abbasah became a mother." Some days passed. child. " When Jafar was gone Rashid lifted his head out of his f his mouth came these words O God. was intensely wroth. and wrapped his head in the skirt of his garment to keep his eyes cool. be allied to the family of Hashem and the nephews of the Prophet may God be upon him and his family and by the mercy of ! what right can I aspire to such a distinction ? If my father and mother heard of this. the father of Jafar and Fadhl. but all was of no avail.THE SACRED BOOKS 70 thou shouldest seek after his blood ? Is this the reward of all my services and devotion ? And. though betraying it at unguarded moments. These forebodings were soon justified. Ahmed Bin Muhammad Wasil. He could not oppose the decrees of heaven and the ordainment of God by remedy or contrivance. and his other brothers heard of this. Perfumes were burning. and the Haroun al Rashid lay place was filled with sweet odors. receiving in return a gracious In those days the story of Abbasah answer.

and Mousa. on the River Euphrates. however. called for the wine. after a few goblets.' I said : said to myself just now ? The Commander of the Faithful said : ' There is no one but thyself here. Rashid sent his attendant again to Jafar. . unaccountably alarmed and averse to such a gratification. In a little time he sent one of his domestics to inquire if Jafar was employed in the same way.' but they reached my ears.' " Suddenly Haroun al Rashid lifted up his head from Hast thou heard that which I its covering. and said to me ' : ' : ' ' I have not heard it. If the Commander of the Faithful and I said to myself knows that I have heard this. ' plied May : the life of the Commander of the Faithful be I have not heard any of these words. and. with rich khelats. Rashid came by water from Hira to Anbar. Finding that such was not the case. and I trembled within and without. urging him by the life of his master to imitate his example without further delay. faithful Jafar partook of the by a favorite blind minstrel named Abou Zaccar. keep this I resecret concealed and if not.' .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 71 head from his body for with anger and jealousy against him These words he spoke to himself. Jafar felt. the customary robe of honor. he will not leave me alive. . reluctantly withdrawing to his chamIt happened that he was attended ber. But Jafar and thoughts. I am near to destruction. The minstrel treated them as merely his master to banish them from his imaginary. Jafar. thou hast heard all. he could not forbear from communicating his apprehensions. Here he invited the three brothers Fadhl. and betook himself to his usual indulgence in wine. On after this that the his return their quarters. and. If thou care for thy life. having caressed them with extraordinary cordiality. to his presence. The Caliph withdrew to his apartments. dismissed them once more to It mecides. and so truly as the censer is in thy hand. I will strike off thy head. for that his wine seemed deprived of all its zest until he knew that his same enjoyment." ! was not long And with this blow fell on the Barfrom one of his pilgrimages to Mecca.' long the Caliph was satisfied. to whom. urged to resume his usual cheerfulness.

Rashid called for Mesrour. Mesrour observing that any instructions which he had to communicate might as well be delivered where he was. might be followed by unavailing repentance and remorse. Mesrour yielded to these entreaties. This last indulgence was withheld." replied Mesrour. cautioned Mesrour to beware how he carried into execution an order which had evidently been given under the influence of wine. prayer another messenger arrived from Rashid with a present of nuts and sweetmeats for Jafar. my lord. lest. whom he found expecting his return. decapitated Jafar in the chamber. his favor- domestic. stood suddenly at the voluntarily at his appearance. after which he accompanied Mesrour to his tent. and returned with his head. " " head of Jafar ? demanded the Caliph. head by him till he should receive further orders. . When midnight came." said the Caliph sternly Mesof the favorite." This sealed the fate unhappy anterour immediately withdrew. and directed him to bring Jafar and strike off his head. head.THE SACRED BOOKS 72 declared that he found which seemed to it impossible to dispel the uneasiness About the hour of evening haunt him. to speak to the women of his family. Mesrour proceeded accordingly. which he laid at the He was then directed by Rashid to keep that Caliph's feet. and appeared before " Is this the Rashid. from his own table. who started inMesrour told him that he was summoned to attend the Caliph. Jafar is at the v " I door. far's verses. " I wanted his wanted not Jafar. and require his final commands. on entering which the latter immediately drew his sword. In the meantime he was enjoined to proceed without delay it He . and when he heard them. with some trepidation. further adjured Mesrour by the memory of their past friendship that he would return to the Caliph's presence. This he was accordingly obliged to do. Jafar fcsked that the Caliph's instructions might be explained to him. as a relish to his wine. Jafar entreated that he might be permitted to withdraw for a moment. when their sovereign should be restored to himself. and entering Jaite apartment while Abou Zaccar was singing some Arabic head of Jafar.

and ordered his servants to inflict on Al Fadhl two hundred stripes. The head of Jafar was dispatched the next day. languished in confinement. until the former perished in prison. Muhammad. we maintained our reputation at the expense How.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 73 and apprehend Yahya. in treating wounds. let with all their force. I made no false statements and were the choice offered to me On this : . These commands were immediately carried into execution. . according to the reports which reached Rashid concerning them." On this Mesrour produced some whips. There was in that place a who was man skilled called in to attend Al Fadhl. his three sons. and Mousa. I should therefore advise thee not to prefer thy ful sends to say that riches to thyself. after which the Caliph continued his journey to Rakkah. if thou dost not inform me where the money is. his three sons. of being sent out of the world or of receiving a single stroke of that the a whip. At first they were allowed some liberty. and his orders to me are that. He then confiscated the property of every member of the family. I am to give thee two hundred strokes of a whip. so that they nearly killed him. I should prefer the former alternative Commander of the Faithful well knoweth." " Fadhl looked up at him and said By Allah. and that he told the jailor to bring Fadhl before him. When he was brought out. They struck him at the expense of our bodies ders. Yahya. using no moderation in their blows. and his brother Muhammad. and his brother Muhammad. to be suspended to a gibbet on the bridge of Bagdad. then. Mesrour addressed me him thus " : The Commander of the Faith- he ordered thee to make a true statement of thy property. Stripped of all their wealth and honors. It is said that Mesrour was sent by him to the prison. and that thou didst pretend to do so. and thou also knowest full well that of our wealth. which he brought with him rolled up in a napkin. but subsequently they experienced alternatives of rigor and relaxation. but he is assured that thou hast still great wealth in reserve. Fadhl. could we now shield our wealth If thou hast really got any or? them be executed.

The soldier arrested him. when. and when the others declared that two hundred had been given. When this was told to Al Fadhl. " said Did I not say that he had received fifty strokes ? Well. One day that those who did so should be punished. The operator then trod on him. It contained a lament for the ruin of the Barmecides. and said: "I can not accept a fee for curing the greatest among the Were it even twenty thousand dinars. which he was reciting with tears. and conducted him to the palace of Rashid. after which he took him by the arms and dragged him along the mat. who returned them. but the man refused them. They asked him what was the matter. I should regenerous. because new flesh was forming. having at length given his consent." such an act of generosity surpassed all that he himself had done during the whole course of his life. passing near some ruined and abandoned buildings. and sent them to the doctor. by Allah one thousand strokes could not have left worse marks but I merely said so that he might take courage. so that they might Al Fadhl shuddered at the proposal. He then told Al Fadhl that he must lie down on his back on a reed-mat.THE SACRED BOOKS 74 When him he observed that fifty strokes had been inon him. Thinking that he had offered too little." Al Fadhl. they placed him on his back. and he replied that the He then patient was saved. and continued his services regularly. one of the soldiers of the guard. forbade the poets to compose elegies on their fall. he borrowed ten thousand more. perceived a man standing upright with a paper in his hand. and thus aid my efforts to cure him. by which means a great quantity of flesh was torn off the back. he endeavored to obliterate even their very name. borrowed ten thousand dirhems from a friend. and com: ! . till one day. on his recovery. he declared that fuse them. he immediately prostrated himself in thanksgiving to God. he asserted that his back bore the traces of fifty. tread on his breast. He related the whole matter to the Caliph. and not more. he saw flicted but. who manded . He then proceeded to dress the wounds. When Eashid had overthrown the family of the BarmeHe cides. on examining them.

and said Make haste and get me something to eat.' My lord. and asked me to show him all over it. He consented. he came. I to make a hole in the wall. ' My lord. This appeared to him too much I therefore asked for some months. inform Yahya." the accused answered. 1 must come ' ' In that case. he said to him : forbidden the utterance of any lament for the family of the Barmecides? " deserts.' No. .' replied Yahya. my history.' I said. and my house * 1 is not fit to receive you. with his two sons Jafar and Fadhl and a few of his most intimate friends.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 75 caused the accused to be brought before him. I will relate Afterward deal with me as allow. : said to ' Yahya : My respect is it permissible to make a hole when God has commanded us to Lord. and told him The mason began to do so.' said he. " It was in vain that I assured him.' to make the proper arrangements and put my house in order ? and afterward do as you like. accordingly I brought some. that that was all I had he had a mason sent for. in the name of God. At first I asked for a year. will you allow me some time to you.' he : * : replied. ' you have just been ' over it there is no more. Scarcely had he dismounted than he addressed me by name." Eashid having allowed him to speak. I am far too mean for such an honor. who said he would come on the morrow. On the next day. into one's neighbor's house our neighbors' rights ' ? ' Never mind. thou pleasest.' I said. he went on "I was one of the petty officials in the court of Yahya." Assuredly I will treat thee according to thy " if thou wilt Prince. mediately began to prepare everything necessary for his reWhen all the preparations were complete I sent to ception.' Certainly there is more. One day he 1 ' said to me : 1 must dine at your house. and when Yahya had eaten he rose and began to walk about the house. for I am hungry/ Fadhl told me that his father was especially fond of roast fowl .' " He then wished to know how much time I wanted. accordingly.' I said ' to him. When he was convinced by the man's own confession of the truth of the ac" Did you not know that I have cusation. and I im: .

with Yahya ' revenues. but never shall I be able to do so completely. He also gave a general permission to the poets to bewail the tragic end of the Barmecides. pathetic anecdote relating to their fall is recorded by Muhammad. me This house and all that you Yahya I hastened to kiss his hands and to pray God see is yours. furnished. how is he to meet current expenses ? ' * I will give him ten thousand ' pieces of gold. but how is he to keep Well. ' 1 it up ? 1 will make over to him such and such a farm.' said Yahya. and have them conveyed to t his house. O Commander of the Faithful.' answered Jafar. Fadhl . Thus. and then I learned that from the very day he had told me that he was coming to my house he had bought the ground adjacent to it. and sign a contract with him ' to that effect.' said Yahya. I found her talking with an old woman of ven- . with attendants. and let him go." Eashid was moved at this recital. with his sons. and caused a beautiful mansion to be constructed. said to him : here is a house. and adorned. he went through. " Having gone to visit my mother on the day of the Feast of Sacrifice. * doing that. but I thought it was some work being carried on by one of . and we came into a delicious garden. addressing his son Jafar. and fulfil your promises without delay. I saw indeed that building was going on.' Be quick. well planted and watered by fountains. without my knowing anything of it.' answered Fadhl. then. so that I found myself rich of a sudden and living a life of ease.' Very good.' to bless him. slay me for son. In this garden were and halls with adorned all kinds of marbles and pavilions on all sides were of numbers beautiful slaves of both tapestry then said to sexes. I have never failed on all fitting occasions to rehearse their praises and to pray for them. If thou choosest. then. son of Abdur Kahman the A Hashimite.THE SACRED BOOKS 76 And when the mason had made a sufficiently wide entrance. " I followed them. in order to discharge my debt of gratitude. ' : my" neighbors.' This they both did. turning to his other ' its l but till he receives those revenues.

behold this handful is that in which they are about to bury thee. replied : Bin I to her and mother of Jafar turned the Yahya. the affairs of Rashid fell into irretrievable confusion. strangest thing you have seen ? My friend. One morning his physician.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 77 My mother asked if I erable appearance." great was the disaffection aroused by his treatment of them that he removed the seat of government from Bagdad to Rak- kah. died in prison. and was tortured by unavailing remorse. Yahya. being reported to Rashid." After the destruction of this family.' dah. He himself became a prey to disease.' I know where I was about to find my grave. holding in the palm of the hand imagination. and she nearly died of joy. and still I my son was not sufficiently grateful to me." adds the narrator.' It is Abbaand answered. " itself to my : will describe to thee what I plied presented Methought I saw an arm suddenly extend itfrom beneath my pillow. On his body was found a paper containing these words : " The accuser has gone on before to the tribunal. while a voice addressed ' me lowing words Haroun. revolt. ' ' She I No. 'there was once a time when this same festival saw me escorted by four hundred slaves. She did not cease her visits till the day death separated us. A. and ' At Tus. on the Euphrates. her. which began to wear the appearance of madness. but meanly clad.' The arm disappeared and I plied : : in the fol- of earth . inquired the reason. 805. demanded it to the voice re- awoke.' thought that "I " five hundred dirhems. and all I wish for is two sheepday skins one to lie down on and one to cover me. If any one blamed the Barmecides in his presence bellion assailed he would say him " Cease to blame them or : fill So the void. finding him Rashid regreatly discomposed. gave her." This. deepened his gloom.D.' she replied. Treason. self a quantity of red earth. knew After some time I said to her: saluted her with respect. the father of Jafar and Fadhl." . Tofeast the has returned. and re- in different parts of the empire. and the ac- The Cadi will be that just Judge cused shall follow soon. who never errs and who needs no witnesses. ' ' ' what is the Madam.

asked his physician if he did not dream which had occurred to him at Rakkah. from any humiliation which may have befallen me. who wept at the sight when his general Tahir of it. precisely as they appeared in my dream " recollect the : ! The Caliph died March 23. but my mind is never free from cares. but was captured and slain. though suffering from the dislife." utmost wishes. and his head sent to Mamoun in Khorassan. and you have obtained your bathed in " do tears. as was shown by the following circumstance Tahir went one day to ask some favor from Al Mamoun the latter granted it. giving the former Irak and Syria. By this Tahir knew that he wished Emin to be put to death. 809.D. and Emin had the title of the latter Khorassan and Persia. at midnight the following Saturday. however. for were now in the neighborhood of Tus. When the execution was over Rashid fell into a swoon. and then wept till his eyes were sent to : . War broke out to which Mamoun Caliph. " Commander of the Faithful. The Caliph. on recovering himself. he ordered limb by limb on the spot. set out to put down a rebellion ease which was to end his in Transoxiana." replied the Caliph. however. sent to the general a shirt with no opening in it for the head. When Mesrour returned with his naked " Behold the arm extended. previously. why you weep ? May God never cause you to shed a tear! The universe obeys you. him requesting to know what to do with Emin in case he caught him. and. neither do I weep from grief. He had. and acted accordingly. " " I weep not. THE CALIPH AL MAMOTJN When Haroun al Rashid died he left the empire to his sons Emin and Mamoun. Rashid immediately exclaimed arm and the earth. bore a grudge against Tahir for the death of his brother. was to succeed." . When one of the captured rebel leaders was him to be cut to pieces brought into his presence. A.THE SACRED BOOKS 78 Shortly after this Rashid." said Tahir. He also desired they his chamberlain Mesrour to bring him a sample of the native earth of the country. between the brothers Emin fled from Bagdad. .

" "the eunuch replied." the Caliph said " but if you ever allow it to pass your lips. morning. ernment of Khorassan. and named him governor of Khorassan on the spot he made him also a present of an ." said the other. Tahir. my Emin. and. When Tahir was solidly established in his government he ceased mentioning Al Mamoun's name as the reigning Caliph." Husain related this to Tahir. when Al Mamoun was alone and hems. so that I was nearly choked with weepI shall make him feel ing. Al Mamoun then sent for Tahir. and said to him monious in my gratitude. eunuch. " did I ever disclose any of your secrets ? "I was thinking " and of the misforof brother said the : : . the eunuch who waited at the door " of the Caliph's private apartment I wish you to ask the Commander of the Faithful why he wept on seeing me. contrive to : govyou Caliph." replied Abi Khalid. on retiring. tune which befell him. swered the eunuch. by express to inform Al in the public prayers A dispatch was immediately sent Mamoun off of the circumstance. " I Abi Khalid. " in a good humor." observed the Caliph. I shall have "O your head taken off." replied proper person for it ? " He is ambitious." On reaching home Tahir sent Husain one hundred thousand dirSome time afterward. " I shall tell you the reason." " " I Come to me to-morrow shall. will answer for his conduct." Why so ? asked the " Because have entrusted Ghassan with the lost. and I " And whom do fear that ruin awaits him. and a service rendered to me is never : have me removed away from Al Mamoun.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 79 These words gave great uneasiness to Tahir." anplied the Prince. Husain said to him Why did you weep when Tahir came to see you ? " " What is that to you ? " re" It made me sad to see you weep." my master. he said to Husain." Caliph. "I off to Al He then rode and said Mamoun. to whom he had just given orders to poison his new master if he remarked anything suspicious in his conduct. and his friends are very few. and . who immediately rode off to " I am not parsithe Vizier Abi Khalid. but Tahir shall not escape me! what he will not like." you think a " " said Al Mamoun." " " was not able to sleep last night.

and the two One young They struggled between themselves for the honor of offering them to him. him in some placed his two sons under the tuition of Al Farra. " " I most honored of men ? Al Farra answered know not one more honored than the Commander of the Faithful. day Al Farra rose to leave the house. and honor his preceptor. I should have declared you in fault. he learned what had taken place. One of those who were present said to him How is it that you hold the stirrups of these striplings.' elder ? Al Mamoun then said * : to him " : Had you No one man of prevented them. and When : : the two designated successors of the Commander of the Faithful contended for the honor of presenting him his slippers.THE SACRED BOOKS 80 the next morning Tahir was found dead in Al Mamoun It is his bed. We know by tradition that Ibn Abbas held the stirrups of Hasan and Husain." any " " Nay. it is he who arose to go out." replied Al Mamoun. you who are their : * : ' To which he replied Ignorant man ! can appreciate the merit of people of merit except a " merit. . and caused Al Farra to be brought before him. and at length agreed that each of them should offer him one. and they finally agreed that each of them should present him with one As Al Mamoun had secret agents who informed him slipper. of everything that passed.princes hastened to bring his shoes. so that they might be instructed in grammar. " he entered. can be disfrom three obligations he must respect his sovereign. said that the eunuch administered the poison to sauce. when they were getting on horseback after paying him a visit. I bestow upon them twenty thousand dinars alts their merit. As a reward for their conduct. it ex- No man. though great in rank. the Caliph said to him Who is the. I should have prevented them from doing so had I not been apprehensive of discouraging their minds in the pursuit of that excellence to which they ardently aspire. That which they have done is no debasement of their dignity ." Al Farra answered " Commander of the Faithful. pensed venerate his father. on the contrary. : .

He commanded. name of At-Tinnin " in ironic terms. he ordered also that he should be exposed to view in the palace courtyard then he committed him to police supervision. finally. so that people might see in what disguise he had been arrested ." me Then you I pardon you. prayer. that Ibrahim should continue to wear the burqa.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 81 ($50. the reigning family. When he was before Al Mamoun.500). On Mamoun's entry into Bagdad. and to put on green. and on you for the good education you give them. complexion. Shikla. some days of detention. and in doing so had ordered the public to cease wearing black. or long female veil in which he had fled. who was a and of a large frame of body. and was of Mahdi. and . who adnegress. detected and arrested by one of the negro police. If you punish " you pardon me you will be great. the color of the family of Ali and their partizans. after : Koran. however. which was the distinctive color of the Abbassides. as he has placed me above all dressed him my criminals in the magnitude of will be just if my crime. I found myself in a narrow street." said Mamoun. a revolt was raised against him in Bagdad by his uncle. 9 God has placed you giveness is near neighbor to piety. VI. at the of absence Al Mamoun. The following anecdote was related by Ibrahim regarding the time when he was in hiding with a price set on his head " I went out one day at the hour of noon without knowing whither I was going. he received the He was proclaimed (the Dragon). ii. He was.. . The during Bagdad Caliph cause which led the people to renounce Al Mamoun and choose Ibrahim was that the former had chosen as his successor one of the descendants of Ali. 238. Ibrahim. a skilful performer on musical instruments. set him free. Being of a dark he inherited from which his mother.000). VOL. and prostrated himself in . When Al Mamoun was still in Khorassan.' above all those who are generous. " ten thousand dirhems ($2. . however. but forright gives you lievers. the son This prince had great talent as a singer. he replied : Prince of the bel the of crime retaliation. Ibrahim fled disguised as a woman.

' does not behoove a it man my low degree to beg you to sing. he returned ' with a servant bearing a tray loaded with victuals. but who could have guessed that I would ' hear you myself and in 10 A my own famous musician of the period. and front of the door of a house. Then he left me alone. and bade me enter. ' What about some wine ? ' he asked.' he answered. closed the door. but your kindness prompts me to do so if you deign to consent it will be a great honor for your slave. the son of Mahdi. ' ! ment. house ' ? . 'your reputation is too great for me not to know it: you are Ibrahim. and departed. and noticed a negro standing in I went straight to him. and leather cushions. and was Sir. By Allah he answered. asked if he could afford me He shelter for a short time.THE SACRED BOOKS 82 which ended in a cul-de-sac. suspicion flashed across my mind . con- The hall was adorned with mats sented.' ' " ' How do you know that I am a good singer ? I asked ' him. kind as first to I said to him : learn to know ' You know me. After having emptied three cups. He brought some. these three airs ' ? When Then but where did you 'I have been. in the service of Ishak. fore I have not touched any of these things with my hand do me the honor to partake of them.' I replied. I admit . and had gone to denounce me. would you be so * ' sing the piece which I shall choose ? I consented he chose three airs in which I had no rival. At these words I when he added : took the lute.' about to commence. 10 and I have often heard him speak of the great singers and the airs in which they excelled . Sir. and therelife be a sacrifice for you/ he said. with an air of astonishof . May my I am a barber. . " While I was revolving these gloomy thoughts. this man A knew my head. 1 do not detest it. and then said again May my life be your ransom Will you allow me to sit near you and drink to your health ? I consented. 1 * : ! ' ' took out a lute. he opened a cupboard and that a price was set on ' .' 'he said. and a reward of a hundred thousand dirhems is promised by Al Mamoun to the man who will find you. son of Ibrahim Mausili.' Hunger pressed me I rose and obeyed.

I am : and cushions. I possess. I offered ' reward some day. to tell the truth. When I I left my home this morning happened to fall in with you." . the band: a professional parasite." He slipped in among them. charmed with his agreeable manners." they answered. One day the Son of Mahdi ten inhabitants of Basra were denounced to Al who held the doctrine of Manes (Mani- Mamoun as heretics chseans) and the two principles of light and darkness. I * Here are some well-to-do people going to said to myself enjoy themselves. including guards brought " the parasite. . however. to receive anything from me but he went out with me and put me on the road to the place whither I wished to go. and fettered the whole chains band. " and whether we may reckon you among our brothers. parasite. .' Consequently I joined your company.' He refused. accordingly. When we reached the boat. and took my place beside you as though I were one of you. who you are. which was provided with carpets for me. He A ordered them to be brought into his presence. and went on board with them." he said. and implore you to Only respect has restrained do me from doing so. rather. "may I ask who you " " Tell are ? us. I had brought with me a purse full of gold pieces. who saw them being taken." " " God knows I As scarcely know you. Al Mamoun and Ibrahim. I who should me offer to it This him." he replied. who said to himself My greediness has ended ! : by making me Then he addressed a prisoner. Struck with your agreeable appearance and good manners. Then he went off. said to himself " Here are folk : who are going off for a jollification. the claimed." the seniors of "Pardon me. and I have never seen him since.' you all the honor to accept it. " Doubtless this is a pleasure party " he exSoon. and I saw all these bags and well-filled baskets. and remained some time in his company. promising him a greater he said ' it is rather is strange. and accompanied them without perceiving who they were till they reached the boat in which their guards made them embark.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 83 "I sang to him accordingly. At nightfall I took leave of him.

and commanding them to spit on it. some. and will exhort us to repent and to abjure our religion. parasite? people have an ample store of anecdotes and stories. But as the ten prisoners had been done with and the list was exhausted. will question us concerning our belief. whoever refuses will be put to death. by recounting wildered. and replied are chained. proposing various tests to us. we know nothing " We found him among them about him. Truly. At last the parasite's turn came. and urged them to renounce Manes. commanding us to spit upon it and to renounce him. therefore. he had them handed over one by one to the executioner. and me with you. ." he said." " Who are you ? " the Caliph asked " him. show us an image of Manes. then." they answered. and brought him hither. But did you not say you were a such Now.' some park or this is a lucky pleasure-ground " I was still congratulating myself and fettered you. He called each in turn as his name was on the list.THE SACRED BOOKS 84 I thought ' : They are going for an outing in day for me. know that we are Manicha?ans who have been denounced to Mamoun. The Caliph was much amused." These words amused the prisoners. he will. and ordered the image of Manes to be presented to him. he will command us to sacrifice a pheasant. what it is all about. He will ask us who we are. image. and made them smile." And he told him his whole story from beginning to end. When you are called and put to the test you will say who you are and what your belief is. the parasite cursed and re- . Whoever will do so will save his life. showing them his As they refused." As soon as they arrived at Bagdad the prisoners were conducted into the presence of Mamoun. " may my wife be I divorced if I understand what they are talking about! am only a poor parasite. Prince of the believers. : . Mamoun " asked the guards who he was. They " Now that you are on the list of the suspected. when the guards came I now feel quite be- tell me. he asked each concerning his sect. according as you feel prompted. shorten our journey. for example. and are being taken to him.

' Yes. when " Sire. and asked to strongly attracted. I asked the man. however. our host led us into another hall richly adorned. and we did honor to the dishes. ' master of the house ever gave entertainments.' he answered. by which I was I addressed a passer-by. of which I was the hero. and I followed. The two guests believed me to be 4 . I had gone out one day. I think he is giving one to-day. received me graciously. if the . ' To a linen-merchant. saying May my life be your sacrifice your host is waiting impatiently for you/ I escorted them to the door as if I belonged to the house they went in. I lifted my eyes to the house.' " We were thus engaged in talk when two persons of wellThere to-do appearance came down the street toward us. The charm of this apparition made me forget the enticing odors.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 85 Al Mamoun. What is his name ? ' I asked. names and their fathers' names ? ' I asked. ' : . whom the house belonged. the son of Mahdi.' was his reply. and. supposing that I had been brought by his friends. . ' What are their are his two guests. about to punish him for his temerity and impudence. when I came to the porch of a lofty mansion.' he answered ' but his guests are merchants. and was roving at random through the streets of Bagdad. and I will relate to you a kind of Bohemian nounced the heretic : The Caliph assented. staid and sober people like himself. and I accosted them immediately. The master of the house perceived me. adventure. He informed ' me.' the man said to me. Then the meal was brought it was well served. and specially addressed his conversation to me. and I stood there troubled and perplexed. whence issued a delicious odor of spices and dressed meats. who had remained standing near. When the food had been removed and we had washed our hands. Through the lattice-work which covered one of the windows I saw appear such a beautiful hand and wrist as I had never seen before. was heartily. said let this man off. ' Such a one. who was present. Finally. He redoubled his politeness toward me. Ibrahim. whose savor excelled their odor. and placed me in the seat of honor. ." and Ibrahim continued: " Prince of the believers. son of such a one.

' Her master and those present followed her example in praising me. sir. who had a stronger head than his guests. which she tuned with a skill which struck me. to learn/ These words irritated her.' was likI tuned to I asked. I sang for the third time. alone remained emptied ' cups. had any one of and said my life. I sang again. and then sang. wasted. and my hearers was roused to such a pitch that I thought they would take leave of their senses. ' ' Young girl/ I said to her. were beginning to feel the effects ! ! of the wine. he said to me : Truly. " We had already emptied several cups when a young female slave came forward. Kindly inform me who you are. and. I waited awhile to let them recover themselves. one. She then sang an air in a most enchanting fashion so great was the skill and art with which she sang that I could not suppress a feeling of jeal. pardon me in the name of heaven . i ' that is deserves to be called what slave. that air sung so exquisitely. singing " The others. and a lute was brought to her. more some After we had with him.' He pressed me so much that at last I told him my name. ' ? at ' Yes. I have never heard ing. taking my lute stored. me while the host treated in this fashion because he believed I had been brought by his two friends. and had them conveyed home.THE SACRED BOOKS 86 an intimate friend of his. I consider the past days of which I did not know you. She was offered a cushion to sit upon. and saluted us without timidity. cheerfulness was re- and the cups circulated rapidly. embracing them. and exclaimed to the host : Since when do you admit to J your intimacy such vexatious guests ? " I repented of my remark when I saw the others look me askance. you have still a good deal ousy. Immediately he rose. said: ' Sir. the enthusiasm of ' ' cried the By Allah again. she threw down the ' lute. entrusted them to the care of his own I servants and of theirs. then. which I had hardly finished my when the young slave cast herself at my feet. the master of the house. as graceful as a willow-branch. I should have been surprised. sir. kissed my hand. ' Is there a lute here They brought me the reply. in * : . however.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 87 a rank inferior to your own possessed such skill. and sent for her. but this is all I have by me at present/ They accepted my present and retired.' only my mother and my sister left Such generosity and kindness of heart surprised me. son of Mahdi. and I knew ' it not Being pressed by him to tell my story and what ! me to his house. it is she Without losing a mo! ' : ! ! ment." my Mamoun was He granted his astonished at the generosity of the merchant. saying Excuse me. it is probably she of whom ' I am in search/ Very well. call your sister. he then sent for a sum of twenty thousand dirhems in two bags. ' No ! the possessor of the hand I saw their hands. freedom and a rich present to the parasite. : ' feel quite embarrassed.' he said. Such generosity and kindness made me wife. he ordered his servants to bring together ten respectable elderly men from the neighborhood. To think one of the royal house was with me all the time. and ordered Ibrahim to present his father-in-law at court. my dear host. " My host then proposed to prepare in his own house an apartment for us. I said : is not ' among them/ By Allah ' said ! my * host. said give my sister here in marriage to Ibrahim. had attracted when I smelt and " ' He straightway called one of his female slaves and said tell So-and-so to come down/ He had all the slaves : Go and After having examined in succession brought before me. wife. after which I gave one of the bags of money to my young : and distributed the other among the witnesses. I told him how I had stopped the odor of the food. there are I will send for them. and that I bestow upon her a dowry of twenty thousand dirhems/ His sister and I both gave our agreement to the marriage. to convey I said that I only desired a litter He readily agreed. I said to him May my life be your sacrifice Before calling your mother. 1 1 take you to witness that I addressing the ten men. "As soon as I set eyes on her hand and wrist I cried: ' ' It is she. and sent along with it so magnificent a trousseau that it entirely fills one of my houses. . and described the hand wrist I had seen at the window. and. They came .

any one to bathe in it. and arms. but he could neither taste nor touch it. water that the inscription on a coin lying at the bottom could be clearly read but it was so cold that it was impossible for . Al Mamoun felt a sudden shiver. and caused some of the . caught the fish and regained the shore. In vain he was covered with rugs and skins he trembled like a leaf. . So clear was the stream. so great was his suffering. and could not move from the place. on the Caliph's neck. in a napkin before the Caliph. about a fathom in length and flashing an ingot of silver. fish. and wetted his clothes. appeared in the water. and exclaimed "I " into his I placed : . and whether they could do him any good. wriggling. As he grew rapidly worse. and encamped on its banks. am cold ! am cold ! He was carried tent. the fish slipped from his grasp. fell into the water. by the beauty and fertility of the surrounding counhe had a kind of arbor constructed by the banks of the try. covered with clothes. on his conIbn dition. recaptured the fish. intending to rest there some days. of his stupor. but he continued to complain of cold. his physicians. but as he approached the spot where Al Mamoun was sitting. he opened his eyes. an attendant went down. Bakhteshou and hands of the one took patient's Masouyieh the other. When the fish had been cooked it was brought to him.THE SACRED BOOKS 88 The latter became one of the most intimate courtiers and companions of the Caliph. and felt his pulse together the irregular pulsations Just then Al Mamoun awoke out heralded his dissolution. The Death During Al Mamoun's last of Al Mamoun campaign against the Greek Em- peror he arrived at the River Qushairah. and sank Some of the water was splashed like a stone to the bottom. he had ordered it to be fried. The attendant went down again. The Caliph promised a reward to any one who would capture it. and a fire was lit. chest. Charmed by the clearness and purity of its waand ters. his brother Mutasim questioned Bakhteshou and Ibn Masouyieh. and All at once a like Just as it.

he tried to speak to him. have mercy on him . pired immediately. Feeling himself becoming worse.. "die"). : ." Now. and was Rakkah. he whose O thou cried reign will never end. and Mohammed is the Apostle of God"). As the attendant was about to speak." The dying man opened his eyes they seemed extraordinarily large. Ibn Masouyieh said to him speak. it signified Al Ma- moun told " then inquired the Arabic name of the country. always avoided residing in the city of Eakkah." and he exHis body was carried to Tarsus and finally his tongue was loosened. fearing to die there. When asked regard" " Qushairah they feplied that ing the meaning of the name " Stretch out thy feet" (i. then his eyes turned toward heaven and filled with tears who and he spoke " O thou who dies. have mercy on is now him whose reign ending. his hands of the camp and " : : clutched at the doctor. It was As his gaze wandered over the long lines order to survey his now night-time. commanded some one to whisper in his ear the confession of the Mohammedan faith (" There is no God but God. he commanded that he should be carried outside his tent in camp and his army once more. in order that Al Mamoun might repeat the words " Do not after him." He was then carried back to his bed. the lights twinkling into the distance. diest not. buried there. and questioned them regarding the stream and the locality. but could not. the horoscope drawn at the moment would die in a place of that therefore he had name. When he heard the answer of his birth announced that he given by these people.e.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 89 natives of the place to be sent for. Mutasim. for truly he could not now distinguish between God and Manes. he felt sure that this was the place predicted by his horoscope. seeing that he was sinking. and shone with a wonderful luster.

we must also study the symptoms of health and Now disease. Formal causes are physical constitutions. since all things have causes. and what are united with them. causes are sometimes manifest. . and districts and cities. a certain unity is attained. The knowledge of anything. according to their mixing together. is not acquired or complete unless it is known by its causes. and bodily and animate movings and restings. and combinations and virtues which result from them.THE SACRED BOOKS 90 ON MEDICINE (BY AVICENNA) Medicine considers the human body as to the means by which it is cured and by which it is driven away from health. Efficient causes are the causes changing and preserving the conditions of the human body. and are either in accordance or at variance with nature. as airs. and in these are the elements. In the composition and alteration of the substance which is the affected thus composed. formal. which is the immediate subject. alter. nor completed except by knowledge of its accidents and accompanying essentials. are member. . and in races and arts and manners. efficient. and final. if it has it is had causes and beginnings. and the humors. and sometimes hidden and not to be comprehended except by the study of symptoms. and sleepings and wakings on account of them and in things which befall the human body when they touch it. and evacuation and retention. and what are united with them. Therefore in medicine we ought to know the causes of sickAnd because health and sickness and their ness and health. and changes in age and diversities in it. And these two are subjects that. Material causes. on which health and sickness depend. Of these causes there are four kinds: material. established in the sciences that no knowledge is acquired save through the study of its causes and beginnings. and habitable places.

And in the science of operations lies the science of virtues.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 91 Final causes are operations. as we have set forth. the sick. and doctoring with medicines and doctoring with the ing. body. whence one inquires concerning the disease and curing of the human One ought to attain perfection in this research. hands. . namely. and the medium of whom we have spoken. All this with physicians is according to three species : the well. the causes of this kind are rules in eating and drink- and the choice of air. how health And may be preserved and sickness cured. These are the subjects of the doctrine of medicine. and the measure of exercise and rest.

the guides of righteousness and One of the exquisite plans in God's management of the one of the glorious benefits which he has bestowed upon the entirety of his creatures." ERA OF THE CREATION. and on his family. the beginnings of antiquity mankind. Christians. and blessings be on Mohammed. so that and its existence the order of the world should rest upon his genius.THE SACRED BOOKS 92 THE EXISTING MOMIMEKTS OB " CHRONOLOGY " OF AL BIRUNI IN THE NAME OF GOD. whom he constitutes as a protector for his creatures. the elected. truth. and as to the question how to date from it. . word is judgment and and obey the prophets. who is truth and justice " O and his decree. Magians. and those among yourselves who are invested with the command. with whom to take refuge in unfortunate and sorrowful cases and accidents. and has been linked together with the obedience toward God. gorical decree of his. obey God. affairs of mankind should be governed by a prophet) has been settled upon them as a religious duty. THE MEBCOTJL Praise be to God who is high above all things. And this decree (that the be supported by their affairs. and the obedience toward his prophet. lation. and upon whom to devolve when they seem indissolubly perplexed. not to leave in his world any period without a just guide. ye believers. and their various sects. But among those The is first and most famous of the fact of the creation of who have a book of divine reve- such as the Jews. THE COMPASSIONATE. through which alone a reward in in accordance with the word of future life may be obtained him. there exists such a difference of opinion as to the nature of this fact. the best of all created beings. is that cateaffairs of his creation.

according to the prevalent opinion.000 years.000 years.) coming not to admit any account of a similar subject. if it not attested by a book. 93 Everything. corresponding to the number of signs and of the months. the knowledge of which is connected with creation and with the history of bygone generations. God says: "Have they not got the stories about those who were before them ? None but God knows them. and of fixing it (so as to preserve it from confusion).258 years. and because the student is incapable of keeping it in memory. we find a considerable divergence of opinion regarding it among these nations. 3. thought that of those there had passed. ever. because. already six . furnish grounds of proof. they count 258 years. if we compute the years from the creation of Gayomarth. because a long interval separates us therefrom.000 years which we have mentioned are to be counted from A the creation of Gayomarth. before that.LITERATURE OF THE EAST the like of which is not allowable for eras. which had accrued to them on account of the day-quarters. and sum up the for the rule years of the reign of each of his successors of Iran remained with his descendants without interruption this number is. because it belongs to a far remote age . intercalated with the day-quarters. If we now first consider this era.354 years. or by a tradition." Therefore it is be(Surahix. For the Persians and Magians think that the duration of the world is 12. in the zodiac till the time of his appearance. and had taken into account that defect. So the specification of the single items of the addition does not agree with the sum total. the founder of their law. whom they hold to be the first man. section of the Persians is of the opinion that those past 3. till the time when they were intercalated and made to agree with real From his appearance to the beginning of the Aera Alexandri. is mixed up with falsifications and myths. the sum total of 3. for which the conditions of authenis ticity. time. for the time till Alexander. 71. and that Zoroaster. the correctness of which is relied upon. for he himself had made their computation. therefore they count from Howthe beginning of the world to Alexander 3.

that you have no chance of deciding as to the correctness of the matter. according to the doctrine of the Jews. so that ing. the atoms of the elements mixed.792 years. regarding the period bethe period between the Aera tween the Deluge and the Aera Alexandri. according to their view. in which everything perished at the time of Xoah. which we have mentioned already. and the following books. The animals were reproduced.THE SACRED BOOKS 94 thousand years had elapsed a time during which the celesnatures (of created beings) tial globe stood motionless. as the prophets after Moses had prophesied. the with Jews diminished the number of proach having with the view of the years -making appearance of Jesus fall Christian doctrine it is is into the fourth millennium in the middle of the seven mil- which are. and the earth was not Thereupon. and secondly. and part cultivated. The next following era is the era ERA.180 years. from . the elements did not mix during which there was no growth. mankind commenced to reproduce their multiply. the difference regarding opinions. Adami and the Deluge. and the world was arranged in conformity with fixed forms. Here. for this latter period 1. of the great deluge. whilst the Christians derive their Torah for the same period 2. which we shall have to mention.448 years. of him in longitudinal direction was on the north. that difference. so as not to coincide with that time at which. the birth of Jesus from a pure virgin at the end of time. OF THE DELUGE. the time between Adam and Alexander 3. place.938 years. there is such a difference of and such a confusion. the earth was cultivated. too. so as to give rise to growth and decay. the time of the duration of the world. the did not interchange. was to take lennia. when the celestial globe was set a-gothe first man came into existence on the equator. For the Jews derive from the Torah. The Jews and Christians differ widely on this subject. The reason is. for. in the first instance. and no decay. and own species and to part south of the line. according to the The Christians re5. and do not even feel inclined to investigate thoroughly its historical truth. whilst.

Some. the Indians. disclosed houses. above which Another report says. constructed buildings of the kind of the two pyramids that have been " built in Egypt. we shall go into them. the first man. which. In denying the Deluge. saying : If the disaster comes from heaven. of which no one was able to say what they are and what they mean. These discrepancies in their reports inspire doubts in the the Deluge . It is related that Tahmurath on receiving the warning of 231 years before the Deluge ordered his people to select a place of good air and soil in his realm. and only a few nations were drowned in it it did not extend beyond the peak of Hulwan. bearing inscriptions. of the Persians admit the fact of the Deluge. that Joseph had made them a magazine where he deposited the bread and the water did not rise. but it did not extend over the whole of the then civilized world. when they were warned by their sages. Now they did not find a place that answered better to this Thereupon. and the great mass of the Magians. and the efforts of the waves. however. a partial deluge occurred in Syria and the West at the time of Tahmurath. he ordered all sciendescription than Ispahan. they relate. Chinese. and which is called Tuz. if it comes from the earth." People are of opinion that the traces of the water of the Deluge. are still visible on these two pyramids half-way up. the city of Ispahan. who was. In favor of this report we may state that in our time in Jay. and the various nations of the East.. on being excavated. according to them. filled with many loads of that tree-bark with which arrows and shields are covered. deny the Deluge altogether they believe that the rule of the world has remained with them without any interruption ever since . Gayomarth Gilshah. we shall ascend above them. but they describe it in a different way from what it is described in the books of the prophets. Further. They say. and did not reach the empires of . there have been discovered hills. concur with them. victuals for the years of drought. that the inhabitants of the West.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 95 The Persians. tific books to be preserved for posterity and to be buried in a part of that place least exposed to obnoxious influences. the East.

he beand himself Adam. and make him inclined to believe what is related in some books. took control of the world. I shall cut off guidance of the world. but that he was Gomer ben Yaphet ben Noah. and that finally to power became very great. his Toward the end of his life. came his head. saying: " If called tyrannical. whilst mankind was still living in elementary conditions. where he founded an empire.96 THE SACRED BOOKS student. and some of his children." . anybody calls me by another name than this. that he was a prince whom a long life was given. that Gayomarth was not the first man. that he settled on the Mount Dumbawand. similar to those at the time of creation and of the first stage of the development of the Then he.

VI. certainly the most sympathetic. B. the loss if but Al Ghazali's work were preserved." PROP. figure in the history of Islam." " AL GHAZALI IN "THE RESCUER PROM ERROR. 7. " The variety of doctrines and sects which divide men are like a deep ocean strewed with shipwrecks. VOL.AEABIC LITERATURE PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION AL GHAZALI'S " " RESCUER FROM ERROR" // all the other books of Islam were destroyed. D. from which very few escape." would be small MOHAMMEDAN PROVERB. MACDONALD ." Al Ghazali is the greatest.


whom modern thought has in no way outgrown." much as we use the word as a superlative. Al Ghazali (1049-1111). Withdrawing from his official position on the ground of ill-health. seldom his birth-name. seeking true wisdom. he wandered over the of his Arab brethren. He is most often honored with the distinctive prefix " Al. He felt at last that he had found it in the ecstasy of religious faith. designates a noted man by world for eleven years. he led an earnest reform in Mohammedanism. and so may mean Merchant." As a youth Al Ghazali studied much and traveled widely. Here he became famed as the foremost philosophic teacher of the age. and his wanderings led." the village of his probably means birth.PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION (INTRODUCTION) WHEN we move with Al Ghazali or Zamakhshari through the deeply searching paths of Arab philoswe feel that we are following the guidance of men ophy." which means " The. fundities of thought. though the name may also be derived from his father's " The Thread trade in gazzel (thread). often ranked next to as Mohammed we have already said. and then. Thus just as Holy Writ speaks of The . however. So convincing were 99 .Nazarine. bringing his people to look more deeply and nobly upon their faith. as a teacher is and uplifter He was a native of Khorassan. so Al Ghazali " The Man of Ghazali. They lacked much of our scientific knowledge. resuming his public teaching. named Arab custom. Abu Hamid Mohammed. as did those of most men in his day. But his own philosophy did not satisfy him. and Zamakhshari has soared to theology's highest peak of adoration. but none of our reasoning Al Ghazali has sounded all philosophy's propowers. to Bagdad.

hoping to teach men more by his books than by spoken words." Kashshaf. however. He therefore called his celebrated commentary the " " Discoverer of Truth. He was." or any greatest work of its own type." his " Al Ghazali's own search for truth is told him in his remarkable " The Rescuer from Error." or We give here the noted opening of this work. and while he used keen intelligence in weighing its every word. Of far other type was Zamakhshari. holy book. another of the many youthi . an independent thinker who reached his firm religious a typical faith only after seeking through all systems of philosophy. so " " that instead of created they would have had the writer " " the Koran. Al Ghawrote many other works. he was scarcely Mohammedan teacher. yet it was always criticism based on the assumpran. and had faced the black shadows of despair. zali Great as was the influence of Al Ghazali. religious and philosophical. but none which have so profoundly touched modern readers " It is a as this simple. as his book will show. He was. tion that of course the Koran was right.THE SACRED BOOKS 100 appeals and explanations that his people called The Decisive Argument for the Faith. and that the only danger lay in that men might blunder in interpreting its meaning." in little book here given in full. He had tasted of the emptiness of materialism. The main attack upon the author by the orthodox Mohammedans of a later age was because the commentary began with the words. and even shocked his narrower coreligionists by the freedom of his criticism. and he died in seclusion in his native home." whereas the orthodox regarded the book as always existent with God. Al Gha- soon afterward withdrew from public life. " Praise be to God who created the Koran. the most renowned of commentators on the Ko- He seems never to have doubted the divinity of the He spent years in studying it. confes" " sion Confessions of Saint Auworthy to rank with the zali gustine. which the Rescuer is Mohammed with his Koran. earnest account of himself. revealed say that God Zamakhshari (107-1143) was born and died in Khiva in Turkestan.

. frozen in a snowstorm." It was from such earnest men as Zamakhshari and Al Ghazali. He journeyed indeed through such hardships that he lost a leg. " " the and the " Decisive Argument.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 101 eager for knowledge who took advantage of the wide-spread dominion of the Arab caliphs to travel far through the East." neighbor of God that the Mohammedan religion learned its final form. that he was called the neighbor of God. " the holy city. and the reader will be ignoring the real and manifest energy and intellect of these great men if he dismisses their religion lightly as a teaching easily to be disproved or childishly defective. and he dwelt so long in Mecca.

and the sum total of truth which I have gathered in studying every . Convinced as I am of the sincerity which prompts your invariety of opinion. O brother in the faith. You desire to learn what I have borrowed. way). long afterward. Know brothers (may God direct you in the right then. and finally. his ! experiences while disentangling truth lost in the medley of sects and divergencies of thought. and how I have dared to climb from the low levels of traditional belief to the top- my most summit of assurance. quiries. and secondly from the method of the Ta'limites. from which very few 102 . are like a my deep ocean strewn with shipwrecks. on his family and whose guidance error is escaped companions. You wish to know Mohammed. rest upon the authority of a leader and why. that the diversity in beliefs and religions. to expound the aim and the mysteries of religious sciences. who. after resigning at a Bagdad teaching post which attracted a number of hearers. what I have accepted of the doctrine of the Sufis. the boundaries and depths of theological doctrines. whose praise should precede every writGlory and every speech! May the blessings of God rest on ing Quoth the Prophet and his Apostle. and the variety of doctrines and sects which divide men. first of all from scholastic theology. by You have asked me. accepted a similar one at Nishapur. invoking the help and protection of God. I proceed to answer them. thirdly. I have been led to reject philosophic systems. in seeking truth. I have.PHILOSOPHY AND EELIGION THE RESCUER FROM ERROR IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD Imam Ghazali: to be God. You ask me why.

like all others of the Prophet." I was moved by a keen desire to learn what was this innate disposition in the child. Having noticed how easily the children of Christians be- come Christians. or Zoroastrian. I have ventured into this vast ocean. Christian. and the children of Moslems embrace Islam. then Prophet. must be fulfilled. have never met one who maintained the hidden meaning of the Koran without investigating the nature of his belief. the nature of the accidental beliefs imposed on him by the authority of his parents and his masters. the devout adorer of Deity has revealed to me the aim of his austerities the atheist has not been able to conceal from me . has told " us. that is to say. whose word is always truthful. people will be divided into more than seventy the My sects. I have penetrated its darkness and dared its dangers and I have interrogated the beliefs of each sect and abysses. without any will on my part. in order to disI entangle truth from error and orthodoxy from heresy. No sooner had I emerged from boyhood than I had already broken the fetters of tradition and freed myself from heredithe real reason of his unbelief. There is no philosopher whose system I have not fathomed. scrutinized the mysteries of each doctrine.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 108 Each sect." as Koran saith. it is true. "rejoices in its own creed". nor a partizan of its exterior sense without inquiring into the results of his doctrine. The thirst for knowledge was innate in me from an early age. From the period of adolescence. and . his parents make him Jew. previous to reaching my twentieth year to the present time when I have passed my fiftieth. believes itself escape safe and sound. each party. it was like a second nature implanted by God. and like a resolute diver. but as the chief of the apostles." This prediction. and remembering also the traditional saying ascribed to the " Every child has in him the germ of Islam. Sufism has no secrets into which I have not penetrated. nor theologian the intricacies of whose doctrine I have not followed out. of whom only one will be saved. tary beliefs. " in possession of the truth and of salvation. I have fearlessly sounded its depths.

three is more than ten. fortified against all possibility of going astray. The Subterfuges of the Sophists I then examined what knowledge I possessed. " We can not to find truth follows flected as : hope matters which carry their evidence in themselves to say. contrary. covered that in none of it. we . to prove it. because they are not beyond the reach of doubt. did I enjoy that I then certitude which I have just described. I then understood that all forms of knowledge which do not his assertion. if. which he derives from Struck with the contradictions which I encountered in endeavoring to disentangle the truth and falsehood of these " The opinions. astonishment." : the clear and complete knowledge of things. mind. Suppose. a man should come and say to me. and. any one possessing the power of changing a stone into gold. should embrace such a strong conviction that. it would remain firm and immovable. with the exception of ceptions and necessary principles. so that there remains no room in the mind for error In such a case it is necessary that the to find an entrance. and what is not impregnable to doubt can not con- stitute certitude. should seek to shake the bases of this certitude. for example. it unite these conditions (imperviousness to doubt. for instance.) do not deserve any confidence. who am " No on the firmly convinced that ten is more than three. I was led to make the following reflection I to search after truth being the aim which myself. and although his miracle might arouse my would not instil any doubt into my belief. in sense-perceptions and dis- sense-per- degree of sadly reexcept in that is and necessary principles. or a stick into a serpent. I change this rod into a serpent." and supposing that he actually did so. etc.THE SACRED BOOKS 104 finally the unreasoned convictions their instructions. such knowledge as leaves no room for doubt nor possibility of erfor and conjecture. propose I ought in the first place to ascertain what are the bases of In the next place I recognized that certitude is certitude. I should remain none the less convinced of the falsity of .

there is above reason another he judge who. the eye sees a star and believes it as large as a piece of gold. as reason has confuted us. would convict reason of falsehood. I * : A tion can not coexist together. And if such a third arbiter just it to this day. thing can not both be created and also existent from eternity. sight. appeared. Then I reflected in myself " : Since I can not trust to the must ?ely only on intellectual notions based on fundamental principles. show subsequently that a shadow moves not suddenly. The result of a careful examination was that confidence in them was my Our shaken. perhaps. that it is larger than the earth. and contrary. so that it is never really motionless. living and annihilated " To this simultaneously. Affirmation and negaevidence of my senses. 105 Is my abso- lute confidence in sense-perceptions and on the infallibility of necessary principles analogous to the confidence which I formerly possessed in matters believed on the authority of others? Is it only analogous to the reliance most people place on their organs of vision. or is it rigorously true with" out admixture of illusion or doubt ? I then set myself earnestly to examine the notions we derive from the evidence of the senses and from sight in order to see if they could be called in question. and finding it apparObently stationary pronounces it devoid of movement. servation and experience. but gradually and imperceptibly. of all Again. otherwise you would have continued to believe Well. on the These notions. perhaps the best practised our senses.LITERATURE OF THE EAST must therefore establish these on a firm basis. are subsequently contradicted and convicted of falsity in an irrefragable manner by the verdict of reason.' the notions I derived from my senses made the following " Who can guarantee you that you can trust to objections You the evidence of reason more than to that of the senses ? : believed in our testimony till it was contradicted by the verdict of reason. all others which the senses declare true. at once necessary and impossible. but mathematical calculations prove. however. for instance. observes a shadow. such as the following axioms Ten is more than three. it is true. if .

you derive from the senses and from reason ? In relation to your present state they may be real . when awake. of the reliability of notions which. tions of reason recovered with . by profession. state of being which will bear the same relation to your In present state as this does to your condition when asleep. But how ? In order to disentangle the knot of this difficulty. you recognize them for what they are Who can assure you. I owed my me all their stringency and to a concatenation of not deliverance. absorbed in themselves and in the suspension of sense-perceptions. but morally and a essentially. a state in which. once dead. perhaps." Such thoughts as these threatened to shake my reason.THE SACRED BOOKS 106 is not yet apparent. and it was precisely these of which I was in doubt. Perhaps also Death is that state. that is to say." To this argument I remained some time without reply. during which I was." This possible condition is. they wake. the primary assump- force." I reflected. sary. it is mind true. it does not follow that he does not exist. " that while asleep you assume your dreams to be indisputably real ? Once baseless awake. explicitly or recovered sanity and equilibrium. then. Do you not see. he will then understand that word of the Koran. and man. when they saying of the prince of prophets Our present life in relation to the future die. according to that " Men are asleep . This unhappy state lasted about two months. my not. a proof was necesXow a proof must be based on primary assumptions. thorough-going skeptic. that new sphere you will recognize that the conclusions of reason are only chimeras. they have visions beyond the reach of intellect. God at last deigned to heal me of this mental malady . a reflection drawn from the phenomena of sleep deepened my " doubt. that which the Sufis " " call ecstasy (hal). and I sought to find an escape from them." is perhaps only a dream. according to them. will see things : in direct opposition to those now before his eyes . but it is possible also that you may enter upon another chimeras. " To-day we have removed the veil from thine eyes and thy sight is keen.

who profess to follow theory and speculation." "And how can man recognize that " he was asked. III. of the light which God sheds in the heart." to Islam the heart of him whom he chooses to the Prophet replied. breathings be prepared for them. II. we only find them persistently elude our grasp. On another occasion he said " God has created his creatures in darkness. since they are always present to our minds. The philosophers. if we engage in such a search. This is also corroborated by another saying of the Apos" tle God sends of upon you. To suppose that certitude can be only based upon formal arguments is to limit the boundless mercy of God. and then has shed upon them his light. who call themselves the elect of God and . but to the light which God caused to the light which illuminates the penetrate into my heart all knowledge. who profess to rely upon formal logic. I. Some one asked the Prophet the ex" of this God opens planation passage in the Divine Book : threshold of " That direct. Scholastic theologians. But those who push their investigation beyond ordinary limits are safe from the suspicion of negligence in pursuing what is within their reach. : : at certain times. The Sufis. have not got to be sought for." It is by the help of this light that the search for truth must be carried on. As by his mercy this light descends from time to time among men. Primary assumptions his grace . I ascertained that those who are engaged in the search for truth may be divided into three groups." My object in this account is to make others understand with what earnestness we should search for truth.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 107 proofs and arguments. The Different Kinds of Seekers When God after Truth in the abundance of his mercy had healed me of this malady. " By his detachment from this world light ? of illusion and by a secret drawing toward the eternal world. we must ceaselessly be on the watch for it." " is spoken. since it leads to results we never dreamed of." replied the Prophet.

finally Sufism. The Aim of Scholastic Theolvgy Commencing with and meditated upon ties in this and Its Results theological science. has revealed to his creatures a belief which is true as regards their temporal and eternal interests. it is im- it it.THE SACRED BOOKS 108 possessors of intuition and knowledge of the truth by means of ecstasy. taining escapes them. But. I carefully studied I read the writings of the authori- it. God. God then raised up a school of theologians and inspired them with the desire to defend orthodoxy by means of a system of proofs adapted to unveil the devices of the heretics and to foil the attacks which they made on the doctrines established by tradition. they listened greedily to his suggestions. " " The must be found among truth. for the essence of such belief is to be unconscious of itself. department and myself composed several treatises. its object is to preserve the purity of orthodox beliefs from all heretical innovation. valiantly adepts. Many of its the defended their of high calling." I said to myself. possible to return to it. As soon as this unconsciousness ceases it is shattered like a glass whose fragments can not be again reunited except by being cast again into the furnace and refashioned." Determined to follow these paths and to search out these systems to the bottom. and the purity of the faith was menaced. In short. while sufficing its own requirements. I recognized that this science. I proceeded with my investi- gations in the following order: Scholastic theology. worthy orthodox faith by proving the reality of prophecy and the Such is falsity of heretical innovations. tions. could not assist me in arriving at the desired goal. and. philosophical systems. Satan suggested to innovators principles contrary to those of orthodoxy. the chief articles of it are laid down in the Koran and in the tradi- Subsequently. the origin of scholastic theology. these three classes of men who devote themselves to the search for If it. in order to do so. one must give up all hope of atHaving once surrendered blind belief. by means of his apostle. .

in order to discover of philosophy. Why truth I proceeded from the study of scholastic theology to that It was plain to me that. those who know most of it. PHILOSOPHY. . deny that it has had a more satisfactory result for others. Their principal effort was opponents and them by means of the premises which they had Now a method of argumentation like professed to accept. my object is to explain my own mental attitude and not to dispute with those who have found healing for themselves. principles. it could not advance far in its researches.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 109 they had to rely upon a certain number of premises. where the professors of any branch of knowledge have erred. orthodox or heretical What they have borrowed from the true doctrine to render their chimerical the- the minds of men swerve from the ories acceptable What criteria are available wherewith to separate the pure gold from the alloy in their systems. It is true that in its later content to defend it . me development theology was not betook itself to the study of first dogma of accidents and the laws which govsubstances. and which authority and universal consent or simply the Koran and the traditions obliged them to accept. nay surpass. which they accepted in common with their adversaries. Remedies vary according to the nature of the disease. On what points How its far it adherents is open may to censure or not be considered believers or unbelievers. I do not. those which benefit some may injure others. ern them. however. but through want of a thoroughly scientific basis. but it is by introducing the principle of authority in matters which are not self-evident. so as to penetrate . Moreover. truths. one must make a profound study of that science must equal. on the contrary. I admit that it has. nor succeed in dis- pelling entirely the overhanging obscurity which springs from diversities of belief. to expose the self-contradictions of their to confute this has little value for one who only admits self-evident Scholastic theology could not consequently satisfy nor heal the malady from which I suffered.

between the first and last of these philosophers. of what was truth and what was cal systems within a space of illusion in them. (2) the Naturalists. I gave up to this work all the leisure remaining from teaching and from composing works on law. All. Only by this method can they be completely answered. although there is a considerable difference between the ancient and modern. and of this method I can find no trace in the theologians of Islam. In theological writings devoted to the refutation of philosophy I have only found a tangled mass of phrases full of contradictions and mistakes. With the help of God. are marked with the stamp of infidelity and irreligion. (3) the Theists. these studies. In this manner I acquired a complete knowledge of all their subterfuges and subtleties. I devoted myself zealously to the study of philosophy. ascertained that they were divided into different varieties. I I now proceed to give a resume of these doctrines.THE SACRED BOOKS 110 into secrets of it unknown to them. I then spent about a year in meditating on these systems after having thoroughly understood them. There were then attending my lectures three hundred of the students of Bagdad. I will not say a critical mind. They reject an intelligent and . in spite of their diversity. and incapable of deceiving. Convinced that to dream of refuting a doctrine before having thoroughly comprehended it was like shooting at an object in the dark. The (1) The Materialists. may be reduced to three: (1) the Materialists. carried on in secret. Concerning the Philosophical Sects and the Stigma of Infidelity Which Attaches to Them All philosophical systems. and that their adherents might be ranged under diverse heads. according as they have missed or approximated to the truth in a greater or less degree. I turned them over and over in my mind till they were thoroughly clear of all obscurity. put me in a condition to thoroughly comprehend philosophitwo years. but even the common crowd. so to speak. in spite of their number and variety. but in books only and without the aid of a teacher.

These also ought to be called atheists. who has framed But carried away by their natural researches they believed that the existence of a being absolutely depended upon the proper equilibrium of its organism. so is the thinking faculty and as they assert that the restoration of a thing once destroyed to existence is unthinkable. Consequently they deny heaven. organized the sciences. so it had always been and will always be those who maintain .e. they are forced to admit the existence of a wise Creator who knows the end and purpose of everything. who was the teacher of Plato as Plato This latter drew up for his disciples the Aristotle. According to them. is it . elucidated what was was of formerly obscure. and judgment. And although they acknowledge God and his attributes. mistaken and perverse beliefs. Having carefully analyzed animal organs with the help of anatomy. the Materialists and Naturalists. they deny a judgment to come. The animal comes from semen and semen from the animal. Acknowledging neither a recompense for good deeds nor a punishment for evil ones. they fling off all authority and plunge into sensual pleasures with the avidity of brutes. for the true faith depends not only on the acknowledgment of God. but in exposing their i. struck with the wonders of God's work and with the wisdom therein revealed. Among them should be reckoned Socrates. hell. And certainly no one can study anatomy and the wonderful mechanism of living things without being obliged to confess the profound wisdom of him the bodies of animals and especially of man. they deny the immortality of the soul. but of his Apostle and of the day of judgment. this doctrine are atheists. These devote themselves to the study ( 2 ) The Naturalists. In their view the world exists from all eternity and had no author. they made use of arguments .. and expounded what had not been understood. of nature and of the marvelous phenomena of the animal and vegetable world. rules of logic. This school refuted the systems of the two others. resurrection. as the latter perishes and which is bound up with destroyed. (3) Next come the Theists.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 111 omnipotent Creator and disposer of the universe.

Aristotle than the latter. in war" (Koran. His confidence in philosophy increases. and obscurity adapted to disconcert the reader. xxxiii.THE SACRED BOOKS " God which they should not. may be divided into three totle. and the theists who had preceded him. and the third we We are obliged to reject absolutely. suffices to protect the faithful Aristotle also contended with success against the theories of Plato. and separated himself entirely from them . and proves nothing for or against religion it rests on a foundation of proofs which. aim we have : set before (1) Mathematics. known and understood. The unintelligible can The philosophy of Arisneither be accepted nor rejected. sections be divided into Logic. and cosmography : it has no connection with the religious sciences. (2) (4) Metaphysics. Socrates. as well as the sophilosophers. knowledge of which we owe to the translatwo learned men. proceed to details: Divisions of the Philosophic Sciences These us. 25). Mathematics results. can not be tend. such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna) all as and Farabi. the second is tainted with heresy. who have adopted their systems. all serious tion of these portions: the first contains matter justly chargeable with impiety. once (1) Mathematics. and he thinks that all its departments are capable of the same clearness and solidity of proof as mathematics. We therefore consider called Mussulman them unbelievers. (6) Moral Philosophy. to produce The first is this: two bad Whoever refuted. But when he hears people speak of the unsubtlety . . (3) Physics. however. (5) Politics. Mathematics comprises the knowledge of calculation. in relation to the six. may sciences. geometry. What others have handed down as his teaching is full of error. confusion. studies this science admires the and clearness of its proofs. acknowledge that among Mussulman philosophers none has better interpreted the doctrine of Let us. but he could not eliminate from his doctrine the stains of infidelity and heresy should which disfigure the teaching of his predecessors. however.

one makes the above objection to " apes of unbelief. belief out of regard for authority. Accusing their professors of being astray. ters There are past mas- who are entirely ignorant of other The arguments of the ancient philos- ophers are rigidly demonstrative in mathematics and only In order to ascertain conjectural in religious questions. they persist in maintaining the pre- eminence of mathematicians in all branches of knowledge." these Supposing." they find it distasteful. he echoes these accusations. For though far removed as it may be from the things of religion. Falling a prey to their passions. it would not have escaped those who have displayed so much keenness of intellect in the study of mathematics. and the wish to pass for learned men. this one must proceed to a thorough examination of the matter. it is true that. in every science branches of knowledge. to a besotted vanity. and medicine. . How many of such men gone astray I have met whose sole argument was that just mentioned. and casting off the The second evil comes from the sincere but ignorant Mussulman who thinks the best way to defend religion is by rejecting all the exact sciences. if there was truth in religion. s. It is possible to be entirely ignorant of metaphysics. he rejects their theories of the eclipses of the VOL. serving as it does as an introduction to the philosophic systems. Xext. which is notorious. This is a serious evil. this study. I say. theology. casts over religion its malign influence.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 118 and impiety of mathematicians. and for this reason those who study mathematics should be checked from going too far in their researches. nor that he should be equally versed in jurisprudence. he concludes that to reject religion is reasonable. : and yet to be an excellent grammarian. vi. when he becomes aware of the unbelief and rejection of religion on the part of these learned men. It is rarely that a man devotes himself to it without robbing himself of his faith restraints of religion. but he says to himself at the same time that. of their professed disregard for the Divine Law. And supposing one puts to them the follow" It does not follow that a man who excels ing objection in one branch of knowledge excels in all others.

the conditions which should hold between the premises of a proposition. But as for . proofs. " The sun and attack on religion. It is therefore a great injury to religion to suppose that the defense of Islam involves the condemnation of the exact The religious law contains nothing which approves them or condemns them. the rules of a good definition. far from losing confidence in them. they reach the ears of the philosopher who knows that these theories rest on infallible proofs. These accusations are carried far and wide. nothing different kinds of proofs and syllogisms. do not in any way condemn the astronomical calculations which define the orbits of these two bodies. " When God reveals himself in anything. and condemns them in the name of religion. he believes.the so-called tradition. and it is laid under contribution by theologians as well as by formulating philosophers. I say. eclipsed for the birth or the death of any one. that Islam has ignorance and the denial of scientific proofs for its basis. What. and his devotion to philosophy increases with his hatred to religion. he abases himself thereto. The only difference particular set of technical formulae divisions is that the latter use a and that they push their and subdivisions further. and not found in any trustworthy collection of the traditions." it is unauthentic. the way combine them. and the art of to it. the moon are two signs of the power of God. For knowledge consists of conceptions which or of convictions which arise from from a definition spring therefore There is nothing censurable in this science. their conjunction and opposition according to particular laws. and on what ground opposition should It may . this has to do with the grave of questions religion. Such is the bearing and the possible danger of mathe- matics. contains (2) Logic. This science.THE SACRED BOOKS 114 sun and moon. then. be asked. in the same manner. on the contrary. when you see these signs take refuge in prayer and invoke the name of God " these words. they are not sciences. and in their turn they make no The words of the Prophet. Its object is the study of or for against religion.

is the fruitful breeding-ground of Here they can no longer satisfy . but which lead when they touch on to abso- religious questions they can no longer postulate these conditions. Logicians demand in reasoning certain conditions lute certainty. that a student who is enamored of the evidential methods of logic. accordingly. its principal and secondary organs. and the law which governs their changes. and compound bodies the reasons of their changes. it must be admitted. earth. developments. nothing in nature can act spontaneously God. and ought therefore to relax their habitual rigor. from of the tage arising logic." Besides entitled. shares their mistake. as following principle: Nature capable of acting by itself. on which physical science jection. these primary questions. By the nature of its researches it is closely connected with the study of medicine. study The object of this science is the study of (3) Physics. simple elements such as air. moon. This (4) Metaphysics. the object of which is the human body. in- is entirely subject to is an instrument in the hand of and elements are subject to the Creator. the errors of philosophers. except on some special matters which we have mentioned in the work " The Destruction of the Philosophers. fire. In a word. it we is open to obon the believe. It happens. the bodies which compose the universe : the sky and the stars. and minerals . believes that on proofs as strong as those of logic. it will be said. logic is liable to abuse. and apart from of themselves. But all physical science rests. and immediately. and intermixture. without attempting the study of meta- this irreligion reposes This is a serious disadvanphysics. animals. stars. since the latter's faith seems to be based upon such objections. here below. plants. and. can not justly do so with physical. God and can produce nothing God. sun. Religion having no fault to find with medical science. there are some subordinate ones depending on them. But. water. can only inspire the logician with an unfavorable opinion of the intelligence and faith of his adversary.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 115 be offered to the methods of logic? The objector. hearing his teachers accused of irreligion.

and mainknows by his essence only and not by means of any attribute accessory to his essence. spirits alone will be rewarded or punished. Which Divide Islam from Atheism. tain that he way of looking at things. " (6) God takes cognizance of universals. theories on this point They have borrowed their from the books which God has revealed . The Koran asserts truly. The them sum total of their errors can be reduced to twenty proposi- them are irreligious. and this is what explains the disputes which arise between in the study of metaphysics. They maintain that the universe exists from all eter- nity and will never end. and the other seventeen It was in order to combat their system that we heretical. The professors of this confine (5) Political Science. " wrote the work. not of specials. The system most closely akin to the system of the Mohammedan doctors is that of Aristotle as expounded to us by Farabi and Avicenna. themselves to drawing up the rules which regulate temporal is opposed to their matters and the royal power. future punishments will be therefore spiritual and not physical. 62). They are right in admitting spiritual pun- ishments. None of these propositions has ever been admitted by Moslems." This is manifestly irreligious. " Criteria of the Differences trary. they deny that God has attributes. Destruction of the Philosophers. but they are wrong in reand jecting physical punishments. for there will be such.THE SACRED BOOKS 116 the laws of rigorous argumentation such as logic demands." The tions: three of three propositions in which they are opposed to trines of Islam are the following : all the doc- (a) Bodies do not rise again . contradicting in this manner the assertions of the Divine Law. doctrines which we On the conare not obliged to condemn as irreligious. In this point they approach the doctrine of the Mutazilites. in our work entitled. " Not an atom's weight in heaven or earth can escape his knowledge" (c) (x." we have proved the wrongness of those who accuse of irreligion everything which Besides this.

while in a state of ecstasy. These devout soul. themselves with defining the attributes and qualities of the grouping them according to genus and species. one for the related upholder of those doctrines. In the times of the philosophers. and pointing out the way to moderate and control them. gath- The professors of this occupy (6) Moral Philosophy. who are always engaged in invoking the name of God. . They have borrowed this system from the Sufis. men. finding in their writings moral philosophy mixed with unsupported theories. and the philosophers making use of them have introduced them into their own systems in order to embellish and give currency to their falsehoods. These revelations they have published. believes that he ought to entirely reject them and to condemn those who profess them. from the sentences of ancient 117 sages. Having only heard them from their mouth he does not hesitate in his ignorance to declare them false because those who It is as if some one was to reject teach them are in error. " There is only the profession of faith made by Christians. revelations regarding the qualities of the soul. as at every other period. Now this mixture of moral and philosophic doctrine with the words of the Prophet and those of the Sufis gives rise to two dangers. if phetic mission which makes Christians infidels.). have received. the other for their opponent. it is by them that you receive your subsistence." who lived in ancient times. as by the Koran (xviii. its defects and its evil inclinations. The danger for their opponent is serious." simply because it proceeds from Christians and without inquiring whether it is the profession of this creed or the denial of Mohammed's proNow." Such were " the : Companions of the Cave. there existed some of these fervent mystics. one God and Jesus is his prophet.LITERATURE OF THE EAST to his prophets and ered by tradition. A narrowminded man. and they draw down to it the blessings of heaven according to the tradition " It is by them that you obtain rain . in combating concupiscence and following the way of God by renouncing the pleasures of this world. Got does not deprive this world of them. for they are its sustainers.

the indicate. and not the experienced assayer. cease to be true because ever.THE SACRED BOOKS 118 they are only infidels because of their rejection of our Prophet. and when he has found them true. They assert that these maxims are borrowed from the ancient philosophers. But a liberal spirit will take maxim of the prince of believers. whose intellectual penetration is insufficient fathom such depths. truth does not found among them. we are not entitled to reject those of their doctrines which do In a word." This is the procedure followed by a wise man. howthe tendency of weak minds: they judge the truth not wear the stamp of infidelity. The must be forbidden to handle serpents. they can not avoid that which we are about to false. and relying on experience. The skilled coin-assayer plunges without hesitation his hand into the purse of the coiner of false money. he accepts them without troubling himself whether the person who teaches them is sincere or a deceiver. of their mental superiority and intellectual depth . men have such a good opinion of them- child. not the expert in diving. whereas the truth is to . be kept away from the seashore. Such. separates good coins from bad. Once in possession of the truth he examines the basis of various doctrines which come before him. low it. not the charmer. who will ask why we should have anyThe unskilled swimmer must thing to do with a false coiner. Much remembering how gold is buried in the bowels of the he endeavors to disengage the truth from the mass of earth. they believe themselves so skilled in discerning the true from the path of safety from those of error. is it is according to its professors instead of judging its professors by the standard of the truth. Some of the maxims found in my works regarding the mysteries of religion have met with objectors of an inferior rank in science. that they should be forbidden as much as possible the perusal of philosophic writings. Ali the son Do not seek for the truth by means of men truth and then you will recognize those who fol- as its guide this of Abu Talib : find first the " . selves. As a matter of fact. errors in which it is engulfed. for though they sometimes escape the danger just pointed out. It is the ignorant rustic. rather.

can not be communicated to it by its being placed in the cupping-glass it is . of looking at things it .e. is it right to reject an opinion when it is reasonable in itself. The impurity of blood is due. even were In every case they judge of the truth according to its it true. The wise man. There is When. does not become impure because it may happen to have been placed in the glass which the surgeon uses for cupping purposes.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 119 that they are the fruit of my own meditations. Every word proceeding from an authority which they approve is accepted by them. and in order to lead minds The consequence of gradually astray in the paths of error this procedure would be that impostors would snatch truths out of our hands in order to embellish their own works. but the from the writings of the Sufis. not existing in honey. should not make common cause with the ! bigot blinded Honey by ignorance. but to a peculiarity inherent in its own nature this peculiarity. a ne plus ultra of error. and conIf we adopt tradicting neither the Koran nor the traditions ? method and reject every truth which has chanced to have been proclaimed by an impostor. But even if they were borrowed exclusively from the docof greater part are derived trines of the philosophers. The second danger threatens those of the philosophers. not to its contact with this glass. even were it false every word proceeding from one whom they suspect is rejected. Some them are found in our books of religious law. Such is. but as the " Sandal follows the impress of sandal. how many truths we should have to reject How many verses of the Koran and tradithis ! tions of the prophets and Sufi discourses and maxims of sages we must close our ears to because the author of the " Treatise " of the Brothers of Purity has inserted them in his writings in order to further his cause. philosophy involves its opponents. however. found in nearly all the whimsical way men. who for instance. professors and not of men according to the truth which they Such is the peril in which profess. . nothing new under the sun." accept the opinions " Treathe we read . at least. therefore wrong to regard as impure. supported by solid proofs." l proverb says. i " I..

In the same way the skilled coin-assayer. we give them our confidence. the contact of truth with falsehood does not change truth into falsehood. after having taken the serpent and separated the venom from the antidote. We approve these works . he should be told that his hesitation is a pure mistake which would deprive him of It should be proved to him the advantage which he seeks. ought not to withhold the antidote from those who need it. believing himself as clever as his father. because of the good opinion of them with which they have inspired us at the outset. just as the slippery banks of a The river are forbidden to one who knows not how to swim. taken out the good coins and thrown away wise. having put the latter on one side and destroyed the venom. we find in them sentences spoken by the Prophet and tise quotations from the Sufis. the bad ones. after having put his hand in the bag of the false coiner. Thus. by insenIn view of this danger the sible degrees. and we finish by accepting the errors which they contain. so full of vain and delusive reading of philosophic writings Utopias should be forbidden. Such should be the conduct of the learned man. . Such should be the conduct of a learned man who is also But the snake-charmer.120 THE SACRED BOOKS of the Brothers of Purity. he should be disabused of this fallacy." and other works of the same kind. If the patient feels a certain dislike of the antidote it is taken from a snake whose body is because he knows that the receptacle of poison. any more than it changes falsehood into truth. perusal of these false teachings must be prevented just as one snake-charmer prevents children from touching serpents. we are led astray. we have to say regarding the inconve- . will not fail to imitate him and in order to lend more weight to his prohibition the charmer will not touch a serpent under the eyes of his son. because he knows that the child. If a beggar hesitates to take a piece of gold which he knows comes from the purse of a false coiner. ought not to refuse the good to those who need and ask for it. then. that the contact of the good coins with the bad does not injure In the same way the former and does not improve the latter. A himself will abstain from touching snakes in the presence of his young child. Thus much.

to penetrate their causes and conditions. is quite another thing from being well and satisTo define drunkenness." by Abu Talib of Mecca. and practising renouncement and detachment from the I saw that Sufism consists in experithings of this world. to know that it is caused by vafied. in order that in the purified heart there should only remain room for God and for the invocation of his holy name. It became clear to me that the last stage could not be reached by mere instruction. To define health and satiety. and that what I was lacking . Sufism When I had finished my examination of these doctrines I I saw that in order to thoroughly one must combine theory with pracThe aim which the Sufis set before them is as follows applied myself to the study of Sufism. ences rather than in definitions.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 121 niences and dangers which spring from the study of philosophy. man has no idea of the nature of drunkenness. comprehending its conditions and causes. In the same way there is a considerable difference between knowing renouncement. To it : from the tyrannical yoke of the passions. As it was more easy to learn their doctrine than to practise it. Or if the doctor fall ill. Abu Yezid Bustami. understand tise. and I learned all that was possible to learn of their methods by study and oral teaching. he has its character and laws. not being under the influence of drunkenness. knows a theoretical knowledge of the health of which he is deprived. and the fragments which still remain of Junaid. to deliver it from its wrong inclinations and evil instincts. pors which rise from the stomach and cloud the seat of intelliThe drunken gence. is quite a different thing to being drunk. ecstasy. while the doctor. I studied first of all those of their books which contain it : " The Nourishment of Hearts. I acquired a thorough knowledge of their researches. Shibli. the works of Hareth el Muhasibi. and the transformation of the moral being. and other free the soul leaders (whose souls may God sanctify). but only by transport. just because he is drunk and not in a condition to understand anything.

I found myself seriously to consider all sides by these trammels. I saw that one can only hope for salvation by devotion and the conquest of one's passions. Coming state. had given me a firm faith in three God. saw that the only condition of success was to sachonors and riches and to sever the ties and attachments Finally. If thou dost not think now of thy salvation. one day I decided to leave Bagdad and to give actions. circumstances. " Up Up Thy life dispersed ! ! nearing its end. in the evening a crowd of carnal thoughts assailed and my resolutions. and profitless as reI probed the motives of my teaching and gards my salvation. I perceived that I was on the edge of an abyss. it was only actuated by a vain desire of honor and reputation. and that without an immediate conversion I should be doomed to eternal fire. On the one side the world kept me bound to my post in the chains of covetousness. Examining my my bound down on most fair-seeming of which were my lecturing and professorial occupations. not merely by definite arguments.THE SACRED BOOKS 122 belonged to the domain. These things three fundamental articles of belief were confirmed in me. All thy pretended knowledge is naught but falsehood and fantasy. not of instruction. a procedure which presupposes renouncement and detachment from this world of falsehood in order to turn toward eternity and meditation on God. life. when wilt thou is . but of ecstasy and initiation. and thou hast a long journey to make. in place of being sincerely consecrated to God. and the Last Judgment. Still a prey to uncertainty. In the morning I was sincerely resolved only to occupy myself with the future . found that. and proofs which it is impossible to recount. I rifice of worldly life. I found to my surprise that I was engrossed in several studies of little value. I advanced one step and immediately relapsed. but by a chain of causes. The researches to which I had devoted myself. the up everything the next day I gave up my resolution. the path which I had traversed in studying religious and speculative branches of knowledge. In these reflections I spent a long time. Inspiration. on the other side the voice of religion cried to me.

easy to me out publicly that I intended to I gave make the pilgrimage to Mecca. 1096. for it will soon pass. conscious of my weakness and the prostration of my soul. in the interest of my pupils. when them ? " Then my resolve was strengthened. The mischief is in the heart. to go on with my teaching. The silence to which I was condemned cast me into a violent despair my stomach became weak I lost all appetite earthly passions months from the ." Thus I remained. I could neither swallow a morsel of bread nor drink a drop of water. said. while I secretly resolved to go to Syria. xxvii. . If you obey ing. Vainly I desired. . but my mouth became dumb. it.D. The Imams of Irak criticized me with my one accord.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 123 If thou dost not break thy chains to-day. 63) deigned to hear me. " You are suffering from a transitory feelthe attack. said. torn asunder by the opposite forces of and religious aspirations. this honorable post exempt from trouble and rivalry. had a Not one of them could admit that this sacrifice religious motive. there is no hope unless the cause of his grievous sadness be my physical doctors. I took refuge in God as a man at the end of himself and without resources. not wishing that the Caliph (may God magnify him) or my friends should know intention of settling in that country. " they cry " He who hears the wretched when He made (Koran. and family. the sacrifice of honors. At the close of them my will yielded and I gave myself up to destiny. for about six month Rajab of the year A. The enfeeblement of powers was such that the " me. returning to think of it ? wilt thou break . this seat of authority safe from attack. God caused an impediment to chain my tongue and prevented me from lecturing. you will regret it later on without being able to re- cover it. despairing of saving arrested." Finally. I wished to give up all and flee but the Tempter. don't give way to it. if you give up this fine position. wealth. and has communicated itself to the whole organism. I made all kinds of clever excuses for leaving Bagdad with the fixed intention of not returning thither. because they considered my position .

Finally. Medina. " hold how far their knowledge goes! liii. which I devoted to retirement. which I could give However irregular the intermy confidence in to devotional ecstasy. as lands and property in Irak can afford an endowment for pious purposes. 31). Those who were outside the limits of Irak attributed it to the Government inspired me. their displeasure at my resolution and my refusal of " It is their request. and every day secluded myself in the Sanctuary of the Kock. of Damascus. . to live it. I used to cises. man should provide sufficient to support his family. (Koran. but events. I went to the Hedjaz. the longings of to my heart and the prayers of my children brought me back my country. giving up all my fortune. there solitary and in religious meditation . if I did return. and was in the on the minaret after closing the days live a solitary life in the habit of spending my Mosque door behind me. family cares. and to receive a full effusion of grace by visiting Mecca. where I remained for two years. From thence I proceeded to Jerusalem. although I was so firmly resolved at first never At any rate I meant. I obtained a legal authorization to preserve as much last was necessary for as there is support and that of my children for more lawful in the world than that a my surely nothing . and vicissitudes of life changed my resolutions and to revisit troubled vals 2 my meditative calm. All kinds of explanations of my conduct were forthcoming. said to themselves. I then betook myself to Syria. Only. Those who were on the spot and saw how the authorities wished to detain me. meditation. In the Mosque of Omar. and the tomb of the Prophet. a calamity which one can only impute to a fate which has befallen the Faithful " and Learning fear with which the ! At I left Bagdad. and devout exerlearned I only thought of self-improvement and discipline and of purification of the heart by prayer in going through the forms of devotion which the Sufis had taught me. After visiting the shrine of the Friend of God (Abraham).THE SACRED BOOKS " Beas the highest attainable in the religious community. 2 After that I felt a desire to accomplish the pilgrimage.

to see in the waking state angels and souls of prophets . which one can not even indicate without The degree of proxfalling into great and inevitable errors. the heart of all that does not belong to God The drawing step in their cathartic method. revelations commence They come for them. and the last stage is the being lost in God. to tell the truth. but. the vestibule by which the initiated enter. the more steadfastly I returned to it it Ten years passed in this manner. as identification But all we have " The Chief Aim. it is only the first stage in the life of contemplation. the of the most of the law would in learned doctors knowledge vain combine their efforts in order to modify or improve their intelligence of thinkers. these explained in our work enThose who have reached that . by others as as intimate union (wasi). In a word." stage should confine themselves to repeating the verse titled. repose the light which proceeds from the Central Radiance of InAnd what other light could shine on the face of spiration. By means of this contemplation of heavenly forms and images they rise by degrees to heights which human language can not reach. interior. imity to Deity which they attain is regarded by some as intermixture of being (fttOtad). by others (haloui). During my successive periods of meditation there were revealed to me things imAll that I shall say for the edification of possible to recount. expressions are wrong. that there is more praiseworthy than their rule of conduct. the it would be impossible. and exterior or are illumined with movemqnt. and the more I was diverted by hindrances.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 125 did not diminish. they hear their voices and wise counsels. The wisdom of philosophers. with reference to what may be reached by an effort of up " will . what can one criticize in them? the earth? doctrine and morals To purge is the first . nor God . I learned from a sure source that the the reader is this: Sufis are the true pioneers on the path of nothing more beautiful than their life. From the time that they set out on this path. of the heart by prayer is the key-stone of it. With the Sufis. nor purer than their morality. as the cry Allahu Alcbar" (God is great) is the key-stone of prayer. I say the last stage.

THE SACRED BOOKS 126 What I Call me In short. Iviii. " The Revival of the Religious Sciences. me no more. from proofs is called . this ignorant verse applies : among them who come to listen to thee. we can comprehend the possibility of this state (revelation by means of ecstasy) by a chain of manifest We have explained this in the treatise entitled proofs. Such is the faith which one can obtain by remaining among them. he retired to Mount Hira to give himself up to such intensity of " Mohammed is prayer and meditation that the Arabs said : become enamored of God." The certitude derived to is " " knowledge . knows only the name of inspiration. hear discourses on it with incredulous irony. but ask be who does not arrive at the intuition of these truths by means of ecstasy. ask of those who have received knowledge." which forms part of our work. happy." Such are the three " The Lord will raise degrees of knowledge. before receiving his commission. then. when." . Such was the state of the Apostle of God. merely the earliest forms of prophetic manifestation. ' These are they whose hearts God What has he just said ? has sealed up with blindness and who only follow their are those ' passions. passing into the state we " " describe is called transport believing the experience of others and oral transmission is " faith. in fact. by obedience and aton condition that he frequents the society of Sufis till tention. him who can be revealed to the initiated in ecstasy. and treat as charlatans those who pro" To crowd the There fess it. at an imitative initiation. he arrives. But behind those who believe comes a crowd of ignorant people who deny the reality of Sufism. The miracles wrought by the saints are. and when they leave thee. incapable of ecstasy. experience I shall not try to say. But even when we are deprived of the advantage of their society. 12). and intercourse with them is never painful. " Marvels of the Heart. as it is written. to different ranks those among you who have believed and those who have received knowledge from him " (Koran." This and state. so to speak.

possible. of Inspiration: Its Importance for the Human The substance of man at the Race moment of its creation is a sim- ple monad. the secrets of the future and other concepts as inaccessible to reason as the concepts of reason are inaccessible to mere discrimination and higher level by a . toward the age of seven. which do not occur in the sphere of . But beyond reason and at a new faculty of vision is bestowed upon him. ]SText comes the sense of sight. superior to those of the senses. and by the term " world " we under- The first sense restand the different species of creatures. which makes him acquainted with colors and forms. which he by perceives invisible things. sensation. " as the Koran says : Only thy Lord knoweth the number of his armies. The sense of hearing succeeds. all the notions which he could not combine in the former stages of his existence." Man arrives at this knowledge by the aid of his perceptions . that is to say.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Among 127 owe to the pracof the true nature of inknowledge This knowledge is of such great importance that the number of convictions which I tise of the Sufi rule is the spiration. with that which occupies the highest rank in the world of sensation. and then the senses of smell and taste. dry. by means of which he perceives a certain group of qualities heat. worlds whose infinite number is only known to him. he receives the faculty of discrimination he enters then upon a new phase of existence and can experience. The sense of touch does not perceive colors and forms. and impossible. each of his senses is given him that he may comprehend the world of created things. I proceed to expound The Reality it in detail. He then passes to another phase and receives reason. thanks to this faculty. by which he discerns things necessary. vealed to man is touch. in a word. impressions. devoid of knowledge of the worlds subject to the Creator. moist. cold. When the human being can elevate himself above the world of sense. which are for it as though they did not exist.

which intellectual concepts are perceived which are hidden from the senses. of denies discrimination and rejects only possessed the notions acquired by reason. mysteries out of the reach of rea- ticular phase of existence in son. knows neither by experience nor by information what colors and forms are. He who studies them is obliged to recognize that . similarly. and all the senses. hearing. however. for. of man while the the invisible fact. so do certain rationalists reIt is a proof of their ject and deny the notion of inspiration. in a state of lethargy resembling death and during the complete suspension of sight. To prove the possibility of inspiration is to prove that it be- longs to a category of branches of knowledge which can not be attained by reason. (3) to its manifestation in this or that person.THE SACRED BOOKS 128 Just as perceived by discrimination to the senses. If. instead of argument. if one : can perceive certain things when one is in full possession of these faculties. who existence. It is the same with medical science and astronomy. things perceives asleep world either clearly manifest or under the veil of allegory to be subsequently lifted by divination. God. (2) to its real and actual existence. and seek to prove the impossibility of " The these visions by some such argument as the following sensitive faculties are the causes of perception. neither knows nor understands them when some one speaks of them to him for the first time. what the is man profound ignorance. a man blind from birth. they merely deny inspiration as a sphere unknown and possessing no real In the same way. revealed by a celestial light. this person would exclaim. a man can see the things of the invisible world." The falsity of such an argument is shown by evidence and For in the same way as reason constitutes a parexperience. has given them a kind of glimpse of it in sleep. how much more is their perception impossible when these faculties are suspended. one was to say to a person who had never himself experienced these dreams that. Now. The doubts which are raised regarding inspiration re- late (1) to its possibility. inspiration is a special state in which the inner eye discovers. wishing to render intelligible to men the idea of inIn spiration.

to We now come We on this point except by ascertaining. it a kind of ecstasy proportioned to the condition of the person initiated. great As to the other characteristics of inspiration. the perception of things which are beyond the attainment of reason is only one of the features peculiar to inspiration. Some astronomical phenomena only occur once in a thousand years how then can we know them by experience ? .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 129 they are derived solely from the revelation and special grace of God. the facts relating to that prophet. . for conviction results from comprehension. VOL. The process of initiation into Sufism ex- There is in hibits this likeness to inspiration from the first. they are only revealed to adepts in Sufism and in a state of ecstatic transThe little that we know of the nature of inspiration we port. and a degree of certitude and conviction which can not be attained by reason. a drop of water in the ocean. Further. to deal with doubts relative to the inspirashall not arrive at certitude tion of a particular prophet. and we have mentioned it because people experience what is analogous to it in dreams and in the sciences of medicine and astronomy. without that we should be incapable of comprehending it. as it were. and reason can not attain to them. owe to the kind of likeness to it which we find in sleep. which possesses a number of others. This single fact is sufficient make us believe in inspiration. VI. 9. "He who the truth of sentences such as the following: prophets. we shall then know certainly that Mohammed is the greatest of After that we should fortify our conviction by the truth of his preaching and the salutary effect verifying should verify in experience which it has upon the soul. We may say the same of inspiration. which is one of the branches of intuitional knowledge. We makes his conduct accord with his knowledge receives from God more knowledge " or this. and consequently of believing in it. When we have ascertained the real nature of inspiration and proceed to the serious study of the Koran and the traditions. These branches of knowledge belong to the domain of prophetic miracles. either by ocular evidence or by reliable tradition. " God delivers to the op. The characteristic which we have mentioned is only.

learning a fact from a group of people. not distinguishing between them. God will preserve him from all anxiety in this world pressor him wbo and the next. I pass now to the causes of the decay of faith and show the means of bringing back those who have erred and of preserv- To those ing them from the dangers which threaten them. xxxv. and who. The supernatural should be only one may him who of the constituents which go to form our belief. " them God we as a means of leading men misleads and directs as he shall find ourselves involved (Koran. . What I speak. or whether the moon has been split in two." When we have verified these sayings in experience thousands of times. we believe that eloquence of style is a proof of inspiration. we shall be liable to confound them with magic and falsehood. for instance.THE SACRED BOOKS 130 " " favors injustice . men to see only known to the transport which permits As to the truth and. Whosoever when rising in the morning has only one anxiety (to please God). 9) . If. if necessary. to handle it. Such is the path we must traverse in order to realize the truth of inspiration. or again. can not explain precisely how his conviction regarding the fact has been formed. We should rather resemble a person who. without their countless attendant circumstances. It is not a question of finding out whether a rod has been changed into a serpent. without our placing too much reliance on this or that detail. as it " to regard is written. I may return to the subject later. can not point to this or that particular man as his in- formant. we shall be in possession of a certitude on which doubt can obtain no hold. or astray. it is possible that an eloquent style composed with chooses in all this object of inspire us with a false belief in the inspiration wields it. the difficulties which the question of miracles raises. so to the Sufis. Such are the characteristics of scientific certitude. who doubt because they are tinctured with the doctrine of the A miracle ascribed to Mohammed. it is have just said regarding the true nature of inspiration is sufficient for the aim which I have proposed to myself. 3 If we regard miracles in isolation.

since in their view the Prophet is only a sage whom a superior destiny has appointed as guide to men. Suppose." affords Ta'limites. professing a lip-faith in the Prophet. and divination astronomy. my As to the vain theories of the Ibahat. so to speak. our in the hidden ing proofs properties of medicines and of the heavenly bodies. he recognizes at the same time that there are in that sphere things which reason can not grasp nay. " Alchemy of Happiness. If. adulterate religion with philosophy. wise men would not fail to repudiate the assertion that the world can be revealed while the senses secrets of the invisible are. our . and explained them in the work entitled. so far that they deny the reality of we have proved the truth and necessity of it. suspended. a sufficient guide . " Is it possible that there is in the world a thing as small as a grain. our opponent denies the existence of such a higher region. therefore it is unnecessary to return to the subject here.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 131 " treatise entitled. and this view To believe in the the true nature of inspiration. were to be said to one of them. physics. I have grouped them in seven classes." For those whose faith has been undermined by philosophy. on the contrary. seekinspiration. not only its possibility. which reason rejects as false and absurd. The Just Balance. All those branches of knowledge which our opponents boast of cine. for instance. is above intelligence a sphere in Prophet is to admit that there belies which are revealed to the inner vision truths beyond the grasp of intelligence. and the reason for our seeking for proofs in the sciences of medicine and of astronomy is because these sciences belong to the domain of philosophy. which being carried into a city can destroy it and afterward destroy Again. they really deny inspiration. just as things seen are not apprehended by the If sense of hearing. medius with arguments in provide favor of the Prophet. It is for them that we have written this treatise. he admits its existence. we can prove to him. but its actuality. nor things understood by that of touch. that the fact of dreams occurring in sleep were not so common and notorious as it is. if it . As to those who.

is the effect of fire. if. witless one. lying. stain from fruit ! to be solely to their weakness. and slander. one may say to a simple imputed (2) Or " The learned for the next man life. and ignorant man reckons upon his knowledge as a viaticum He believes that his knowledge will save : him and plead in his favor. But you. man ought not . not through ignorance. " The learned man whom you (1) One can answer thus: accuse of disobeying the divine law knows that he disobeys. you will perish without anything to plead if the learned in your favor. All that is possible .THE SACRED BOOKS 132 " nothing remains either of the city or of itself ? " it is Certainly. destitute as you are of knowledge." (3) Or one may answer. and does not remain in a state of impenitence. he can at any rate produce proofs of his knowledge. it may also entitle him to a higher degree of consideration. poor. Convinced of this truth. and even man has neglected practise. and that his intellectual suhim to indulgence. You know your sin and yield to it. other life As is to believe in the mysteries of the of the same kind. impossible and ridiculous. as you do when you drink wine or exact usury or allow yourself in evil-speaking. How many believe in doctors who do not aband cold water when strictly forbidden them That does not prove that those things are not by a doctor or that their faith in the doctor was not solidly dangerous. the refusal eyes. like him. and this reason is the true one: " The truly learned man only sins through carelessness. and the other world to be superior to this. however." he would exclaim. For real knowledge shows sin to be a deadly poison." again. lastly." Such. you neglect practise. to the fourth cause of the spread of unbelief the de- cay of faith owing to the bad example set by learned men there are three ways of checking it. but because you are masThe same is the case with the tered by concupiscence. which would certainly be disputed by one who had not witnessed it with his itself so that " own Xow. established. Similar errors on the part of learned men are learned man. that if his will entitle periority knowledge increases his responsibility.

. but these slips and stumbles will not weaken his faith. He may slip and it is true. that nothing may remain in them except himself. and that is why progress in mere worldly knowledge renders the sinner more hardened in his revolt against God. inspires in him who is initiate in it more fear and more reverence. which we speak is not derived from sources accessible to human diligence. I pray God the Omnipotent to place us in the ranks of his chosen. in whom he inspires fervor lest they forget him whom he cleanses from all defilement. . among the number of those whom he directs in the path of safety.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 133 But the knowledge of to exchange the precious for the vile. human tion. The true Moslem succumbs occasionally to tempta- stumble. yea. of those whom he indwells completely. on the contrary. but he repents and will not persevere obstinately in the path of error. END OP THE RESCUER FROM ERROR . as is inevitable with one encompassed by infirmity. and raises a barrier of defense between him and sin." True knowledge. that they may adore none beside him.

the one obscure. it who has reserved to himself alone the privilege of priority and eternity. .THE SACRED BOOKS 134 THE DISCOVERER OF TRUTH ZAMAKIISHARl's COMMENTARY ON THE KORAN PREFACE IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MEBCIFUL GOD. and which confirms and witnesses the truth of all the Holy Books which have of preceded it like a miracle which. he has shut the mouths of the most nobly born . and has distinguished the different parts by divisions and conclusions: qualifications which apply only to that which has been created. who has sent from heaven the Koran. who has divided the Koran into Suras. which is the key to open the treasures all faults. and end by recounting his power and protection who has included in . and a book which. and the Suras into verses. KIND AND PITTING Praise to God. all spiritual and temporal blessings. two kinds of revelations. like an inspiration which blazons forth its proof and is authentic title and free from . and could only be the attributes of things which have had a beginning and recognize an author of whom they are the work. alone among all books. guage and in every place. in the form of an address of which the words are coherent and arranged in order. the other perfectly clear. has existed during all the passage of the centuries. By this book. and who has given to everything save himself the characteristic of having been created: Praise to him Praise to him who has created the Koran. and who has sent it in continuous chapters according to the demands of necessity who has willed that it should begin by expressing the praise due to God. alone among all miracles. like a lecture written in the Arabic language. the demonstrations of which are clear. and produced without a model. the sense of which a light to guide the spirit. will be repeated in every lan.

released from its boundaries. they spond with a multitude of glorious deeds. If any one opposes their them. whose standard is raised amongst the de- . then the sword . it is simply because they know well that the sea. and the sun.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 135 Arabs. son of Abd-Almotalleb. would envelop and overflow any mere well made by human hands . No one of those who those who possess are distinguished for their eloquence has dared to compete with him in a single chapter equal to the shortest Sura included in the Koran. although God has employed drawn sword is no more than a trifling weapon. and will plunge themselves into every excess to obtain the object of their desires. son of Abd-Allah. in that they are challenged to produce something to be compared with it. Abu'l- May the favors of who Kasem Mohammed. blood of patriotism has not boiled in their veins. or even approaches it. no one has the enterprise to compose anything which equals it. Yet the orators of the land are more numerous than the pebbles of the Batha valley and more plenThe tiful than the grains of sand in the desert of Dahna. and ready to embrace with ardor and without moderation every opportunity for rivalry and hostility although when roused to fight for the defense of their . and zeal for the honor of their cause has not moved them to the undertaking. if the strength of authentic truth is not joined to the victorious point. he has rendered mute the most eloquent orators in that he has defied them to imitate it. reputation. first the written law. by the brightness of its fire. they are quick to face the gravest dangers. but they have not challenged him to combat nor attempted to cope with the sword. against them two kinds of weapons. Amongst the greatest command of the language in all its purity. on the friend of God. Certainly. son of Haschem. one in their of rea boasts any hearing glorious deed. although they are known to be naturally inclined to disputes and quarrels. if they have in no way the put up even a semblance of resistance to the truth which has been presented to them. eclipses the light of all the stars. fitted only for badinage. they oppose him title to in great glory or numbers if prevails against . God shine on the most worthy of those have received revelations.

there is little difference between the learned of different classes. secrets which can only be discovered and brought to light by those who among men of merit are like the pearl placed in the center of the necklace. it is only by a few steps and if one artist But where outstrips another. If one professor outdistances another. of the sort that there is among those who pursue the same career from incomprehensible distances. one sees a true difference among the classes. the beauties of certain delicate points . I mean those extraordinary subtleties from fers the largest strongest which it is difficult to extricate oneself. by wisdom. if that . number of problems capable of fatiguing the intellect. assisted . and can not even themselves that any one will trim the hair from l and give them freedom. ! . distances so great There are. in the profundities of science and the principles of the arts. there one finds real inferiors and superiors. can lift. and like the stone is set in the gold of the ring. where they make every effort to surpass each other. it is only by a short distance. there are subtle thoughts which arouse the wisdom of reflective spirits. even among those of the most distinguished talent. which are locked as in vaults. hidden secrets covered with veils which very few men. or nearly equal. Those who practise the various arts are equal. flatter their foreheads Of the sciences. which of- all culties. in the that one alone balances a thousand others. sciences as in the arts. profound. whose thread is cut and difficult to regain i This was the technical sign for freeing a slave. and are as though chained to their seats by a servile desire to imitate. and who shines with all the signs of nobility on the illustrious Prophet whose name has been inscribed in the Law and the scendants of Lowaiy and tection . on those successors to his authority who have with him the ties which are born of marriage It is well known that.THE SACRED BOOKS 136 who has been fortified by constant prowhose visage radiates glory. that which abounds in the most diffiwhich demands the greatest effort in spirit. Ordinary men have not which the eyes to create such excellences. where there is true emulation and rivalry. May Gospel! blessings fall also upon his sainted descend- ants.

and the most learned among those who professed I realized that it was obligadoctrines of justice and unity. and to science is which they devote their lives without hope of complete success. sider such a I realized that far from being able to raise themselves to worthy heights in the two sciences of thought and exposition. but they continually renewed their pleading and.mediation of the chief religious men. It is a science for been in as has said his work entitled. have been enthusiastic in expressing their satisfaction and admiration every time that. my employed the . I therefore resolved to write this book that it might be for them The Discoverer of Truth. but that which finally brought me to consent was that I saw our age to be in a state of decay. and the men of our time to be degenerating. I have explained their difficulty and disclosed to them the truth which was hidden from them. by Djahed " of the no savants are Koran. men the foremost rank among the disciples of the true who hold faith and law. to conquer . men exceptionally proficient in the knowledge of the language of the Arabs and in the fundamental dogmas of religion.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 187 the interpreting of the Koran. They expressed a keen desire for me to write a work treating on the subject in all its phases. and help them to understand the different explanations and opinions. they tory upon me to defer to their desires. so that I came to con- work as a personal duty and task . consulted by them for the interpretation of some passage of the Koran. which. At last they joined in begging me to dictate to them a commentary which should unveil all the mysteries of the Holy Book. they were not even capable of attaining to those weaker means which serve as instruments in the interpretation of the Koran. resistance. ." Composition fitted. I excused myself from doing as they desired. I have often noticed that my confreres in religion.

to will . more deadly than the poisoned winds of Yemen. and who spurs disciplines his spirit in the practise of submission. con- a firm foundation in this who is trite. eager in the pursuit of reward. Tyranny prevents prayers rising to heaven and prevents the Flee far blessings of heaven from falling upon the earth. Fear lest the birds of ruin fatten on the land. his horse into the arena of obedience. . and earthquakes or lightnings destroy its ining? That habitants. no one can maintain himself on you Verily. n Did I say you that our country is destined to mournbecome true when an unjust sovereign rules. difficult world. have to combat. even if you are one of the highest nobles of the land. Think of the power of the glorious King. more destructive than the unchained torrents. the faithful who sighs in fear of chastisement. the most illustrious because of your wealth and your children.THE SACRED BOOKS 138 GOLDEN" NECKLACES OB THE MAXIMS OF ZAMAKHSHASI When you go to the mosque. your heart with humility. more devastating than the plague. walk with reverence . and do not forget what is written confill Consider before what cerning the temptations of the devil. from the abode of this menace. Tyranny is heavier than the horse's hoofs. and when you pray. what deceitful enemy and all-powerful sovereign you kneel. except it be the man noble loyal principles and fortified by his profession of faith .to repentant.

. There is the same difference between will be truly noble.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 139 in Do not pride yourself on the nobility of your birth. for that belongs to your father. and still less can it provide for the days which follow. By this union you Do not feel elated over the nobility of not draw pride from that which is in can your you for the of yourself your ancestors is vain if you have glory not a personal glory. join to your hereditary virtues those which you have acquired recently. father. . the fame of your ancestors and your own fame that there is between your food of yesterday and of to-day for the feast that has passed can not calm the hunger of to-day. if .


the brilliancies of eloquence and its pearls. the beauties of scholarship guage and and its rarities." AL HARIRI. comprising the serious in lanthe lively." CLEMENT HUART. . the delicate and the dignified. "/ composed fifty assemblies.ARABIC LITERATURE THE "ASSEMBLIES" OF AL HARIRI " The delicate richness of the style web of the is even more wonderful than the stories.


THE "ASSEMBLIES" OF AL HAEIEI (INTRODUCTION) work of Al Hariri may well stand as our best exof typical Arab prose. before he submitted each tale to the judgment of his keenly critical listeners. same old beggar. the brain of the Frank. for. a few thoughtful Mohammedans. To our own more sober literary sense the clever twists of phrase and sound in which these people took such pride. There was an Arab proverb that God had given genius. Popular interest went but little further. work because each The form is highly ar- to his while the author represents himself as accidentally stumbling upon each assembly." No mere translation can convey its intricacies of sound and sense. The 143 trick played by Abu Zayd . more apt to confuse than to reveal its deeper meaning. But when THE ample . and any one who failed to shout this with the rest of the world. might travel. as we have seen. and seek new light. and they find it to perfection in Al Hariri's " Assemblies. or true creative ability. they admire. And Al Hariri himself labored long on each brief " Assembly. was to be killed. and meditate profoundly but the great mass of the people were merely blindly fanatic. and the tongue of the Arab." polishing and repolishing. to three things. Abu Zayd. you turned to the art of stringing words together. the hand of the Chinaman. The name " Assemblies " he gave tale pictures an assembly of people. Yet what the Arabs admire. Only such an artistic word-juggler as Al Hariri himself could convey the impression of the original. every true Arab was immediately attentive. Mohammed was the prophet of God. With regard to religious writing. seem but the outer garment of thought. yet each proves ultimately to consist of a gathering of people listening with admiration to the brilliant words and clever rascalities of the tificial.

He quite definitely thinks of himself as a " " a worthy teacher. His all. In short we touch here upon the " of " the Arabs.144 THE SACRED BOOKSV usually slight. though in the later tales of this character we find less of verse and more of story. the eleventh and twelfth being particularly noted for their excellence. and studies to make each Assembly " " number fifty in Assemblies guide to righteousness. many more were to follow. the collection of short popular literature " " Arabian Nights stories which were to blossom into the this sort of tale. . Of course Al Hariri was by no means alone in composing " Similar " Assemblies had preceded his . in short less of the Arab and more of the increasing Persian influence. the chief interest from the Arab view-point depending on the beggar's witty words and especially upon is his supposedly extemporaneous verse. after which the collection seems slightly to decline. but the earlier ones are generally accepted as the best. Neither should the reader pass unnoticed the moral side of Hariri's work.

the incomparable. nor need to flee from . the informer. nor stand in the place of repentance . and a heart turning with and a tongue adorned with truth. and turn us from unseemliness in jesting that we may be secure from slanders of the tongue . strengthened with demonstration. as we ask pardon if our And we ask of thee steps advance to the domain of errors. succor which shall lead us aright. hastiness to excuse. as we seek to be kept from exposure to the defaming of the slanderer and the betrayal of . and what enunciation thou hast inspired as we praise thee for what bounty thou hast enlarged. that we may be free from the ill of tinseled speech that we walk not in the road of sin. and perception by which we may estimate duly: And that thou wilt help us by thy guidance to conceive. we praise thee for what perspicuity thou hast taught. MOST MERCIFUL Thus saith the excellent. . O God. as we take refuge with thee from the vice of inarticulateness and And by thee we seek to be kept from the shame of hesitation. that thou wilt guard us from error in narration. that we be not pursued by suit or censure. and enable us by thy assistance to express.THE " ASSEMBLIES " OF AL HARIRI PREFACE IN THE al NAME OF GOD THE MERCIFUL. and resolution that shall conquer caprice. fulfil to 145 us this wish . temptation through the flattery of the praiser and the connivance of the favor. what mercy thou hast diffused: And we take refuge with thee from the vehemence of fluency and the immoderation of talkativeness. Abu Mohammed Kasim ibn 'All ibn Mohammed ibn 'Othman Al Hariri of Basrah (God cool his resting-place). and accuracy that shall keep us from mistake. VOL. give us to . And we ask pardon of thee if our desires carry us into the region of ambiguities. vi. and a speech justice. O God. 10.

and hast said (and thou art the most truthful of " It is the word of a noble envoy. Then I reminded him of what is said concerning him who joins even two words. faithful. and one meet to answer prayer. ing Book. suggestion I should that Assemblies. and his companions who built up the faith and make us followers of his guidance and theirs. a morsel for the devourer.THE SACRED BOOKS 146 attain to this desire: put us not forth of thy large shadow. there ran a mention of the Assemblies which had been invented by Badi'az Zeman. that the voluble man . For now we stretch make us not forth to thee the hand of entreaty. whose lights are nigh gone out. the whose intercession shall be received at the congrewhom thou hast set the seal gation of judgment. and profit us all by the loving of him and them for thou art Almighty. having authority. in which he had referred the composition to Abu'l Fath of Alexandria and the relation of 'Isa. of him who is sayers) : mighty in the presence of the Lord of the throne. lord of men. and the depth of the intelligence is probed. the method of Badi' (although the lame steed attains not to outrun like the stout one). : and horsemen together considering. obeyed. not to be recognized. Then suggested to me one whose vague. son of Hisham. : too. and whose degree thou hast exalted to the highest heaven whom thou hast described in thy clear-speak. Also approaching thee through the merits of intercessor Mohammed. And now: In a meeting devoted to that learning whose breeze has stilled in this age. obedience to whom is as a as a and is decree. or strings in together one or two verses: and deprecated this position misses the and is which the understanding bewildered. miliation to thee and abasement we are thorough in hu- And we call down thy abundant grace and thy bounty that is over all. yea. or as he who musters footmen . fancy aim." O God. with humbleness of seeking and with the venture of hope. And both these are persons obscure. following in them compose prize. the sage of Hamadan (God show him mercy) . and a man's real value is made manifest: and in which one is forced to be as a wood-gatherer by night. send thy blessing on him and his house who guide aright. not known. By to the prophets.

like the beast . and that he who essays after him to the of composition of an Assembly. and grammatical riddles. nor had afterward to repent. what is delicate in expression and dignified . even though he be gifted with the eloquence of Kodameh. and to increase the Hammam. and dimmed intelligence. and composed. And whenever I change the pasture I have no purpose but to inspirit the reader. I had mourned my love for Su'da. comprising what is serious in language and lively. and displayed in according with him all my endeavor. in a couplet. And of the poetry of others I have introduced nothing but two single verses. in spite of what I suffered from frozen genius. 147 But when he con- sented not to forbearance. a worker of wonders . and beauties of scholarship and its rarities: besides what I have adorned them with of verses of the Koran and goodly metonymies. in respect of the playful style that I display. and failing judgment. while I have attributed the relating of them to Al Harith. and the source that I repair to.LITERATURE OF THE EAST is seldom secure or pardoned if he trips.d afflicting cares. I assented to his invitation with the assenting of the obedient. which I have inserted at number of the conclusion of the Assembly of Kerej. the author its sweet and its bitter. and tear-moving exhortations. on which I have based the fabric of the Assembly of Hoiwan . and freed me not from his demand. and its mourning excited mine. does but scoop up of his over- and flow. as for the own is mind the of father its rest. and decisions dependent on the meaning of words. and two others. it The superiority is to the one that is first. an. those who shall seek my book. the brilliancies of eloquence and its pearls. travels that path only cellently said one by his guidance. and scholarly elegancies." Now I hope I shall not be. and studded them with of Arab proverbs. fifty Assemblies. and I If before it I have healed But " said. son of I have indited as of Basra. then should my soul. And. my virginity. mourned before me. and ornate orations. And ex- : mourned. and original addresses. and amusing jests all of which : by the tongue of Abu Zayd of Seruj. Yet I acknowledge withal that Badi' (God show him mercy) is a mighty passer of goals.

and in these lies the effectiveness of religious obligations. not for and whose purpose in them is the education and not Nay. will rank these will give out that it is among Assemblies in the order of useful writings. . Moreover. and no sanctuary but he. or the spiteful man who feigns ignorance. But yet. or he who cut off so as to be joined to those who of all losers in their works. whoever scans matters with the eye of intelligence. On him I rely. and to be kept from that which makes defective. is he not in the position of one who " " to doctrine. or who held as sinful those who related them at ordinary times. And of God I seek to be helped in what I purpose. since deeds depend on intentions. and then be quit of it. the fablings? assents Yet am I content if I may me without any debt against carry my caprice. and to be led to For there is no refuge but to him. and makes good his insight into principles. and guides to the right path ? display. whose course on earth that scratched up his nose with his are " most death with its own hand. that which leads aright and no seeking of succor but in him. Now none was ever heard of whose hearing shrank from such tales. what fault is there in one who composes stories for instruction. will detract from me on account of this composition. and class them with the fables that relate to brutes and lifeless objects. and to him I have recourse. and no prospering but from him. while they count that they have done fair deeds." Since I know that although he who is intelligent and me.THE SACRED BOOKS 148 its hoof. and he who is friendly and partial defend me. is who and the things forbidden of the law. or to me. has been in vain. I can hardly escape from the simpleton who liberal will connive at may ignorant.

while seeking relief. and to roam in its depths as roams the thirsting bird. And now the medley of the crowds had surrounded him. So I crept toward him. the shocks of the time cast me to San'a of Yemen. as the halo surrounds the moon. aspect might dispel my pain. And I entered it with wallets empty. He begins to rebuke him. extemporizes some lines. bred. which is gathered about a preacher. hump misery my fellows. but the preacher. and gather up of his gems. encounters a crowd. wherever ran some generous man my before whose anecdote might relieve my thirsting. as he coursed along in his career. son of Hammam. And I heard him say. in great poverty. in which was a throng and a wailing. learn who the preacher is. or whose one well need. Harith asks the attendant the name of the preacher. and an exhortation to repentance. tion made utterance : In this Assembly Al Harith arrives in the town of San'a in Yemen. Then I entered the thicket of the crowd to exAnd I saw in the middle plore what was drawing forth tears. and there finds him enjoying himself with good food. and the overture of courtesy guided me. and even with wine. and. The discourse is a stern warning against Harith. to a wide place of concourse. . glances. wishing to self-indulgence. manifest in my need I had not a meal I found not in my sack a mouthful. and he had the voice of lamentation. I sought whom I might fray the tissue of whom I might be open concerning my to my countenance. throwing off disguise. follows him to a cave. or the shell the fruit. and the throat of his improvisaof . and is told that he is Abu Zayd. confessing that his preaching was only a device to obtain charity. goings at morn or even. and striking hearings with the reproofs of his admonition. of the ring a person slender of make upon him was the equipment of pilgrimage. related When I mounted the of from and removed me exile. of Seruj. And wherever ranged my : . And he was studding cadences with the jewels of his wording. i . that I might catch of his profitable sayings. Then began I to traverse its ways like one crazed.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 149 THE FIRST ASSEMBLY (CALLED " OF SAN'A ") * Al Harith. Until the close my circuit brought me.

thou lettest the love of the raiment thou covetest overcome the recompense thou mightest earn. The rubies of gifts cling to thy heart more than the seasons of thee? How is it . but thou hast set thyself to slumber and admonition hath drawn thee. . . and hastened the treatment of thy disease. and truth hath been established to thee. which thou mayest hoard before piety which thou mayest keep in mind thou choosest a castle thou mayest rear rather than bounty thou mayest confer. and restrained thyself thy chief enemy? Is not death thy doom? What then is thy preparation ? Is not gray hair thy warning ? What then is thy excuse ? And in the grave's niche thy sleeping-place ? What dost thou say ? And to God thy going ? and who shall be thy defender? Oft hath the time awakened thee. but thou hast strained against it. : . but thou hast sought to forget and it hath been in thy power to impart of Thou preferrest money good. and death hath bid thee remember. of thy secret. and blunted the edge of thine iniquity. trailing the garment of vanO thou headstrong in follies. and not abstain from thy wantonness ? Thou provokest by thy rebellion the Master of thy forelock. to the pelf thou mayest gain as a gift . but thou hast disputed it. Thinkest thou that thy state will profit thee when thy departure draweth near? or that thy wealth will deliver thee when thy deeds destroy thee? or that thy repentance will suffice for thee when thy foot slippeth ? or that thy kindred will lean to thee in the day that thy judgment-place gathereth thou hast not walked in the high-road of guidance. Thou inclinest from the guide from whom thou mightest get guidance. and eat tales ! sweetly of the pasture of thy wrong ? How far wilt thou be extreme in thy pride. in the foulness of thy behaving thou goest boldly against the Knower Thou from thy neighWatcher thou concealest but no hidden thing is hidden from thy Ruler. but thou hast made thyself blind. turning aside to idle ity! How long wilt thou persevere in thine error. but thou art in the sight of thy from thy slave. hidest thyself bor. but thou hast not imparted. and warnings have been manifest to thee.THE SACRED BOOKS 150 O thou reckless in petulance.

prayer ; and the heightening of dowries



preferred with thee

to continuance in almsgivings.
The dishes of many meats
are more desired to thee than the leaves of doctrines: the

jesting of comrades is more cheerful to thee than the readThou commandest to righteousness, but
ing of the Koran.
violatest its sanctuary:

thou forbiddest from deceit, but re-

frainest not thyself: thou turnest men from oppression,
then thou drawest near to it ; thou fearest mankind, but

more worthy that thou shouldest fear him.


Then he






to him who seeks the world, and turns to it his careering:
recovers not from his greediness for it, and the excess of his




he were wise, but a drop of what he seeks would content him.

Then he

laid his dust, and let his spittle subside and put
on his arm, and his staff under his armpit. And
when the company gazed on his uprising, and saw that he

his bottle

equipped himself to move away from the midst, each of them
put his hand into his bosom, and filled for him a bucket from
his stream and said,
Use this for thy spending, or divide
it among thy friends."
And he received it with half-closed
eyes, and turned away from them, giving thanks and began
to take leave of whoever would escort him, that his road
might be hidden from them; and to dismiss whoever would
follow him, that his dwelling might be unknown.
Said Al
Harith, son of Hammam: Now I went after him, concealing from him my person; and followed on his track from
where he could not see me until he came to a cave, and slipped
into it suddenly.
So I waited for him till he put off his
sandals and washed his feet, and then I ran in upon him;
and found him sitting opposite an attendant, at some white
bread and a roast kid, and over against them was a jar of





Sirrah, was that thy story,
and is this thy reality ?
But he puffed the puff of heat and
went near to burst with rage and ceased not to stare at me
But when his fire was
till I thought he would leap upon me.


I said to him,



I don the black robe to seek my meal, and I fix my hook in the
hardest prey:
And of my preaching I make a noose, and steal with it against the
chaser and the chased.
Fortune has forced me to make way even to the lion of the thicket
by the subtlety of my beguiling.
Yet do I not fear its change, nor does my loin quiver at it:
Nor does a covetous mind lead me to water at any well that will
soil my honor.
Now if Fortune were just in its decree it would not empower the
worthless with authority.

Then he



said to me,
Come and eat ; or, if thou wilt, rise
But turned to his attendant, and said, " I con-

jure thee, by

me who

him through whom harm

is this."







deprecated, that thou
Abu Zayd, of Seruj,

the light of foreigners, the crown of the learned."
Then I
turned back to whence I came, and was extreme in wonder at

what I saw.





Al Harith, son of Hammam, related Ever since my amuwere doffed and my turbans were donned, I was eager
to visit learning's seat and to jade to it the camels of seeking, that through it I might cleave to what would be my


In this Assembly the author displays more than his usual rhetorsubtlety, and while there is none more admired by those whose
taste has been formed on Eastern models, there is none which appears


more extravagant

to the European student. Alliterations, verbal caexpressions, and the conceits which were usual
among poets of the age, so abound, that we may almost imagine the
author to be desirous of satirizing what he professes to imitate. The
Harith in his passion for the society of literary
subject is as follows:
persons makes his way to Holwan, a town in Irak, on the mountains
east of Bagdad, and a resort of the higher classes from the heat of
the capital. Here he meets with Abu Zayd, who is pursuing his callprices,


ing of improvisatore and mendicant under various disguises, and enjoys
for a long time his company and literary guidance. Abu Zayd, however, disappears, and Harith returns to his native place, Basra, where
after a time he again meets Abu Zayd in the public library, among a
crowd of dilettanti who are discussing the beauties of the popular
The admiration of one is especially excited by a line in which



my rain-cloud in thirst. And through
longing to kindle at it, and my desire to
robe myself in its raiment, I discussed with every one, great
and small, and sought my draught hoth of the rain-flood and

ornament among men,
the excess of


the dew, and solaced myself with hope and desire.
when I descended at Holwan, and had already tried the
brethren, and tested their values, and proved what was worthor fine, I found there Abu Zayd of Seruj, shifting among
the varieties of pedigree, beating about in various courses of
gain-getting; for at one time he claimed to be of the race of

Sasan, and at another he made himself kin to the princes of
Ghassan; and now he sallied forth in the vesture of poets;
and anon he put on the pride of nobles. And yet with all


this diversifying of his condition,

this display of con-

adorned with grace and information, and
courtesy and knowledge, and astonishing eloquence, and obedient improvisation, and excelling accomplishments, and a
foot that mounts the hills of the sciences.
Now, through his
goodly attainments he is associated with in spite of his
faults and through the largeness of his information there is
a fondness for the sight of him; and through the blandishtradiction, he is


his fair-speaking men are loath to oppose him and
through the sweetness of his address he is helped to his desire.
Then I clung to his skirts for the sake of his peculiar accomplishments, and valued highly his affection by reason of his

ment of


precious qualities.

With him I wiped away my cares, and beheld my fortune displayed
to me, open of face, gleaming with light.
I looked upon his nearness to me as kinship, his abiding as wealth,
his aspect as a full draught, his life as rain.

Thus we remained a long season he produced for me daily
some pleasantness, and drove some doubt from my heart,

the teeth of a lady are compared to pearls and hailstones, and the
white petals of a flower; and Abu Zayd instantly produces a number
of comparisons in the same style, which give him a high place in the
esteem of those present, when they are assured that he is really the
author of them. They reward him, and the Assembly concludes by his
reciting to Harith, wiio had recognized him, some lines on the fickleness of fortune.



hand of want mixed for him the cup of parting,
and the lack of a meal urged him to abandon Irak and the
failures of supply cast him into desert regions, and the waving of the banner of distress ranged him in the line of travelers ; and he sharpened for departure the edge of determination, and journeyed away, drawing my heart with his leaduntil the


ing cord.
After he was gone none pleased me who kept by me, none filled me
with affection by urging me to intimacy.
Since he strayed away none has appeared to me his like in excellence;
no friend has gotten the equal of his qualities.

So he was hidden from
I found none to




a season

him but when



knew not

his lair


I had returned from

wandering to the place where my branch had sprouted,
I was once present in the town library, which is the councilhall of scholars, the meeting-place of residents and strangers :
Then there entered one with a thick beard and a squalid


and he saluted those who sat, and took seat in the last
rows of the people. Then began he to produce what was

in his wallet,


of his judgment.

to astonish those present by the sagacity
And he said to the man who was next

What is the book into which thou lookest ? " He
" The
poems of Abu 'Obadeh ; him of whose excellence
men bear witness." He said, " In what thou hast seen hast
thou hit on any fine thing which thou admirest ? " He said,
" Yes the



As though she smiled from strung

pearls or hailstones, or camomile-




original in the use of similitude which it contains."
Here is a wonder here is a lack of taste,
said to him,
it is


Sir, thou hast taken for fat what is only swollen; thou
blown on that which is no fuel:

parison with the rare verse which unites the similitudes of
the teeth?

My life a ransom for those teeth whose beauty charms, and which a
purity adorns sufficing thee for all other.
She parts her lips from fresh pearls, and from hail-stones, and from
camomile-flowers, and from the palm-shoot, and from bubbles.



Then each one approved the couplet and admired it, and
bade him repeat it and dictate it. And he was asked,
Whose is this verse, and is its author living or dead ? "
He said, " By Allah, right is most worthy to be followed,
and truth is most fitting to be listened to: Know, friends,
that it is his who talks with you to-day."
Said Al Harith
Now it was as though the company doubted of his fathering,
and were unwilling to give credit to his claim. And he
perceived what had fallen into their thoughts, and was aware
of their inward unbelief; and was afraid that blame might
chance to him, or ill-fame reach him so he quoted from the
Some suspicions are a sin." Then he said, " O


ye reciters of verse, physicians of sickly phrase
the purity of the gem is shown by the testing, and the hand of

truth rends the cloak of doubt.



was said aforetime


honored or contemned. So come
now expose my hidden store to the proving, I offer my sadThen hastened one who was there
dle-bag for comparison."
and said " I know a verse such that there is no weaving on
its beam, such that no genius can supply one after its image.
Now, if thou wish to draw our hearts to thee, compose after

trial is a




this style:



eye, or less, before


She rained pearls from the daffodil, and watered the
upon the 'unnab with hail-stone.



was but the glance of an

recited rarely



when she met me to put off her crimson veil, and to
hearing with the sweetest of tidings:
And she removed the ruddy light which covered the brightness of
her moon, and she dropped pearls from a perfumed ring.
I asked her



present were astonished at his readiness, and
acknowledged his honesty. And when he perceived that



they approved his diction, and were hastening into the path
of honoring him, he looked down the twinkling of an eye;
" and
" Here are two other verses for
then he







She came on the day when departure afflicted, in black robes, biting
her fingers like one regretful, confounded:
And night lowered on her morn, and a branch supported them both,
and she bit into crystal with pearls.

Then did




high his value, and deem that
one ; and they made pleasant

his steady rain was a plenteous
their converse with him, and

Said the

teller of this story:

gave him goodly clothing.
I saw the blazing

Now when

of his firebrand, and the gleam of his unveiled brightness,
I fixed a long look to guess at him, and made my eye to

And lo! he was our Shaykh
stray over his countenance.
of Seruj ; but now his dark night was moon-lit.
Then I
congratulated myself
coming thither,
kiss his



and said

to him,



has changed thy

appearance, so that I could not recognize thee? what has
made thy beard gray, so that I knew not thy countenance ? "


he indited and said
stroke of calamities


makes us hoary, and fortune to men



If it yields to-day to any,

Trust not the gleam of

But be patient

if it



overcomes him.
a deceitful gleam.

its lightning, for it is

hounds calamities against


and drives them


For there
in the


no disgrace on the pure gold when

it is

turned about


Then he

rose and departed from his place, and carried
with him.




Al Harith, son of Hammam, related I was set with some
comrades in a company wherein he that made appeal was
never bootless, and the rubbing of the fire-shafts never failed,
and the flame of contention never blazed. And while we

8 Harith is in a circle of
scholars, when a lame man makes his appearance, and after saluting them describes his former affluence and
present penury in a very poetical and figurative style. Harith, perceiving his genius, and pitying his distress, offers him a denar on con-

were catching from each other the cues of




betaking ourselves to novelties of anecdote, behold there
stood by us one on whom was a worn garment, and in whose

walk was a limp. And he said, O ye best of treasures, joys
of your kindred Health to you this morning may ye enjoy
your morning draught. Look on one who was erewhile
master of guest-room and largess, wealth and bounty, land
and villages, dishes and feasting. But the frowning of
calamities ceased not from him, and the warrings of sorrows,
and the fire-flakes of the malice of the envious, and the
succession of dark befallings, until the court was empty,
and the yard was bare, and the fountain sank, and the dwelling was desolate, and the hall was void, and the chamber




fortune shifted so that the household

wailed; and the stalls were vacant, so that the rival had
compassion; and the cattle and the goods they perished, so
that the envious and malignant pitied.
And to such a pass
did we come, through assailing fortune and prostrating
need, that we were shod with soreness, and fed on choking,
and filled our bellies with ache, and wrapped our entrails
upon hunger, and anointed our eyes with watching, and made
pits our home, and deemed thorns a smooth bed, and came
to forget our saddles, and thought destroying death to be
And now is there
sweet, and the ordained day to be tardy.
any one generous to heal, bountiful to bestow ? For by him
who made me to spring from Kaylah, surely I am now a
brother of penury, I have not a night's victual.
Said Al Harith, son of Hammam: Now I pitied his dis-

and inclined to the eliciting of his rhymes. So I
drew forth for him a denar, and said to him, to prove him,
" If
thou praise it in verse it is thine, full surely." And he
betook himself to recite on the spot, borrowing nothing


dition that he will improvise some lines in praise of it. This the lame
man at once does, and on Harith offering him another denar on condition of his blaming it, he recites another composition in dispraise of
money. Harith then recognizes in the lame man Abu Zayd, and rebukes
him for his imposture. Abu Zayd defends himself in some new verses.

The opening address of Abu Zayd is in imitation
common among the Arabs of the desert.

of a style said to be




noble is that yellow one, whose yellowness is pure,
traverses the regions, and whose journeying is afar.
Told abroad are its fame and repute:
Its lines are set as the secret sign of wealth;
Its march is coupled with the success of endeavors;
Its bright look is loved by mankind;
As though its ore had been molten of their hearts.
By its aid whoever has gotten it in his purse assails boldly,
Though kindred be perished, or tardy to help.
Oh charming are its purity and brightness;
Charming are its sufficiency and help.
How many a ruler is there whose rule has been perfected by it!
How many a sumptuous one is there whose grief, but for it, would be
How many a host of cares has one charge of it put to flight!
How many a full moon has a sum of it brought down!



How many

a one burning with rage, whose coal is flaming,
been secretly whispered to, and then his anger has softened.
How many a prisoner, whom his kin had yielded,
Has it delivered, so that his gladness has been unmingled,
Now by the Truth of the Lord whose creation brought it forth,
Were it not for his fear, I should say its power is supreme.



Then he stretched forth his hand after his recitation, and
" The honorable man
performs what he promises, and
So I threw him
the rain-cloud pours if it has thundered."
the denar, and said,
Take it no grudging goes with it."
And he put it in his mouth and said, " God bless it." Then


he girt up his skirts for departure, after that he had paid
But there arose in me, through his pleasantry,
a giddiness of desire which made me ready to incur inSo I bared another denar, and said, " Does it
And he resuit thee to blame this, and then gather it ?
his thanks.


impromptu, and sang with speed:

Ruin on it for a deceiver and insincere,
The yellow one with two faces like a hypocrite!
It shows forth with two qualities to the eye of him that looks on
The adornment of the loved one, the color of the lover.
Affection for


think they

who judge



Tempts men to commit that which shall anger their Maker.
But for it no thief's right hand were cut off;
Nor would tyranny be displayed by the impious;
Nor would the niggard shrink from the night- farer;
Nor would the delayed claimant mourn the delay of him that withholds;

Nor would men

call to

God from the envious who

casts at them.

and turned away blessing his morning's Said Al Harwalk. Save by fleeing from thee like a runaway slave. and I go as one who ranges freely. Says to it in the words of the truth-speaking. Agreement binds strongest. recognized " If by thy eloquence. but he recited as he moved which had away: I have feigned to be lame. And who. thou be the son of Hammam." He said. the tempest and the breeze. when it whispers to him with the whispering of a lover. and the honorable. How abundant is " " thy shower ! He said." shone forth." So I tossed him the " Consecrate them both with the second denar and said. the worst quality that it possesses Is that it helps thee not in straits. Twice-read Chapter. related: I journeyed to Damietta in a year of much coming and going. and in those * Harith is journeying in a caravan to Damietta." He two ease distress and said. not from love of lameness. son of Hammam." THE FOURTH ASSEMBLY (CALLED "OF Al Harith. and during one of the night-halts he hears two men conversing on duty toward a neighbor. it be thou greeted with honor I said. the "veracious." He cast it into his mouth and joined with its twin." live long among but what is thy condition amid " all thy fortunes. The younger being asked for his opinion. For my cord is thrown on my neck. of son Hammam: Now heart ith. Now if men blame me I say. " I am Harith . " Thou art so I called him back and said to him. And how . my whispered me that he was Abu Zayd. conditions. and I veer with two winds. so straighten thy walk." I I change between " said. but that I may knock at the gate of relief. waned. " Excuse me : sure there is no guilt on the lame. hast thou pretended lameness thee plays not buffoon. ? the like of Then his cheerfulness.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 159 Moreover. and that his going lame was for a trick. " I have no mind for intimacy with thee begone ! Then " said I to him. Well done he who casts it away from a hill-top. replies in a spirit of . praising the assembly and its bounty.

Harith. promising to return speedily. when making ready his camel. Now it happened that we were urging our camels on a not one of us but had saddled a night youthful in prime. "What is the rule of thy conduct with thy people and neighbors ? " The other answered. and bear with a his talk-fellow in the partner though he disorder my affairs. and we journeyed until the night-season had put off its prime. which allude to a precept in the Koran in favor of separating after a meal. and a faint east breeze: and we chose it as a resting-place for the white camels. He invites them to his own quarters. introduces them to his Abu Zayd then aska friends. but we coursed on withal apace. but when we wearied of the march and inclined to drowsiness. so that they showed like the teeth of a comb in uniformity. raven-locked of complexion. . I heard a loud-voiced man say to camp. The plays on words in this Assembly are exceedingly ingenious and elaborate. permission to go to a neighboring village and take a bath. and the groan and the roar of the beasts were still. and like one soul in agreement of desires. we snatched the halt and lengthened not the staying. and procures for them valuable presents. I am duteous to my neighbor though he wrong me. upon which the other rebukes him. and discovers them to be Abu Zayd and his son. desired in friendship: I trained the bordered robes of wealth and looked upon the features of joy. After waiting the greater part -of the day they find that he has deceived them. we came upon a ground with dew-moistened hillocks. which captivates the literary Harith. They consent. who were suckled on the milk-flows of concord. finds some lines written on the saddle. especially that of the elder man. and the next morning he looks for them. and give my fellowship even to the violent. and love my friend charity and generosity. and he goes off with his son. These addresses. And I was traveling with companions who had broken the staff of dissension. are expressed in a highly rhetorical diction. and sets forth the fitting conduct of a man to his neighbor in accordance with the teachings of selfishness and worldly wisdom. and fleet she-camel.160 THE SACRED BOOKS days was I glanced after for toy affluence. and prepare to continue their journey. and the morning had wiped away the dye of the dark. and the opening description has much poetical beauty. an abode for the night-halt. and if we alighted at a station or went aside to a spring. Now when the caravan had descended there.

only he who is valuable should be prized. VI. Then said his companion to him. and whelm my companion with my kindness. .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 161 even though he drench me with a tepid draught and prefer my well-wisher above my brother. and confer my comforts on my associate and soften my speech to him that hates me and continue to ask after him that disregards me . nor be free of my love to my adversaries. adjudged that I should be soft and thou rough. I distinguish not the insolent by my regard. and match in deed as sandals. nor pour out my praise on him who empties my jar. As for me I give only to him who will requite. nor confer my friendship on him who will not stop my breach. nor lay aside my menace to the hostile. . and revenge not. nor treat as a brother one who would undo my tethering-rope . nor care for one who would cut my cords. 11. and put my talk-fellow in the place of my prince and hold my intimate to be as my chief . For who has I should be and that lavish thou shouldest hoard. that I should melt and thou freeze. nor aid one who would baulk my hopes. . nor show my regard to him who will exult at my death. nor favor with my gifts any but my friends. and fulfil to my comrade even though he requite me not with a tenth and think little of much if it be of my guest. nor will I be of pure affection to one who refuses me fairdealing. and am pleased with but the crumbs of my due. nor make my purpose sincere to him who wishes my decease nor be earnest in prayer for him who will not fill my wallet. VOL. by Allah. . only he who clings should be clung to. nor give my leading rope to one who breaks my covenant. nor be courteous to him who ignores my value. . and am content with but the least portion of my reward and complain not of wrong even when I am wronged. that each to each we may be safe . . that I should blaze and thou smolder? No. but let us balance in speech as coin. . nor be willing to impart to him who rejoices at my ills. nor plant my benefits on the land of my enemies . nor call to the curing of my sickness any but those who love me. and commit my gifts to my acquaintance. even though a viper sting me. Alas! my boy.

son of Hammam Now. why should I give thee full water and thou stint me? why should I bear with thee and thou contemn me? why should I gain for thee and thou wound me ? why should I advance to thee and thou repel me? For how should fair-dealing be attracted by injury? how can the sun And when did man of honor rise clear with cloud? love follow docilely after wrong? consents to a state of abasement? and what For ex- cellently said thy father: Whoso attaches his affection to me. and offered them a removal to my lodging. the authors of my recitation. according to the fulness of his meting or its defect. pitying their shabbiness. I repay him as one who builda on his foundation: And I mete to a friend as he metes to me. I longed to know them in And when the sun shone forth. when I had gathered what passed between them. Sunder. I went forth before the camels had risen. while he is false. and to examine the faces with a searching glance: until I caught sight of Abu Zayd and his son talking together. with the sundering of hate. of his money.THE SACRED BOOKS 162 from fraud and free from hatred. and robed the sky person. and began to : follow the direction of that night-voice. from one who would make thee and hold him as one entombed in his grave. Then I knew that they were my two talkers So I approached of the night. but I will not come off with the bargain of one who is weak in his reason. And knows not in his ignorance that I pay my creditor his debt after its kind. I seek not to defraud. with light. Said Al Harith. There may be some one insincere in love who fancies that I am true in my friendship for him. Whoever seeks fruit of me gets only the fruit of his own planting. I make him not a loser! for the worst of men is he whose to-day falls short of his yesterday. For else. and with an earliness beyond the earliness of the crow. them as one enamored of their refinement. I hold not truth binding on me toward a man who holds it not binding on himself. And toward him in whose intercourse there is aught doubtful put on the garb of one who shrinks from his intimacy. and upon them were two worn mantles. and . And hope not for affection from any who sees that thou art in want a fool.

and taken as friends." Then he coursed away. said to my therefore. and began to tell abroad their worth among the travelers. until the sunwas weak with age. as ! ! courses the good steed in the training-ground. If thou wilt . and have been delay. or seeking to escape. and spy the disposal of And when Abu Zayd saw that his the fires of hospitality. commanded themselves from his mischief. whence we could discern the build of the villages. and search for him by spies and scouts. appear again to thee. and found that Abu Now." Said Al Harith: Then I made the company read the words of the Koran that were on the pack-saddle. for him as men watch for the So we stayed and watched new moons of feasts. so that we have lost time. And they admired his witticism. when the term of waiting had been prolonged. and said to his " And we " Haste haste son. Then. until they were whelmed with Now we were in a night-camp. and my filth has caked : Wilt thou permit me to go to a village. and bathe. above all mankind! Reckon not that I have left thee through impatience or ingratitude: For since I was born I have been of those who "when they have Oh eaten separate. nor could we learn whose company he had gotten in our place. . prepare for the journey. so that he who had blamed him might excuse him. and was full. he said to me. imagined not that he was ! ! deceiving. and it is plain that the man was lying. to Zayd had written on the pack-saddle: thou. I made " We have gone to the extreme in companions. and fulfil this " " " I said. and turn not aside the greenness of dung-heaps. purse " my Truly body is dirty.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 163 my much and my little. and the wasted bank of the day light had nigh crumbled in." Then I rose to equip lade for the camel and my departure. who wast to me an arm and a helper. but Then we set forth. long in the setting forth. quicker than the glancing of thine eye. and the sun showed in faded garb. his distress removed. gifts. and to shake for them the fruited branches. but quick return urgent need ? " Thou shalt find me He said.

the company are moved by his misfortunes. . and that the story was only a trick to obtain money. He then departs. We said. Each was a man to remember from. whom he would be glad to take charge of. remarkable for the poetical beauty of ita language. and informs the company of his merits. related: I was conversing at Kufa. his excellent disposition. " ? Then the traveler answered : night . each was one whom his friend would incline to. And the night talk fascinated us until the moon had set. !Nbw when night's unmingled dark had spread its awning. in some exquisite verses. Harith discovers that the guest is Abu Zayd. and there was naught but nodding among us. leaving Harith mortified at the adventure. and at once raise a large sum of money to enable him to support his boy. and the delicacy of its versification. that he. son of Hammam.THE SACRED BOOKS 164 Al Harith. and he relates that he had that evening met with a long-lost son. . Harith is engaged with some friends in a night conversation at Kufa. and the watching overcame us. with companions who had been nourished on the milk of eloquence. and addresses the inmates in verses describing his want and weariness. Abu Zayd. The simple Harith. tells his friend. when a stranger knocks at the door. who might draw the train of oblivion over Sahban. desires to see so eloquent a youth. to assist him in cashing the checks or orders which he had received. we heard from the gate the faint sound of a wayfarer. rousing the dogs then followed the knock of one bid" Who is it that comes in the dark ding to open. The lamp being brought. but as soon as daylight appears he calls away Harith. did not his poverty hinder him. As he had taken care to mention in the narrative that he was of the royal race of Ghassan. had neither wife nor son. and not to guard against. that such a desire is the following of a mirage. Abu Zayd delights them with his conversation. who had been delighted with the verses which the father had put into the mouth of his son. They then ask him for a story. 5 The following Assembly. in a night whose complexion was of a two-fold hue. describes an adventure in which Abu Zayd obtains a sum of money from a company of generous scholars. and give him a supper. whose moon was as an amulet of silver. Struck with his poetical powers the company admit him. upon which Abu Zayd laughs heartily. one of the chief seats of Arabian learning. and not avoid. and hia gratitude for the favors he may receive.

I looked close at him. ingenuous. Till he has become bent and yellow Like the new moon of the horizon when it smiles. that ye will not. Ye have Said Al Harith. and forbids him his repasts. but the spoil is lightly won ! For if the moon of Sirius has gone down. unless ye pledge me that ye will not make me a burden. whether sweet or bitter. truly the moon of poetry has risen: Or if the full moon of the Lion has waned. And when the boy brought what had shot with the was to be had.' only suppers clearly which should be and hastened. One who will withdraw from you. publishing your bounty. Accordingly we him gratified by agreeing to the condition. bating by night. And the worst of guests eater. Joy you guest ! ! Nay. supper-time dims the Unless. by him bring what is ready who has set me down at your abode. avoided. those that meant that are are is seen.laden. and met him with welcome and said to the boy " Quick. Now. and so : bow of our conviction. by that proverb. for my sake. dust." Said Al Harith Now it was as though he had got sight of our desire. and lighted the candle in the midst of us. One pleased with all. and lo it was Abu Zayd. So I said to " who has come to of the my company. task For sometimes a morsel aches the yourselves with a meal. people else. and especially with a harm that affects the body and tends to sickness. in him a guest contented. and knew what was behind his lightning. and commended him for his easy temper. ' The best For. son of Ilanrmam. ! tongue over your food. And now he approaches your And repairs to you before all courtyard. that has been lengthened. the fire of hunsight. which is widely current. kindle and stand in the ger way of sleep. the full moon of elo- . quick " Then " said our guest. A brother of journeying. To seek from you food and a lodging. I will not roll my ! . we hastened to open the gate. begging boldly. is he who imposes trouble and annoys his host. be ye guarded from Meet not harm as long as ye 165 ill! live! Lo! the night which glooms has driven To your abode one disheveled. Now when we were caught by the sweetness of his utterance.LITERATURE OF THE EAST O people of the mansion. extended. by Allah.

And they refused the rest which they had purposed. and returned to the spreading out of pleasantry. And through bewilderment he is in restlessness. one crushed to the sand.THE SACRED BOOKS 166 quence shines forth. Worn with journeys. a to : Hail people of this dwelling. And already the van of the drooping darkness has gloomed. which is by-named the Father of Wonders. Then the driver hunger. when what was before him might be re" Present us with one of the rare moved. Aching in entrails. to seek a host or to gain a loaf. which enclose naught but hunger? For two days he has not tasted the savor of a meal: In your land there is no refuge for him. stories from thy night talkings. May ye live in the ease of a plenteous life! What have ye for a son of the road. till I stood at the door of a house. and Pate. For how should he entertain whom hinders from sleepfulness Hunger which peels his bones when it assails him? Now what thinkest thou of my tale? what thinkest thou? And founded . "Throw away thy staff and enter: " Rejoice in a cheerful welcome and a ready meal ? Then came Now forth to me a lad in a tunic. Who will say to me. improvising held to-night. with a scrip like the heart of the mother of Moses. sweet of spring. after they had But Abu Zayd kept intent upon plying his folded it. Truly the hurlings of exile have thrown me to this land: And I was in hunger and distress. no tellers have told. and spoke. in spite of all my footsoreness. as soon as the dark had settled. and sleep flew away from their eye-corners. or some wonder from among the wonders of thy journeys. stumbling in the night-dark night. " Of wonders I have met with such as no seers have seen. the House of Pilgrimage in the Mother of cities." He said. Now. But among the most wondrous was that which I belittle before my visit to you and my coming your gate. Now in this abode is there any one. urged me on. however. I said to him. I arose. and answered: by the sanctity of the Shaykh who ordained hospitality. He said. hands." Then ran through them the wineglow of joy." Then we bade him tell us of this new thing which he had seen in the field of his night-faring. We have naught for the night-farer when he visits us But conversation and a lodging in our hall.

gave Whereupon hausted the plenteousness of praise. " mother Barrah told me (and she is like her name. " name is Zayd. " Show me further. " No." " live and be raised when thou fallest He said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 167 I said. and birth-place Fayd : and I came to this city yesterday with mother's kindred of the Benu I said to him." He said." Then he bade bring the inkand its snake-like reeds. ye men of understanding." Said Abu " Now I knew Zayd. then to take charge of my son would be " If a nisab of would suffice We . youth." He we " said. And then he spread out such a bright mantle of talk as might shame the stuffs of Yemen. but when he was aware of her pregnancy (for he was a crafty bird. ." said. or made whether he has been laid in the lonely tomb. nor is it known whether he is alive and to be looked for. " What shall I do with an empty house. he thanks kindness. . " Record it among the wonders of chance bid it abide forever in the hearts of scrolls. and away he has stayed. and a host the ally of penury? But tell me. Then each of for it. So we spent a night of which the mixed hues should a nisab not content " despise such a sum ? us undertook a share of . by sure signs that he was my child but the emptiness of my hand turned me from making known to him. have ye heard aught more wondrous than this wonder ? " We said. for nothing like it has been told abroad in the world. And how a madman me? would any but Said the narrator. by him who has knowledge of the Book. * pious') My my my My ! that she married in the year of the foray on Mawan a man of the nobles of Seruj and Ghassan . what is thy name. it is said) he off from her by stealth. light. He said. so mayest thou 'Aba." He said. until we thought his speech long. so I parted from him with heart crushed and tears unsealed. thee. and we wrote the story eleflask. and wrote for him an order exfor the and it. or our merit little. money will collect it for thee at once. until the dawn appeared and the light-bearing morn went forth. " If my purse were heavy. for thy understanding has charmed me. And now. he it after which we sought to draw from as worded gantly him his wish about receiving his boy.

though they may be set down by Europeans as merely examples of laborious trifling. hand in hand. until its hind-locks grew gray in the dawn. nay. changed would be my state. to my make easy his success. I have no Barrah for a spouse. such as Al Komayt never wove. that we leaps the gazelle. or that it would be doubtful what I meant.THE SACRED BOOKS 168 had departed. " as Eise up." ! ! thou who didst fancy the mirage to be water when I quoted to thee what I quoted! 1 thought not that my guile would be hidden. THE SIXTH ASSEMBLY' " " OF 6 MERAGHAH. leaped up on and draw hold the take gifts payment of the checks : may for the clefts of my heart are widening through yearning So I went with him." OB THE DIVERSIFIED ") (CALLED Al Harith. and whose lucky stars were sovereign until its branch budded But when the limb of the sun peeped forth. Nothing is mine but divers kinds of magic." Then looked he at me on as looks the deceiver the deceived. my thee that I may behold thy noble child. and he recited: after child. pardon me. are highly esteemed by the Orientals aa works of . and he " Be thou rewarded for the said. So allow my excuse. I have no son from whom to take a by-name. son of Hammam. Court of Supervision at related : I was present in the the talk ran of Meraghah when This Assembly is the first of a remarkable series of compositions which. and laughed till his eyeballs gushed with tears. nor should I gain what I now gain. and said. steps of thy feet be God " " I wish to follow toward substitute thee I said. Then he took of the ghada in leave of my me and if I have done wrong or crime. By Allah. passed away. But as soon as he had secured the coin in his purse the marks of his joy flashed forth. and speak with him that he may answer eloquently. he into light. and set coals breast. These I use when I will to reach whatever my hand would pluck: And were I to abandon them. in which I am original and copy no one: They are such as Al Asma'i tells not of in what he has told.

was capable . the northwest province of the present Persian monarchy. third. even though he possess the fluency of Sahban Wa'il. and have found in every succeeding age numerous imitators. should have only pointed letters. that is. accepts the task with alacrity. or use himself freely in it as he willed and that since the men of old were gone. And that even one marvelous among the writers of this age. good and bad. When they paused in their fault-finding he took up the conversation. of the present age visit to of rivaling any who had gone before in scholarship and the arts of composition. and one of them proposes to him a most difficult task. and so forth. who showed by his glances and scornful gestures that he did not value highly the opinions of these critics. who. but as the stranger persists in asserting his great ability. sitting on the outskirts. had declared that he would help him no further. that there remained no one who could select his diction. there was none now left who could originate a brilliant method. He is asked who is this genius. and declared that one person. He tells the company that he is a professional writer attached to the Governor. they determine to test him. ingenuity and scholarship. and depreciating all contemporary authors in comparison with their predecessors. Now there was in the assembly an elderly man. the side-glance of his eye and the up-turning of his nose showed that he was one silent to spring. one crouching who would extend his stride that he was a twanger of the bow who shapes his arrows. and instantly dictates an address in praise of the Governor. should consist of letters without a point. Sitting in a humble place in the outskirts of the company was an elderly man. on hearing this. and scattered fruit. and the lords of genius. and the dis- siring the conflict.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 169 Then agreed all who were there of the knights eloquence. from their store. till he had composed an address in which the alternate words should consist entirely of pointed and unpointed letters. The company are skeptical. fourth. fulfilling the conditions that had been imposed. in the places of the attendants: and as often as the company overran in their career. though a man of generosity. He adds that he had been striving a whole year to produce such a composition. sixth. : or open a virgin style. one who sits in wait de: But when the quivers were empty. and answers that it is himself. fifth words. of the pen. at least. that the first. The incident is that Harith. quiet returned . while the second. The stranger. in Azerbijan. and holding in his grasp the cords of eloquence. and so forth. being once on a Meraghah. is but a dependent on the ancients. found a number of literary men lamenting the decline of learning. or to find some one who could produce it. and when the storms had fallen.

Said one of " him to that I Leave them. may pelt him with the stone of my story. binding. colt has how much new the surpassed ye sages of loosing and have given forth. embellishes. Ye have uttered a grievous thing. Then those said to Eyes " : him Who the President of the Court. and delightful metaphors. among whom ye were born. and when he is lengthy. the Eye of that strikes on this rock. finds golden thoughts. whose ranges are restricted. baffles his imitator. if any one here will look diligently. rein a good steed. if thou wilt. Rare is he who exposes himself to the conflict. the chough in our land is not taken for an eagle. " Stranger. and his proving undertaken. my share. the partner of thy disputation: Now. for it is the tightest of knots. when he composes. So offer not thy honor to shame. turn not from the counsel of the counselor. and ornate addresses. and when he improvises. ye have been excessive in your leaning to those who are gone. in refined ex- pressions. how the springs testing. not from any superiority in him who draws first at the well over him who comes after? Now truly know I one who. which have been handed down from them through the priority of their birth. astonishes. call forth one who will answer. and then mote of contempt. and with us it is easy to discern between silver and shingle. and with whom your friendships are established. cuts the envious. so shalt thou see a wonder. arrow. the touch- ." mortal hurt. and when he is brief. Have ye ye skilful in forgotten. and when he creates. colors richly. ye have wandered much from the way: for ye have magnified moldering bones. full-grown steed. or catches not the Then whispered the company as to how his well should be fathomed. " It is the adversary of this thy skirmish. that is the is it hero of these qualities ? " He said. ye have contemned your generation." He said to him. and then escapes the who stirs up the dust of trial. and be sure the night shall disclose its morn." He " Each man knows best mark of the his answered. and when he expresses. he turned to the company and said.THE SACRED BOOKS 170 puter was stayed. is there in the ancients aught but ideas whose paths are worn. and admired cadences ? And.

my But when . but each of them has frowned and drawn back. and besought him to restore my comeliness and my competence. the princely entertains. if thou hast disclosed thy character with accuracy. thou hast sought water at a full stream. dishonors." till he had let his flow of wit collect. rely for the straightening of my Know that I my condition my country. thou compose an address. coupled with the smallness of my fammy back was weighted. the liberal nourishes. before thy departure. the noble rewards. giving thy enviers) . " Thou hast put a good steed to the pace. I will bring together for thee no scattered means. that the letters of one of every two words shall all have dots." in this business as the Rebels invested Abu Na'ameh." And now have I waited for my eloquence a twelvebut it has returned me not a word and I have roused month. unless. his milch-camel fill her ciency of ily. but the base disappoints. udder: and then he said: Wool thy ink-flask. Now. setting in it an exposition of thy state. and served me morn and even. he said. And I have sought aid among the gathering of the scribes. but the churl pains. and was gracious. mand Whereupon he turned am to the elder and said.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 171 Then they invested him with the comstone of testing. Now. " I have determined that I will not provide thee with supplies. I could crookedness on the suffi- in means. such. and my thin rain failed. and take thy implements and write " Generosity (may God establish the host of thy successes) adorns but meanness (may fortune cast down the eyelid of : . while the letters of the other shall not be pointed at all. on the shoulder of cheerfulness. Then answered the elder. only my sluggishness has increased. And he looked pleasantly on my coming. attached to this Governor and maintain by ornamental eloquence. I repaired to him from my home with hope. thou hast given the bow to him who fashioned it thou hast lodged And he thought a while in the house him who built it. wit for a but my year. but the niggard frights away. But when I sought permission from him to depart to my abode. . Come with a sign if thou be of the truthful.

fresh joyousness . shadow. as long as the hall of the rich is visited. and praise purifies.THE SACRED BOOKS 17* but deferring torments . a denial relieves. and to bestow wealth. and care that is as a guest. nor thy bounty to enrich. blessing protects." Now when he had ceased from the dictation of his address. nor thy milk-flow to abound. and the enemy that has fixed tooth in him. nor thy praiser nor to win. nor thy clemency to indulge nor thy new moon to illumine. thy kindness to succor. And behind him is a household whom his misery has touched. that there should be anger at him. nor thy blade to destroy. the honorable repays. a light one. " But thy promise ceases not to fulfil . nor has his breast spit foulness that he should be shaken off nor has his intercourse been froward that he should be hated. . nor thy enemies to praise thee. and none hope is is outrage. one to whom nothing remains. to the sons of fool. So mayest thou live to avert misfortune. his claims are clear. and growing sadness: on account of hope that has disappointed him. to heal grief and to care for the aged: attended by affluence and . And he is ever in tears that come at call. ship to build is . for the pious clenches not his palms. whom squalor involves. And so Peace. blame is shunned. which merit their dowries. is miserly but the and none hoards but the wretched. And yet his love has not swerved. the rejection of him who should be respected is error. and none foolish but the miser . He seeks thee with a persuasion whose eagerness leaps onward. Now thy honor admits not the rejection of his claim. thy sentiments cease not to relieve . so whiten his hope by the lightening of his distress: then will he publish thy praise throughout the world. and trouble that melts him. and loss that has made him hoary. nor thy prince. and the quiet that is gone. nor is his wood rotten. his praise is striven for. nor thy heaven to rain. up nor thy suitor to gain . or the delusion of the selfish is feared. he praises thee His demand in choice phrases. whom wrong has stripped. nor thy refusal to be Now he who hopes in thee is an old man like a rare. for repudiation abases. that he should be lopped away.

In the day that I drew my broidered robe in its meadow. and he answered: Ghassan is my noble kindred. And my dwelling was as paradise in sweetness and pleasantness and worth. I walked proudly in the mantle of youth and looked upon goodly pleasures . full of purse. Fearing not the visitations of time and its evil haps. he asked from what tribe was his origin. and bade him join himself to his folBut lowers. Or if past life could be redeemed my good heart's blood should redeem it. Oh. and made Then was large to him their courtesy and their bounty. sharp of purpose. and in what valley was his lair. fault is in the time: but for its ill luck character sees lions But the not miss its place: If the time were upright. After this his story reached the Governor. For death is better for a man than to live the life of a beast. and parting from us. Said the narrator: Now I had recognized the wood of his tree before the ripening of his fruit: And I had nigh roused the people to the loftiness of his worth before that his full moon shone forth. When the ring of subjection leads him to mighty trouble and outrage. And when he was going forth. who filled his mouth with pearls. then would the conditions of right in men would be up- it. performing the duty of respect. surely I should perish from Now my abiding griefs. having gotten victory. excellent were the life I led there and the plenteous delights. I escorted him. the gifts sufficed him. and chiding him for his refusal of office.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 17* and showed forth his prowess in the strife of eloquence. and preside over his court of public writing. And he whom the paws of assailing hyenas seize. and Seruj my ancient land: There my home was like the sun in splendor and mighty rank. But he hinted to me by a twinkle of his eyelid that I should not bare his sword from its sheath. the company gratified him both by word and deed. and unwillingness restrained him from office. if grief could kill. But he turned away with a smile and recited with a chant : .

and brought up its horsemen and footmen. THE SEVENTH ASSEMBLY (CALLED " OF BABKA'ID ") 7 Al Harith. Harith is at Barka'id. son of Hammam. and I disliked to set forth from the city until I had witnessed there the day of adornment. and Harith discovers that his pretended blindness was a trick "> The to excite . which are perfectly sound. going through the rows. whereupon he presents him with a garment and invites him to his house. One of them falls to the lot of Harith.THE SACRED BOOKS 174 Sure to traverse the lands in poverty is dearer to me than rank: For in rulers there is caprice and fault-finding. and being desirous of joining in this solemnity he goes to the public prayer in his best attire. bounden or of free will. and the old woman. oh what faultfinding! There is none of them who completes his good work. but now I noted the signs of the coming feast. The man takes out of a bag a number of papers curiously written or illuminated in variously colored inks. So let not the glare of the mirage beguile thee. I followed the tradition in new apparel. feast at the end of Ramadan is approaching. and that he was a native of Seruj. after the manner of Moslem worship. Harith then guesses that he must be Abu Zayd. undertake not that which is doubtful: For how many a dreamer has his dream made joyful. and is much concerned to find that he has become blind. When the congregation has formed itself into rows. there ap: This Assembly is well known to students. he espies an old man with his eyes closed. and when the old woman. being disappointed in hr appeal. but fear has come upon him when he waked. or who builds up where has laid foundation. She informs him that the old man had composed the verses. presents them to those whom she guesses from their appearance to be charitably disposed. accompanied by an old woman. he offers her a dirhem on the condition that she will tell him the name of the author. No sooner are they in private than Abu Zayd opens his eyes. returns to reclaim it. and the crowding took men's breath. When the prayer is over he goes up to him and discovers that he is indeed Abu Zayd. He keeps it. !N"ow when the congregation of the prayer-court was gathered and ranged. who finds on it some strange verses full of alliterations and plays on words. So when it came on with its rites. related I had determined on journeying from Barka'id. and went forth with the people to keep festival.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 175 peared an old man in a pair of cloaks. begging a dole of the hands. the rows. hand by hand. How oft do I burn through spites and penury and wandering. For my garret would be more seemly for me. So whenever she perceived of any that his hand was moist in bounty. Wherefore when her she comsoliciting was baffled. undo my toils. and gave them to his old beldame. and had for a guide an old woman like a goblin. who hates me for Sure who work my need. and greeted with And when he the greeting of him whose voice is feeble. the crafty. row by row. would that fortune when it wronged me had slain my babes! For were not my cubs torments to me and ills. the assailer. and brought forth scraps of paper that had been written on with colors of dyes in the season of leisure. me a scrap whereon was written: I have become crushed with paina and fears. him to was through way that a fee to an informer is the broiderer of me its my that the woman. By the traitor among my brethren. But not at all did the trouble prosper her. thought of by none." and addressed But the devil made herself to collect the scraps of paper. mended herself to God with the "Return. no purse shed aught upon her palm. Oh. Or will quench the heat of my anxiety by a shirt and trousers? Now is there a my loads must be Said Al Harith. I longed for a knowledge of him who wove thought whispered it. to And pattern. she cast one of the papers Said Al Harith: Now cursed fate allotted to before him. and his eyes were closed: and he bore on his arm what was like a horse-bag. generous man who will see that the lightening of by a denar. bidding her to detect each simple one. and my rags more By jading from those to honorable. and advised me So I watched her. and she was wending through lawful. Tried by the proud one. How oft do I tramp in shabby garb. I would not have addressed my hopes to kin or lord: Nor would I draw my skirts along the track of abasement. the old . Then he stopped. as stops one tottering to sink. had made an end of his salutation he circled his five fingers in his wallet. and her circuit wearied her. son of Hammam: Now when I had looked on the garb of the verses.

the obscure." He " said." then he recited: There remains not any pure. and my grief kindled at his mishap with his eyes. the large. But I was unable to come to him save by treading on the necks of the the darting arrow. And I should have preferred to have gone suddenly on him and talked to him. Perdition on thee. " If thou hast a fondness for the polished. both of the prey and the net. moreover." Then she snatched the dirhem with the snatch of a hawk. show me the . there is And he my case . not any sincere. no strength or power but by God." Then she inclined to the getting of that whole full moon. alas. not any of worth. not a spring. and said to her. wretch shall we be hindered. So she said. and she turned not aside to my spot: but went back to the old man weeping at the denial. or . " In God's hands I am. of the poem. but if thou wiliest not to explain." Whereupon I asked her of the old man and his country. not a helper But : of baseness there is one level." She said. the bright-faced. Cheer thy soul and promise it good .with the paper a dirhem and a mite. secret. not any is trusty. " Truly I counted them when I asked them back. take then the mite and begone. " Then said he to her. and of him who wove its mantle. collect the papers and count them. retracing her path to seek her scroll. I was unwilling that people should be annoyed by me. complaining of the oppression of the time.THE SACRED BOOKS 176 her forget the scrap that I held. that I might test the quality of my discernment upon him. and I found that one of them the hand of loss had seized. to God I commit said. and when she drew near to me I put . and shot away as shoots But it troubled my heart that perchance was Abu Zayd who was indicated. Seruj." Then did the old woman hasten back. " the old man is of of and he it was the Truly. " Quit contention and ask what thou wilt. She said. both of the brand and the wick ? surely this is a new handful to the load. the engraved (and I pointed to the dirhem). a thing forbidden in the law. it congregation. people who broidered that woven poem. and.

and acceded to the call to my loaves. and fetch me alkali that may clear the eye. VI. thou. and go to the closet. and brace the gums. so as to be called a brother of What wonder that one should match himself with his father! it. when he had taken seat in my nest. So I cleaved to my place. and my discernment as the discernment of So at once I made myself known. he said. 12. his eyes and stared round with the twin balls. and one : VOL. and strengthen the stomach and let it be clean of box. my shadow his conductor. " Then said he to me. he sharpened his look upon me and recited : Since Time (and he is the father of mankind) makes himself blind to the right in his purposes and aims." Then he opened said. and soften the skin. with thy journeying in desolate places. so that one touching it shall count it to be eye-paint. and I had set before him what hasty meal was in my power. and kept as though busied with his meal. and. " Harith. and my hand was his leading cord. I too have assumed blindness. Then I went briskly to him and examined him in spite of the closing of his eyelids. and thy pushing into " far lands ? But he made show as if his mouth were full. and to leap to him was lawful. And he was joyful at my bounty and recognition. delicate of powdering. until. and presented him lyas. with one of my tunics. patience feign blindness . nor did strangeness of his ways. and clean the hand. and perfume the breath. form the fetter of my sight. There is none but the old woman. And. when he had fulfilled his need. is there with us a " " third ? I said. new of pounding. and bade him to my bread." He " From her no secret is withheld. Rise. . and he set forth. lo my shrewdness was as the shrewdness of Ibn 'Abbas. by the Watcher from whom no secret is hidden! Now. lo! the two lights of his face kindled like the Farkadan. yes. fragrant of odor. And I was joyful at the safety of his sight. but marveled at the but made his ! Nor did quiet possess me. and the old woman was the third prop of the pot. until the sermon was ended. What led thee to me.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 177 that blame should arrive to me. and thy traversing of wildernesses. " fit with until I asked him.

The Kadi perceives from the style of these addresses that the language is enigmatical. son of Hammam. the male slave which the old man detained was a pencil. appear fore the Kadi of Ma'arrah. and highly serviceable to his master. and the pliancy of a green bough. nor susrid pected that he was mocking of his messenger when he called for the alkali and toothpick. who is sunk in the sea. while the other was as a s This Assembly. delightful in use. and then comwho plains that the old man detained as a pledge a male slave of his. like several others that will be met with in the course of the work. and the eye of which he had broken by accident as he was drawing the thread through or stylus. is so essentially Arabic as almost to forbid intellibegible translation. . But when I returned with what was asked for. an old man and a youth. Two suitors. and I pressed on his track in search of him. treated her roughly. goodly in shape. From the one of them the two ex: cellencies of life had departed. hall was empty. in less than the drawing of a breath. The former narrates to the Kadi that he had possessed a beautiful and attractive. I saw that two suitors came before the Kadi of Ma'arrat an No'man. and bids the litigants speak plainly. THE EIGHTH ASSEMBLY (CALLED "OF MA'ARKAH") 8 Al Harith. and the sharpness of the lance of war. The youth admits the charge. The youth then improvises some verses to explain that by a slave girl the old man meant a needle which the youth had borrowed. And join with a toothpick choice in material. and the polish of a sword. yet obedient and active. slave and then girl. but declares that he had offered sufficient compensation. returned her in an infirm state. and thought not that he purposed to deceive by sending me into the closet.THE SACRED BOOKS 178 it shall fancy it to be camphor." Said Al Harith : Then I rose to do what he bade that I might him of the trace of his food. that the youth had borrowed her. it. was of good origin and qualities. or has been borne but he was as one aloft to the clouds of heaven. I found that the woman had his deceit. related Among the wonders of time. and that the old man and Then was I extreme in anger at sped away. that invites to the repast: and let it have the smelling it slimness of a lover.

a slave 9 my hurting her it fell out by mishave I pledged to him in payment of his of mine. and we may assume that the double-entente of passages like this was among the lessons which Hariri is said to have taught to his pupils. when applied to a kohl pencil. She was now truth-telling. obedient in poverty and in wealth: if thou didst spurn she showed affection. but not from cisterns. chief feature in the composition is the enigmatical description of the needle and pencil. : : . it conferred beauty and produced admiration. The old man in his turn admits the truth of this. and I made her his servant. : but as for And now damage. which depends on the double meanings of the words and phrases contained in it. without reward. for the application of kohl. sharpness and wit. and trouble thee. Generally would she serve thee. now hiding. though sometimes she might be froward and pain thee. of equal birth as regards either kin. and she was displayed in blackness and whiteness and she drank. now beguiling. free from rust and defect. The meaning of this passage. a hand with fingers. as by him he strengthens whoever seeks judgment. but not burden her with more than she could bear. but if thou didst put her from thee. then returned her to me broken ' in health. tracing its follows: origin to the cutler. Behold I had a slave girl. but a mouth without teeth yet did she pique as with tongue of snake. at another she slept quietly in her bed even in July thou wouldst feel her touch to be cool. now peeping forth. smooth of cheek. And the old man 179 said: God strengthen the judge. but pleads in mournful verse his poverty and his inability to bear the loss even of a needle. She had understanding and discretion. yet fitted for employment. and saunter in training robe. patient to labor at one time she ambled like a good steed. Some of these are so subtle that even the native commentators are undecided about them. But he forced on her too hard a work. often brought near the apple of the eye. the dark pigment with which Orientals anoint the eyelid to heighten by contrast the luster of the eye. she re- mained quietly apart. . the same at both ends. offering a compensation which I accept not. and be courteous to thee. and exacted of her long labor .LITERATURE OF THE EAST bough of the hen tree. on the condition that he to thee should enjoy the use of her. Now this youth asked her service of me for a purpose of his own. elegant of shape. The . is as I had a kohl pencil. Then said the youth Sure the old man is more truthful : than the Kata take.

THE SACRED BOOKS 180 tracing his lineage to Al Kayn. whose place was the apple of his master's eye. and " said. free from stain and disgrace. It remained not always in its case. he was lofty in his bounty . as I drew the thread it. But said. speak without glozing. Then said to them the Kadi. And through its eye broke in my hand by chance. he kept with his spouse although she was not of his own clay and there was pleasure in his comeliness. although he was not desired for his effeminacy. it was constantly attached to the fcoW-case. Come. it . and rarely visited his wives. which use has worn and blackened . and when more was required it added more. But the old man would not forgive me the paying for it when he saw that it was spoiled. if he he was marked generous. " Give me a needle like it. when it was blackened with the ointment it was liberal of it. " ISTow either explain or deThen pressed forward the lad. and called up admiration he nourished manIf he was placed in kind. He showed forth kindness. Then turned the Kadi to the old man. or a price. He stayed not in the house. and seldom anointed except two eyes at a time. although the two might be of a different material (that is. but went not near the tongue. and was lifted up to the eye for the purpose. after thou haat mended it. . the pencil might be of gold and the case of glass or silver ) . Now by this statement fathom the depth of my misery and pity one unused to bear it. : He lent me a needle to darn my rags." And he keeps my kohl-pencil by him as a pledge: oh. and said part." and he said : fed the pupil of the eye with ointment." . and when he was asked for more he added. He was generous with his possession. when it was supplied with ointment it supplied the eye with it. it was not of a soft substance but of metal. the shame that he has gotten by so doing: For my eye is dry through giving him this pledge. when it marked the eye it beautified it. and set guard on his tongue. it gave plentifully of the kohl that was on it. . my hand fails to ransom its anointer. aught for his own he power was noble with it if he was supplied he gave of his supply. though it was used for adorning. save two by two.

and to draw forth their secret ? " Then said to him the Knowing One of his . " With this end and decide your contention. and claimed the whole of it in " Half is mine as my earnest. and my guess announces to me. us. a sadness at which the heart of the Kadi grew my sullen. and he is I. Nor would I bring myself to seek a substitute for a needle that he had spoiled." Now there fell on the youth. misery. and distress. If the time had been my helper. no. level: I am his like in misery. not suitors in a claim : but what is the way to fathom them. his sad look cleared not away after his rock had oozed. and was aware of their penury and their distinction. share of the bounty." And they rose to go out from him. thou wouldst not have seen me taking in pledge the pencil which he has pledged to me. nor the price of it. sickness. But the bow of calamities shoots at me with deadly arrows from here and there: And and know my to and exile. Now this is my tale and his: so look upon us. Then he said to the two. stirring its sorrow for the lost denar. But as for the Kadi. and thy share is mine. saying to the youth. in payment for caught it needle: nor do I swerve from justice. his ill-humor subsided not after his stone had dripped . at the words of the old man. for I have no purse of fine-money for you. it is not within my bounds to forgive him for his offending. rejoicing at his before gift. through the narrowness of my own means.LITERATURE OF THE EAST I swear by the holy place of sacrifice. Yet did he cheer the concern of the youth and his anguish by a few dirhems which he doled to him. and come not me with wranglings. " My perception is imbued with the thought. that these are practisers of craft. and said. fluent in his praise. not in jest. so come and take thy pencil." But the old man before the youth. slope of Mina brings 181 and the devout whom the together. "Avoid transactions. He can not ransom his pencil now that it lies pledged in my hand: And. and said. condition Fortune has put us on a as is to know his. But when he recovered from his fit he turned to his attendants. and judge between and pity us. Now when the Kadi had learned their stories. and put away disputes. he took out for them a denar from under his prayer-cushion.

" Oh rare how admirable are the breathings of thy mouth well done should I say of thee. of each whose palm By is close. " Tell me truly your camel's age so shall ye be secure from the consequence of your deceit. and jest. Now never has his hand nor mine done wrong in matter of needle or pencil: But only fortune. : . ! not again deceitfully with judges. every art. but fear the might of those who bear rule. whose spring is sweet." man promised to follow his counsel. if not. So act Then said the ! . Now know that I am of those that warn thee.THE SACRED BOOKS 182 " assemblage. and consume life in wretched victual. and when they stood before him he said to them. whose hand is fettered. by if it prosper. And afterward Death is on the watch for us: if he fall not on us our to-day he will fall to-morrow. and the cub at the proving IB like the lion. has brought us to this. the hostile. and will beware of thee. and with every aim: by earnest. that we came forth to beg Of each one whose palm is moist. That we may draw forth a drop for our thirsty lot. the Light of his following Surely the disof what hide must be through themselves. I am the Seruji and this is my son. nor read aught like them in the records of books. For not every minister will excuse. Al Harith. were it not for the guile that is in thee. son of Hammam Now I never saw aught more wonderful than these things in the changes of my journeys. Said presence. Kadi to him. the harming." Then did the lad shrink back and ask for pardon but the old man stepped forward and said : : ." So covery they : he bade an attendant follow them and bring them back. and not Then the old at every season will speech be listened to. and to abstain from dis- And he departed from the Kadi'a guising his character. while the guile beamed from his forehead.

and understood learned.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 183 Al Harith. however. when he enters a strange city. but denies that he had deceived her in calling himself a " pearl-stringer. when an ill-looking old man is brought in by a young and handsome woman who accuses him of having married her on false pretenses. when it was too late. by stringing which into elegant poems he had been accustomed to make a large income from the liberality of the rich and noble. And I entered not a went not into a city. in which he admits his poverty. it the leading-cord to my advantages. unless he can clear himself of the charge. and a race of niggards had succeeded the generous patrons of the old days. bids the woman submit herself to her husband. She declares that he had deceived her father by giving out that he had an excellent trade as a pearl-merchant. on receiving which 10 This lated the old man triumphantly carries off his wife. leaving her and her child to starve. war and trouble had come upon the earth. it behooves the well-bred. . that that he may be secure in a strange land from the wrong of So I took this doctrine as my guide and made the powerful. and threatens to send the husband to prison. but at once improvises some elegant verses. Harith in his wanderings comes to Alexandria. Now. and that he had sold his wife's effects. and. times were changed. I dived into depths to gather fruits. the sagacious. from the commandments of the wise. makes the acquaintance of the Kadi. and plunged into perils Now I had caught from the lips of the to reach my needs. One evening. I judge as water is but I mingled myself with its with wine. piece by piece. he had taken all her dress and furniture. related: The liveliness of youth and the desire of gain sped me on until I had travAnd ersed all that is between Farghanah and Ghanah. and sold it to keep himself in idleness. the Kadi is distributing the public alms. as appears in the sequel. The Kadi is indignant. son of Hammam. in winter. in accordance with his custom. and that now. who. is a good-natured and benevolent man. Moreover. she had discovered that he had no business at all. to conciliate its Kadi and possess himself of his favor: that his back may be strengthened in litigation. The Kadi accepts the excuse. is one of the two Assemblies of Hariri which have been transand annotated by De Sacy in his Chrestomathy. that he had been incautiously accepted." for the pearls which he meant were the pearls of thought. and gives them some of the alms-money. The defendant is in no way disconcerted. and strengthened mymingled lair.

my disposition is my nature is to be a goodly help-meet. and brought me under his bond. Also I have a boy by him. And she said : man whom a young matron God strengthen the Kadi and through him make concord to be lasting : know that I am a woman of stock the most noble. and carried me away from my people. and married me to him before proving his condiAnd when he had drawn me forth from my covert.THE SACRED BOOKS 184 his patronage as bodies are strengthened by souls. a sluggard. of root the most pure. " hand's palm. I discovered Now him to be a lie-a-bed. Now when- contentment. Sir. So when he had made to me to forget the taste of rest and left my house cleaner slumberer. and swear among his himself present destine for people that he fulfilled his condition: asserting that long time he had strung pearl to pearl and sold them for great Then was my father deceived by the gilding of his price. tion. the fruit of thy skill. while I was in presence of the judge of Alexandria one cold evening. slothful. thin as a . of mother's and father's kin the most honorable: my character is moderation. I found him falsehood. to gather ding." But he declared that his trade had been struck with slackness through the violence that was abroad in the earth. and spent my property on his need. with furniture and affluence. and he had brought out the alms-money to diself by Now vide old it among the needy. bemy neighbors is a wide difference. behold there entered an ill-looking dragged along. and removed me to his habitation. a had come to him with apparel and goodly show. no perfume after the wed- than is I my Rise up then to gain something by thy trade. know that there no concealment after distress. But he ceased not to sell it in a losing market and to squander the price in greedy feeding. I said to him. Then did Providence my calamity and pain that this deceiver should in my father's hall. until he had altogether destroyed whatever was mine. tween me and ever there wooed lords of wealth me any who had my built up honor or were father silenced and chid them and mis- and their gift making plea that he had covenanted with God Most High that he would not ally himself liked their suit : save with the master of a handicraft.

It is as though they were corpses in their courtyards. and when I have molded it men say it is gold. Now my heart is confounded through my trial by the times. . there is laughter in its tale. milked by it: And my foot's sole in its dignity mounted to ranges above which were no higher steps. oh! of speech. So I have brought him to thee and set him before thee. from whose stench men withdraw and turn aside. has led me my to the paths of that which honor deems base. out of which are molded both verse and prose.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 185 toothpick : neither of us gets a fill by him. but I accepted not every one who gave. is my home where I was born. and my stock is Ghassan when my lineage: And study is my business. cares and grief assail me. chattel of slackest sale in the market of The honor of its sons is not respected. Then turned the Kadi to him and said : " Thou hast heard thy wife's story. And my capital is the magic and. and said: Hear there I my is am story. that thou mayest test the sub- God stance of his assertion. And my fortune. neither qualities there is is there suspicion on his glory. and decide between us as show shall thee. the blameworthy. Seruj I trace how excellent a seeking. Now formerly I drew forth wealth by the learning I had gotten. neither are relationship and them regarded. for it is a wonder. and through hunger our weeping to him ceases not. strange alliance with is their changing. I dive into the deep of eloquence. now testify of thyself: else will I discover thy deceit and bid thy imprisonment. Oft were the presents brought in pomp to my dwelling." But he looked down as looks the serpent. and wailing. For I sold until there remained to me not a mat nor household goods to which I might turn. I But to-day learning is the him on whom hope depends. then girt up his garment for a long strife. stretch of my The arm is straitened through the straitness of hand's means. while another gathers but firing of the wood: I take the phrase of that silver. and from it I choose the pearls and select them: I cull of speech the ripe fruit and the new. to dive deep in learning is my pursuit. a man on whose no blame.

and it is plain that he is bared to the bone. Then five days I wrapped my entrails upon hunger. and of the dirhems he gave them a pinch and said to them. being heart-struck at the verses. For he has acknowledged the debt to thee. Or that when I purposed to woo her I tinseled my speech that my need might prosper: I swear by him to whose Ka'beh the companies journey when the fleet camels speed them onward. the craft I meant as that by which I gathered is and gained. the Kadi turned to the young perfected woman. what is strung And is my this poetry. Now I imagine that thy husband is truthful in his speech. and spoken the lo! clear truth. and show respect to neither. I passed not the bound of her con- rise against me. in the selling of which I might go about and bestir myself. " Beguile yourselves . And if what angers her be her fancying that it was my fingers that should make gain by stringing. That deceit toward chaste ladies is not of my nature. but my soul was loathing. . he has given proof that he can string verses. and my eye and But when my tearful. and not chaplets. not my hand. and that his the times incline to the niggardly.THE SACRED BOOKS 186 So I indebted myself until I had burdened my neck by the carrying of a debt such that ruin had been lighter. free from blame. but when the hunger scorched me. to imprison the destitute is a to conceal poverty is self-denial. So I went about with it. and said. Now to vex him who shows excuse is baseness. almsgiving he assigned them a portion. I could see no goods except her outfit. Since I was reared naught has attached to my hand save the swiftly moving reeds and the books: For it is my wit that strings necklaces. made I free with wrath should sent. Inow that it is settled among all judges and those who bear authority that the race of the generous is perished. Now when he had completed the structure of his story and recitation. nor are glozing and lying my badge. but judge as is due. to await relief with patience is devotion. heart saddened. as thou hast given ear to her. that her it. So give ear to my explaining. So return to thy chamber and pardon sin : the master of thy virginity: refrain from thy sharpness of Then in the tongue and submit to the will of thy Lord.

What hast thou seen. : I falling into trouble through an impudent jade. should have gone to prison but for the Kadi of Alexandria. ! . " Since the old man went forth hast learned ? he has not ceased to clap with his hands and to caper with his feet and to sing with the full of his cheeks bounty. and to come back loudly laughing. I said. and on the old man was the joy of one loosed from the bond. and what is it thou " He said. " Know that if he had been here he . to train him to his So I forebore from speech with the forbearing of one who doubts." was near And Then the Kadi laughed till his hat fell off. he might bring us the kernel of his story. But then I was afraid that the Kadi would hit on his falsehood and the lacking of his tongue. " I have Said seen a wonder I have heard what gives me a thrill. Then said the Kadi. for it may be that God will bring victory or some ordinance from ' himself. Abu Maryam " He said. But he delayed not to return bounding in. telling that the man was gone. he said." " the Kadi to him. Hither with him ! but returned after a while." Then the Kadi sent one of his trusty ones after him and bade him to spy out of his tidings. " " and he set forth earnest in the search . when he knew him. Said the narrator: Now I knew that he was Abu Zayd in the hour that his sun peeped forth and his spouse reviled him and I went near to declare his versatility and the fruit: ing of his divers branches. forbid that I should imprison men of letters. and what tissues he is spreading forth. and the exulting of one who is in affluence after need. and his composure was lost: but when he returned to gravity and had " O followed excess by prayer for pardon." Then said he to that trusty one. by the sanctity of thy most honored servants.' Then they arose to go. " Well. and I folded up mention of him as the roll is folded over the writing: save that when he had departed and had come whither he was to come. moisten yourselves with this drihlet: and en' dure against the fraud and the trouble of the time. Said the Kadi to him.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 187 with this drop. and not see fit. God. " If there were one who would set out on his track.

and it The purpose of the elder. and I obeyed it. or of Al Kosa'i when the day- lost to light appeared. and invokes destruction on them if truth be not spoken. related : The summoning of Rahbah. and unsheathing an active purpose. and leave the Governor to his disappointment. and an old man was holding on to his sleeve. At Rahbah. and soon the two are Harith then accosts Abu Zayd. I saw a boy cast in the mold of comeliness. Harith beholds a crowd following an elderly man who is dragging along a handsome youth. but as the whole can not be collected at once the old man says that he will not give up the boy. mounted on a fleet camel. But the old man dictates an oath in which he enumerates all the beauties of the boy. When they are in court the old man makes his charge. and fastened my ropes. who is agreed to go before the Governor. proves in the end to be Abu Zayd. but will watch him all night." Said Al Harith. then makes up a purse to satisfy the prosecutor. THE TENTH ASSEMBLY n (CABLED "OF RAIIBAJI ") Al Harith. the city of Malik. and his assistant in his tricks. that he is his son. Hammam. and that yet the fruit of the Kadi's notice was him. Abu Zayd replies. state is better for son of toward him. son of me Hammam. for I would have imparted to him as I would have shown him that the latter him than the former. who desires to take him out of the power of the old man. on the Euphrates. The Governor consents. and had gone forth from the bath after shaving my head. The former accuses the boy of having killed his son. and as he has no witnesses the boy is allowed to clear himself by an oath. is simply to induce the Governor to buy off so handsome a youth from punishment. son of Towk. asserting that desire called to 11 In this Assembly Abu Zayd is found making gain by his usual questionable arts. when I saw the leaning of the Kadi he deserves . . and left together in the courtyard. The boy refuses to swear by such an oath. Now. with the view of taking him into his own household. asks who is the boy. A hundred denars are promised. and clothed by beauty in the garb of perfection. and the Governor. there came on me the repentance of Al Farazdak when he put away Nawar.THE SACRED BOOKS 188 should have had no cause to fear. Now when I had cast my anchors there. and that they intend to make their escape early in the morning.

" Then said the old man to the boy Say. Then said the boy. and noses with straightness. . may God strike my eyelid with soreness. for the boy had already fascinated him by the graces of his bright brow. they agreed to refer to the Governor of the town so they hastened to his court with the speed of Sulayk in his career and when they were there the old man renewed his charge and claimed help. and smiling teeth with regularity. that I have not killed thy son by negligence." Said the old man. " If two just Moslems testify for thee. And It is the lie of a great liar against one the boy who is no blood-shedder. pear to thee whether he speaks true or lies. Then said the Governor to the old man. and the contention between them scattered its sparks. " said. thou with thy vehement grief for thy slain son. dropping. Now after their quarreling had been excessive. and waists with slenderness. and my forelocks with : . and cheeks with flame. and the crowding upon them was made up of good and bad. and cloven his under. and my cheek with freckles. and my palm-shoot with greenness. and my rose with the ox-eye. well if not. when on the spot there was no beholder ? But empower me to dictate an oath that it may ap. and mouths with purity. " Thou hast authority for that . and how can I have a witness. and fingers with softness. and eyes with their black and white. and my full moon with waning. and rays with the dark.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 189 he had slain his son. demand of him the oath. and my silver with tarnishing. So the Governor made the boy speak. but the boy denied knowledge of him and was horror-struck at his suspicion. and the slander of a knave against one who is not an assassin." He said to him. " my The scorching of affliction be my lot rather than to take such an oath! let me yield to vengeance " But the old rather than swear as no one has ever sworn ! . nor made his head a sheath to my sword if it be otherwise. I swear by him who hath adorned foreheads with forelocks. and my musk with a foul steam. and shed his blood when alone . and eyebrows with separation. nor of wilfulness. " Surely he struck him down remote from men. standing by the disposition of his forelocks. and eyelids with languor.

But the robe of evening from the and this cause rain of collection was grew dim. and made him covet that he should belong to him. and on me rest be doled to thee be it to-morrow to accomplish that the " I and reach thee. and the draughts which he had bittered. and the knots of the crowd dispersed: and then I sought the Gov- Ibn Surayj. and the road of concord to be rugged. cut short. that the pupil of eye guard him. I knew him ernor's courtyard. while thus resisting." Governor paid him down twenty and assigned among his atcollect the rest as tendants the making up of fifty. captivated the Governor by his motions. and he sum may go guiltless as the wolf went guiltless of the blood of the son of Jacob. and the passion which en- his heart slaved him." Said the old man." Said Al Harith. . So he said to the old man. and the desire which he had imagined tempted him to liberate the boy and then get possession of him. Then he said. Now the boy. and " may be. son of Hammam that the pleadings of the old : Now when man were I perceived as the pleadings of Glory of the Serujis and I delayed until the stars of the darkness glittered. " Hast thou a mind for that which is more seemly in the stronger and nearer to god- " He said. and to be the lo! the old : man guarding the youth. and then catch him himself.THE SACRED BOOKS 190 man would naught but make him swallow the oath which he had framed for him. " Take what is ready and leave disputing. until when on the dawn- my ing of the morn he has made up what remains of the of reconciliation. " Whither art thou pointing that I fearing ? " should follow and not delay ? He said." Then said to him the Governor. " I think that thou dost not impose what is immoderate or ask what is excessive." Said the old man. And the dispute ceased not to blaze between them. shell may get clear of chick. " I think it well that thou cease from altercation and be content with a hun- dred denars. to free him from the noose of the old man. I refuse Then the not. on condition that I take on myself part of it. until love subdued and fixed in his breast. will do this on the condition that I keep close to him to-night. but let there be no failure to thy promise.

he mounted the back of when the highway. : he " Wilt thou not be satisfied with gain my springe. But if what has befallen thee is terrible to thee as the ill-fate of Al Hosayn is terrible to the Moslems.LITERATURE OF THE EAST And 191 I adjured him by God to say whether he was Abu Zayd " said. Yes." Said Al Harith. and give enjoyment its turn after separation." " I said. For I have resolved to slip away at dawn. That the old man has stolen his money and the young one his heart. when he has convinced himself But I broke the seal as one who would free of our flight. and the wise man. I should not have snatched the fifty. He was generous with his coin when love blinded his eye. and know that the chasing of gazelles not easy. Who is this boy. after my departure. Then I spent the night with him in conversation more pleasant than a garden of flowers. for it profits not to seek the traces after the substance is gone. and meets with naught but the shoes of Honayn! . biting his hands." himself from a letter of Mutelemmis. even though it be sur- So henceforth is rounded by silver. and he is scorched in the flame of a double regret. repenting. by him who hath permitted the chase. nor does every bird enter the springe. grieving. and in making said. Calm thy grief. " Pass the night near me that we may quench the fire of grief. O afflicted. " Were it not that his forehead by his forelock ? put forth its ringlets. And how many a one who seeks to make a prey becomes a prey himself. And he committed to me. the graces of his make. and behold there was written in it: Tell the Governor whom I have left. has been bereft of composure. after whom the understanding " He " darts ? In kin he is my chick. or a woodland of trees: until the Wolf's Tail lighted the horizon. Yet hast thou gotten in exchange for it understanding and caution. the prudent. and the brightening of the daybreak came on in its time. resist desires. in the hour of his departure a paper " Hand it to the Governor when he firmly closed." I said. and to burn the Governor's heart with the flame of regret. wishes for these. and spare the Governor temptation " He said. and he has ended with losing either. No. and said. and left the Governor to taste burning torment." Then he said.

and forecast not every thundercloud: many a may have in it the bolts of death: And cast down thine eye. in a fit of religious zeal. rebuking his hearers for their worldly selfishness. that thou mayest rest from a passion by which thou wouldest clothe thyself with the garment of infamy and thundercloud disgrace. Said the narrator.THE SACRED BOOKS 192 Now consider well. to place in the mouth of a clever impostor the most serious warnings that can be addressed to mankind. takes his stand on a hillock. I saw an assemblage over a grave that had been dug. may be morally objectionable. But I tore the paper piecemeal. that its cure is by And when I had reached the mansion of visiting the tombs. it excites little repugnance. in power and grace of meter. Harith. and when it is over. related: I was aware of hardness of heart while I sojourned at Saweh. an old man. with his face muffled in a cloak. To pass suddenly from the most solemn subjects to pleasantry. betakes himself to the public burial-ground of the city of Saweh. The incident on which the Assembly is founded is simple. meditating on the end of man. For the trouble of man is the following of the soul's desire. in 12 beauty of language. He then rises into poetry and declaims a piece which is one of the noblest productions of Arabic literature. The design of the author in the present composition was to produce an elaborate sermon in rhymed prose and in verse. but in the Moslem world. the storehouse of moldering remains. and a corpse that was being buried. where religion ia mixed up with all the concerns of life. and warning them that wealth and power are of little avail against the general leveler. for the purpose of contemplation. and pious discourse and phrases abound. So I drew aside to them. and cared not whether he blamed or pardoned me. this magnificent hymn is unsurpassed. THE ELEVENTH ASSEMBLY " (CALLED OF SAWEH " 12 ) Al Harith. In lofty morality. and his genius takes a higher flight than usual. So I betook myself to the Tradition handed down. and pours forth a discourse on the certainty of death and judgment. He finds a funeral in progress. . son of Hammam. in religious fervor. and calling to mind those of my people who This and the following Assembly are justly reckoned among the masterpieces of the author. the dead. and the seed of desire is the longing look of the eye.

no ! No! surely ye shall brother of deluthou who claimest understanding.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 193 were gone. that ye heed not the visitations of misfortune. or had gotten security from Time. And take thought. thou marshal sin and blame. or had cital of the made it is sure of a peace with the Destroyer of delights. Again. So that it is as if ye the thought of death in your mind. an thing that ye imagine. Then he recited: ill learn. that ye prepare not for the going down to your graves. if but a grain were notched away. VI. And when they had sepulchered the dead. sion. that ye are not affrighted when an intimate is lost . how long. and err exceeding error? Is not the shame plain to thee? doth not hoariness warn thee? (and VOL. an old man stood forth on high. and disguised his form for craftiness. leaning on a staff. and that the pouring in of the mold frightens you not. ye observers. work for an end like this. And he had veiled his ! face with his cloak. ye How is it with you slothful. and ye move not ings. Ye have laughed at a funeral as ye laughed not in the hour of dancing ye have walked wantonly behind biers. that ye are not saddened when the mourning assembly is gathered? One of you follows home the dead man's bier. . that ye are not moved to tears at the eye that weeps . and look well. but have made little of the perishing of your kindred. 13. then retires alone with his pipes and lutes. were joined to Death by clientship. wilt . or were confident of your own safety. from a hillock. . he said : Let those who work. but his thought is of securing his portion. He leaves his loved friend with the worms. O yet negligent and gird yourselves. yet have ye been forgetful of the cutting off of your friends : and ye have been cast down at the befalling of adversity. as ye walked not in Ye have turned from the rethe day that ye grasped gifts. that ye take not warning at the deathmessage when it is heard . and the crying of Alas was over. but his heart is set toward his house and he is present at the burying of his kinsman. mourning women to the preparing of banquets. Now that the burying of your fellows grieves you not. Ye have sorrowed over your riches. and from the anguish of the bereaved to daintiness in feastYe care not for him who molders.

And plume him whose plumage hath fallen in calamity great or . but thou forgettest the darkness of the grave. its bridge is stretched over the fire to every one who cometh thither. And avoid proud turning away of the cheek if fortune have prospered thee: bridle thy speech if it would run astray. when thou perceivest that no company can protect thee in the Court of Assembling. Thou shalt weep blood. and go eagerly to diversion. nor hath thy hearing become deaf. for death is meeting thee and reaching at thy collar. O simple one. no kinsman of mother or father. and thy delaying to mend habits that unite in thee vices whose every sort shall be collected in thee? If thou anger thy Master thou art not disquieted at it. thou swervest aside: but thou followest the guiding of him who deceiveth. until the coffin-wood is bored through and the bones molder. There is the body stretched out that the worms may devour it. thou art hard in understanding. but if the bier pass by thee thou feignest grief. Thou walkest in the desire of thy soul. and he is one who shrinketh not back when he hath purposed.THE SACRED BOOKS 194 in its counsel there is no doubtfulness) . not tears. " The shall be vile It is as ! business surpasseth. and walk proudly in vanity. when thy kinsmen have committed thee to a place narrower than a needle's eye. And afterward there is no escape from that review of souls: since Sirat is prepared. If the graving of the yellow one gleam to thee thou art joyful. and rememberest not what is there. though it be gay: for so wilfr thou be found like one deceived by a viper that spitteth venom. and believe him when he speaketh and mend thy ragged conduct. nor wouldest thou be saddened when the preaching wipeth away griefs. to that by which the bitter is made sweet. thou schemest after money. But if true happiness had looked upon thee. as if death were not for all? Till when will last thy swerving. Is not Death calling thee? doth he not make thee hear his voice T dost thou not fear thy passing away. for he hath prospered who mendeth it. and there is no grief." Therefore hasten. Thou resistest him who counseleth righteousness. And lower thyself from thy loftiness. who defameth. And rely not on fortune though it be soft. who lieth. And how many a guide shall go astray! and how many a great one and how many a learned one shall slip and say. for how happy is he who bridleth it! And relieve the brother of sorrow. thy own look would not have led thee amiss. so as to be wary and anxious? How long wilt thou be bewildered in carelessness. though I could see thee when thou goest down to the vault and divest deep. but if thy scheme be bootless thou burnest with vexation. for thy life is now near to decay and thou hast not withdrawn thyself from blame.

and keep thy hand from hoarding. : . at the gift. on which he had fastened the splints of deceit not of fracture. presenting himself to beg in the garb of impudence: and by it he beguiled those people until his sleeve was full then he came down from the hillock merry Said the narrator But I pulled him from behind by the hem of his cloak and he turned to me submissively. I went away to the right. And resist thy base nature. and leave that which will bring on ill. and listen not to blame for it. and sorrow not at the loss. : ! : How many. will be the varieties of thy cunning to drive the prey to thy net? and wilt thou not care who censures? And he answered without shame and without hesitation Look well. Then he drew back his sleeve from an arm strong of sinew. . tell : me. and faced me. Abu Zayd. friends. and dread the deep of the sea. and accustom thy hand to liberality. a time when a man would not win for. and prepare the ship for thy journey. in his very self. and he set himself Then I said to : laden with infamy! . Old Shaykh of Hell. and shown as one who showeth clearly: and happy the man who walketh by my doctrines and maketh them his example. and in all his deceit and I said to him. saluting me and lo it was our old Abu Zayd. And make provision of good for thy soul. and leave thy blaming. hast thou ever known of the world when the game was in his hands? him Away with thee. brimmed and .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 195 small. to the quarter of the north. . For there is nothing like thee for the fairness of thy seeming and the foulness of thy purpose exThen we parted and cept silvered dung or a whited sewer. and he went away to the left and I set myself to the quarter of the south. . Thus have I given my precepts. and be not covetous in amassing.

no doubt. He taxes him with his wickedness. is Harith. shocked at this enormity in a pious dervish. . He then repeats it. and. which they think indispensable for their protection against robbers. fulness of store led me to pride.THE SACRED BOOKS 196 THE TWELFTH ASSEMBLY (CALLED " OF DAMASCUS ") 13 Al Harith. but are delayed by their inability to find an escort. as Hariri. and then the old man improvises a Bacchanalian chant. Freedom of arm called me to diversion. determines to seek him out. and when they come in sight of Anah. As they are not molested on the road they judge the charm to have been successful. This Assembly is one of the most admired productions of the author. And when I had reached making my camel. They all learn it by heart and then set forth. on their inquiring further. who at last announces to them that he has the means of keeping them safe from harm. being in affluence. he makes his escape. the desert which lies between Syria and the Euphrates. a city celebrated for its wine. Harith. crosses from Irak to Damascus to enjoy the luxury of that city. after found it such as tongues describe lean it . though the meter is more light and lively. and joins a caravan that is about to cross the Semaweh. The travelers are ready to depart. I and in it was whatever So I thanked the bounty souls long for or eyes delight in. but at length consent to take him with them. While they are consulting they are watched by a dervish. and the next thing they hear of him is that he is drinking in the taverns of Anah. beseeching the general protection of the Almighty. tells them that his safeguard is a magic form of words revealed to him in a dream. When he has taken all he can get. and soon finds him reveling amid wine and music in the guestchamber of a wine-shop. son of Hammam. and then was I master of haltered steeds and envied wealth. and to use his incantation. gold and jewels. until some travelers were making ready for the journey to the place after toil of soul. desired to display his genius by the contrast. After he haa had his fill of pleasure he bethinks himself of returning homeward. In form this poem resembles that which is introduced into the last Assembly. repeating it twice a day on their journey. with of travel and ran a heat pleasure: and began there to break the seals of desires and gather the clusters of delights. which is one of the finest pieces in Hariri's work. They are at first incredulous. and it proves to be a prayer full of assonances and rhymes. who has lavished on it all the resources of his marvelous rhetoric. related: I journeyed from Irak to the Ghutah . they reward him richly with what he likes best. the first town on the other side of the desert.

by Allah. " O people." Said the narrator Then we asked him to show us concerning his safe conduct. And he declared it to be some words which he had been taught in let will : a dream. let your mind be tranquil. whereby to guard himself from the malice of Then began one to steal a look at another. it was plain to him that we thought meanly of his story. I will remove what gives you doubt. How is it that gold as dross? oft I fearful tracts and have ]STow. we shrank from setting forth without taking with us a guard.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Irak. But opposite them was a person whose demeanor was as the demeanor of the youthful. until suggestion was exhausted and the hoper despaired. the assemblage and sharpened his ear to steal a hearing. so that we thought he was not among the living. But to find him in the clans failed. And we sought one from every tribe and used a thousand devices to obtain him. and his garb as the garb of monks. and in his hand was the rosary of women. your care relieve itself. and promised him a higher wage for it than for an embassy. for I guard you with that which shall put off your fear and show itself in accord with you. . manmove So that his eyes between glances sideward and downward. And for the want of such a one the refold. he said to them. and to kind. Besides. in that I will consent with you in the desert and accompany you on the Semaweh. at the gate of to take counsel. and treat said. And when it was the time of their turning homeward and their secret was manifest to him. solves of the travelers were bewildered. gone through entered among deadly dangers and with this I have needed ye take my my : not the companying of a guard or to take with me a quiver. And when the company had equipped themselves and agreement was completed. and conceived it to be futile. that regret home and longing after my Then I struck the tents of exile and saddled the steeds of return. and in his eyes the mark of And he had fastened his gaze on giddiness from watchings. and they assembled And they ceased not Jayrun and and and tying untying. Whereupon he earnest for jest. I will draw away the distrust that has come on you. plaiting twining. and I had so recovered visited me in calling to mind from my my 197 drowning.

we sought to learn from him the magic words that we might away fear of " a lasting safeguard. from the mischiefs of devils and the assaults of princes from the vexing of the wrongers. in my foraging and my reit. and from the transgression of enemies. from the treacheries of the treacherous. and deliver me.THE SACRED BOOKS 198 Then. and on the Lights of his kindred. from the crafts of the crafty. in my coming homeward. . then let him say with lowly tongue and humble make them O God O thou who givest life to the moldering dead thou who avertest harms! O thou who guardest from terrors O thou generous in rewarding O thou the refuge of suppliants O thou the Lord of pardon and protection voice : ! ! O ! ! ! ! Send thy blessing on Mohammed. and from suffering through the tyrannous. . O keep me in my own land and in my journeying. and put harm or stay. if my promise has spoken you true. son of Hammam: Then we were inspired to believe his vision and take as true what he had related. O God. so we ceased from disputing with him and cast lots for carrying him. in my household and my dwelling. in my family and my means. Bring not on me reverse make not the invader lord over me. . And guard me in myself and my property. He said : Let each of you repeat the Mother of the Koran as often as day or night comes on. and keep from me the hands of the harmful bring me forth from the darkness of the oppressors . in my and adventuring my withdrawing from it. my trafficking and my success from it. then rend my skin and pour out my blood. me by thy mercy among thy servants who do aright. the Seal of thy prophets. from the enmity of transgressors. and when the pack-saddles were fastened on and the setting forth was near. from the spoiling of spoilers. from the conquest of conquerors. from the wrongfulness of neighbors and the neighborhood of the wrongful. Said Al Harith. place God. in my strength and my fortune. O God. in my honor and my goods. in my riches and my death. the Keys of his victory. exile and turn from my in . and give me refuge. the Bringer of thy messages. do ye renew my weal and prosper my fortune: but if my mouth has lied to you. And at his word we cut the loops of hindrance.

" Said the narrator: So we learned it till we knew it thoroughly. but required not of us our promises: till when we " Now. Until . and said. not by the song of drivers. he said to us. his shooting away astonished us: and we ceased not to seek him in every assembly. slipped away from us as slips quicksilver. the adorning. Then we set forth. and allot to me comfort that perisheth not . one that will best you for the wearers of the helmet. and free me from the terrors of misfortune. and the pouring flood." But nothing enlivened him but the light. his departure saddened us. morning. befriend me with thy election and thy good. and guarding the loads by words. your help. But me grant to me health that weareth not away. and the wind and the dust-storm. make not the talons of enemies to prevail against me. not by warriors. watch over with thy eye and thy aid. and he turned not a glance. He who repeats it at the smiling of the dawn has no alarm of danger to the red of eve and he who whispers it to the vanguard of the dark is safe the night long from plunder. and showed him the corded and the sealed. but will consent. to repair his poverty." Then he looked down. distinguish me by thy safeguard and thy bounty. and shelter me with the coverings of thy boons. and the earth with its plains. nothing was comely in his eye but the coin. for thou art he that heareth prayer. and the sounding sea. and rehearsed it together that we might not forget it. he answered not a word so that we said. and to ask news of him from each that might mislead or guide. urging the beasts by prayers. and consign me not to the keeping of any but thee. and said to " Decide as thou wilt. So of those he loaded on his burden. O God. spied the house-tops of 'Anah. and the blazing sun. " Then we set before him the your help exposed and the hidden. " I swear by the heaven with its constellations. And our companion frequented us evening and suffice . that this is the most sure of charms. and rose up with enough ! Then he dodged us as dodges the cutAnd and purse." Then he raised his head : and drew his breath. for thou wilt find among us none him.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 199 but give me from thyself helping power. " A fear has confounded him or a stupor struck him dumb.

her the desired: And assign to thy evening draught a cup-bearer who will stir the torment of desire when she gazes. and shows it openly.THE SACRED BOOKS 200 was it " said. And at one time he bade broach the and at another he called the lutes to give utterwine-casks. Then avow thy love and cool thy heart: or else the fire-staff of thy And shame and grief will rub a spark And on it. through my carrying of rosaries. it. Woe to thee. and the pipe and the lute. and about him were cup-bearers surpassing in beauty. in a gay-colored dress . said to him. nor chide. accursed! hast thou forgotten the day at the Jayrun? But he laughed heartily. I cross deserts. and draw out thy cares by the daughter of the vine. for the sipping of wine. and tame steeds that I may draw the trains of pleasure and delight. So I went walk in a path and there was the amid casks and wine-vats. I loathe pride that I may cull joy: And I plunge into floods. ance and now he inhaled the perfumes. And I throw away staidness." to foulness of this report set me on to test to which I belonged not. for my excuse is plain: And wonder not at an old man who settles himself in a well-filled house by a wine-cask that is brimming. nor cry aloud. for the quaffing of cups. and now he courted the gazelles. And a singer who will raise such a voice that the mountains of iron shall thrill at it when she chants. and lights that glittered. the purest of joy is when the grave man throws off the veils of flings them aside: And the sweetest of passion is when the love-crazed ceases from the concealing of -his love. And rebel against the adviser who will not permit thee to approach a beauty when she consents. For truly wine strengthens the bones and heals sickness and drives away grief. and Since he entered 'Anah he has not quitted the Then the tavern. Now be not angry. and the myrtle and the jasmine. heal thy wounds. and then indited charmingly: I cling to journeying. . And were it not for longing after the drinking of wine my mouth would not utter its elegancies. But when I had thus stumbled on his hypocand the risy. differing of his to-day from his yesterday. I by night old to the wine-hall in disguised habit man . and sell my land. Nor would my craft have lured the travelers to the land of Irak.

and be constant in gifts. the wily one." He said I love not misconduct! Kow. darkness of night. vow to that I would never made a God Almighty again enter my the tavern of a liquor-seller. even that the season of youth might be reThen we saddled the white camels in the last stored to me. Then I knew Said the narrator: that it was Abu Zayd.LITERATURE OF THE EAST And range is 201 in thy cunning even to perverseness and care not what said of thee. not through dependence on his promise and I passed my night clothed in the mourning of repentance. yet I will intimate it: tell is to am am the novelty of the time. But not the less a brother of need. who plays his wiles among Arabs and foreigners. rare thy recitation. and his countenance changed. for thy puzzle vexes disclose myself. not for rebuke. But be sincere with thy friend. man of ill-fame and disgrace. and left together Abu Zayd and Iblis. and he thought a while and then he said. but fie on thy me from what thicket me. so Then leave speaking thy thought until we meet to-morrow. who has a household. O it and bestow for whoso to open. not for contention. kindness. And I foot to the daughter of the vine. and catch what suits thee: And leave thy father if he refuse thee. an occasion for drinking wine. and that I would not look upon the vats of wine. and spread thy nets and hunt who comes by . that thou withdraw from debauchery ? " But he was angry. and avoid the niggardly. and the foulness of the path of his resorting: so I said to him with the tongue of indignation and the confi" Is it not dence of acquaintance time. even that I might be endowed with the dominion of Bagdad . And the father of children who lie out like meat on the tray: Now the brother of want. thee. at having advanced the steps of : : . he that blackens the face of his hoariness. whom fortune vexes and wrongs. by Allah. and growled. knocks at the door of the Merciful causes Then I " said to him. the wonder of nations. And take refuge in repentance before thy departure. not of grace. is not blamed if he I I be wily. And the greatness of his contumacy ofthe fended me. through fear of his drunken humor. ." I left him. old man. " It is a night for merriment. thy root.


. totter and decay. Soon must however sure. however pure. their turbid source betray. bliss.AEABIC LITERATURE THE POETS OF ARABIA Mortal Soon Mortal joys." THE CALIPH RAHDI.


Huart. and kept many poets around them. and he lost his throne and life. poets : Indeed some of the caliphs themselves were The Caliph Walid composed music as well as verse . is based largely on harmonies Hence most of the striking turns of phrasing. " Laphilosophical poem of some length is the well-known ment of the Vizier Abu Ismael. His neglect of religion. however. Such." 205 .THE POETS OF ARABIA (INTRODUCTION) " Aspoetry." This we give in full at the but mainly we must illustrate the Arabic verse by selecting specimens of conclusion of this section finest flowering of . indeed. More than forty commentaries were written to explain the subtleties of his verse. characteristic brevity. until a term in prison persuaded him to cling to the accepted form of Mohammedanism. Many of the Arab caliphs inclined to the gaieties of life rather than to their religious duties. culed by the great French They saw only with their ears. of language were held by his admirers to be the very perfection of literature. In one well-known passage ridicritic. Most noted of all the Arab poets was Mutanabbi (905His fantastic imagery and extravagant refinements 965). and was hailed by his immediate companions as a great artist. and a poet's fame depended upon a fe\v than on any sustained melody or brilliant couplets rather One distinguished long-continued flight of noble thought. was so reckless as to rouse the resentment of his people. as explained in introducing the of Al Hariri. " ARABIC semblies of sound and poems are brief. Mutanabbi says of an advancing army that it was so vast "The warriors marched hidden in their dust. was the intensity of Mutanabbi's poetic ecstasy that he fancied himself a prophet and began to preach a new religion.

that this means that the warriors' senses were confused by all the tumult. in reality they only heard the clamor of the marchers around them. This. In translation. sound. Deprived of their Arabic melody they seem mere bombast and absurdity.206 THE SACRED BOOKS The commentators explain. perhaps unnecessarily. empty . Mutanabhi's verses lose all value. in fact. so that while they thought they saw. is the general charge which must be made It too often degenerated into against the later Arabic poetry.

My unaspiring fancy please Better than towers and splendid halls. Is dearer to Than all my bosom far the trappings of a queen. Sounds sweeter in Maisuna's ear Than yonder trumpet's long-drawn note. 207 . With spirits light. Th' attendant And frolic colts that by the bounding Are dearer in Maisuna's eye Than gorgeous mules in all The watch-dog's fly litter's side. she languished for the simple pleasures of her native desert. i Maisuna was a daughter of the tribe of Calab. and eye serene. and amidst all the pomp and splendor of Damascus. The rustic youth unspoilt by art. according to Abulfeda. remarkable both for the purity of dialect spoken in it. The humble tent That whistles and murmuring breeze thro' its fluttering wall. and for the number of poets it had produced. pamper'd fool. than thee. She was married. Son of my kindred. Will ever to Maisuna's heart Be dearer. But this exalted situation by no means suited the disposition of Maisuna. poor but free.THE POETS OF ABASIA THE SONG OF MAISUNA 1 (WiFE OF THE CAJJFH MOWIAH) The russet suit of camel's hair. to the Caliph Mowiah. voice that bays whene'er A stranger seeks his master's cot. their pride. a tribe. whilst Tery young.

but instead of concealing his vices from the eyes of his subjects. and master to Ahmed Kim Hanbal each of whom.IT. . 60.THE SACRED BOOKS 208 TO MY FATHER 2 (By THE CAXIPH YAZID) Must then my failings from Of anger ne'er escape? And the shaft dost thou storm because I've quaff'd of the grape ? The water That I can thus from wine be driv'n Thou surely ne'er canst think Another reason thou hast giv'n Why I resolve to drink. 'Twas sweet the flowing cup to seize. he caressed his dogs. 'Tis sweet thy rage to see. he drank wine in public. avaricious. was a disciple of Malek Ben Ans. Shafay. And first I drink myself to please And next to . He was naturally cruel. not always force splendid destiny commands. and was waited upon by his eunuchs in sight of the whole 2 court. lordly vulture gnaws the corse That rots upon yon barren sands. Yazid succeeded Mowiah in the Caliphate A. ON FATALISM 8 (BY THE HOLY IMAN SIIAFAY) Not always A The wealth. fourth sect is that of Abou Hanifah. like himself. 3 the . founded a The sect which is still denominated from the name of its author. anger thee. he seemed to make a parade of those actions which he knew no good Mussulman could look upon without horror. the founder of one of the four orthodox sects into which Mohammedans are divided. and in most respects showed himself to be of a very different disposition from his predecessor. and debauched.

its joys despise. poem was a hermit of Syria. Its feeble texture soon would tear. Thrice happy they who seek th' abode Of peace and Who And pleasure in their God the world. VI. 5 Isaac Al Mouseli is considered by the Orientals as the most celebrated musician that ever flourished in the world. And A hid his radiant face in night cheerless gloom the world o'erspread . But Haroun came and all was bright.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 209 Nor want. 14. Again the sun shoots forth his rays. He was born in for his talents of this and piety. VOL. Nature is decked in beauty's robe For mighty Haroun's scepter sways. And * The author Yahia's arm sustains the globe. Persia. TO THE CALIPH HAROtnST AL RASHID 4 (BY PKINCE IBRAHIM BEN ADHAM) Religion's gems can ne'er adorn The flimsy robe by pleasure worn. equally celebrated He was son to a prince of Khorassan. spurn at bliss beyond the skies. This poem was addressed to the Caliph upon his undertaking a pilgrimage to Mecca. but having resided almost entirely at Mousel. The fly that with a touch expires Sips honey from the royal plate. he is generally supposed to have been a native of that place. And give those jewels to the air. . grasp ! LINES TO HAROUN AND YAHIA 5 (By THE MUSICIAN. ISAAC Ax MOUSEO) Th' affrighted sun ere while he fled. nor weakness still conspires To bind us to a sordid state. and born about the ninety-seventh year of the Hegira.

but the principal part of . ' Taher Ben Hosien was ambidexter and one-eyed and. but a monster. and possessed immense property in various countries.THE SACRED BOOKS 10 THE RUIN OF THE BARMECIDES 6 Time hath never shown So sad a change of wayward fate Nor sorrowing mortals ever known No.D. Damascus A. They were descended from the ancient kings of Persia. TO MY MISTRESS 8 (By ABU TAMMAM HABIB) Ungenerous and mistaken maid. To scorn me thus because I'm poor! The family of Barmec was one of the most illustrious in the East. where. 807. strange to say. and educated in Egypt. TO TAHER BEN HOSIEN 7 A pair of right hands and a single dim eye Must form not a man. if you can. a loss so great. Spouse of the world Did balm Thy ! to every woe soothing breast afford . widowed world bewails her lord. for many years. 8 Abu Tammam is noted as the first collector of the works of earlier He gathered these in a valuable anthology. And now no more by The thee caressed. the most celebrated general of his time. : And a monster perhaps may be chang'd to man. they derived still more consequence from the favor which they enjoyed at the court of Bagdad. He was born near poets. A grief so true. they filled the highest offices of the State with universal approbation. good Taher. Bannec ! . they cry Change a hand to an eye.

And now no more by thee caressed. may TO MY MISTRESS 8 (Br ABU TAMMA.-. but the principal part of mot nm i. ! Nor sorrowing A mortals ever known grief so true. the State with office* of flf Hoden ne-eyed and.. And a monster perhaps be changed to man. is noted as On Ant collect' -v.M HABIB) Ungenerous and mistaken maid.MAJA8 JA UHA !O OXLOci tfHT tow A pair of Must dUVl r. e-$*brated general of h . oi i'l-raia. a loss so great Thy soothing breaat Spouse of the world Did balm to every woe afford ! . He waa born near gailMvd these in a . To scorn r because The family of Burmec WAV &m were descended from tka dMit kinrimaniie property in varioun qaM from the favor M wWNt for many Tlhr (A* year*. Barmec So sad a change of wayward fate .rks of earlier *hlc anthology. i < .3e A.THE RUIN OF THE BARMECIDES Time hath never shown No. for 'i Change a h.* time. t 1 WM i hightt -nrioiu In the East. The . and educate) ia Egypt.- and poMevwd no re conw- court of Bagdad. . Abu J .D '"f?. widowed world bewails her lord. strange to eay.



The great but gather to bestow. We may form an idea of the nature of his compositions from the nickname he acquired amongst his contemporaries of " Cock of the Evil Genii. And stagnates in the swamp below. Rakeek.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Canst thou a liberal hand upbraid For dealing round some worthless ore 211 ? To spare 's the wish of little souls. at an en- tertainment given by Abou Igy. TO A FEMALE CUP-BEAHER 9 (By ABU AL. A draught like this 'twere vain to seek. from her eye.AM) Come. Think not that we will take the cup From any hand but thine. three of the most celebrated improvisators in Bagdad. No grape can such supply . Leila. SAT. Yon current down the mountain rolls. Its brightness MASHDUD ON THE MONKS OF KEABBET 10 Tenants of yon hallowed fane! Let me your devotions share. under the patronage of the Abasside Caliphs." 10 The three following songs were written by Mashdud. There increasing raptures reign None his life are ever sober there. and Rais. . fill the goblet up. was spent at Bagdad. s Abu Al Salam was a poet more remarkable for abilities than morality. It steals its tint from Leila's cheek. Reach round the rosy wine.

Circling still with ceaseless flight. eye-balls dim and sunk Stream in penitential guise.THE SACRED BOOKS 212 Crowded gardens. Tenants of yon hallowed fane ! " . Though the brows of wisdom scowl. It can shed a luster round. Though your RAKEEK TO HIS FEMALE COMPANIONS Though the peevish tongues upbraid. Through the grove its beams display. with nectar crowned. Fair ones here on roses Careless will we laid. Till the streaks of gray expand Let O'er the fleeting robe of night. You can give in Khabbet's towers Purer joys and brighter wine. Let the cup. quaff the bowl. 'Tis but that the wine you've drunk Bubbles over from your eyes. it pass from hand to hand. Brighter than the torch of day. Though your pallid faces prove How you nightly vigils keep. festive bowers Ne'er shall claim a thought of mine . 'Tis but that you ever love Flowing goblets more than sleep. Seize the she does but cry. As night " flits. moments that remain Thus our joys with yours shall vie.

Pangs too true this heart have wrung. and as he goes Eend at once my bursting heart.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 218 DIALOGUE BY RAIS Rais Maid of sorrow. Ah! Destined now to keener woes. and passed the excellent of all their poets. charms I seek 'Tis the robe of beauty spread O'er Selim's rosy cheek. I must see the youth depart. Slumber may desert 'Tis not slumber's my bed. is reckoned by the Arabian writers as one of the moat by birth a Syrian. He must go. Since the snakes which curl around Selim's brows my bosom stung. He was greatest part of hia time at Emessa. . my TO A LADY WEEPING " (BY EBN ALBUMI) When I beheld thy blue eyes shine Through the bright drop that pity drew. us tell why Sad and drooping hangs thy head ? Is it grief that bids thee sigh ? Is it sleep that flies thy bed ? Lady I mourn no fancied wound. I saw beneath those tears of thine A 11 Ebn Alrumi blue-ey'd violet bathed in dew.

angry at his mule. TO CASSIM OBIO ALLAH 12 (BY ALI IBN AHMED) Poor Cassim thou ! By To misery i* All Ibn Ahmed historical doomed to mourn destiny's decree. a thoughtless. " scatters corn where'er she goes Quoth Hassan. When mirth sits smiling in thine eyes. That dropped a dinner to the crows. Its But sweetest through a veil dewy Its colors glow. Whatever happens and a art it must turn for thee. its odors breathe. He swears through two nostrils the breath goes too he's trying to breathe through but one. hues adorn the fairest wreath. So afraid of himself is he grown. And ON A MISER (By EBN ALBUMI) "Hang She her. and anxious to last. Who but admires their sprightly ray? But when through pity's flood they gleam. fast. wasteful fool. Who but must love their softened beam ? ON A VALETUDINARIAN (BY EBN ALRUMI) So careful is Isa. of considerable reputation. of which he waa the work .THE SACRED BOOKS 14 The violet ever scents the gale. distinguished himaelf in prose as well as poetry. And thus thy charms in brightness rise When wit and pleasure round thee play.

But he principally excelled in satire. and so fond was he of indulging this dangerous talent that no one escaped his lash. is The thought contained in these lines appears so natural and so obvious. is still extant. it was matter of indifference to him whether an enemy or a brother smarted under its severity. in tears With smiles their joy confessed. tears must doubly flow. With many a sad presaging tear This morn I saw her steal away. that one wonders it did not occur to all who have attempted to write upon a birthday or a death. The other was thy pest Ah. 898. author. ah! the other's left. the one thy pride.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Two 215 sons hadst thou. why did cruel death decide To snatch away the best ? . For dearer than a child was she. He died at Bagdad A. if he could only bring out a sarcasm. ! And ne'er shall I behold her more.D. And thou in smiles be dressed! Poor puss is gone 'Tis fate's decree Yet I must still her loss deplore. For. So live. . we saw thee drowned. Of such a But now thy child bereft. A FRIEND'S BIRTHDAY 13 When born. They may the flood of sorrow pour. While thine assembled friends around. No winder thou shouldst droop with woe. that at thy parting hour.

That thoughtless cats should love it thus ? Hadst thou but lived on rats and balance loss of time By eating faster than she crept. Why. Her subtle foes were on the watch. And while she hoped the birds to catch. Whene'er you give me drink I die. I. Thou hadst been Curst be the taste. And marked her course. In fancy she had got them all. And curst the dainty where we find Destruction lurking in the dish. only drank the draught of death. FIRE A The Riddle loftiest cedars I can eat. I saw her to the dove-house climb. With cautious feet and slow she stept Kesolved. An arrow's point the huntress caught. with fury fraught. living still. That prompts us for such joys to wish. . why was pigeons' flesh so nice. Yet neither paunch nor mouth have I storm whene'er you give me meat. howe'er refined.THE SACRED BOOKS 216 While she went on without a fear Except that she should miss her prey. . poor puss. And drunk their blood and sucked Alas! she only got a And their breath fall.

health and pleasure gay.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 217 TO A LADY BLUSHING " (By THE CALIPH RADHI BCT.T. I see deep'ning blush prevail. whene'er I gaze on thee altered cheek turns pale. Were not age and pain to say Man is but the child of woe ? Who. Range through hope's delusive Tell us what the smiling scene To your ardent grasp can yield Other youths have Deemed field. Ye who now. was the twentieth Caliph of the house of Abbas. My While upon A thine. . with footsteps keen. however pure.AH) Leila. son to Moctader. with i* Radhi Billah. Soon must totter and decay. were seen no more their joys Till themselves Swept into oblivion's shade. and the last of these princes who possessed any substantial power. Mortal bliss. / ON THE VICISSITUDES OF LIFE (BY THE CALIPH RADHI BILLAH) Mortal joys. Leila. ? oft before would never fade. E'er his fragile state could know. sweet maid. shall I the cause impart such a change takes place? The crimson stream deserts my heart. however sure. Why To mantle on thy face. Soon their turbid source betray .

soften'd into weeping. But vain's my wish. a load of grief she bears. the faster flows. While I would fain conceal my woes . till o'er its head The clouds A in thicken'd foldings spread robe of sable hue. gentle bird. Sure. the briny flood. And hid him from our view. The lightning laughed with horrid glare The thunder growled. in rage. Like me she sorrows. And silent grief and tears are mine. gathering round day's golden king. Like me. And plaintive murm'rings are thy part. ON A THTODEK-STORM (By IBRAHIM BEN KHIEET ABOU ISAAC) Bright smiled the morn. my drooping heart Divides the pangs of love with thine. Then. poured Its tears in many a flood.THE SACRED BOOKS 218 TO A DOVE (By SEBAGE ALWABAK) The dove to ease an aching breast. The rain his absent beams deplored. . the air In silent sorrow stood. The more I strive. for opprest. And. In piteous murmurs vents her cares. . Her plaints are heard in every wood. They stretched their wide o'ershadowing wing.

part no more. And left To Yet me cheer let Nor naught but love for thee. thy well-known voice repair. I saw thy terrors. they strove Each deep-laid scheme. In vain to wean my constant heart. Still to 5 219 . But waked my fears for her I love. not Abla sink deprest. Whilst at a distance far beneath We view thee with admiring eyes. Thou'rt doomed above us still to rise. That forced thee to those distant towers.LITERATURE OF THE EAST I saw their jealous eyeballs roll. each envious art. CRUCIFIXION OF EBN BAKIAH (BY ABU HASSAN ALANBAEY) Whate'er thy fate. I saw them mark each glance of mine. and my soul Shared ev'ry pang that tortured thine. meet more blest . Or quench my glowing flame. separation's pangs deplore We meet not We parted 'tis to 'tis to . The gazing crowds still round thee throng. in life and death. As when erewhile thy hallow d tongue Poured in the mosque the solemn prayer. my solitary hours. 'Twas this compelled the stern decree.

or highest rise . see thy dust disdain And now we Within her breast The to be confin'd.THE SACRED BOOKS 220 generous Vizier.MAAT. The spacious vault of heaven thy grave. in the festive day. lately. When they were stretched thy gifts to shed. humanity are universally celebrated. and he less conspicuous for penetrating. in ocean's cavern lies. and a poet. Another mansion thou shalt have The clouds shall be thy winding sheet. and as an orator. Still. a philoso- . Earth's narrow boundaries strove in vain To limit thy aspiring mind. the brave. Each lesser star that studs the sphere Sparkles with undiminish'd light. his genius was at once brilliant. nor was intellectual powers. we Thine arms extended As survey o'er our head. CAPRICES OF FORTUNE 15 (By SHEMS AT. generosity. He is described as possessed of almost every virtue and every accomplishment: his piety. justice. the queen of night. the wise. and unknown ? To sink forgotten to the dead ? tread ? 'Tis not the good. That surest shine. Dark and eclipsed alone appear The lord of day. earth's too small for one so great. History can show few princes so amiable and few so unfortunate as Shema Almaali Calms. solid.T CABUS) Why should I blush that Fortune's frown Dooms me life's humble paths to To live unheeded. The feather The pearl sports upon the wave. and he distinguished himself equally pher.

Cold as the music of his bass. As sense from Ebn Fahdi's head. Abou Jaber. He therefore ordered the poet to give a specimen of his talents. presses to the future day. amidst the tufted glade. and immediately produced these verses. Ebn Alramacram took his subject from the stormy appearance of the Abulfeda. we're doomed to travel o'er The fated track to all assigned. Or virtue from his heart. And leave the world to those behind. These follow those that went before. and the improvisatore poet. my And The dubious paths my footsteps balked. Ebn Fahdi. being one wintry evening engaged in a party of pleasure along with Barkaidy. As the flock Man seeks the pasturing shade. As if on Jaber's faith I'd walked. to IT The wolf.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 221 ON LIFE Like sheep. . The occasion of the following composition is thus related by Carawash. Or on his truth had trod. resolved to divert himself at the expense of his companions. EXTEMPORE VERSES 1T (By EBN ALRAMACKAM) Lowering as Barkaidy's face The wintry night came in. night. Like the dun robber. which at the same time should convey a satire upon the three courtiers. far as kept apart. And lengthened as his chin. While death. Ebn Alramacram. Sleep from aching eyes had fled. I slipp'd along the sod. Sultan of Mousel. 16 waits his prej. and a compliment to himself.

with all his man. but as a politician. Think not that stream will backward flow. With many a care and sorrow foul. Like Carawash's eye. a dark. ben Mohammed was a native of that part of Arabia called Hejaz. is Death bids us wake and And Is but a AH phantom of the night. ON THE DEATH OF A SON 18 (By ALI BEN MOHAMMED ALTAHMANT) man Imperious Fate bow before thy dread decree. tumultuous stream. Life a sleep of threescore years. Believe not Fate at thy command Will grant a meed she never gave . hail the light. and was celebrated not only as a poet.THE SACRED BOOKS 222 At length the rising King of day Burst on the gloomy wood. As soon the airy tower shall stand. Or cease its destined course to keep. As soon the blazing spark shall glow Beneath the surface of the deep. That's built upon a passing wave. hopes and fears. Yet thoughtless mortals vainly deem That it can yield a limpid bowl. is . Tyrant of I Nor hope To find Life is ! ! in this uncertain state a seat secure from thee. whose ray Dispenses every good.

thou in turn shalt give to me verdant couch upon thy breast.e. Wouldst thou a trembling flame expand. THE VALE OF BOZAA 20 (By AHMED BEN YUSEF ALMENAZY) The intertwining boughs for thee Have wove.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ON MODERATION IN OUR PLEASURES 19 (By ABU ALCASSIM EBN TABATABA) How oft does passion's grasp destroy that it strives to gain? The pleasure How soon the thoughtless course of joy to terminate in pain ? doomed Is When prudence would thy steps delay.. i. *o Ben Yusef for many years acted as vizier to Abu Nasser. sweet dell. Swift round the sinking flame it spreads. iTabataba deduced his pedigree from AH Ben Abu Taleb. But thy flask profusely sheds rushing torrent o'er the blaze. where he was appointed chief of the sheriffs. The feeding stream of life supply. That hastens in the lamp to die ? With careful touch. with the reputation of being one of the most excellent poets of his time. He died in the year of the Heglra 418. a dignity held in the highest veneration by every Mussulman. a verdant And A vest. the daughter of Mohammed. if A And kills the fire it fain would raise. Sultan . the descendants of the Prophet. But heightens and secures the rest. and Fatima. with sparing hand. He was born at Ispahan. She but restrains to make thee blest Whate'er from joy she lops away. . but passed the principal part of his life in Egypt.

THE SACRED BOOKS 224. he was perpetually engaged in contests either with the neighboring soverAfter many struggles he was eigns. who immediately ordered him to be seized. I'd lain the shapeless mass that nature made. Yusef's poetry must be looked upon merely as a jeu d''esprit suggested by the beauties of the vale of Bozaa. That not a maid can thither stray. by thy magic hand. But counts her strings of jewels o'er. great artist. or the princes of his own family. Than maddening drunkards ever quafFd. as he passed through it. A brighter cup. And honor's polish to the mind impart. So smooth the pebbles on its shore. His political talents are much praised. and conveyed to a place of security. ! To cast in virtue's mold the yielding heart. But formed. Abu Camel. Than all the treasures of the vine. Without thy wakening touch. To As anxious o'er her infant care I've seen a watchful mother bend. I gleam a sword to conquer and command. . shield me from day's fervid glare Thine oaks their fostering arms extend. and he is particularly celebrated for the address he displayed while upon an embassy to the Greek Emperor at Constantinople. chastening friend Adversity The mental ore to temper and refine. And thinks the pearls have slipped away. obliged to submit to his brother. thy plastic aid. I gather from that rill of thine. of Diarbeker. 21 The life of this prince was checkered with various adventures . a sweeter draught. TO ADVERSITY 21 (BY ABU MKNBAA C ABA WASH) 'Tis thine Hail.

Still struggle And e'er they Must win stretch their gloomy flight the lengthened space from day. Prove thee a Formed out Too long Upon Abu Alola is by nature's hand. of literature. Thy virtues famed through every land. . and adverse aim.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 225 ON THE INCOMPATIBILITY OF PRIDE AND TRUE GLORY 22 (By ABU ALOLA) Think not. VOL. And thus the falling shades of night with the lucid ray. VI. native bed. 15. divided moments share . . pride and fame Can ever travel hand in hand With breast opposed. aged eightysix. Thy spotless life. On the same narrow path they stand. What's here increased is lessened there. This can't advance till that retreat. in age and youth. esteemed as one of the most excellent of the Arabian He was born blind. now revenged called it to its the slight. beams of Orient light a thankless world were shed Allah has And its pearl. Abu Alola died at Maara in the year 1049. of purity and truth. Thus youth and age And life's together meet. Abdallah. . but this did not deter him from the pursuit poets.

Abla. AN EPIGEAM Whoever has recourse to thee Can hope for health no more. By thee alone unseen. But truth that breathed the tale. an Egyptian physician. But how thy mantle waves behind. . thor was a physician of Antioch. For Selim's tongue to praise. He's launched into perdition's A sea without a shore. When he describes the sense refined. One thee. 'Tis not that drunk with love he sees Ideal charms. Thine eyes unaided ne'er could trace Each opening charm. no Of many an unknown grace that dwells In Abla's face and mien. polished mirror can declare That eye so bright. ** Written to Abu Alchair Selamu. The au- . which only please Through passion's partial veil. That cheek which shames the rose . sea. Another only shows. That round thy person plays Some must remain concealed from For Selim's watchful eye to see. that face so fair. That lights thine eye and fills thy mind.THE SACRED BOOKS 226 TO A LADY when Selim tells No. each varied grace. 'Tis not that flattery's glozing tongue Hath basely framed an idle song. How float thy tresses on the wind.

A man like thee scarce A beard like thine e'er appeared where shall Surely thou cherishest thy beard In hopes to hide thyself behind it. ON A LITTLE MAN WITH A VERY LARGE BEARD (BY ISAAC BEN KHALJF) How can thy chin that burden bear Is Is it gravity to shock ? to make the people stare ? it all And ? be thyself a laughing stock ? When I behold thy little feet After thy beard obsequious run. I always fancy that I meet Some father followed by his son.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 227 Where'er admission them canst gain. At once the Doctor they retain. Where'er thy phiz can pierce. we find it? . The mourners and the hearse.

In every quivering of my A sympathetic sigh I hear The camel bending with spear . Mohammed and Massoud. he was defeated. . whose back I press. In groans laments her lord's distress . Or brother to partake my grief. but never lost The same bright orb that led the day Pours from the West his mellowed ray. and his son and grandson. And struggling through the thorny road. . his load. me mine shine. Zaura. and upon the fall of his master the vizier was seized and thrown into prison. The faithful beast. But Fortitude No shall stay my feet borrowed splendors round But Virtue's luster all is . a home for me .THE SACRED BOOKS 228 THE LAMENT OF THE VIZIER ABU ISMAEL 24 No kind supporting hand I meet. He devoted himself to the service of the Seljuk Sultans of Persia. spurned. concealed. Deserted. and enjoyed the confidence of Malec Shah. and driven from Mousel. aside I'm tossed. Massoud. 2* Abu Ismael was a native of Ispahan. A Fame unsullied still I boast. by the last of whom he was raised to the dignity of vizier. and at length sentenced to be put to death. being attacked by his brother Mahmoud. farewell ! No more I see walls. was not long in a condition to afford Abu Ismael any protection. Obscured. however. As an old sword whose scabbard's lost : Within thy Around thy walls I seek in vain Some bosom that will soothe my pain No friend is near to breathe relief. For many a melancholy day Through desert vales I've wound my way . for.

'Tis he that mien my friend declares. In Hassan's woes forgets his own . my labors close Give me not riches.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 'Midst the fatigues that bear him down. but repose. though with magic influence. There was a moment when I sought The glitt'ring stores Ambition claims To feed the wants his fancy frames . Dangers on every side impend. Once wealth. 'tis I. like the lance he bears . Yet cruel friends my wand'rings chide. careless of Thou thy friend ? while every star on high. That stature. dignity with ease. I see that breast which ne'er contained A thought by fear or folly stained. O'er every closing eyelid creep : Though drunk with its oblivious wine Our comrades on My their bales recline. 'tis past the changing day But now Has snatched And bade this wish my high-built hopes away. ere the changeful night Hath streak'd her fleeting robe with white. In business grave. My sufferings slight. 'Tis love that hurries I'm deaf The me along to fear's repressive rocks of Idham I'll song ascend. with a wakeful eye sleep'st Beholds me Thou changest. formed each varying taste to Can mingle please. 229 . in trifles gay. And sleep'st thou. I own. What. sleep. And. my toils deride. engrossed each thought. Whose powers can every change obey. 'tis I who speak. Selim's trance I sure can break Selim.

While slain by you the stately steed To crown the feast. vales Shall trace A I fear not love I bless the dart Sent in a glance to pierce the heart : . and softest looks diffuse. The clouds of fragrance as they rise mark the place where Abla lies. her bow'r appears Embosomed in a wood of spears A wood still nourished by the dews. What bliss. helpless sink and hopeless die . let us pierce the grove. gale may To breathe some solace to my care. spread their watchful rows . While every foible they disclose New transport gives. the enlivening bowl goes round. my of health hover there. And To guard the tresses of the fair. To crown the feast. Thrice happy youths! who midst yon shades Sweet converse hold with Idham's maids. hostile sabers glitter there. Come. to view them gild the hours. Which smiles. Amidst their bands. While night befriends. is doomed to bleed. Shall Like lions. 'Tis theirs to raise with conscious art The flames of love in every heart . new graces shows. And brighten wit and fancy's powers. Around her tent my jealous foes. 'Tis yours to raise with festive glee The flames of hospitality : Smit by their glances lovers lie. Selim. to seek my love. each care and heals each wound. where copious flows And The sparkling juice that soothes your woes.THE SACRED BOOKS X30 Though adverse darts each path defend. That As lulls Amidst those my eager feet Abla's dear retreat.

footsteps haunt. each bold design ? Then far from men some cell prepare . : Th' adventurous youths to greatness If bloated indolence were fame. While fools and knaves engrossed her cares. . by toil and pain The meed of Honor we must gain. Selim! my me from the grove. At Honor's Through call.LITERATURE OF THE EAST With 231 willing breast the sword I hail me through an half-closed veil : That wounds My howling round the shade. I've bent at Fortune's shrine too long Too oft she heard my suppliant tongue Too oft has mocked my idle prayers. ambition's tide. shall the spells of ease friendship chain. the camel hastes trackless wilds and dreary wastes. Or build a mansion in the air But yield to us. receive billows leave. love. my walks invade. Awake for them. asleep to me. And pompous ease our noblest aim. The orb that regulates the day Would ne'er from Aries' mansion rise . behind he cries. waves can ride Who fearless on its Enough for thee if thou The scattered spray the . stray. Till in the glorious race she find The By fleetest coursers left toils like these alone. Contempt and want the wretch await Who slumbers in an abject state 'Midst rushing crowds. No fears shall drive Though lions If Abla listen to Ah. decline Each gen'rous thought. thine ardor freeze Thy ! Wilt thou enchanted thus.

The saber glitter to the sight. When But all let my heart held me dear is gone ! check these fretful sighs Well may the base above me rise. her eyes more just surveyed Ah had ! The different claims which each displayed. . Hope ever soothed my breast with smiles The hand removed each gathering ill.THE SACRED BOOKS 232 Heedless of worth she scorned each plea. But. And oped life's closing prospects . 'midst my sorrows and my toils. Resigned I bow to Fate's decree. still. however bright. But ah. its polish vain. . My soul from every tarnish free May holdly vaunt her purity. Those eyes from partial fondness free Had slept to them. Why have my days been To see the vile While I. Am last and meanest of the throng ? Ah. When yonder planets as they run Mount in the sky above the sun. Yet spite of all her friendly art The specious scene ne'er gained my heart I loved it not although the day Met my approach. Till some bold hand the steel sustain. Nor hope his laws will change for me. who stretched by fate. I loath And now it fly me the hours retreat. why has death so long delayed To wrap me in his friendly shade. with reverted feet. and waked for me. Left me to wander thus alone. Its splendor's lost. and vicious great led the race so long. how keen. and cheered my way .

Upon no kindred bosom leans. only's fitted for the strife Which fills the boist'rous paths of life. But though with ills unnumbered curst. Who. For man can smile with specious art. And He plant a dagger in the heart. But proves the ruthless tyrant's power. And now I see them as they are. each varying hour. Too long my foolish heart had deemed Mankind as virtuous as they seemed The spell is broke. And ocean's yawning borrows brave. As from the right line's even way The biassed curves deflecting stray But what avails it to complain ? With souls like theirs reproof is vain . Truth from each tainted breast has flown. With honest pride elate. falsehood marks them all her own. When long ere this my mouth has drained Whatever Why zest the should cup contained? we mount upon the wave. as he treads the crowded scenes. And suck the dregs with sorrow foul.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Each shifting scene. And Incredulous I listen now To every tongue. But why exhaust life's rapid bowl. For still there yawns a gulf between Those honeyed words. When we may swallow from the flask Whate'er the wants of mortals ask ? 233 . and what they mean . If honor e'er such bosoms share The saber's point must fix it there. their faults are bare. We owe to faithless man the worst. I see The sons of falsehood shrink from me. and every vow. .



Contentment's realms no fears invade,
cares annoy, no sorrows shade,


There placed secure, in peace we

Nor aught demand


make us



While pleasure's gay fantastic bower,
The splendid pageant of an hour,
Like yonder meteor in the skies,
Flits with a breath no more to rise.

As through


various walks we're led,
o'er our head!
she our words, our actions guide,


faults correct, our secrets hide



May she, where'er our footsteps stray,
Direct our paths, and clear the way!

every scene of tumult past,

She bring us to repose at last,
Teach us to love that peaceful

And roam


through folly's wilds no more !





The religion sacred to philosophers is to study that which is,
most sublime worship one can render to God is the recfor
ognition and knowledge of his works."


name " Moor " is used loosely to describe all those
peoples who sprang from the mingling of the Berber,


or Hamitic, stock of North Africa, with the Arabs or Semitic stock who swept over the region in the Mohammedan

The chief achievement of this mixed or Moorish
race was the establishment of their brilliant kingdom and
independent caliphate in Spain. Under the most powerful
of these Spanish caliphs, Ahderrahman III. (A.D. 912-961),
their capital Cordova had six hundred mosques, including its

celebrated chief mosque, the most beautiful building of

that age in Europe.
The Moorish kingdom of Spain had
then seventeen universities and over seventy large libraries.

was the most cultured land of Europe, the goal of scholars
from less peaceful and less learned Christendom.
The Moorish kingdom in the course of the twelfth century

broke up into many tiny States. These soon fought among
themselves and plunged each other into a common ruin.
African Moors, of far more ignorant and fanatic type, came
to aid their Spanish brethren;

and under the pressure of

these barbarians, culture rapidly declined.
The universities
were broken up. The great scholar Averroes, who had been

the pride of his nation, was accused of heresy.
ings were found not sufficiently subservient to the



Koran and

1195, he was driven into exile. This event, or
Averroes' death soon afterward, may be reckoned as marking
the downfall of the Moorish leadership in science and
finally, in


In our volume we give some of Averroes' most celebrated



commentaries, as typifying the culmination of Moorish culWe give also, as its opening note, the speech with

which Tarik, the

conqueror of Spain, in the year A.D. 711
and began the
attack upon the earlier Christian inhabitants.
This speech
does not, however, preserve the actual words of Tarik; it

led his


to cross the Straits of Gibraltar

only presents the tradition of them as preserved by the
Moorish historian Al Maggari, who wrote in Africa long
after the last of the Moors had been driven out of Spain.

Al Maggari's day the older Arabic traditions of exact service
had quite faded. The Moors had become poets and dreamers
The very name
instead of scientists and critical historians.
of Al Maggari's history may be accepted as typifying its


called it


Breath of Perfumes."


preach the resurrection were the prophets of

first to

Israel after Moses, then the Evangelical Christians, then the
Sabians, whose religion has been called by Ibn-Hazm the old-

The reason so many founders of religion
dogma was because they supposed this belief
would moralize men and induce them to be virtuous in their
own interests. I do not quarrel with Al Ghazali or Motecalest in the world.

established this

lemin for saying that the soul
idea that the soul



again the body which

is immortal, but I object to the
accident, and that a man can take
has fallen into decay.
No, he may take


first, but that which has been dead can
These two bodies are only one, viewed
Aristotle has said
as a species, but they are two in number.
in the last lines of his
Generation and Corruption : "A
body once corrupted can never become the same again; it
can never return as an individual whole, but it can return
When air sepato the specific variety of which it is a part.
rates from water or water separates from air, each of these
substances can not become again the thing it was, but must

another, similar to the

not return to

return to






have we come to adopt these tales of the creation?
Through habit. Just as a man inured to poison can take it
with impunity, so a man used to them from childhood can
Therefore the opinaccept the most unbelievable opinions.
ions of the masses are only formed through habit.
The peohear
incessantly repeated.
that is why the power of religion is so much stronger than
that of philosophy, for it is not accustomed to hearing the
opposite of its belief, a thing which happens very often to



philosophy: So one sees frequently, nowadays, men who,
having entered suddenly into the study of the speculative sci-

which they have only held
through habit,
The religion sacred to philosophers is to study that which
is, for the most sublime worship one can render to God is the
recognition and knowledge of his works, which leads us to
know him, himself, in all his reality. In the eyes of God
ences, lose the religious beliefs

that is the noblest action, while the vilest action is to tax with
error and presumption those who practise this worship, higher

than any other, who adore him by this religion, the best of



Among the most dangerous of these fictions concerning a
future life are those which counsel virtue as a means of arIn that case virtue is no longer worth
riving at happiness.
only abstains from voluptuousness in the
hope of being doubly repaid in the future. The brave will
only seek death to evade a worse evil. The good will only
respect the belongings of others in order to acquire twice as



forbidden because it excites wickedness and
but I am preserved from those excesses by wisdom :


I take it only to sharpen

my wits.


That renegade philosopher, Al Ghazali, has gathered up
all he learned from the writings of the philosophers, and has
turned against them the arms he borrowed from them.


for us, the philosophers, at the risk of exposing ourselves to the rage of the persecutors of philosophy, which was
i It is unfortunate tliat both the
philosopher and his opponents
should have advanced the same argument in defense of themselves

namely, their own wisdom. The Arab philosophers were, amongst their
kind, something like the libertins of the seventeenth century in France.
" I have seen
one read the Koran, assist at
Often," says Al Ghazali,
prayers, and praise religion aloud. When I
asked him, 'If you consider prophetism as false, why do you pray?'
he responded, ' It is an exercise of the body, a custom of the country,
a method of having your life saved.' Yet he did not cease from drinking wine, and delivering himself to all sorts of abominations and impieties."

our mother, we will, when the time
hidden in Al Ghazali's book.


is ripe,


uncover the poison

social state does not bring out all the resources


possibilities there are in women ; it would seem that they are
only destined to bear and rear children, and this state of servi-

tude has destroyed in them the capability for larger things.
That is why one never sees, with us, a woman possessed of
the moral virtues
their lives pass like those of flowers,

and they are a burden upon their husbands. From this
comes also the misery which devours our cities, for there
are twice as many women there as men, but the former are
not permitted to work for their




father aided in rescuing from prison Ibn Badja, who
father does not understand that

was accused of


own son will one day be regarded
God alone knows if I am one; but




was only the intrigues of


as a far worse heretic.
it is

absolutely certain

enemies which led to

condemnation. I thought only of editing Aristotle and
establishing accord between religion and philosophy.





When Tarik had been informed of the approach of the
enemy, he rose in the midst of his companions and, after having glorified God in the highest, he spoke to his soldiers thus
" Oh
my warriors, whither would you flee ? Behind you
You have left now only
is the sea, before you, the enemy.
the hope of your courage and your constancy.
that in this country you are more unfortunate than the or:

phan seated at the table of the avaricious master. Your
enemy is before you, protected by an innumerable army; he


in abundance, but you, as your only aid, have your
swords, and, as your only chance for life, such chance
If the
as you can snatch from the hands of your enemy.
absolute want to which you are reduced is prolonged ever so
VOL. VI. 16.





little, if you delay to seize immediate success, your good fortune will vanish, and your enemies, whom your very presence
has filled with fear, will take courage. Put far from you

the disgrace from which you flee in dreams, and attack this
monarch who has left his strongly fortified city to meet you.
Here is a splendid opportunity to defeat him, if you will

Do not believe
consent to expose yourselves freely to death.
that I desire to incite you to face dangers which I shall reIn the attack I myself will be in the
fuse to share with you.
where the chance of





that if


will afterward enjoy

life is


suffer a



few moments in patience,


not imagine

that your fate can be separated from mine, and rest assured
that if you fall, I shall perish with you, or avenge you.

have heard that in this country there are a large number of
ravishingly beautiful Greek maidens, their graceful forms are
draped in sumptuous gowns on which gleam pearls, coral, and
purest gold, and they live in the palaces of royal kings. The

Commander of True Believers, Alwalid, son of Abdalmelik,
has chosen you for this attack from among all his Arab warriors and he promises that you shall become his comrades and

rank of kings in this country. Such is his confidence in your intrepidity. The one fruit which he desires
to obtain from your bravery is that the word of God shall be
shall hold the

exalted in this country, and that the true religion shall be

The spoils will belong to yourselves.
that I place myself in the front of this glorious
I exhort you to make.
At the moment when

established here.



charge which
the two armies meet hand to hand, you will see me, never
doubt it, seeking out this Roderick, tyrant of his people, chalIf I perish after
lenging him to combat, if God is willing.

have had at least the satisfaction of delivering
you will easily find among you an experienced hero,
to whom you can confidently give the task of directing you.
But should I fall before I reach to Roderick, redouble your
ardor, force yourselves to the attack and achieve the conquest
this, I will

of this country, in depriving
soldiers will

him of

no longer defy you."


With him

dead, his



"Fortune, that whilom owned my sway,
And bowed obsequious to my nod,

Now sees me destined to obey,
And bend beneath oppression's




. Poetry indeed became their tury. and Isabella. 1492. long remained popular in Spain. The victors knew how to value the spirit and ballads of Moorish origin. did not fall before the advancing Christians until kingdoms. they still retain the keys of their mansions in Granada. and its withdrew to Africa. of the best known of them is given here. Ferdinand Then. they .POETRY OF THE SPANISH MOOES (INTRODUCTION) the scientific leadership of the Moors faded with their military unity in the twelfth cen- WHILE the breaking of still retained in some of their smaller kingdoms. treasuring them up for the day of their triumphant return. a high degree of culture. main Granada. as our histories have so often told. Of the Moorish poetry which survived the fall of Granada. There. the Christian rulers of Spain. people cording to a characteristically dreamy legend. The love of beauty and the spirit of romance were strong among all the Spanish Moors and so their poetry continued long after science failed them. conducted a Its last fortress holy war for the destruction of Granada. and especially in that of Granada. thors of most of these have been forgotten. 245 The telling of The text of au- some . of the vanquished Moorish loves. acsurrendered. much was preserved by the Spaniards themselves and in the Spanish language. the last of all their Spanish expression.

While these dear maids in beauty's bloom. A shower descends from every eye. and the only prince who ever presided over it as a separate kingdom seems to have been Mohammed ben Abad. With want opprest. And bowed obsequious to my nod. but being attacked by Joseph. For thirty-three years he reigned over Seville and the neighboring districts with considerable reputation. was defeated.MOOEISH POETKY With jocund heart and cheerful brow I used to hail the festal morn How must Mohammed greet A it now ? prisoner helpless and forlorn. That wakes not an attending sigh.D. Those radiant cheeks are veiled in woe. the author of these verses. 1087. By sordid labors at the loom Must earn a poor. son to the Emperor of Morocco. Must struggle through the miry clay. It did not long retain its independence. at the head of a numerous army of Africans. where he died in the year A. 248 . Now bare and swolTn with many a wound. and thrown into a dungeon. Fortune. with rags o'erspread. And not a starting tear can flow. precarious bread. Till musk or camphor strewed the way. Those feet that never touched the ground. taken prisoner. that whilom owned my sway. i Seville was one of those small sovereignties into which Spain had been divided after the extinction of the house of Ommiah.

Ben Abad returned to Africa. A. thine eye . canst thou 'tis its doom me. After the fall of his master. you cried out with scorn.D. Who And own that bliss is but a dream. he was much patronized by Mohammed. You flouted. 1087. They ought to be heavy and wrinkled and yellow. And bend beneath oppression's rod.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 247 Now sees me destined to obey. see the legend respecting him in the Koran." 6 Written to a lady upon her refusal of a present of melons. whom those graces adorn. edge to fly. * The poet here alludes to the punishments denounced in the Koran " Their couch shall be against those who worship a plurality of Gods in hell. and her rejection of the addresses of an admirer. THE INCONSISTENT 5 When I sent you my melons. Ye mortals with success elate. and over them shall be coverings of fire. bask in hope's delusive beam. cruel fair. 4 of scorn to groan idol e'er this heart could share. but having passed over to Spain. Sultan of Seville. SERENADE TO MY SLEEPING MISTRESS a (Br ALI BEN ABAD) Sure Harut's Upon For if it When How that 3 potent spells were breathed magic sword. A wicked angel who is permitted to tempt mankind by teaching them magic. Plunged in the No vain hell ? This heart has worshiped thee alone. drawn. and called me an ugly old fellow. wounds us thus while sheathed. When I offered myself. and died at Tangier. : . Attentive view Mohammed's fate. 2 This author was by birth an African .

throw wide the door . The day of the Baptist is 4 festival among the Mussulmans. then clangs the loud tam- bour." The ballad is one of very many in which the dexterity of the Moorish cavaliers in the bull- The reader will observe that the shape. He hath summoned all the Moorish lords. The Alcayde of Algava to fight the bull doth come. And they have closed the spacious lists beside the Alhambra's gate. just as the qualities of a modern race-horse might be among ourselves: nor is the bull without big name. from Betis and Xenil. activity. Blow. M well as among Christiana. . The onset of the beasts abide. make room for Gazul throw wide. from the hills and plains around . fight is described. From vega and sierra. as they come rushing through The deeds they've done. hope and trust. Gazul is the name of one of the Moorish heroes who figure in the " Hittoria de lag Guerras Civile* de Granada. blow the trumpet clearer still. within the tented ring. fill all with . more loudly strike the drum. the spoils they've won. Make room. In gowns of black and silver laced. Eight Moors to fight the bull are placed in presence of the King. and resolution of the unhappy animal destined to furnish the amusement of the spectators are enlarged upon. Eight Moorish lords of valor tried. 'Tis the holy Baptist's feast they hold in royalty and state. he hath bid the trumpet sound.THE SACRED BOOKS 248 THE BULL-FIGHT OF GAZUL King Almanzor of Granada. They have come with helm and cuirass of gold and twisted steel. with stalwart arm and true. Yet ere high in heaven appears the sun they dust Then sounds all have bit the the trumpet clearly.

and two come roaring on.LITERATURE OF THE EAST And first before the King he 249 passed. 'twas whiter than the snow. Gazul. From Gaudalarif of the plain. Yet proudly in the center hath Gazul ta'en his stand And and lords with anxious ladies look with heaving breast. Beneath the oak-trees was he nursed. Dark And is his the hide on either side. . beast upon the breast he deals him such a blow blindly totters and gives back. as he paws to the tur- dun hide moil. with reverence stooping low. he comes not from Xenil. this proud and stately steer. without stand whisper- " ing low. thinks this proud alcayde to stun Harpado so Now ? " From Guadiana comes he not. rises Each furious He " " the Turn. and the Infantas all a-row. Then to his lady's grace he turned. glows. and they are set in crystal rings of snow But now they stare with one red glare of brass upon the foe. And next he bowed him to the Queen. across the sand to go. His eyes are jet. eye. But firmly he extends his arm his look is calm and high. and she to him did throw A scarf from out her balcony. The mountaineers that lead the steers. But where from out the forest burst Xarama's waters clear. He high in stirrup. Three bulls against the knight are loosed. as if on fire. his nostrils snuff the wind . or Barves of the hill . . but the blood within doth boil. With the life-blood of the slaughtered lords all slippery is the sand. . forth stretching his rejon. Low to the sand his head holds he. turn people cry ! the third comes up behind.

lady. His hams legs are short. like billows curled. they drag Harpado with a loud and joyful din. thrice meet. in vain thou tearest the sand with furious heel In vain. And away . thou fearless Once more advance upon his lance one! Once more. like the trunk of some old knotted His neck is Whereon the monster's shaggy mane. from thy stand. thou noble beast. his hoofs are black as night. Like a strong flail he holds his tail in fierceness of his might Like something molten out of iron. out the broad and wrinkled skull. that hath laid Harpado low. Now keen and cold thy neck must hold the stern cdcayde's dagger! They have slipped a noose around his feet. I see. like daggers they ap- pear. see. close they come stops the drum and thrice give back. I see thee stagger. massy. rock. and the ring of price bestow Upon Gazul of Algava. in vain.THE SACRED BOOKS 250 Upon From the forehead of the bull the horns stand close and near. in dust and gore to ruin must thou reel In vain. six horses are brought in. once more . Harpado of Xarama Now The stands. ye tree. close. Now stoop thee. his are thick. white foam of Harpado lies on the charger's breast of black The white foam of the charger on Harpado's front of dun once more. to bide the alcayde's shock. or hewn from forth the .

LITERATURE OF THE EAST THE 251 ZEGRI'S BRIDE T Of all the blood of Zegri. he looked upon his lady's boon. amethyst nor garnet is shining on his brow. They have housened his barb in a murky garb. of the Zegri blood." quoth he. From the place of his dominion. decks him now. tahali. " God " what fate may be I may be knows. nor rich embroidery Of gold-wrought No No robe or turban nor jeweled . stout . which damsels weave at Tunis. his bonnet doffeth he. crimson sleeve. the hilt is dim. right heavy heart had he . This " ballad is also from the Guerras Civttea. slaughtered soon. he rides in weed of woe. but nothing else is white. the chief is Lisaro. to fling his lusty reed gambeson of silk is on. when ye have seen him speed To No the field of gay Toledo. And ever as they rode. with Lisaro go out No flashing spear may tell them near. but the sheathed blade is bright . Fair Zayda to her Zegri gave that token privily. In darkness and in swiftness rides every armed knight The foam on the rein ye may see it plain. Between its folds a sprig it holds of a dark and glossy tree That sprig of bay. * The reader can not need to be reminded of the fatal effects which were produced by the feuds subsisting between the two great families. but yet their shafts are . he ere the dawn doth From Alcala de Henares. Four horsemen good. Young Lisaro. go. of the Zegris and the Abencerrages of Granada. as on they go. or rather races. He rides not now as he was wont." . but yet her hoofs are light. or javelin to throw. To wield rejon like him is none. were it away. The belt is black.

pearl and of silver. And what to say when he comes back. The raging sire. but of gold and glittering sheen. well could see them riding slow. 'Twas thus. pure as those earrings pale When he comes back." Lisaro was musing so. spoke Albuharez' daughearrings And what ! my earrings ! to say to ter " The well water is deep. That when my Moor was far away. when he spake his sad farewell. That I ne'er to other tongue should list. ! " My earrings my earrings they were pearls in silver set. far down they lie. ZARA'S EARRINGS " My they've dropped into the well." Muga. beneath the cold blue To me did Muga give them. Fought well that day.THE SACRED BOOKS Thou art mine. with radiance insincere . jasper and of onyx. Oh. I can not. what will Muga think of me. when onward on the path. alas I can not tell. can not tell. I ne'er should him forget. and hears that I have dropped them in the well. the kinsmen of Zayda's hateful house. I can not. But remember he my lips had kissed. earrings ! he'll say they should have been. though scarce the sign of still hope that bloomed whilere. then pricked he in his Young He wrath. nor smile on other's ! ! tale. Granada's fountain by. earrings ! my Not of Of Changing to the changing light. yet in the fray the Zegri won his spouse. and of diamond shining clear. can not " My tell. But in grave I yet shall have my my Zayda's token dear.

among my tresses noosed. He'll think some other lover's hand. And that deep his love lies in my heart. twilight at the Vega gate there is a trampling heard. He'll think a willing ear I lent to all the lads might say . what chief come these " A " bewailing ? tower is fallen. and we are all the same He'll say I loved when he was here to whisper of his flame But when he went to Tunis my virgin troth had broken. a star is set. Alas ! alas for Celin " ! . to say. alas I can not tell. His earrings in my hand I held. and I hope he will believe That I thought of him at morning. ! O alas luckless." THE LAMENTATION FOR CELIN At At the gate of old Granada. ! I can not tell. and care not for his token. alas ! I can not tell. unloosed He'll think. My my rings of pearl . as they lie in the well. I am a woman. and a heavy sound of woe. " I'll tell the truth to Muga. musing on my lover. My earrings For what ! my earrings to say to Muga. when all its bolts are barred. as of horses treading slow. by the fountain all alone. There is a trampling heard. .LITERATURE OF THE EAST That changeful mind unchanging gems are not 258 befitting well Thus will he think and what to say. From the ears where he had placed them. when I was sporting so beside this marble well. and what pearls fell in ! " He'll say. when down the sun was gone. And a weeping voice of women. fell. and thought of him at eve That.' " He'll think when I to market went. luckless well. And thought no more of Mua. " What tower is fallen. And that my mind was o'er the sea. what star is set. when from my hand they . I loitered by the way .

above the purple pall. When And stops the muffled wailing. each eye as they go by. far drum. the haughty sight to share. flower of all Granada's youth. Behind him his four sisters. With ashes on their turbans spread. dark eyes are The closed. " Alas alas for Celin " is ! ! Him yesterday a Moor did slay. each wrapped in sable veil. and mournfully they go. the ladies are bewailing. and wide the doors they throw. And evermore the hoarse tambour breaks in upon their wailing. His dark. For he was Granada's darling knight. the loveliest of them all . most pitiful to view. crust of blood lies black and dim upon his burnished mail. 'Twas at the solemn jousting. Dejectedly they enter. all the people. In gloomy lines they mustering stand beneath the hollow porch. ye hear their brotherless " and near. Its sound is like no earthly sound " Alas ! alas for Celin " ! . and all around is wailing. of Bencerraje's blood. three times they cry. around the nobles stood . For all have heard the misery. cry Alas ! be- alas for Celin!" Oh ! The lovely lies he on the bier. " Alas alas for ! Celin!" Before him ride his vassals. But now the nobles all lament.THE SACRED BOOKS 254 Three times they knock. Between the tambour's dismal strokes take up their doleful tale. and ladies bright and fair Looked from their latticed windows. Each horseman grasping torch Wet in his hand a black and flaming . The nobles of the land were by. in order two by two. his rosy lip is pale.

She knows not whom they all lament.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The Moorish maid at the lattice stands. like horn her glazed eye. 'Twas she that nursed him at her breast. and ashes black they strew their broidered garments of crimson. that nursed him long ago. the 255 Moor stands at his door. One maid is wringing of her hands. " Alas high and low ! alas for Celin!" An old. With one deep shriek she through doth break. and one is weeping sore Down to the dust men bow their heads. then bursts the loud be- Upon wailing. From door and lattice. Her hair is white as silver. but soon she well shall know. and blue Before each gate the bier stands still. green. when her ears receive their wailing Celin ere I die me kiss " Let my Alas ! alas for Celin " ! . when she hears the people cry. old woman cometh forth.


OLD BEGINNING. Once upon a time" THE OLD. well that I should mirth . 'tis 17. and glee enjoy" SULTAN MURAD II. VI. I live.TURKISH LITERATURE LEGEND AND POETRY AMONG THE TURKS " While still VOL.


LEGEND AND POETRY AMONG THE TURKS (INTRODUCTION) literature. poetry improved upon. They then possessed legends or childish tales of their own which still survive. and these are still told among One or two of the mass of the people with simple faith. So great. its forms. were a Tartar or Turanian tribe from Central Asia who adopted the Mohammedan faith and began their conquest of the Mohammedan world about the year 1300. is perhaps not an unfair estimate of the extent of the Turks' indebtedness to the earlier races and religion upon which their civilization is built. Our book gives a series. while not seeming to leave much of the original Turk. in literature. most of the Semitic literatures from which it is sprung. and every second impulse Mohammedan. when the first Turkish epic poet Ahmedi presented to Sultan Bajazet's son his long epic history of Alexander the Great. but scarcely themselves. to the race. Turkish from the year fourteen hundred down every Sultan. as pointed out in our general inis of a less advanced character than that of TURKISH troduction. Persian. of the best of these royal poems. An epigrammatic summary of the Turkish character has said that every fourth word of Turkish is Arabic. that is. Turkish poetry has chiefly followed the Arabic fashion of expending We itself are told that upon language rather than upon thought. these are given here. has written poetry. the prince rebuked the poet's years of 259 . The Ottoman Turks. the Turks who founded the Turkish present Empire. inbecame the Turkish admiration for poetry that almost deed. tated. to poetry. show the natural human character of The Turks next Mohammedan Persian turned. imiand the Turks its then at best was . by to the present. every third idea This.

for instance. compared by the Turks to a flower with its petals constantly overlapping. Oglu (1449). The romantic song is that of Sheykhi (1426) on the loves of Among 1412). Yet as the life of a Turkish woman of rank is carefully secluded. and Nabi were also noted singers of the sixteenth century. and ending at the point where they began. est rank. who died in 1332 and whose very name is forgotten. Turkish ashiq means merely with the of an unknown lover. Of poets accounted of the highwere the then. exIt is. cept that the gazel is by far more intricate. Mihri has been called the Turkish Sappho." called These. Her poems are mere dreams of fancy. scholar poet. the earliest is Ahmedi (died the Book of Alexander the Great. since " the lover." In other words. poems Ashiq Turkish word for such collections . Hence it is chiefly to that the poetic genius of the Turks all They have a favorite form called the gazel. saying that one tiny. in fact. a dervish or monk who delved into the older Persian literature and drew his themes perhaps from ancient He is usually named as the second greatZoroastrian tales. Zey- . both in literature and in mili- est of tary glory. and then through the whole poem the second line of each couplet repeats this opening rhyme.THE SACRED BOOKS 260 labor. but for life and God. the gazel opens with a rhyming couplet. Gazali. Persian and called a usual of are the divan. early singers. beginning with their first poet Ashiq. no scandal ever attached to her personal life. forming a circle. which was the great age of the Turkish Empire." which might be likened to our English sonnet. Turkish poets. not apbegins poetry passion The collected parently for woman. Turkish epic poets. who wrote first The first religious epic is that of Yazijithe "Book of Mohammed. In rhyme. but very little of the divan of Ashiq has survived. Of the two poetesses on our list. Fuzuli. We have tried to give the chief Turkish poets in somewhat chronological order. Lamii was the the maiden Shirin. " poem would the epic. the earliest was Nejati (1508). perfectly polished have been worth more than the polishing of tiny poems has been applied.

The very name Baqi means " that which lasts. Baqi was at first a saddler. Poetry was the avocation of the great lawyer's leisure. All other singers. but he studied law and rose to the highest legal position of the empire. " Fleeting is the world." so it has been frequently punned upon. himself used a seal with a Persian couplet. and without faith (or.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 261 neb was equally honored. The all else is fleet! oa' . however. Baqi alone is god) God alone endures . and it won him the admiring friendship of the four successive Sultans who reigned during his life. are accounted by the Turks inferior to the great lyric poet Baqi (1526-1600)." or " the enduring. a lady of high rank and a student of the Persian and Arabic poets.

the eldest sister said. with anger and spite. however. shining Sun. . however. who basket." The wicked Rosa girls. and she 262 .OLD TURKISH TALES THE QUEEN OF NIGHT Once upon a time there was an old man who had three All of them were beautiful. but also daughters. the sisters stood at their open and window the who all over wanderest Sun. So. whose name was Rosa. and surrounded on all sides by to the for their father's dinner. complied. and they resolved to ask the Sun's opinion on the subject. led her to a spot she had never before visited. was not only more lovely. world. " we Do will return. Jealous and envious exceedingly were the two sisters when they found that the fame of Rosa's beauty was greater than the fame of theirs. one day at dawn. they were beside themselves The Sun tiful replied. we will go a little farther on. to her fate. They. gather all the herbs that are here . went straight home. they on the following day invited Rosa to accompany them wood to gather a salad of wild herbs The unsuspecting Rosa at once took her and set out with her sisters. a long way from her father's house. When they were arrived. Saying nothing to her of what the Sun had told them." When the two girls heard this. more amiable and more intelligent than the others. thou. daughters ? " " I am beautiful. hut the youngest. Rosa. abandoning When some hours had passed. refused to believe that Rosa was really more lovely than they were. and you are both beaubut your youngest sister is the most beautiful of all. our father's who is the most beautiful among say " cried. and determined to get rid of the sister who so outshone them. and when we have filled our baskets forest.

Seated on a great tree-trunk. The birds ceased their songs. Gladly the poor girl accompanied the Queen to her palace. like the sparkling through the wood and advanced toward the spot where she sat. the melancholy hoot of an owl. Too innocent to suspect them of the wicked treachery of which they had been guilty. perfectly well how it had all happened. But let us now leave this lucky girl with the Queen of . and wept more Attracted by the sound of her sobbing. and the silence of the forest was broken only by the flutter of a bat or great gray moth. and in a kind and gentle voice asked how she came to be there. she only blamed herself for her carelessness. After a time the sun set. have wandered from the spot where her sisters had left her. who. bitterly than ever. It was the Queen of Night. and being. Eosa rustle wept more and more bitterly as the darkness deepened. " told her story. while seeking for the herbs. her the mistress of her palace. for it was now near dawn. dazzled and frightened. and darkness fell." said the Queen. and did everything in her power to make her adopted daughter She gave Rosa the keys of all her treasures. dear girl I will be your and mother. she feared that she might. reassured by the benign countenance of the of many stars. Hours passed.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 263 found that they did not return. made happy. and no one came to her aid. and wept bitterly at the thought of remaining all night alone in the wild and lonely wood. attended by all her court. you shall be my daughter. down to die. the twilight came and passed. Rosa. Come then and live with me. the air grew chilly and faint with hunger and cold. covered her face with her hands. as we know. and the faint little made by the other flying and creeping things that come forth with the stars. her protectress soon became very fond of her. Rosa looked up. shot Queen of Night. and let her do whatever she pleased. when suddenly a brilliant light. and. who . the Radiant Lady approached the weeping girl. she was about to lay herself . was returning to her palace after her usual journey. as amiable and intelligent as she was knew beautiful.

" Rosa watched her sisters from the window till they were ! . again before long and bring our father with us." " Do. Rosa still lives. Well. she offered them everything she had. they set out. Though she must either have perished of hunger believed they fully or been devoured by wild beasts. and you are quite certain. pretended to be over- them joyed at finding again the sister they had mourned as lost. " tell us who is the most beautiful of our father's daughters ? " The Sun replied as before. but your youngest sister is the most beautiful of all. and she palace of the Queen of Night. and tell my dear father that I will go to see him as soon as my kind protectress may give me leave." When the sisters heard this. Rosa was de- lighted to see them. on their part. Sun.THE SACRED BOOKS 264 little while. When they had eaten and drunk of the good things she set before them. shining Sun. their rage and spite is in the knew no Long they consulted together as to the best means of bringing about her death. to make Night for a window and cried. and congratulated her on her good fortune. Let me pin it round " she added. kissing her your shoulders. went again to their " both beautiful. dear sisters. and presently arrived at the palace at an hour when they knew that the Queen of Night would be absent and they might find their sister alone. and pressed to remain. and were about to take their departure." said she. decided to obtain from a witch of their acquaintance an enchanted kerchief which would make the person wearing it ap- pear to be dead. the eldest sister produced from her basket the enchanted kerchief. who wanderest all over the world. and finally these wicked girls bounds. dear Rosa. and return to her sisters. dear " we will come and see you affectionately on both cheeks. They." replied the Sun. should like you to wear for our sakes." " " " But Rosa has long been dead ! " No. I am beautiful. Good-bye. they after a time. " " is a little present which we Here. and welcoming them warmly. she loved her sisters very dearly. for though they had often been unkind to her.

-IHT ngitap-- the palace at . and welcoming them offered th.At for a little the while. and return to her sisters. present which me your we ro pin added. to D in. me and aftV again it l N . that I will go to indow till they were . Rosa was de"'or though they had often been unkind to od her sisters very dearly.MO /aa:jp . and pressed to be over- abp> wai> in the sister they had mourned as I !iad irs alx>ut to take .-e. ti. is you are the most beauti- " I still Jives. been dead " Rosa un. i acquaintance an en- might find their sister alone. who v -autiful of v as before. ^ she had. kissing her .ueen of 2*ight would be . us tell window and at again to their 4'iite cer shin '. either have perished of or been devoured by wild beasts. over the world.TiiiH* an am. but vour youngest sister . they after a time.e eldest sister prodi. all t our father's daughter ' ! ful. and she is in the knew no . dear Ros< ind she set befor* '.osa has long cried.: see you r.



When she had unpinned and taken it off. Is it quainting her with her sisters' cruel perfidy. poor child. and then turned to the embroidery-frame which She had not. Rosa ? I should like to have it for myself. I have not told you that I had a great pleasure yesterday. she on the sofa and When fell back Queen of went as was her came she first. smiled and stretched out her arms to her dear mother. opened her eyes. and letting her work slip from her hands. saying. given " it to you. however. and. giddy ascertain whether her death ! I suppose. bringing this kerchief as " not pretty ? These words told the Queen of Night the secret of the whole matter . and finding her thus. broidery-frame . and ." " But where did you get this ? " asked the Queen.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 265 out of sight. and seeing the Queen bending over her. over that emmouth. Rosa heaved a deep sigh. and the maiden Distracted with grief. Will you give it to me. for I don't recollect any- thing else. made many stitches. she observed that the kerchief on her shoulders was not one that her daughter was in the habit of wearing." Rosa was naturally only too pleased to be able to give her kind protectress something in return for all her favors. before a feeling of faintness came over she had laid aside on their arrival. Queen of Night began to unfasten Rosa's dress in order to had been caused by the bite of some poisonous reptile. her . My sisters. who had thought me forever lost. lost she But the beautiful is the so industrious. fell asleep ! immediately. found out where I was and came to see me. the neither breathed nor stirred." lips were cold and white. but. consciousness. and while doing so. as she bent over the maiden and kissed her beautiful " She has tired herself. wont. not wishing to distress her daughter by aca present. feeling lay down. chamber of her dear adopted daughter. I remember " I was faint and and added. she only replied." Oh. to the Night home. she said. " Yes. " " I she must have slept a long time Oh. picking " I don't remember having up the kerchief from the floor. very pretty.

and her sisters. and got from her an enchanted sugar. hurried away home. When the Queen returned and again found her favorite All her servants. They. she was both grieved and angry. asked her at least to accept from them the delicious sugar-plum which they had brought for her. inside. to life again.THE SACRED BOOKS 266 she also promised her." it you The poor girl. and that Rosa's sisters had only been allowed to speak to her from a distance as In the hope of bringing her she stood at her high window. who wanderest the world over. and pretending to be greatly distressed at their ex- clusion." try getting So the wretches went to the same old witch who had given them the magic kerchief." cried the second sister. say. When at nightfall they again knocked at the door of the palace." said the elder to the younger. lifeless. are beautiful but Kosa is the most beautiful of all " The sisters looked at each other in dismay. " Sun." said the eldest . is there now any one more beautiful than we are ? " But the Sun only replied as before. and drew up the sweetmeat. Rosa did Taste it. shining Sun. " too. will bring you more of the same kind. we " and if at once. These wicked creatures in a little while again stood at their window and cried. when she was left by herself in the palace. she could not discover the fatal charm. than she fell back as if dead." so. however. put the sugar-plum into her mouth . assured her that no one had entered the palace during her absence. The kerchief " has then failed. seeing this. I will put the sugar- plum " like and you can draw it up. suspecting no evil. however. ! . and had given orders that the palace-gates were not to be opened until her return. not even her sisters. but in vain. on the previous occasion. " I am beautiful you. when questioned. the porter informed them that his mistress was absent. saw Rosa at her plum. never again to receive any visitors. the Queen of Night searched every fold of the maiden's dress. " " Let down a basket. We mvst other of some method rid of her. though not without tears. window. as . but scarcely had she tasted it.

this state of things had continued for some days the ministers became alarmed. chance may. . . and let him loose to wander at will. The horse. with his court. who made at her orders a coffer of silver and after dressing Rosa in her most beautiful clothes and jewels. my but again he only replied. and do justice in Days passed. King caused to be carried into his bed-chamber. Imagine. dispirited and melancholy. what I can not discover. carried his fair burden in hours' time into a neighboring country. dead though she seems to be. she laid her in it. and I could never bring myself to bury her. " Do you go without me. if you can." The royal cooks vied with one another in preparing the most delicious dishes for his table but these he hardly tasted. When . fastened the coffer on the back of a splendid horse. I pray you. She came with all speed. who was away at her country palace. its the Attracted by sight beauty and fleetness. following his fancy. the ruler of a few which was the handsomest man of his time. and by the strange shining burden it bore on its saddle. more lovely than any living woman he had ever beheld. and sent a messenger to inform the QueenMother. Though apparently lifeless." Go. happened to catch being that day out hunting of horse. and when his ministers came and prayed him to accompany them the she was to the council chamber. closed the lid. and seeing the animal to be masterless. " name.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 267 " Perhaps. as she sat and gazed on the " lifeless features of her adopted daughter. and his heart became filled with such ardent love for her that he would sit for hours together gazing upon her beautiful features. he approached. he only said. and this King. his surprise on seeing within form of a beautiful maiden. and there he opened it. nor did he even appear to notice what he was eating. neglecting duties and pleasures alike. his gentlemen tried to tempt him out hunting. he bade his The silver coffer the people seize and lead it to the palace. and was much distressed to find her son so To all her anxious inquiries." So the grieving Queen sent for a cunning workman." said she to herself.

the maiden he loved so dearly. and asked her to be his wife. she raised the lid which the King had closed course. and saw how handsome and noble he was. that utes before she could ask it : " Where am I. Not to make too long a story of it. and the King entered. Imagine. admiration presently changed to anger when she thought of her son and seizing poor Eosa by her long hair. and determined to discover what this might be." As she spoke. when Eosa heard of his love for her. if you can. she dragged her out of the coffer and shook her violently. seated on the divan by his mother's side. The poor girl was by the was some min- so astonished strangeness of everything around her. So . but I will be your mother. and she embraced and kissed Eosa tenderly. weeping with delight the while. saying. he only replied that he was quite well. she could not but love him in return. from the courtiers the story of the riderand the silver chest. at the wonderful beauty of the maiden lying within but her . and where is my dear mother ? " " I know For not. of to remain alone in his bed-chamber. but preferred The Queen had. she saw the silver chest.THE SACRED BOOKS 268 however. and gazed around her in bewilderment. and twenty times lovelier than before. restored to life. the King And took her by the hand. lovely eyes. his mother went to his chamber for she had a and master-key that would open all the doors in the palace there. already heard less horse At first she could only gaze in astonishment before leaving. So the very next day. the Queen's anger passed away. footsteps were heard at the door. my child. " You wicked dead thing Why are you not decently " buried instead of wandering about casting spells on Princes ? But as the Queen shook her the enchanted sugar-plum was jerked out of Eosa's mouth. . and she immediately came to life And as she again. King. shall who the for is dying love of you marry my son. ! opened her large. noble lady. his amazement and joy at finding. you. Going hastily up to it. extended on the divan. while the King was at dinner with his vizier. and she rightly guessed that her son had been bewitched by what he had found in it.

She was immediately changed into a bird. shining Sun. seen any maiden " fairer than we ? But the Sun only replied as before. they once more stood that make quite sure at their window. the King and Rosa lived very happily together for some time. and fountains running honey and wine. tell thou hast. of all. however." Well. Sun. but her troubles were not over. and the Queen-Mother. and there were feasts for the poor." " But Rosa " No. the royal city. put them in charge of her daughter-in-law On the pretext of keeping the young Queen the baby." she heard this. They had for feared to near the and long go palace again. cried.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 269 they were married with great splendor. her child free from evil spells. but your youngest sister is the fairest us if . " That is good news. So. " I am beautiful you. Rosa dead " lives. So they went to the Queen-Mother and gave themselves out to be won- derfully clever nurses from the neighboring country who had nursed the princes there . set off at once for Rosa's When they arrived in they palace. and " One day. Well. are both beautiful . if these wicked women could not bear that their sister should be considered fairer than they. still less could they allow her to be a Queen. too. and rejoicings for everybody. and flew away . in order to Rosa was dead. deceived by their story. and she is ! is the wife of the King of the neighboring country." said the elder to the younger when " for now we will be the nurses. and when they were left alone with their sister. they stuck into her head away all an enchanted pin. for her wicked sisters had not yet done their worst to her. since our youngest sister died. and and the make-believe nurses sent the other attendants from her apartments . who wanderest all over the earth. great rejoicings were going on because a baby prince had just been born. disguised as two old women. nearly a year before learned had result of their what been the passed they last visit.

And Rosa. guessing his thoughts. kill in despair. and the Queen-Mother. said. The false believe his eyes. the grass and flowers withered. sister laid herself down on King came in to see his wife.THE SACRED BOOKS 270 window and her eldest in her place. and one day he caught sight of the pin in its head. and had welcomed his wife back. Afterward the bird came every day while he was at breakfast in the garden and the kind voice of the Prince soon made it so tame and fearless that it would perch on his knee and eat from his hand. told him . to do it any injury. but his heart froze within him as he looked ject of this pretended transformation. on the ob- was his custom to breakfast alone every day in the garand one day while he was sadly musing there. he could hardly This could not be his wife. bed her out of the When the . and said. It den . and " may all things over which I fly wither away This said. Queen. whose eyes were now fully opened to the malice and wickedness of her sisters. But may she whom they call the young Queen sleep the sleep that knows no waking. and wherever it passed. pretended not to ? It is because I have observed any- thing. have the King. a pretty bird flew down. " May they ever sleep sweetly. and the little Prince slept well ? " The King smiled and nodded. when the bird disappeared. however. he ventured to withdraw it. ! The gardeners. the Prince had learned the evil deeds of his sisters- . he asked her to tell how it had all happened. perched on a branch overhead. and the bird continued. but he forbade them. and the place became a desert. asked the King if they might not the bird which caused the mischief . Surprised at this. dear husband have been so ill. all she knew When of her own adventures. When he had recovered a little from the joy and surprise caused by this strange event. my lord. on pain of death. and his own dear wife stood again by his side. This familiarity enabled the Prince to observe the bird's plumage more closely. " Tell me. the bird spread its wings." The King. " You find me changed.

and condemned them both to a death suitable to their crimes. followed by all her train and touched by the distress in-law. the criminals were being led away to execution. . In vain did Rosa entreat him to pardon them. or living to witness their sister's happiness while deprived of the power of ever again being able to injure her. The two evil-doers were then offered the choice of dying a violent death. They chose the latter fate and it was not long before they both died of spite and jealousy.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 271 he bade his guards bring these wretches before him. she prevailed upon the King to change the sentence he had pronounced. But when. The King was inexorable. the Queen of Night appeared on the scene. at sunset. . . of her adopted daughter.

of the races jinn and men. . 272 ken. Trouble is there ne'er at all to his behest. from end to end. Eighteen thousand worlds. None hath seen them. Nor can tongue the King's name utter of that land. Do not with him one atom's worth transcend. one mighty sign. is shown God hath myriads of creative acts unknown: .LEGEND AND POETRY AMONG THE TURKS THE DIVAN OF THE LOVER THE EARLIEST TURKISH POEM All the universe. None hath news brought from that realm far off from Never shall thy mind or reason reach that strand. Since 'tis his each nothingness with life to vest.

VOL. eloquent of words. While the tongue yet floweth. Blow a blast in utt'rance that the Trusted One. For one day thy station 'neath earth seek must thou. Then. Let not opportunity slip by. VI. that thou leavest here a Strive. silent there Unto us the beauty of each word declare. Of how many singers. " " I die not one of noble race ? May ! say'st thou. to mind. then. To the listeners' hearing shall thy record be. Pity were it surely if thy tongue were mute. Seldom opportunities like this with thee lie . Thy mementoes lustrous biding here behind. but to joy look now. For some day full suddenly Death thy tongue shall bind. Surely with this object didst thou come to earth. since words to utter thee so well doth suit. so hie ! Lose not opportunities that thy hand doth find. Through them they'll recall thee. now thy words collect. remaining long time after thee. Those who've left no traces ne'er have lived in sooth. then. Sing then. ten thousand times may cry " Well done " Up and sing O bird most holy up and sing Unto us a story fair and beauteous bring. That to mind should ever be recalled thy worth. When he hears. Them as Meaning's taper 'midst the feast erect. 1 . 18. for th' occasion now is thine.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 273 (BY AHMKDI) Up and sing ! 'anqa-natured nightingale ! in doth thy worth prevail : business High every for the words are that from thee proceed Sing good Whatsoever thou dost say is prized indeed. Those who've left mementoes ne'er have died in truth . Bound have Death and Doom the tongues fast in their cords Lose not. ! . O my soul. name of grace. th' occasion. That thy words. ! : ! ! ! .

live for aye the May Mighty Ruler set thy crown on high. who in my world-realm knowest everything With my sword I've conquered many and many a shore . In the Peopled Quarter Seven Climes are known. And o'er all of these thy " sway extends alone ! ! . All of There's on earth no city. Where as yet our mighty sway doth not extend. " Quoth he Realm-o'erthrowing Monarch. That we may it conquer.THE SACRED BOOKS 274 Once unto his Vizier quoth the crowned King: Thou. O Monarch. neither any land." when the Vizier the King did say. " ! Still I sigh right sorely Great desire Through is with me l : Ah ! more to conquer ' ! realms to overthrow . Is there yet a country whither we may wend. That is not. this cause I comfort ne'er a moment know. its inhabitants slaves before thee bend. conquer it outright ? Ours shall be the whole earth ours it shall be quite. That thy throne may ever all assaults defy : ! May May thy rose-garden never fade away! thy glory's orchard never see decay ! life's Thou'st the Peopled Quarter ta'en from end to end . under thy command. heard what Then.

Whilst wand'ring on. Her eyes oped Shirin and beheld the King there. She'd Her hand did yonder curling serpents back throw The dawn 'tis. He bit his finger. happy. Was't strange. the dark night.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 275 THE LOVES OF SHIRIN (By SHEYKHI) The spot at which did King Khusrev Perviz light e'en the ruined dwelling of that moon bright. the jasmine-breasted The hyacinths o'er the narcissi rested. Within that fountain. In rings upon her shoulders her dark locks lay. And blest he who her shade gains. Among (On As softly moved A moon that in O what a moon he. wildered beyond measure. sudden on his sight gleamed the water shining bright beamed. he comes upon that parterre. When shone her day-face. Unconscious of his gaze. it opes before his eyes fair. a sun o'er earth that light rains ! Triumphant. the trees a night-hued courser stands bound Heaven's charger's breast were envy's scars found). and thereof we never tired grow. He saw the water round about her ear play . made the pool a casket for her frame fair. She trembled as on water doth the moonlight. when did a Watery Sign the Moon hold ? No power was left him. The moon yet beameth through the hair. . neither sport nor pleasure. When yon heart-winning moon before the King beamed. all about that casket spread her dark hair. Than this no other refuge could yon moon find That she should round about her her own locks bind. The King became the sun in him Love's fire gleamed. Was As on he strolls. The tears e'en like to water from his eyes rolled. from that musky cloud bare. through dismay and shamed fright.

shown was Shirin . Because he knew that when the earthly frame goes. loathed he the companionship of mankind. . . Sorrow and his closest friend. Everlasting Being love shows. Through yearning for his love he from the world fled From out his soul into his body Death sped. Nor till . Life is ne'er found. wild beasts 'midst the hills did he his friends find. His guide was Pain his boon companion. When Ferhad bound to fair Shirin his heart's core. round her she her hair flung. He In dies the body. And ' thus as veil her night before her day hung. From out his breast Love many a bitter wail tore. On tablet of his life graved. Of As 111 all else filled alone with Shirin. . emptied. Woe. . Eternal. Until he strikes against it. fervent longed to be from fleshly bonds free. For many days he onward strayed in sad plight. Griefs throe His comrade. Thus wand'ring on. That then his life in very truth might Life see. Although before his face a wall of stone rise. the love of life the Loved One e'er found. he knew not day from dark night. with sooth.THE SACRED BOOKS 276 With tresses how could be concealed the sun bright 1 To hide her from him. blind his two eyes.

that each was formed of rubies. Blinded sun and moon were. Wine their rubies. he did prepare . . then joy thou'lt share. of emeralds green Formed houses these no fault of form that bear. follow Harken now what God if ! it. Midst of each a hall of pearls not ivory nor teak-wood rare. are seventy pearl and gem-incrusted thrones . (exalted high his hath formed. O seeker after Truth share. Eden's bower he hath created Light. and best and fairest are its blest abodes. days their faces.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 277 THE BOOK OF MOHAMMED (By YAZIJI-OGLU) THE CREATION OF PABADISE Hither come. There. Each pavilion he from seventy ruddy rubies raised aloft Dwellings these in which the dwellers sit secure from fear or care. Sudden did they see the faces of those damsels dark of eye. and Life's Stream grew bitter then and there. within each house. corals. . Thou wouldst deem and of pearls. their eyebrows troublous. Loftiest its sites. causing woe : All-enchanting. He upon each throne hath stretched out seventy couches broi- dered fair . soft their eyes. Paradise pays tribute to their witching air. Round within each courtyard seventy splendid houses he hath ranged. Enter on the Mystic Pathway. each a jeweled crown doth wear : Moons . its joy thou wouldest name !) from naught lamp. Sits on every couch a maiden of the bourne of loveliness their foreheads.

fraught with bounties. all these blessings of delight. every lane and every square. Thence ordained is Heaven's order free from every grief and care. Flooding every its radiance . there : Thus all the Heavens lighteth up from end to end. for God thus in the Koran doth de- clare. the naked and the hungry enter there. Reach unto their comprehension shall this understanding ne'er. all is there complete and whole. There that God a station lofty. That unclouded station he the name Vesila caused to bear. all these honors. So that naught is lacking nothing he created needs repair. for his righteous servants. And on every tray hath spread out seventy sorts of varied fare. things so fair hath he . soul's eye.THE SACRED BOOKS 278 Question there is none. tent and palace. Might O ! Thou Majesty Right O of Glory! Thou King of Perfect ! Since he Eden's heaven created. That no eye hath e'er beheld them ope thy . O Thou Perfectness of Potence! O Thou God of Awful . Never have his servants heard them. All these wondrous mercies surely for his sake he did pre- pare: Through his love unto Mohammed. for his sake. That to his Beloved yonder station a dear home may be. In its courtyard's riven center. All these glories. neither can their hearts conceive . of the loftiest. he the universe hath framed Happy. high aloft its roots are . on them stare. Yonder. Tables seventy. he in every house hath placed. planted he the Tuba-Tree That a tree which hangeth downward. hath reared. devised.

For his sake there into being hath he called the Tuba-Tree. Forth therefrom crowns. and steeds and coursers come. and jewels. thrones. That from Ebu-Qasim's hand might every one receive his share. Golden leaves and clearest crystals. yea.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 379 Such a tree the Tuba. . that the Gracious One hath in its sap Hidden whatsoe'er there be of gifts and presents good and fair. wines most pure beyond compare.

bring here again my yester even's wine . O sweet love ? then she: " Silence surely if I shed blood. Why It is Eum-Eyli . My harp and rebec bring. anger in thy glances." " " Whence the I said . " In though I spake not thy quarter. cypresses are wildered when thy motions they survey. (reigned 1421-1451). Sultan Mohammed II. bring. (1451-1481). : not for stray. across thy cheek disordered float thy tresses I her." Even as thou sighest. Wretched and head-giddy. 'tis meet that I should mirth and glee en- jy. shower thine eyes tears fast as ^ Like as follow hard the thunder-roll the floods in dread array. those who hope hope Thought I. through thy tint and scent. M GAZEL Souls are fluttered when the morning breezes through thy tresses stray." did she say. wand'ring. 'Avni. Since with witchcraft thou hast whetted keen the lancet of Waving thy glance. ? " asked there high-starred heroes gallop. I the ensigns should dis! play. them bid address this heart of mine : While still I live. The day shall divine. rain. come when none may e'en my resting-place Sultan urad II.THE SACRED BOOKS 280 POEMS BY TUEKISH EULEES RUBA'I Cupbearer. All " " veins are bleeding inward through my my longing and dismay. .

and on the Prophets surely doth my trust re- the Saints pose . . for Islam. Is my On earnest hope the Infidels to crush with ruin dire. as shrine where in worship to turn. Hope I that quire through the chosen my might Ahmed Mukhtar's may triumph glori- over Islam's foes ac- ! Mohammed II. Through the grace of Allah. that my ardor doth inspire. a tear is left these all are dried by the beams by her cheek displayed. Like the mihrdb of the Kaaba. Through the love of God. and th' assistance of the Band Unseen. Thy ward would an veyed. 'Tis but zeal for Faith.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 281 FRAGMENT OF GAZEL Torn and pierced my heart has been by thy scorn and tyranny's blade. O They Not angel take. What if I with War? Praise is soul and gold God's! ten thousand sighs for battle in my breast suspire. is my aim and my desire . Mohammed II. O Mohammed! ous aid. Rent by the scissors of grief for thee is the robe that my patience arrayed. are pearls. if thy footprint there he sur- mine eye! thou sheddest her day-bright face before. to triumph and to conquest I strive here to wage the Holy aspire. Fight hard for Allah. GAZEL To obey.

that the gardeners nightly o'er it water shed. thine eyes lay waste the heart. " Though a pilgrim. of my stained eyebrow and my blood." O ! " Smiling rose-like. the picture of thy down bear unto this scorched my breast It is customary fresh greens over the broiled flesh to spread. send not to breast despair." she said." were holders said. As " I weep sore. See how sanguinary gleam they 'gainst the soul bare blood aye upon blood they shed. Through its grieving for thy hyacinth down. by my life. Idol mine! guest after guest must not to one my same house be led. surely. yet his life doth on a child's face hang." she an- swered. Come.THE SACRED BOOKS 282 GAZEL Ah. to me vouchsafe a Said I : " kiss. thus grown feeble Is the basil. doth wildly roll. Surely. Life since thy lip is life. they daggers dread. Prince Jem (1481). he a pilgrim here Quoth I : O " hath come . FRAGMENT Lo ! there the torrent. " Life ! do not shun Jem. The whole wide realm of Space and Being ruth hath on my soul. Through bitterness of grief robe. and woe the morn hath rent its . While within my tears of by all be- heart thine eye's shaft. dashing 'gainst the rocks. "Tis the rainbow o'er the shower stretched.

my resolution. the roses.LITERATURE OF THE EAST See O ! 283 in dawning's place. the sky weeps blood. the clear moonlight resembles. Emptied I of kuhl of Isfahan the adversary's eye. Bishop-mated When I played the Chess of empire on the Board of sov'reignty. Flowed adown a River Amu from each foeman's every hair if I happed him to espy. GAZEL From Istambol's throne a mighty host to Iran guided I. Through my saber Transoxania drowned was in a sea of the When blood. Hear. . the garden's basil quite resembles. face's beam Liege. I played the harp of Heavenly Aid at feast of victory. Rolled the sweat of terror's fever of was the India King by my Queenly troops. in thy name was struck the coinage of the world. it blood outright resembles. Glad the Slave. When in crucible of Love Divine. (1512-1520). lord of Egypt's realm became my royal banner e'en as the Nine Heavens high. that melted I. Prince Jem. without con- trol I Tears shedding. the rosebud. Thus I From raised : kingdom fair of 'Iraq to Hijaz these tidings sped. For shame it blushed. black hair spread across they cheeks. like gold. deep the bursting thunder sobs and moans through stress of dole. Beside thy lip oped wide its mouth. GAZEL My Thy Thy O pain for thee balm in my sight resembles. O Sultan Selim I. Sunken deep in blood of shame I made the Golden Heads to lie. o'er the mountain-tops the clouds of heaven pass. Selimi.

'Tis a proverb : Fleeting like the realm of dreams is earth's display. the 'tis state world .THE SACRED BOOKS 284 Thy mouth. the Sphere doth it Time. the Magnificent (1520-1566). yet. thy cheek. Around the taper bright. resembles. but short enduring is this picture bright. thy frame was formed from but one drop. and the moth in his sad plight resembles. Liege. this my dread and terror. Prince Mustafa. Fortune like an apple play. That rival who Iblis in spite resembles. Muhibbi Turns. Through the needle of its eyelash never hath the heart's thread past. thy glance's spell. Sultan Soleiman. the ocean's might resembles. Lowly Fair to see. thy spirit like the ocean swells. My weeping. GAZEL If thou seekest like the world-adorning sun's array. With the ball. Lest he seduce thee. pearls. they say. their Mejnun. GAZEL Ta'en Me. rubies. my sense and soul have those thy Leyli locks. . thy lip coral bright Their diver I. e'en as water rub thy face in earth's dust every day. Mukhlisi. wonder great When ! thou verses sing'st. a casket fair of pearls and Thy teeth. Like unto the Lord Messiah bide I half-road on the way. Athlete of the Universe through self-reliance grows the Heart. each morning and each even . 'midst of love's wild dreary desert they impel.

shake from cheeks those locks of thine then. Were I thy lip to suck. an answer give. vainly they my life dispel. (1566-15Y4). then. 'twould heal the sick heart Be kind. But one glance from those soft and drooping eyes throw. plunging 'neath Have love's ocean-swell. The mirage.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 285 Since mine eyes have seen the beauty of the Joseph of thy grace. Unclouded beauty's sun and moon bid shine then. been praising. that doth like to water show. Since Selimi hath the pearls. . down grows upon her rosy-hued My A book write on the woes love's it cheek. does enshrine then. Sultan Selim II. Physician mine. grant to Selimi And by thy parting's shaft my tears make wine then. O sweetheart. lest evil From O In night's gloom hidden. The heart through joy to drunkenness consign then. rival careful it confine then. GAZEL Thy veil raise. thy teeth. Sultan Selim II. sense and heart his head and soul abandoned. For. O love. . Sense and heart have fall'n and lingered in thy chin's sweet dimple-well. making thirsty. Thy wine-hued lip. From the hand of patience struck they honor's glass. to earth it fell. through longing. thy lips. Heart and soul of mine are broken through my passion for thy lips. drink the ruby wine then. ill-eyed this is Life's Water 'midst of darkness. Beware glance thy beauty's rose smite. heart.

a rose. and mouth. send us aid Us to rescue. Castle to Castle. tyrant dread art ? when yonder Tor- ment Smitten hath dart? my breast with deadly wounds by her eyelash Face. is there none ? wherefore in turning off our woes ye thus . is there none? Midst a fearful whirlpool we are fallen helpless. is there none? In the cause of God none? to combat. head to give or heads to ! take. mazed and wildered grew my sad heart. Farisi. host to aid us here in sad plight. is there None who will checkmate the foe. earth a hero of renown bright. a slender sapling How shall I not be the slave of Princess such as thou art ? Ne'er hath heart a beauty seen like her of graceful figure Joyous would I for yon charmer's eyebrow with my life . Round us foes throng. what can I do but love that peerless beauty? Ah this aged Sphere hath made me lover of yon sweetheart. IV. form. face to face In the battle who will Queen-like guide the brave Knight. a strong swimmer in our friends' sight. ! Sultan Osman TO SULTAN MURAD II. (1617-1623). How How shall I my love disclose to thee shall I hold straight upon my who road. is there none? Midst the fight to be our comrade. a rosebud. chief of tried might. part.THE SACRED BOOKS 286 GAZEL Soon as I beheld thee. On the field of Know we not delay .

whilst yet we knew not. yet beside thee fearing no fight. is there Hafiz Pacha. Shall not God thy foe be? Day of Reckoning. is there none ? With us 'midst the foeman's flaming streams of scorching fire to plunge. is there none? Though we know thou hast no Yet boasts. right. light. quick to bear. is there none? They have wrecked Ebu-Hanifa's city through thy lack of care. say. to the court of Sultan Murad. O Hafiz. . rapid as the storm-wind in none its swift flight. the Rafizis have ta'en Bagdad . is there none ? This our letter. in thee of Islam's and the Prophet's zeal. sure. who favored us. is there none? God. there none While thou rival in vainglorious. ? IN REPLY TO THE PRECEDING Bagdad. Salamander with experience of Fate dight." thus it was that To relieve thou didst say. is there none ? Heedless of thy duty thou. whence this cowardice ? art frightened. manhood.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Day 287 of Reckoning. a Judge right. Oh. aye. man of tried might. is there none? Aid from us thou seek'st. Room for action now against him with the brave Knight. then with thee host of fame bright. with the Sultanate. Pigeon. to take is ? layest claim to of thine Thou empty dread vengeance on thee. and question of the poor's plight. is there none ? " I'm the Queen the foe who'll checkmate.

THE SACRED BOOKS 288 Shall again accord Bagdad. And The fish within its mouth doth hold a shining gem. decreed of God's might. LUGAZ There's an o'erhanging castle in which there flows a main. fell vengeance on the skilled and aged. vizier. of this foul enemy to take. is there none? Now shall I appoint commander a vizier of high emprise. . King of high might. MTOAJAT who liv'st for ayel O Sole! O King of Glory's Ray Monarch who ne'er shalt pass away! show thou to us thy Allah! Lord ! bounties fair. zeal-dight. there within that castle a fish its home hath ta'en. (1623-1640). Word of God. Will not Khizar and the Prophet aid him? guide right. Muradi. our wail. Sultan Murad IV. is With the aid By me army how thou there none ? " " say'st. pious. Which wastes the fish as long as it therein doth remain. In early morning shall our Throne on high: cry. is there none? Thou hast brought on Islam's bribes Have we direful ruin with thy . not heard blight. This puzzle to the poets is offered by Murad Let him reply who office or place desires to gain. mount to thy . is there none? Sultan Murad IV. is there none ? Is it that thou dost the whole world void and empty now conceive ? Of the Seven Climes.

VI. (1695-1703)." we sigh: show thou bounties If cometh not from thee thy grace. 19. all our works . Eternal. Answerer in need show thou to us thy bounties fair. evil shall deface 289 to us thy fair. yet unto him thy grace concede . ! Sultan Mustafa II. Creator of security to thy Beloved greetings be These fair words are in sincerity show thou to us thy boun! ! : ties fair Iqbali sinned hath indeed. . VOL. O Lord of Being and of Space show thou ! to us thy bounties fair.LITERATURE OF THE EAST "Error and sin our wont.

shining." Radiance from his beauty streaming saw I. O Zeyneb. I raised head. forsake adornment gay! A GAZEL BY MIHRI Once from sleep I oped my eyes. with single heart. and zephyr charged " Speed.A GAZEL BY ZEYNEB Cast off thy veil. lovely. and odors sweet through earth convey A ! musky warrant by thy down was traced. For within my chamber sure is risen Jupiter this night. Go manly forth. and heaven and earth in dazzling light array As radiant Paradise. or I my fate have reached. make play the ripples light of Kevser'a ! ! pool! Let loose thy scented locks. Thought I : "In th' ascendant's now my star. woman's love of earthly show leave thou behind. A thousand times mayst thou pursue Iskender's darksome way. this poor demented world display Move thou thy lips. though to outward view 290 . with this scent subdue the realms of China and : Cathay!" O heart! should not thy portion be the Water bright of Life. when full in sight There before me stood a moon-faced beauty. my bright.

but of this thou lov'st how can God Most High. I it fit- make prayer That thou may'st love a pitiless one in tyranny like to thee. Yet in Night's deep gloom Iskender gleamed before her wond'ring sight. would have thought so cruel and to see Thou who fierce a tyrant in thee ? the newly oped rose art of the Garden of Para- dise.LITERATURE OF THE EAST (While himself a Moslem) he in garb of Though I oped there my eyes or closed them. still the form was ever . That every thorn and thistle ting be ? I curse thee not. In such a plight am I now. alack that the curser saith to his ! foe: " Be thy fortune dark and thy portion black. Thus I fancied to myself: " A fairy this or angel bright Till the Resurrection ne'er shall ? " Mihri gain the Stream of Life. A GAZEL BY MIHRI Faithful and kind a friend I hoped that thou wouldst prove to Who me. even as those of Mihri I" . Our Lord. 291 infidel is dight.

(Off had the royal hawk. the hand. Like turn of sun of Love. 292 . and singing sweet. He. snake-like : train. beneath some cypress-tree's loved foot its face to rub. the time of mirth 'tis now " Beware . before her radiant beauty bright musky locks of night. flown from the Orient's eve. With turn and turn. glorious reign Sultan Mohammed Murad's ! son ! the Pride of Princes all ! . Onward. the Darius. or Jesu's life. e'en as desired. whose stirrup is the ! moon! Prince dread as Doom. the brook goes Lord may this happy union of felicity and earth. that to the winds thou castest not this hour in vain. who to all earth's kings doth crowns ordain ! Monarch of stars whose flag's the sun. and bounteous as main! FEOM HIS QASIDA ON THE ACCESSION OF SULTAN BAYEZID One when had Sun II. continuous abide Like to a mighty Key-Khusrev's. Let down the the veil of ambergris. and strong as Fate. Theriaca within their ruby pots the tulips lay See in the mead the running streamlet's glistening. or Jemshid's.POEMS OF NEJATI FROM HIS SPRING QASIDA The early springtide now hath made earth smiling bright again. standfast remain ! ! May glee and mirth. the Sun. " They say: 'Tis now the goblet's turn. E'en as doth union with his mistress soothe the lover's pain. the through plain.

ebriate. Scarce e'en an inn where may yielded ne'er earth's spread- the caravan for rest remain. assembly where thy praise as page of book the Shah I'm he who. sharp to smite . And eloquent O of the Horizons ! ! ! words he doth indite.) To catch the gloomy raven. then strive and strain.LITERATURE OF THE EAST And lighted in the West. E'en though the Loved One be from thee as far as East from " West. 'midst ! th' is sung. Night. Will. Bagdad to lovers is not far. a thousand notes upon one cord recite. Yearneth Nejati for the court of thy fair Paradise. Had shaped the new-moon like the claw of eagle. us as scimitars. flocked after him 293 the crows in flight. the fowler skilled. Its veil across the heaven's eye had drawn the dusky Night. the Sphere. rebec-like. were they ta'en. In pity at the doleful sight of sunset's crimson blood. Eome Khusrev Sultan of ! of the King The tablet Bayezid and Center of all Right ! 1 Epoch Sovereign of his heart doth all th' affairs of earth disclose . Though every leaf of every tree is verily a book. GAZEL Truth this : a lasting home hath ing plain . not merely daggers. strife-causing eyne. Though this a wish which he while here on earth can ne'er By attain. 'Tis meet perfection through thy name to my poor words should come. As to rose-water perfume sweet is brought by sunbeam's light." One moment opened were her O heart. . For those who understanding lack doth earth no leaf contain.

Her chin.THE SACRED BOOKS 294 RUBA'IS off to yonder maid of grace eyelashes will make the fringe of lace . my Handkerchief ! the loved one's hand take. wilt show. Handkerchief. moment would a thousand crimson these within a company with longer life may her. 1 will the black point of my eye rub up to paint therewith .^ Thou'lt be in To me no of blood thou. . A sample of Through my tears grow. kiss her sandal's sole. while I be. beneath her feet. if things am sad with grief. which mocks at apple and at orange. kissing greet If sudden any dust should light upon her blessed heart. Handkerchief I send thee ! Around O thee I . Fall down before her. continue so. . kiss her lip so sweet. To yon coquettish beauty go go look thou in her face.

hath the rose . with gold ink. Which shakes itself and feathers sheds on all hands. the vine shows. bride-like. past. saffron-hued. The Sun hath to the Balance. From its heart the nightingale sighs forth 295 its woes. with henna. come. By winds bronzed.POEMS OF LAMI'I AUTUMN O sad heart. the quince's face glows . joy. The erst green tree And hurling meteors at the fiend. From the pleasure. stones throws. Each vine-leaf paints its face. And therefore charged with glistening fire the still air. 'midst the elds to sit the time nigh. Ablaze each tree. hanging forth. like the Sun. Amidst the yellow foliage perched the black crows Its Pleiads-clusters. And stands there of the parterre's court the fair bride. distraction's hour is now high. and blent are all in one glare. that spotted A cup shows. all scorched. The brook doth silver anklets round the vine link. The trees. Earth. Rent its collar. In saffron flow'rets have the meads themselves dight . The plane-tree hath its hands. and shine bright. The year's Zuleykha hath her gold hoard wide cast. . With goldfish filled doth glisten brightly each stream. to gold have turned. Joseph-like. yellow-plumaged bird now every tree stands. like the dawning. and rapture of this hour. In its frame to hold its soul earth scarce hath power. now like the starry sky shows. red-dyed. As tulip. The air's cool. The gilded leaves in showers falling to earth gleam .

These iron hearts soft render with thy sad sighs. In burning notes make thou thy tuneful song rise . Within thy soul place not. The jasmines with their fresh leaves tambourines ply. In that raid the rosebud filled with gold its hoard. hard pressed. And Filled with ambergris its skirt the morning breeze Won the sun a golden disk of ruby dye. silver. Their chorus all around the gleeful birds raise . When opportunity doth come. . come. dark brand. Play the green and tender branches with delight. . like tulip. But. bright. From earth take justice ere yet are these times left. then. Filled with melody through joy all lands appear. Like to couriers fleet. The streamlets sing. the nightingale the flute plays. rose-like. see. come. There the moon a purse of silver coin did seize . " Hie " the bird is flown. All the people of the land some trophy gained. 'Tis Pleasure's moment this.THE SACRED BOOKS 296 Dance the juniper and cypress like the sphere. And they shed with one accord gold. Gently sing the running brooks in murmurs soft While the birds with tuneful voices soar aloft. The zephyr sports and dances o'er the flower-green. And with glistening pearls its pocket filled the sky: Those who poor were fruit and foliage attained . ROSE TIME O heart. wail. raise up their glistening foam high Of junipers and cypresses two ranks 'tween. . They call thee view the joys that sense would yield thee . then firm stand. Resting ne'er a moment either night or day. And ere yet from the soul's harp is breath's song reft. The streams. the tulip with fresh musk its casket stored. ere thou canst say ! Give ear. as nightingale thy woes show . because in truth the night-bird From break of dawn its bitter wail hath made heard. the zephyrs speed away. as rose blow.

And flowers are all around strewn by the dawn-breeze. With bated breath the Judas-trees there stand by . And each for other running brook and breeze sigh. each spot as resurrection-plane seems. thy hermitage leave The roses' days in sooth no time for fasts give It's strange. The meads are skies their stars. The wind each passes. fair and bright beam. . The clouds. flowerlets with. The waters. pearl-raining. As pearls most costly scatters it the plucked hairs. the drops of dew. the halo. if ! ! ! eye. and the vineyard next gains. Away the morning's breeze the jasmine's crown tears.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The The 297 streamlets 'midst the vineyard hide-and-seek play among the verdant leaves gay. Those who it view. The leader of the play's the breeze of swift pace . in circles bright play. Like shining swords the green leaves toss about they. . . reflected. The narcisse toward the almond-tree its glance throws With vineyard-love the pink upbraids the dog-rose. With green leaves dressed. Lami'i. The flowers and nightingales each other's robes shake. Like pigeon. eddying. the flowers. In short. As blaze up with gay flowerlets all the red plains. None who beholds of everlasting pain dreams. The water's mirror clear doth as the Sphere gleam Its stars. . from the meteors sparks seize. each the other all the flowers chase. before the gale that soft blows. there. the trees each other's hands take . The soft winds have adorned the wanton bough fair. The gales tag with the basil play in high glee To dance with cypress gives its hand the plane-tree. and ponder well with thought's they be mazed and wildered thereby Up breeze-like. glow The jasmine is the moon the stream. . . Doth turn in many a somersault the young rose. ? . The leader of the frolics 'midst the parterre. Like children.

alas. Dust on the face of his honor aye stainless Strewn hath the blast of betrayal profane. Ah do thou see what at length hath bef all'n him What all this glory and panoply gain Drinking the poison of doom. from his destiny warning obtain. Freed is he now from affliction's hard chain. . ay. did it wane. From perfect conjunction. Forthwith to the Regions of Eden they bore him. ne'er a remnant Of sweetness's taste in his mouth did remain. The Lofty Decree for his high exaltation Did Equity's Court. sank down his star. most glorious. From the land of his exile to Home back again. ! ! ! They raised him from earth's abject baseness and stain. to sorrow's night there no day. never Was honor most lofty. ta'en 1 FRAGMENT Come is the away autumn of I have not reached the is my life. alas. Retrograde. all unlocked for. Rescued forever from earth gross and vain. Joyous he flew on his journey to Heaven. Circling and soaring. it thus should pass ! dawn of joy.POEMS OF GAZALI FROM AN ELEGY ON ISKENDER CHELEBI High honored once was the noble Iskender O heart. In life or in death from him never. 298 . erst ascendant. ordain . Neck-bounden he stood as a slave at the palace. he went on his journey.

pretension to esteem can shadows in the water lay! Oh! whither will these winds of Fate impel the frail bark of the heart? Nor bound nor dismay ! shore confining girds Time's dreary ocean of .LITERATURE OF THE EAST Time after time the image of her cheek falls 299 on my tear- filled Ah no ! eye.

To wounded frame of life. blaspheme I not . Like springtide days. thou news hast brought. of smiling roseleaf fresh and bright. the issue of thine essence. alas. If that the case. 300 . Source whence wisdom's mysteries arise . to life of life's delight thou news hast brought. Things. to to soothe the hearts of all her yon fair maid of lovers' plight thou news hast brought. through the parting night. That in the sea secure doth lie his Eing of might. Of rebel demon thou gain hast cut the hope Suleiman's throne to . Of Faith. GAZEL O thou Perfect Being. of shining sun's fair light thou ! news hast brought. show wherein thy nature lies. thou news hast brought. whilst unbelief doth earth hold fast and tight. of balm to those thou news hast brought. thou'rt kind.POEMS OF FUZULI GAZEL O breeze. Thou'st seen the mourning nightingale's despair in sorrow's autumn drear. They say the loved one comes lovers true. in truth. how dark my for- tune grew Like zephyr of the dawn. whom pangs affright. thou news hast brought Fuzuli. If I should say thy words are heaven-inspired.

rejecting. thy sweet faced ones all. That a happy star. oh! most surely. they're pearls these. spise tears. Gathering of my tears will form a torrent on the Reckoning Day. But a jewel flawed am faulty I alas. blood flows from Day eyes. the essence clear of whose bright self Truly knoweth how the blessings from thy word that flow to prize. he but view them to de- O Fuzuli. that the Love of Pearls But my : my tears are. of Gathering's terrors. thou art he whose pen of might of stars illumined yonder gleaming page. many a steely-eyed one hath received thy bright reflection fair. indeed.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Manifester of all Hath with rays 301 wisdom. the skies. If the pearls. In the journal of When I think of my my actions Evil's lines are black indeed . forever stands Blank the page of my heart's journal from thought of thy : writing wise. casket. doth hold spellbound the huri- . Allah buys ! GAZEL Is't strange if beauties' hearts thy cheek most fair For that Or light's glare. hard hearts of fairy beauties fall'n. is't if thine eyelash which stone strange turn blood through envy of ? to ruby turns is conquer but the radiant sunall the stony-hearted ones? For meet an ebon shaft like that a barb of adamant should bear! Thy And The cheek's sun-love hath on the hard. from the ocean deep of love . mouth.

my sighing's smoke a cloud that veils the bright cheek Forms of the Ah ! moon that yon throw I . seeing thee. with garments rent. I'm a fire. Blood I've drunk. an oyster-shell that causeth rain-drops into pearls to grow. for from wine arose and forth my banquet did go. garden GAZEL From the turning of the Sphere my luck hath seen reverse and woe. fair moon will ne'er the veil from off her beauty . they rub their faces lowly midst the dust? Adam bowed That down to declare On many the angel throng doth the Koran ! and many a heart of stone have fall'n the pangs of love for thee! A in stone concealed is thy heart-burning love's dread glare Within her ward. Is't strange if.THE SACRED BOOKS 302 The virtue of Suleiman's Ring was that fays thereto fealty sware. through those radiant hues. dered heart. on all sides rosycheeked ones stray Fuzuli. Yonder moon saw not my burning's flame upon the parting day How can e'er the sun Every eye that Is all about the taper around tears all scatters. my burning sighs. that quarter beams a fire that lies ! . fair. night burning know ? thinking of thy shaft. With the flame. doth not all that I've lit the wand'ring wil- me roasted hath lost its which turns about glow? With thy rubies wine contended oh! how it wits! Need 'tis yon ill-mannered wretch's company that we forego.

woe" me " There's in Paradise nor grief nor ? MUSEDDES A stately Cypress yesterday her shade Her form was heart-ensnaring. my eye. sighs raised she of de- spair . her cheek. : " That round my" cheek. cypress-high. wear. ! The taper bright. nay. There a pistachio I beheld that drops of candy shed. her foot set down upon the fount. aye. truly thine a noose to take thy heart . sudden opened she her smiling rubies red. truly . aye. What thorn unto the roseleaf-foot gives pain ? " I said . truly thine!" o'er her crescents she had pressed the turban she did Nay. But many a thorn did pierce her foot she suffered pain . illumined day's lamp in the sky The rose's branch was bent before her figure.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 303 Ne'er hath ceased the rival e'en within her ward to vex sore. from many broken hearts. How say they. When speaking. threw o'er my head. And " o'er her visage I beheld the curls of her black hair. Those curling said she locks. She loosed her tresses moon hid within the cloud her so fair. " " I said . " thereby. said she: "The lash of thy wet eye doth thine!" it impart. Fuzuli. which. This casket can it be a mouth ? Ah deign ! ! said she: " Down By 'tis balm to cure thy hidden smart . heart-delighting her light tread . say. aye. She. are they then a chain ? " I said . cypress-like.

truly When their veil her tulip and dog-rose had The morning let down yesterday. . " " The I said tulip's hue whence doth the dog-rose gain ? said she " . said she: " Fear threatening this Conjunction dread. aye. Like lustrous pearls the dewdrops shone. aye. say. bright adornment in the early springtide's to the Promenading. ! hair with ambergris perfumed was waving o'er her cheek. The eye beheld her " figure fair. are these. Pearls. ! To earth within her ward my tears in torrents rolled apace The accents of her ruby lips my soul crazed by their grace. breeze tore off that screen which o'er these flow- 'rets Came lay. " Doth Scorpio the bright Moon's House contain " ? I said . sad of heart. grieving. : " 'Tis that which thy fixed gaze beholds apart thine!" . aye. That Picture had tattooed her lovely feet rose-red to show. then heart and soul did Ah what bright thing this cypress of the ! said she plain ? seek. thy part ! truly thine Her " . aye. That very moment when my eyes fell on her curls and face. truly thine!" . On many Her graceful form and many charms my wildered heart made weak. aye pearls said. of poor Fuzuli. My heart was taken in the snare her musky locks did trace. these. With many a glow.THE SACRED BOOKS 304 garden did that jasmine-cheeked one go. : From blood of thine shed 'neath " truly thine my glance's dart . said she: from 'Aden's main ? " I "Tears. " I said . forth that Envy of the sun in garden fair to stray. The hyacinths their musky locks did o'er the roses throw. a bright and glis" tening spray. passioned souls it cruel woe did wreak.

Think not I am VOL. Prone I 'neath those golden anklets which thy silvern limbs do wear. so bright none who may gaze upon thee on the earth is found. Ah! her face the rose. in beauty's mayed Seems circle. VI.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 305 MUKHAMMES Attar within vase of crystal. maid! Moon and Sun. grieve I through thy musky hair. when it through thy locks doth stray: Jealous at its sight. 20. Captive bound in thy red fillet. flame burns us the fiery garb in which thou are arrayed. Bites the comb. Ne'er was born of Adam's children one like thee. thy breast abound Thou is gleaming water. points it to thy lips the way. at O cruel thy fairness stand dis- : it thou the Sun for mother and the Moon for sire hast owned. each curling ringlet. her shift rose-hued. O fair ! . I despairing far away. empty of thy grace. where the bubbles clear . Bold wert thou to cast the veil off. her trousers red their shade With its . such thy fair form silken- gowned And . Near thy hair the comb remaineth. my heart's thread agonized goes curling round. standing forth with garland crowned: Not a doubt but woe and ruin all the wide world must confound ! Lures the heart thy gilded palace. Eagerly the ear doth listen for the words thy rubies say. like thy fillet.

the forms of moon-like maidens are to see Lovely to see. Poor Fuzuli for thine eyes and eyebrows aye hath longing cried : That the bird from bow and arrow flees not. hands with henna crimson dyed. well may all astound. Call not to mind the pupils With thought." . Each curving eyebrow is a blood-stained saber thee to slay. a deadly venomed snake to work thee woe. which hangs thy cheek round. to the : sad heart pangs a thousand from thy glance's shafts are found. 'tis blood they Fuzuli should declare. I trow. " In fair ones there is troth. if know. . " I'm man " drink. throe. FROM LEYLI AND MEJNUN Yield not the soul to pang of Love. but ah! the end doth bitter anguish show. That Love's the torment of the soul doth all the wide world know. Each dusky curl. From That know full well that torment dire in love who lovers are. thy painted brows . indeed. Through these beauties vain and wanton like to thee was ne'er a bride. thy glances shafts provide. engrossed with sighs. to and fro. Lovely. rove this I all abides." " A not deceived poet's words are falsehoods all men E'en Be of the black-eyed damsels bright. Bows of poplar green. for Love's the soul's fierce glow. be not deceived.THE SACRED BOOKS 306 Bather compare In my me golden chain. Eyes with antimony darkened. Seek not for gain from fancy wild of pang of Love at all For all that comes from fancy wild of Love's pang is griefs .

What use. From out mine aching heart no one hath driven cruel grief away. naught. What use though is it if the eye doth lack sight ? I know that greatest kindliness in thee lies." is MEJNUN'S GAZEL From whomsoe'er I've sought for troth but bitterest disdain I've seen. save pain. There Which a gazel that doth well my lot show. But yet this Stone of Alchemist by none's found. Collyrium I know that doth increase light.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 307 MEJNUN ADDRESSES KEVFIL " O sole friend of true plight Quoth Mejnun With counsel many have tried me to guide right . all most vain I've seen. sadder pain I've seen. in hope to find some balm therefor. . Impossible my hope appeareth alway. kindliness to No Who me my him whom he doth deem foe ? know my fortune evil is and woe-fraught The search for solace is to me. when my fate doth ever dark Upon my gloomy fortune I no faith lay. Whome'er within this faithless world I've trusted. closest friends show . though. That those my friends of pleasure's hour affection did but feign I've seen. is a friend to I . e'en myself o'erwhelmed Than and sunk in deeper. constant I repeat where'er my steps go. To whomsoe'er I've told my woes. But yet this fiend hath been by no one o'erthrown Much gold has on the earth been strewn round. Many with wisdom gifted have advice shown. The end at length will surely all thy plans foil. Ah though in this thou shouldest ever hard ! rise? toil. ! : .

but reason sad too plain I've seen. hundred times the Sphere hath shown to ser- me my darksome fortune's star. For why ? From all to whom I've looked. should I from mankind turn my face away. question made bright : these? What What lofty. That faithful. With single heart. in his sleep. " What Moons so He. And though I faith from mirror hoped. Fuzuli. wondering. loving. With happiness and ecstasy and joy blest. he saw a wondrous fair sight. ever-constant friend dear. bewilderment held forth its hand. and two beauties. deepest stain I've seen. Feeling that in his wasted frame no strength stayed. A lovely garden. blush not then. woe. there persecuted swain I've seen. honored Sovereigns of might these garden. life hath turned away its . One night. he wept aye.THE SACRED BOOKS 308 Although I've clutched face from me its mantle. Had gone. when was the rise of the True Dawn near. in hand the A pent's train I've seen. Through transport rapturous. perform the servant's duty. is this parterre ? ? . From rivals' persecutions these have found rest light glow. but blackest. most exalted. There. From bitter wailing ceased he not. At gate of hope I set my foot. A thousand angel-forms to each fair beauty. Whene'er my horoscope I've cast. Alas! whene'er hope's thread I've seized. all fear of anguish. moon-bright . and down upon that grave himself laid. pain. . ZEYD>S VISION His grief and mourning Zeyd renewed alway. their cheeks with Far distant now.

These are the ever-faithful Leyli. while on the earth. all woe resigned met. And patience aye before them in each grief set. Mejnun : ! ! Since pure within the vale of love they sojourned. Are Eden's everlasting bowers their home now.LITERATURE OF THE EAST What throng so bright 309 and beautiful. When From forth they fled from this false. the throng there ? " " Lo Eden's shining bowers these . And kept that purity till they to dust turned. To them the Houris and the Youths as slaves bow : Since these. bright as the fair moon. " those pangs and sorrows they release found all ! . faithless world's bound. the Heaven-born Youths and Houris j These two resplendent forms. They answer gave That radiant throng.

are Glory's lamps of light.POEMS OF NABI MUKHAMMES nor dew nor smiling rose within this mead is mine Within this market-place nor trade nor coin for need is mine . The World's the issue of the grace of Mercy's treasures bright With forms of beings is the page of Wisdom's volume dight. the I. that which indeed is mine . All Being is of him alone no life apart have I . that I knew what here I am. that which indeed is mine ! No work. ! Being is but a loan to us. his Breath benign. the gift Divine . Oh. that I knew what here I am. ! Being's the bounty of the Lord . Oh. No choice of entering this world. that which indeed is mine . the carpet is of that which indeed is Power. that I knew what here I am. . ^ The Body is The Powers the pile of God. both fixed and wandering. The Breath. Nor might nor eminence nor balm the cure to speed is mine. thereof. the Sphere. and Life. . that I The Earth ! knew what here I am. Oh. mine. no business of my own within this mart have I . and Life in trust we hold In slaves a claim to Power's pretension arrogant and bold : 310 . and Speech his Grace's sign. " I am I am in truth. his de- sign. " To cry. Nor more nor less nor power nor strength for act or deed is Alas ! . no power of heart have ! Oh. mine ! tent of Might. the present of his love . his Glory's trust. the Senses. or hence of start have I . the Soul. The Stars.

that I knew what here I am. Creation's Pencil graced . that which indeed Creation's Pen Th' illumined is mine the lines of billows of events hath traced scroll of the Two ! . " My by submission and obedience slave. by Providence laid by I can not grasp aught other than my fortune doth supply. I can not." address to 311 told . or dust to water's spray . that which indeed is mine ! I'm poor and empty-handed. that I knew what here I am. Autumn ! . that I knew what here I am. that I knew what here I am. from earth or from the sky . or the dark night the day fire. Oh. that I knew what here I am. or mountain region stray turn by will of mine to lovely May. 'twere favors mani- fold. land or from the ocean. me. Oh. that which indeed is mine I can not . take From . Their garments upon earth and sky. Oh. Creation's woof hath placed . that which indeed I can not make is mine the morning eve. that which indeed is mine : . but grace free is of the Lord. Worlds. decree is of the Lord The surging of the Seen and Unseen's sea is of the Lord. Nonentity's my attribute to Be is of the Lord For Being or Non-being's rise. ! . that which indeed is mine gifts breath . Oh. My portion And my provision is from Providence's kitchen spread. Oh.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The servant's part is Should He. unallotted. The silver or the gold will come. Oh. Men's forms are pictures in Creation's great Shah-Nama traced. . is . ! my share from wet or dry. that I knew what here I am. I can not turn the air to I can not bid the Sphere stand still. ! Of from table of his Bounty is my daily bread from the Breath of God's benignant Mercy fed My from the favors of Almighty Power is shed.

night some balm wounded heart. Day and I've sought for. Empty earthen pots are reckoned one with jewels rich and rare. Ne'er a turret on the fort of interest remaineth now. Ruined hath this old Vineyard been by autumn's sullen blast. is mine ! oped remain . With kindness concealed and manifest did he me rear From . ! Now void. that I knew what here I am. to relieve my Ne'er a cure within the heavens' turquoise chest remaineth now.THE SACRED BOOKS 312 out of Nothingness his mighty Power made me appear Whilst in the womb I lay. remaineth now. . The picturings of worlds are all things changing aye amain The showing of the Hidden Treasure is this raging main. that which indeed is mine ! GAZEL Ne'er a corner for the plaintive bulbul's nest remaineth now Ne'er a palm-tree 'neath whose kindly shade is rest remaineth now. . but all in vain Ne'er a single drop. through every country. in mercy's fountain blest. Ne'er a scale in value's mart the worth to test remaineth now. Oh. if't dear. that which indeed is mine . that I knew what here I am. With me he drew a curtain o'er Distinction's beauty Oh. away . that which indeed God's Revelation is Discernment's Eye. From its source. The blinded thing in scattering strange fruits its hours are past. that I knew what here I am. This glass-lined world's the mirror where Lights Twain their phases cast. this business of the Lord. are Possibility's storehouses vast . This work. . 'Neath the earth may now the needy hide themselves. Nabi. searched have I. this Majesty made plain. saw he to all I need for here. now full. Oh.

Amidst the host of gleaming stars the torch . with the shining lamps. There raised aloft old Saturn high upon the Seventh Sphere Sitting like Indian elephant-conductor on did stray. with meditation's gaze e'en whilst I it survey. whom men and jinns obey.POEMS OF BAQI A QAISDA ON SULTAN SULEIMAN One night when all the battlements Heaven's castle doth dis- Illumed and decked were. Armed with a brand of gleaming gold had leapt into the plain The Swordsman of the sky's expanse. o'er all earth rose the Sun. of heaven's field of fray. had Venus struck her lyre. The tambourinist Sun her visage bright had hid away. joyed and smiling gay. The eye of understanding looked upon this wondrous sight. lit up reflection's taper's ray. beams on every side. Athwart the field of Moon lit Heaven with radiance beamed stars' up the his Milky Way. At length the soul's ear learned the secret hid in this which When. To give direction to the weighty matters of the earth Had Jupiter. Casting O'er the horizons. Taking the keynote for her tune 'neath in the vaulted sphere. e'en as Seal of Suleiman's display. " What means this decking of the universe ? " I wond'ring said. at the banquet of the sky. delighted. the array. There. The Secretary of the Spheres That writer of his signature had ta'en his meteor-pen. lo ! its lay: 313 . In mirth and happiness. the wise.

THE SACRED BOOKS 314- What is it that hath decked earth's hall with splendors such as this. . on whose board Of favors. Thy scimitar's the gleaming guide empires to overthrow. Saving the might and fortune of the King who earth doth sway? He who high upon the throne above all crowned kings. tyranny's the code of Key-Qubad . Beside thy justice. Jemshid of happiness and joy. Darius of the fight. Eebelled one 'gainst his word. through dread of thee would trembling seize the pine. Autumn. secure he'd bind him in his Meet E'en 'tis bonds. of his bounteous hand alway. odor of his grace . beak into the Sphere. Iskender of his day ! sits The Hero of the Lord of the East and West obey! Prince of the Epoch ! ! King whom Sultan Suleiman ! the kings of earth Triumphant Aye ! before the steed of yonder Monarch of the realms Of right and equity. sea-like armies vast. chained with the Milky Way. Need hath the merchant. Xo foe of Islam can abide before thy saber's ray. but mildness Qahraman's most deadly fray. Lord of the land of graciousness and bounty. should march earth's rulers' bright array. falling stars a chain Amidst thy The sails are Thrust around the heaven's neck would lay. Khusrev of right and clemency. Early Spring. like the dappled pard. the sky. for th' reign. the law they dis- obey. and standards fair. spread is all the wealth that sea and mine display . Saw The it thy wrath. Through tyrant's hard oppression no one groaneth in his Longs the perfumer. 'twould seize it as a grain. Beside thy wrath. battlefield of dread Keyani fray. thy flags it its which the ship of splendid triumph doth display. And though may wail the flute and lute.

Let both the youthful pine and cypress view thy motions fair . en- . In past eternity the hand. Nor happy as thy star can beam the garden's bright array. the secret court. for the Sky's Ball spins upon its way. If yonder Thy tresess " To dance thy cheek in many a twisting curl. The hall. The cries of those on plain of earth have risen to the skies. Before thy cheek the rose and jasmine bowed in sujud. That time is this time. On every side are nightingales of sweet. The shouts of those who dwell above have found to earth ! their way. smooth-as-water-running lay. The dark and cloudy-brained of men thine eyebrows black depict. the world. love for thee. The soul. where doth thy ruby's picture stay. have the Shamis tucked their skirts. like Irem's bower. The cypress to thy figure in qiyam did homage pay. The heart's throne is the seat of that great monarch. blooms through thy beauty's rose. The mine is now no fitting home for gem of lustrous ray.LITERATURE OF THE EAST The 'anqa strong. the heart. Now let us pray at Allah's court " May this for aye : dure. thy might. " Be and it is. thy power. The mead. Nor can the nightingale with songs as sweet as Baqi's sing. The radiance of thy beauty bright hath filled earth like the sun. O heart-enslaver gay. it struck with bat. to 315 which 'twere but a seed-like prey. Singeth this soul-bestowing. Then wherefore is it like the soul. hid from our eyes away ? Since in the casket of our mind thy ruby's picture lies. While those of keen." Hijaz fall across to we'd say. The gardener now to rear the willow need no more assay." resounds with love of thee for aye. Within the rosy garden of thy praise the bird. mouth be not the soul. melodious lay. discerning wit thy glistening teeth por- tray.

THE SACRED BOOKS 316 The might and glory of this prospered King's resplendent sway. the cup-bearer at our feast. see. . the Steel of gold-inlay ! GAZEL 'Tis love's wild sea. sighs' fierce wind doth lash those tears uprear . Until the lamp. the den of yonder tiger dread. At whatsoever feast I drain the cup thy rubies' mem'ry to. Baqi. My head. with witchcraft's spell hath parted The Sphere. except the dregs. Thou know'st. at break of dawn. then if weep on thy path's dust mine eyes that scatter pearls most clear! old hag. we pray Glory's the comrade. me here ! how vile a trick yon jade hath played GAZEL Years trodden under foot have I lain on that path of thine. by God. around my feet to O twine. Amidst all those who grace that feast. Princess mine! boast not thyself through loveliness of face. the bowl. Mine unkempt hair. ! ! The beaker the Sphere is . silver candelabrum on the circling skies display. O Light of my poor eyes. from O my fond me love. Thy musky locks are noose-like cast. with iuiya mixed are What gems full bright. the bark of sad despite. waves head. A Oh may the Ruler of the world with skirt of aid and grace " Protect the taper of his life from blast of doom. Fortune. the world-illuming sun. the fair one's love. mine eyebrows twain. dismay and sorrow's realm's deserted mountain region drear. I've no friend near. my my My the anchors here.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 317 For that. GAZEL With her graceful-moving form. that to bear Baqi. or are they gleaming pearls. Should she move forth with figure like the juniper in grace. . or is it but sweet disdain in thee ? GAZEL Before thy form. ! Bright 'midst the rosy bowers of grace a slender tree doth shine. Her Her figure. fair-proportioned as my poesy sublime. for the load of love's misfortune mayhap thy soul no power doth enshrine. hard to divine. that ! there I see? Through the many woes thou wreakest upon Baqi. Is't thy will to slay him. O cupbearer. seeing thy cheek's glow. Who. sweetheart. sick of heart. can it be ? the dead of pain of anguish doth its draught fresh life In the rosebud hid a lovely To impart . dire. slender waist is like its subtle thought Then yearn For not. is but a sun which must full soon decline The loved one's stature tall. He who hath drunken deep of wine inebriate doth grow. Those locks of thine the pride of ambergris would overthrow. or on the rosebud drops of dew? Are they sparkling stars. a Cypress jasmine-faced is she? Or in Eden's bower a branch upon the Lote or Tuba-tree? That thy blood-stained shaft which rankles in my wounded breast. my love. her form as fair as juniper. tell to me Are they teeth those in thy mouth. alas. recalls the ruby is deceived. is the red wine Jesu's breath ? tell. the box-tree's lissom figure dwarfed would show. rose-leaf.

through the tracings of thy down. It warm At woful Two as rays of summer sun doth stream. In air the mind. Lest she idolater become. A GAZEL All sick the heart with love for her. low wail. the flute. thy waist to clasp Thou ! O us. beside thee let him creep. Beware. sad at the feast of woe Bent form. before thee lieth low. the Kings of grace and beauty go: Him hinder not.THE SACRED BOOKS 318 The garden's cypress to the loved one's form must bend right low. The heart's page. Prone lies the frame her path's dust 'neath. Before thy Horse. like limpid water. the harp. wine doth flow. give not the mirror bright to yonder paynim maid. 'Twixt this day. fragrant musk-pod all the world would deem. clear doth gleam Thy pouting mouth a bubble round doth seem. when there her face doth show. O my Queen. doth he not drink the wine of obligation's grape. Who drunken with A-lestu's cup's overwhelming draught doth go ? GAZEL Thy cheek. The radiance of thy cheek's sun on the heart Like moonlight on the water's face doth beam. in union's stream the eye. O Shade-like stay ! Baqi. my bloodshot eyes. Oh. thy servant. zone-like. love. the soul 'midst separation's fiery glow. her mole dark-hued like ambergris. . sorrow's feast Baqi. Baqi. A volume all illumined one would deem. heart's blood for . . beakers of red wine would one esteem. ever shall it be my lot. thy cheeks are Towers of might. like Pawns. the dagger blade of severance doth show! art the Queen of earth. That fair Moon's sunny love the earth have burned.

seems they 'gainst the winds of Fate com- plain. all the Seven Climates have the words of 'tis Baqi gone. within the garden Low lying there. thou it is whom eager seek they all around. now all their glory vain. Baqi. it lies full many a fallen leaf . Dark Autumn's blast hath torn away the hands from off the plane. a sea that casts spray all around. again. From my weeping Like an ocean Forth through flows the river of my tears on every side. let it tremble with its shame: this day doth naught of leaf or fruit re- Bare every shrub. all around. cross they. GAZEL Tulip-cheeked ones over rosy Mead and garden field and plain stray all around . sat Sorrow. Stay not within the parterre. There. but who the fair ? Lissom Cypress. together leagued. tain. all around. aye. . These the lovers true of radiant faces.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 319 ON AUTUMN Lo. From each hill-side they come and cast their gold low at the feet. all around. all clad in tattered dervish rags. ne'er a trace or sign of springtide's beauty doth remain. as hoped the streams from these some boon to gain. Dismay. Of garden trees. Fall'n 'midst the garden lie the leaves. Pain. Band on band Woe's legions camped before the City of the Heart. looking wistful each way. Strife. This refulgent verse recited shall be alway. Bleak stand the orchard trees.

Thy . thereof thy curl and twine The smoke musky locks that spreading fragrant . the beakers its blood-weeping eyne. and now parted This world is sometimes pleasure and sometimes woe. At A parting's banquet should the cup. Bound Mad in the spell of thy locks' chain is Baqi. ! . And surely doth the wine-jar love's King's Khusrevani hoard enshrine. the heart. its taper at the moon that . a o'ertake The fate to which I must myself resign! fume of beauty's and of grace's censer is thy cheek's sweet mole. down from its eyes the red blood rolls.THE SACRED BOOKS 320 GAZEL From thine own How lustrously beauty's radiant sun doth light flow. Whene'er the feast recalls Jemshid. he. Liege. and to the mad they grace show. . with blood brim o'er were't strange? O bowl that. and the cup's thy comrade Like to the dregs why dost thou me aside throw? Hearts longing for thy beauty can resist not Hold. now the crystal glass show 1 doth friend's the beaker. if by thy door one day the foe should sudden me A woe by Heaven decreed. Moon. my GAZEL The goblet as affliction's Khusrev's bright Keyani crown doth shine . The rosy-tinted wine its tears. none can bear the dazzling vision's bright glow United now the lover. Thy cheek rose-hued doth light shines most bright. a goblet filled full high with wine. to the fair we'll drain.

THE ANCIENT CHURCH OF ST. . The former Christian Cathedral of Ancient Constantinople^ now converted into the chief Mohammedan Mosque. SOPHIA.

Thy cheek rose-hue. to the fair we'll drain. and now parted .K3KS T. and the cup's thy comrade. the heart. they grace show. GAZEL From om thine beauty's radiant sun doth light flow . Tbi world is sometimes pleasure and sometimes woe.AIH4OH . a goblet filled full high " i Moon. the beakers its blood-weeping should the cup. ed Bound Mad in the spell of he. my a' Liege. beaker. red blood rolls its eyes the . with blood were't strange? bow! that. and . A woe if * The fame The smok'- door one day the foe should sudden ^ Heaven decreed. fiicn-i'* the to none can bear the dazzling vision's bright glow! now the lover. Whene'er the feast recalls Jemshid. 1 !<>tb light its taper at the moon that . wine t A down from its tears. the dregs why dost thou me aside throw? >r thy beauty can resist not. a fate to which I must myself of beauty's and of grace's censer thm>f thy musky me is thy cheek's locks that spreading fragrant curl and twine. mad HOjH'JH') T/MD/A MHT WntV> tMrno\ *AT \nVjonk \o IxntaAto') doth the wine-jar \ ing's Khusrevani hoard enshrine.T8 ^ 'iO to the chain is Baqi.



from hand of Fate should be joy's beak- . In the bosom of some stately cypress thou'rt a nightly guest. vi. the lustrous sheen of Baqi's verse the . Why thou weepest from the heavens. GAZEL When the sheets have yonder Torment to their bosom ta'en to rest. tk' Eter- nal Life Divine. which of life's fair springtide is the last.LITERATURE OF THE EAST Its candlestick at grace's feast is Of love As Life's and passion cause is 321 yonder collar fair of thine. but that." O In the dawning. 'Tis need the tulip cheek the tint of autumn leaf should wear . the dust. mourn not with those sense- . e'en like the dregs'. Since the sea hath hid the album of the shell within its breast ? Longing for thy cheeks. O dew. Like as though he'd cast of rose-leaves fresh a handful o'er his chest. Think " Hides the night-adorning I. 21. Stream brightly this doth shine . ELEGY ON SULTAN SULEIMAN O thou Till ! I. er's share. less plaints thou turtle. foot-bounden in the mesh of fame and glory's snare when shall last the lust of faithless earth's pursuits ! and care? At that first moment. 'Tis need that thy last home should be. Every night some lovely rose's bosom fair thou enterest. Moon within the cloud- let's breast. hath Baqi all his bosom marked with scars. Hath the pearl seen in the story of thy teeth its tale of shame. VOL. never can I think. 'Tis need the stone " -.

gently laid he in the dust his face. What wonder if our eyes no more life and the world behold His beauty fair. . For seeing Now let it. did earth irradiate : ! ! If folk upon the bright sun look. and its ! form bend low ! And let With the Judas-tree anew in blossoms gore-hued blow this sad anguish let the stars' eyes rain tears! down ! bitter . the Treasurer. . ! ' ! Weary and worn by deem not this sad. exceeding kind a Potentate The court of glory of his kingly majesty most high Was aye the center where would hopes of sage and poet wait. changeful Sphere. bear? In understanding's eye how long shall heedless slumber bide ? Will not war's Lion-Monarch's fate suffice to make thee ware ? He. thou him Near God to be. A . him placed like jewel in his case. doth yon moon-face before their minds arise the cloud blood drop on drop weep. of Dara's armied state Before the dust beneath his feet the Sphere bent low its head Earth's shrine of adoration was his royal pavilion's gate. with tears are filled their eyes. A King was he in might as Doom and puissant as Fate In truth. The smallest of his gifts the meanest beggar made a prince Exceeding bounteous. as sun and moon. Like tender And Earth. Shah.THE SACRED BOOKS 322 He is a man indeed whose heart is as a mirror clear Man art thou ? why then doth thy breast the tiger's fierceness . the dread gleaming of whose brand the Frank can well ! declare ! rose-leaf. Although he yielded to Eternal Destiny's command. Prince of Fortune's Cavaliers he to whose charger bold. he was the radiance of rank high and glory great. to the luster of whose sword the Magyar bowed his head He. Whene'er he caracoled or pranced. Iskender-diademed. cramped was earth's tour! ney square! He. did he his rank and glory abdicate.

rose yearning Within the Tartar musk-deer's heart Through And. I trow. till the last day the watchman's calling ply! Although the pearl-diffusing eye to oceans turned the world. narcisse-like. let 'tis thou that sympathizer art with me. And fell to earth the Shade of God the Lord's benignant Grace. naught remaineth save a few bones on the earth below. bereft of rest Through and tearful e'en as I. his soul. let fire of anguish lie! for thee let the its ear lay on the path. mourning and of dole aloud let us rehearse . ! ! . hath. Fortune and Fame aye The wayward of the plain of as his friends Time and Space and bridle-guides did go. grief for thee. was wild and fierce of courser. The And bird. cruel Fate. heart! this hour Come. let them weep. and moan. Sore weeping let the cloud of spring go wand'ring through the sky! And let the wailing of the birds of dawn the whole world fill J Be roses torn and let the nightingale distressful cry Their hyacinths as weeds of woe displaying. pace. us like the flute bewail. Ke'er into being should there come a pearl with thee to vie O ! . aloft flown to the skies. . ! ! Down o'er their skirts their flowing tears let pour the mountains high! The odor of thy kindliness recalling. tulip-like. Awmo-like.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 323 And let the smoke from hearts on fire the heavens all darkened show! Their azure garments let the skies change into deepest black Let the whole world attire itself in robes of princely woe! In breasts of fairies and of men still let the flame burn on Of parting from the blest King Suleiman the fiery glow His home above the highest heaven's ramparts he hath made This world was all unworthy of his majesty. and plaintive sigh ! notes of The . The speeding Horseman was he.

ne'er its lissom twigs their haughty airs displayed again. remembering thy love and kindness. My prayer " is ever. the threshold of his majesty's array: color of his cheek hath paled. and yet no news hath come From yonder land. For shame. And let all who those grieve be moved by this our seven- fold verse. none who dares to gainsay doth remain." With flame of parting from thee let the sun burn and con- Or old or sume. Thy . May the babes. from far and And near Flocked nobles. through its grief and anguish. let tear! And let the earth despair its vestment rend through sorrow and ! saber made the foe the anguish dire of wounds to drain Their tongues are silenced. Goes now the Khusrev of the skies behind the cloudy veil. Its collar.THE SACRED BOOKS SIM. adorned as heaven's display ? Long have our eyes dwelt on the road. head-exalted. . young be he who weeps not thee in sad dismay. The youthful cypress. one would say. E'en like that rose which from the vase of flowers hath fall'n The away. all upon thy path their lives to offer fain. go 'neath the sod. Where'er thy stately charger placed his hoof. thy saber from its sheath plunge in the darksome clay. looked upon thy lance. let the reed-pen Thy talents Yea. and thy feats let it recall and weep in blood. And o'er the wastes through grief let darkness of the clouds hold sway. his tears. broke hath the Will earth's King ne'er awake from sleep ? dawn of day: Will ne'er he move forth from his tent. dry-lipped he lieth there.

and thou hast journeyed is hence . whose soul is light. Thy sword in cause of God did lives as sacrifice ordain. Of iron-girded heroes of the world thou threw'st a chain. verdant plain. the ! ! world . across earth's face on every side. luster of the mead hath soared to Heaven's huma of high. at his threshold serve. King Erdeshir aright. Thou took'st a thousand idol temples. behold The dear old man hath passed away from th' Egypt sad. Lo! thy first Praise resting-place is Eden's flowery. the Lord of Eight. the beauty of the King.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 886 In desert of mortality the bird. desire. behold The Tiger of the mount of war to rest in sleep hath gone The Lion who doth now keep watch on glory's height. the heart's delight. and the Dawning gray hath touched its ! bourne . The youthful Prince. Baqi. behold ! This chase now to the grave hath sent the Behram of the Age. Hero and Martyr both to be. Go. As sweeps a scimitar. Sultan Selim Khan on Iskender's couch of might. rests ne'er. And caused thy glorious name. happy flight. The lovely face of yon Khusrev. ! . At length struck the signal drum. God for he in the Two Worlds hath blessed is to ! thee. behold The Sun hath risen. be- hold! The Peacock fair of Eden's parterre . behold the glory of the heaven-high Khusrev dwell and f areBlessings be on the Monarch's soul and spirit well 1 The Eternal may ! ! . turnedst all to mosques Where jangled . thou mad'st be sung the Call to Prayers' bells strain. alert and fair as Joseph bright. behold The mirror of the work of God. behold The blast of Fate to all the winds hath blown Suleiman's throne ! .


TURKISH LITERATURE THE MIRROR OF COUNTRIES OB THE ADVENTURES OF SIDI ALI REIS We roam the waters far and wide. And bring confusion to our enemies. Revenge and hatred is our motto" TURKISH SEA SONG OP SIDL .


as mathematician. on account of A " the personality of the author. He boasts that he never ceases to hope to see Gujarat and Ormuz joined to the Ottoman realm his one desire is to see his Pa. and geographer. sometimes wielding his pen in writing lyrical or occasional verses. attained to that eminent height of culture which it occupied during the reign of Suleiman the Great. 329 .THE MIBROE OF COUNTRIES (INTRODUCTION BY PBOFESSOB ABMINIUS VAMBEBY) rilHE book of the Turkish Admiral Sidi Ali Reis. In the first place. Besides all this he was a warrior. is in many ways interesting. in whom love for the sea seems to have been hereditary. who in point of accoutrement had far the advanBut what stands out above all these accomtage over him. being thoroughly acquainted with the nautical science of his day. theologian. and in all branches of general literature . Sidi Ali. he was in harmony with the prevailing notions of his time. as the Turkish publisher points out in his preface. in whom we see a man of many varied accomplishments a genuine type of the Islamitic cul. entitled Mirat ul Memalilc" (the Mirror of Countries). ture of his time. As a man of general culture. proving himself as undaunted in fighting the elements as in close combat with the Portuguese. plishments is his glowing patriotism and his unwavering faith in the power and the greatness of the Ottoman Empire. astronomer. and hence. extending over three continents. and a representative of that class of official and military dignitaries to whose influence it is chiefly due Ottoman Empire. at other times entering into keen controversial disputes upon certain Koran theses or burning schismatic questions. Sidi Ali is the that the descendant of an illustrious family connected with the arsenal at Galata. excels as author on maritime subjects. and also as poet.

like the ruler of Bokhara. formerly the terror of the Christian world. although the caliphate had only fallen into the hands of the Ottoman rulers a few years previously with the overthrow of Tuman Bey by Selim II. as Asia is so tenaciously conservative that even to deal. Rum (Turkey) always remains in his eyes the most beautiful. and wherever he goes and whatever he sees. and upheld him as the legitimate Caliph. not only in the glory of spiritual preferment. Their rulers all suffer from a yun. a singularly world. all peculiar form of conceit. the roads swarm with highwaymen. while the sultans of Turkey basked. "who . the government of India and the East is certainly a very sad one. It does somewhat strange that he had such unbounded reverappear ence for the Sultan of Turkey. Civil wars and mutinies against the rulers of the land are every-day occurrences. and this required no small amount of courage and tact where he had to face proud Humayun or Thamasp. the richest. With regard to the things which he saw and heard in nonMussulman circles and districts in India. and his route lay almost entirely through districts where the ruling caste.THE SACRED BOOKS 330 dishah ruler of the world. no less conceited than the former. to this day the Turkish claim to the caliphate is a disputed point. torn and harassed as they were by internal strife and petty wars. but also in that of temThe picture which our author draws of poral superiority. his accounts are poor compared with the descriptions of Ibn Batuta and other Moslem travelers. Sidi Ali has had hardly any intercourse with Hindus. with whom he principally had were adherents to the Mohammedan faith. moreover. and this seems the more strange. and even during the reign of the much-extolled Humaintercourse with other lands was fraught with every imaginable kind of danger. happy way of expressing himself on this subject of his preference for his own Padishah and his native land. could not fail to exercise its influence upon the Moslem lands of Asia and their unstable governments. The authoritative and executive power of Turkey. and the most cultured land of the whole The Turkish Admiral has.

whether the army of the Sultan of Turkey were not exactly like this. without any fixed form or plan of government. which would have been comparatively easy. in the account of the Turkish Adcertainly surprising. But. most of his predecessors and successors have occupied themselves solely in making war in the West. We have always been under the impression that the Turks. as proved by his campaigns against Persia and Egypt. Bokhara. Thamasp. did direct his attention chiefly toward the East. namely the few facts by which is he illustrates the Sultan's policy in Moslem Asia. for although the finest of the Ottoman rulers. selves One miral parallels between them- thing. Sultan Selim. This reproach is neither unfounded nor unmerited. however. pointing to a ragged. after all. Asia." Humayun. while they might have utilized the many means at their disposal and the high prestige in which they stood toward the consolidation of their power in Asia. they were not quite so short-sighted as we gave them credit for. .LITERATURE OF THE EAST 381 asked me. we are struck with the fact that. one by one. come to light. and that as a matter of fact their campaigns were nothing short of marauding raids. directed their attention more toward the Christian lands of the West. and that now and again they have given a thought to the bringing about of a better state of things. and even Borak Khan of all delighted in drawing and Sultan Suleiman. and empty conquests. was meanwhile left pretty well to its own devices. as in this narrative the threads of the policy pursued by those sultans. which offered little to tempt the mercenary janissaries. during the era of their supreme power and universal sway. motley crowd of ruffians. than toward the Moslem lands of the East.

Khotlan.. i. " Man proposes. But. Considering the matter it contains this book ought to have been entitled. Balkh. I resolved to go back to Turkey by the overland route. and the dangers we had an which accurate account of which it through passed. Bedakhshan. and received instructions to fetch back to Egypt the ships (15 galleys)." I commend it to the reader's kind attention. " tale of woe. Khorassan. and as I could not proceed any farther in that direction. in it I have tried to relate. the suffering and the distress which my travels ended. also to tell of the cities and the is almost impossible to give many wonderful sights we had seen. I traveled through Gujarat. Admiralship of the Egyptian fleet. Sind. and Deshti-Kiptchak . and Iran. and as I realized the impossibility of returning by water. God disposes. persuaded me to write down our . accompanied by a few tried and faithful Egyptian soldiers. Our companions and fellow-adventurers experiences. Kazwin and Hamadan. and of the holy shrines we had visited. up to the time that we reached Constantinople.THE MIRROR OF COUNTRIES OB THE ADVENTURES OF When SIDI ALI REIS Sultan Suleiman had taken up his winter residence I. in simple and plain language. the troubles and difficulties." I was unable to carry out my mission. And so this little book sees the light. Hind. on to Bagdad. I went by Meshed and the two Iraks. which some time ago had been sent to Basrah on the Persian Gulf. Kharezm. was appointed to the in Aleppo. Turan.e. through Transoxania. A Counties. 332 ." but with a view to the scene of action I have called it " Mirror of and as such beset our path. the author of these pages. Zabulistan.

touching Jedda and Yemen. As for the remainder of the fleet at Kubad Pasha had offered the command of it to the Basrah. and with the remainder he dispersed. made a pilgrimage Konia in to the tomb of Molla-i-Rumi. as in case it As a arrived he would not be able to leave the harbor at all. I was com- Aleppo. One of his galleys was wrecked near Bahrein. took the fortress and made the inhabitants prisoners . 1 Through fogs and foul weather his fleet became some ships were lost. however. I went to Sidi-Ghazi. matter of fact it was already too late to save all the ships he therefore took only three. as also those of Saad and Said. Zakeriah. and visited the shrines of the Sultan ul-Ulema. at Kassarie I made a pilgrimage to the graves of the Sheiks Awhad-ed-din Kirmani. Ibrahim Akserayi. The Kurban- Bairam I spent again in attendance on the Sultan. in manded to join the army. some time previous to this. . been dispatched with about 30 ships (galleys and galleons) from Suez. the late Admiral of the Egyptian fleet. proceeded from Oman to Muscat.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 333 ii When the illustrious Padishah was holding his court at Ramazan of the year 960 (1552). i Shahar is the name of the coast-line between Oman and Aden. he also made an incursion into the islands of Ormuz and Barkhat. and Shemsi Tebrizi. through the Red Sea. after which he returned to all Muscat. so he brought only two vessels back to Egypt. companions of the Prophet. later on. and Davud Kaissari. Returned to Haleb (Aleppo). and through the straits of Bab-i-Mandeb. I celebrated Ramzam-Bairam in attendance on his Majesty. Baha-ed-din Zade. I visited the graves of Baud. and Balkiah. and of the Sheik Sadr-ed-din-Koniavi . had. I must here mention that Piri Bey. There he learned from the captive infidel captain that the Christian (Portuguese) fleet was on its way. Burham-ed-din. past Aden and along the coast of Shahar. and with these just managed to . that therefore any further delay was inadvisable. make his escape before the arrival of the Portuguese.

had had charge of the arsenal at Galata they had both been eminent in their profession. and I started from Aleppo for Basrah. both land and by sea. had taken in the part expedition against Rhodes under the Sultan had since had a share in almost all engageand (Suleiman). so that I knew every nook and corner of it. 2 The word here used is the old and correct one. and their skill had come down to me as an heirloom. most gladly accepted the post. but he had declined. two ships. and the infidels.THE SACRED BOOKS 334 Chief Officer. i. ." has originated. formerly Sanjakbey He was ordered to leave and one galleon at Basrah. and other captains. My father and grandfather. nautical science. i. and with the rest. from which word the present Tersane. toward the end of Zilhija of the said year 960 (1552). I had written several books on astronomy. When all this sad news reached the capital.e. he was to return to Egypt.e. by reddin Pasha. Sinan Pasha. and other matters bearing upon navigation. of the crew part escaped. then residing in Basrah. on the first of Moharram terribly battered stop to the fight. . Murad Bey did start as arranged.. died a martyr's death. The post now entrusted to me was much to my taste. by the cannon-balls. and returned to Egypt by land. humble Sidi Ali bin Husein.e. and had cruised about on the Western (Mediterranean) sea. since the 2 conquest of Constantinople.. five galleys. Dar-es-sena ("the house of technics"). Many more were wounded and the ships of Catif. the author of these pages was appointed Admiral of the Egyptian fleet. the rest were taken prisoners by the boat itself captured. I had always been very fond of the sea. I had fought under Khaiments. but opposite Ormuz he came upon the infidel (Portuguese) fleet. and several of the men. also known as Kiatibi-Rumi (the writer of the West. At last. i. of Turkey). night put a One boat was wrecked off the Persian coast. f 15 galleys (one galley had been burned in Basrah) and two boats. I. Rejeb Reis. When this became known in the fleet had been given to Constantinople the command of Murad Bey. " Arsenal. a terrible battle followed in which Suleiman Reis.

Orfah). I visited the grave of the prophet Zilkefl. on the road of Vasit to Zekya. and visited the graves of Adam. and also visited mosque of Shem. I reached Kerbela (Azwie). where I made a pilgrimage to the graves of the martyrs Hasan and Husein. and from there proceeded to Kufa. I resumed my journey to Bagdad and went from there by ship to Basrah. On the way to Bagdad I made a little detour from Tekrit to Samira. . the son of Aaron. On the way we touched Medain. brother of Ali. and in Hilla I made pilgrimages to the graves of Iman Mo- hammed Mehdi and Iman Akil. 1553). I reached Nedjef (Haira) on the second day. past the castle of Semke. where I saw the mosque with the pulpit under which the prophets of the house of Ali are buried. where I arrived toward the end of Safar of the said year (beginning there the of February. Again crossing the Euphrates (this time by a bridge). Shimun. and Kazib-elban-Mosuli. Noah. and crossing the Euphrates near the little town of Masib. and the tombs of Kamber and Duldul. past the strongholds of Adjul and Misra to Sadi-es Sueiba and on to Basrah. in and when Reka (i. after which I came past the towns of Ashik 3 and Maashuk. and went past Imare Bugazi. Feth Mosuli. admired Tak Kesri and the castle of Shah Zenan. and Ali. I continued my journey past the fortress of Teir. after visiting the graves of the saints there. We crossed the Tigris near Djisr and. Turning into the steppe near Shefata.e. 1554). saw the grave of Selmas Faris. and through Harbi. Arrived at the fortress of Hasinia. to Eire. I undertook a pilBiredjik grimage to the tomb of Abraham. on to Bagdad. having visited on the way between Nisebin and Mossul the holy graves of the prophets Yunis and Djerdjis and of the sheiks Mohammed Garabili. Ashik is now a ruin opposite Samira.. and visited the graves of Iman Ali-el-Hadi and Iman Haman Askeri.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 335 I crossed the Euphrates at of the year 961 (7 Dec.

A water-supply had also to be arranged for. and. made over to me the 15 galleys which were needing a great deal of repair. .THE SACRED BOOKS 336 in ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED IN BASBAH On the day after my arrival I had an interview with Mustafa Pasha. Mowsim Arabic word " the time of the season. whether you are joyful or anxious. When at last the time of the monsoon came. Zobeir. but it troubled me for a long time. and several martyrs and companions of the Prophet. and as it was 1 yet five months before the time of the monsoon. and when later on Mustafa Pasha sent a detachment of soldiers to take the island of Huweiza (in which expedition I took part with five of my galleys). except for four boats. But alas believed this to be the fulfilment of there was more to follow ! for : What is decreed must come to pass. and as I remembered that a similar thing had happened to Sheik Muhieddin and had resulted in a defeat. and the undertaking resulted in our losing about a hundred men all through the fickleness of the Egyptian troops. No matter. I awoke. embarked and we started for Egypt." From the " the English monsoon " has originated. were not to be had in sufficient quantity either from the stores there or from Ormuz. Talha. I kept this dream a secret. literally. After cruising about for a month he returned with the news that. I became greatly alarmed. the Pasha sent a trusty sailor with a frigate to Ormuz. Mowaim Zemani. after seeing my credentials. One night I dreamed that I lost my sword. however. calked and provided with guns. there was no sign of any The troops therefore ships of the infidels in those waters. which. they were put in order. who. just as I was about to pray to the Almighty for the victory of the Islam arms. I fully my dream. As far as could be. to explore the neighborhood. I had plenty of leisure to visit the mosque of Ali and the graves of Hasan Basri. Uns-bin-Malik. Abdurrahman-bin-Anf.

past proceeded by of Keimzar or Leime.e. for the carrying of * Lahsa and Katif. provided with a leather sack. . as staple-towns for the commerce between Persia and India. i. We visited on the way from Mehzari the grave of Khidr. and Kalhata. and forty days after our departure. and Barhata. 22. f the waters of Ormuz.. VOL. of the coasts and the towns Djilgar Djadi. were famous in the Middle Ages. we suddenly saw coming toward us the Christian fleet. and Shushter in Charik. accom- panied. worked by freights. God's power is boundless! This custom is " the origin of the proverb: Maradj ul bahreia jaltdkian. VI. Unable to learn anything there. From Hanifi. by the frigate of Sherifi Pasha. i. where I interviewed the commander of the place. I went on to Bahrein. which Mustafa Pasha had sent as an We escort. with the message that Ormuz was safely passed." and hence also the name " Bahrein. This water is particularly pleasant and cold in the spring time. the harbor in the province of Shiraz we visited Ri- shehr (Bushir) and after reconnoitering the coasts and unable to get any clue as to the whereabouts of the enemy by means of the Tshekleva* I proceeded to Katif. Bahrein. So we dismissed the vessel. sails and oars. i. as far as Ormuz. dive down into the sea and bring the fresh water from the bottom for Eeis Murad's use. consisting of four to Kis. But neither could he give me any information about the fleet of the infidels. situated near Lahsa 2 and Hadjar on the Arabian coast. and Reis Murad gave me some. in the forenoon. old several other small islands in the A i small vessel. The sailors. and Green Sea." Next we came Ormuz. which..LITERATURE OF THE EAST 337 IV WHAT TOOK PLACE IN THE SEA OF OEMUZ On the first of Shawal we left the harbor of Basrah.e. I made pilgrimages to the graves of Imam Mo- hammed. also called BacoUve.e. Reis Murad. There is a curious custom at Bahrein. but nowhere could we get any news of the fleet. together with Ormuz. and other saints. on the tenth of Ramazan. and proceeding along the coast of Duspul (Dizful). islands in the Persian Gulf.

I immediately ordered the canopy to be taken down." mentioned by Marco Polo. Vol. a place on the east coast of Oman. also on the east coast of Oman. When on the sixth of cruised about for nearly 17 days. and soon after reached Oman. This is the same as " Calatu. issuing from the harbor of hat. The boats and galleons obscured the horizon with their mizzen sails 8 (Magistra) and Peneta (small sails) all set. and only then the Admiral of the infidel fleet began to show some signs of fear.. . three galleons." by Col. or rather Sohar. . Kadr-Ghedjesi. comboats Maskat. 25 vessels in all. 381. between Ras Dibba and Fedzna. and under the lucky star of the Padishah. the enemies of Islam had been defeated. the flags were unfurled." The following passage is. and words fail me to describe it. see " Travels of Marco Polo. " According to Bianchi. 12 and 22 gurabs. c Sohar. 4 where we took in 5 Thus water. cannon was tremendous. and twelve galleys (Kalita). Khorfakan. They of Ramazan. we commenced to fight. 6 we saw carried a large number of troops. The battle continued till sunset. i Kuya appears to be really the name of the town Goa. Yule. and the fleet turned in the direction of Ormuz. then the wind until rose. voile d'artimon. we fastened the filandra 3 to the mainmast. Ramazan. He ordered the signal-gun to fire a retreat. On the day after we passed Khorfakan. Never before within the annals of history has such a battle been fought. we were becalmed for awhile. trusting to the help of the Almighty. 7 the son of the Governor. Night came at last. a night in the month day we we arrived in the vicinity of Maskat and Kalin the morning. large manded by Captain Kuya. of the i. the sails were set and as the shore was near . the headquarters of the Portuguese in India. the guns put in readiness. H. six Portuguese guard ships. * . With the help of Allah. the anchor weighed.THE SACRED BOOKS 338 large ships.e. full of courage and calling upon The volley from the guns and Allah. The next day we continued our previous course. p. and. a email ensign hoisted on the top of the mainmast. daybreak. II. and then. Filandra. and with God's help we sank and utterly destroyed one of the enemy's galleons. 32 vessels in all.

" .. on both sides . arrows and swords made terrible slaughter on both sides. The boats had Alemshah Eeis. The ships (gurdbs} of the infidel fleet had likewise taken on board the crews of their sunken vessels. and as the rowers were Arabs they had been hospitably treated by the Arabs of Nedjd. our rowers were now insufficient in number to manage the oars. The stones which they threw at us created quite a whirlpool as they fell into the sea. i. they advanced toward us. one of theirs went to In a word. captains of some of the foundered ships. were compelled to drop anchor (at the We stern) and to continue to fight as best we might." " lance. One of our galleys was set on fire by a bomb. 9 Shaika. . the Serdar of the volunteers. God to say the boat is merciful ! Five of our galleys and as many of the enemy's boats were sunk and utterly wrecked. they also had found shelter on the Arabian coast. and Derzi Mustafa Bey. Full of conand. and they showered down upon us. owing partly to the defective text. and Kalfat Memi. " spear. this has ever taken place. The BadjoalushTca penetrated the boats and the Shaikas 9 and tore large holes in their hulls. unclear and unintelligible. and as there were Arabs amongst them. while our galleys were 10 thrown down upon riddled through by the javelins (Darda) us from the enemy's turrets. gay with bunting. there was great loss the bottom with all sails set. God is our witness.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 339 the guard-ships spread their round sails (Chember-yelken). Their boats attacked our galleys. and to fire the cannon. partly to the strange naval technical expressions.. the battle raged..e. but strange from which it issued shared the like fate. had landed on the Arabian shore. 10 Compare the Hungarian d'arda. Even in the war between Khaiveddin Pasha and Andreas Doria no such naval action as also to be abandoned. with the remainder of the Egyptian soldiers and 200 carpenters. cannon and guns. fidence in God's protection we awaited them. which gave them the appearance of bristling porcupines . Kara Mustafa. a Kirghiz boat. while running against the current.

e. situated on the coast of that part of Kerman. the son of Malik Dinar. See " Travels of Marco Polo. and. we tightly secured.." 14 On our modern maps given as Shabar. i. and we were approaching the bay of the wind began to rise. 13 As the evening was far advanced we could not land immediIn the morning ately. and finally reached This is a the coasts of Djash.e. 11 the Lushtas were anchors. unalterable devotion to our glorious Padishah.. i. he would undertake to send 50 or 60 boats to supply "Of this expression only the word longa (lenga) can be identified with the Italian. a brigantine (pirateship). two Lenguvuria. a double feast-day. Escorted by the said captain we entered the harbor of Gua15 dor.THE SACRED BOOKS 340 When night came. uRectius: Kidj-Mekran (Marco Polo's Kesmacoran). after unheard-of troubles and difficulties. bor of Sheba. During that night we drifted away from the Arabian coast into the open sea. laden with spoils. which is the name of the bay as well as of the place. but had to spend another night at sea. as Yule rightly observes. belonging to the Indian Empire. The boats had already cast Ormuz. and when the watchman sighted us they hailed us. 14 Here we came upon a Notak. He promised that henceforth. and thus our exhausted soldiers were invigorated. 12 in the province of Kerman. The Governor of Guador came on board our ship and assured us of his . for we had not a drop left. 12 A harbor-town in Persia. as we had now got water. towing neared the shore while the galleys. we were not allowed to touch the shore. we approached the harfollowed. and for us. dragging their anchors. a dry wind carried off many of the crew.. in the vicinity of Beluchistan. Guador. and had to set sail again. and at last. We told them that we were Mussulmans. whereupon their captain came on board our vessel he kindly supplied us with water. and we roamed about for two days before we came to Kichi Mekran. but we could find no harbor. on the west coast of Beluchistan. . The people there were Beluchistanis and their chief was Malik Djelaleddin. if at any time our fleet should come to Or- muz. the conquered gurabs along. then belonging to India. large However. long coast. This was on Bairam day.

upon which a first-class pilot was sent us. and advised them above all things to be brave. As compared to these awful tempests the foul weather in the western seas is mere child's play. We never once saw the blue sky. the assurance that he was thoroughly trustworthy and entirely devoted to the interests of our Padishah. we had an opportunity of seeing many sea-monsters in the neighborhood of the bay of Djugd. with to us. Literally. For ten days the storm raged continuously and the rain came down in torrents. to the east of Shar. i and Zofar. or fish A welcome diversion ocabout the size of two galley well. In this frightful predicament our only consolation was our unwavering trust in the power of the Almighty. not even the trinquetla (stormsail). and in every possible way to be of service We wrote a letter to the native Prince Djelaleddin to ask for a pilot. when suddenly from the west arose a great storm ! of known as 2 fil Tofcuri. and their towering billows are as drops of water compared to those of the Indian sea. and had arrived nearly opposite to Zofar 1 and Shar. In the Middle Ages there city of that name. but were unable to set the sails. The tide being very strong here and the ebb slow. Night and day were both alike. large sea-serpents. waa a 2 eels. WHAT WE SUFFEBED God IN THE INDIAN OCEAN is merciful With a favorable wind we left the port Guador and again steered for Yemen. I did all I could to encourage and cheer my companions. "Elephant's flood. which the pilot declared to be a good omen. We had been at sea for several days. and because of the frailty of our craft all ballast had to be thrown overboard. more perhaps. We were driven back. turtles in great quantities. and never to doubt but that all would end curred in the appearance of a lengths. The tempest raged with increasing fury. as mentioned by Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 341 us with provisions." . or Dhofar. sea-horses.

. and . Here follow some nautical expressions which I do not understand. Perhaps meant for Manglaus. 4 more. We took frequent soundings. So. Taking a survey of our surroundings we caught sight of an idol-temple The sails were drawn in a little coast of Djamher. and at sight of it the pilot broke forth into loud lamentations he declared we were approaching whirlpools and eddies. and hardly ever a ship . course toward Somenat. and as the men had no control over the rudder. and politically under Goa. the storm somewhat abated. p. the water rose.. and flying the commander's flag. (See "Imperial Gazetteer of India.THE SACRED BOOKS 342 The color of the water suddenly changed to pure white. stalwart cabin boy (or sailor) was tied to the Djondu. we drifted about all night and all day until at last. we are told escape their fury. and when we struck a depth of five Kuladj (arm-lengths) the mizzen3 sails (Orta Yelken) were set. has been known to in nautical books. the wind had risen again. Meanwhile. separated from Kathiawar by a narrow stroke of land. at least. with about 13. also the name in the south of the peninsula of Kath- of the District. whereby the post at the foot of the mizzenmast was A weighted down. Each rope was taken hold of by four men. the bowspreat . The next morning we slackened speed and drew in the sails.) . and the sailrope slightly raised. it is generally believed that they are only found on the coasts of Abyssinia and in the neighborhood of Sind in the bay of Djugd. Finally dwell there we further drew in our sails and continued on our on the course with serderma. These are no myth here." IV. 6 More correctly Diu. 305. an island belonging to the Portuguese in West India.000 inhabitants. a town iawar. and directing our 5 we passed by that place also. . heeling over to the left side. and so with great exertion they managed * to control the rudder. Menglaur. large handles had to be affixed with long double ropes fastened to them. 5 Somenat Somnath. and the ship veered right round. we passed Formyan and Menglir. in the District of Sahran- pur. . 6 for fear of the unbelievers which but we came to Div. in God's mercy. .

. in some places higher still. when the It " On your guard a whirlpool in suddenly exclaimed " front Quickly the anchors were lowered.000 inhabitants. . Once more the sails were set. in some places up to the walls. nothing could have saved us. and we decided make to for the infidel coast. we continued our way. the ship gave a terrible jerk and in another instant we were clear of the breakers. clinging some to casks and some to jacks. but at last we reached Gujarat in India. I consulted the horoscope in the Koran. so of course impossible to walk across. . had taken leave of one another. I came to the conclusion that we could not be very far tide mainland. we knew not. but the ship was dragged down with great force and nearly submerged. and vowed to give 100 florins to gave my the poor of Mecca. f Daman. I also stripped entirely. however. first in the year 1531. which part of it. Presently one of the anchors broke from its crook and an- other at the podjuz. The pilot declared that had we been wrecked off Fisht7 Kidsur. The rowers had left their seats. In one or two places the bottom tad to be ripped up to find the outlet so as to reduce off the the water. So we commenced to examine the hold of the ship and found that the storeroom was submerged. We had shipped much water. was deafening we could not hear our own voices. and neither captain nor boatswain could for a The ammunition was secured single instant leave his post. .LITERATURE OF THE EAST No 843 it was and the one could keep on his feet on deck. and. and all hands set to work at once to bale it out. two more were lost. . was truly a terrible day. and retaken 50. and this also counseled patience. with about was pillaged. and after cutting the from the . a Portuguese possession in the bay of Cambay. . slaves their liberty. . The noise of the . The of communication with the sailors was by inarmeans only ticulate words. . and having made a careful study of the chart. a place between Diu and Daman . . the panic-stricken crew threw off : pilot ! ! their clothes. in the storeroom. . in 1553. but after duly taking note of and current. . .

in Gujarat in India. "whirlwind. Melik Esed. in God's mercy. the wind somewhat abated. and there was nothing for it but to submit to our fate. The other ships had already arrived. more corCompare " " " to strike. who. boats. Some of them immediately took the Persian "badzed. and all on board anticipated the worst. The captains came on board our ship and assured us of the devotion of their chief to the Padishah. or rainy season of India. accompanied 8 by floods of rain for we were now in the Badzad." used principally in China. which said that Samiri was waging letter They brought us a war day and night against the Portuguese infidels. exposed to a strong spring-tide. First . s " i In the text Djonk. to news frightened the crew. if possible." from Bad. and that he was expecting the arrival of an Imperial fleet from Egypt under the guidance of the pilot Ali. VI WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PBOVINCE OF GUJAEAT After five days. rectly gust of wind. the ruler of Gujarat. and casks. 1 i. Ahmed. Malik Esed. since the time of Sultan held office there. and five nights.e. nor the . a large ship. all of which wreckage eventually was borne ashore by the rapidly We were obliged to lie to for another five days rising tide. its way. monsoon ships belonging to Samiri. mentioned by the Monk Odorico di Pordenone in 1331. that it behooved us to This reach the fortress of Surat. and they had thrown overboard oars.. the Governor. the whole crew eventually got safely to land. It seems a miracle that of the three ships lying there. and we found ourselves about two miles off the port of Daman. by day. All that was saved of the wreckage. cannon and other armament we left with the Governor of Daman. the ruler of Calcutta. but some of the galleys were waterlogged not far from the shore. thrown on their sides." "tempest".THE SACRED BOOKS 344 Toward afternoon the weather had cleared a little." wind. stars by night we could neither use our clock nor our compass." and Zeden. had In the harbor were some Djonk's. which was to put the Portuguese to flight. During all this time we never once saw the sun . gave me to understand that the fleet of the infidels was on avoid it and.

" The cause of the disturbances was this: After the death of Sultan Bahadur. the Grand Vizier of Sultan Ahmed. it means a pilot-ship. who informed us that there were large numbers of infidels about. and that Daman being a free port we had better be careful. and had 4 He had raised the banner of sovereignty on his own behalf." Literally. and said : " You have come to Gujarat in troublous times . harbor of Surat. Of Turkish origin. never since the days of Noah has there been a flood like unto within the memory of man that (Turkey) has landed on these coasts. army acknowledged him. this last. until at last we reached the harbor of Surat. but it originates from Beluchistan. and some went ashore in the boats and proceeded by land to Surat. " " 2 Compare dingy. He would allow us to come to Surat if we liked. from the word kut. fully three months after our departure from Basrah. the name of a ship or large boat. " to guard. Great was the joy of the Mohammedans at Surat when they saw us come." " to watch " would be more correctly. kuteol. on the coast of Mekran. . this being the symbol of sovereignty in India. had succeeded to the throne. hailed us with a letter difficulties we we Aga Hamsa. the word is also known in English. so we struggled on for five days longer. one of his relatives. from Umad-el-mulk. brella). literally." dinghy. riding at anchor at the ebb of the tide." also " policeman. Correctly speaking." Kotwal. to save this land for the Ottoman Empire and to deliver us from the Indian unbelievers. This was exactly what we wanted to do." *Cheter Kaldirmak means. they hailed us as their deliverers (Khidr). " 3 commander of a fortress. and service after procuring a set out for the Dindjuy? or pilot-boat. After great 8 Presently the Kutwal. as we were now in most perilous waters. We that God in his mercy would soon send an fervently hoped Ottoman fleet to Gujarat.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 345 under Melik Esed. Mulk. I remained on board with a few faithful of the men. kutwal. "to raise the sunshade" (um. meaning " guardian. had refused to take the oath of allegiance. for each vessel. of the Nasir-ulone but had nobles. but neither a ship from is it Rum The a youth of twelve years old. reached the open. the ruler of Gujarat. sailing at the flow.

Daman. had in the meantime raised a revolt. left a suf- keep it. and has twice been pillaged by the Portuguese (in 1536 and 1546). called Ahmed. while he would retire to the land of the interior. should be thrown open to the Portuguese. promising that in return for his services the harbors on the coast of Gujarat. who had for two whole months paring for battle. while he proceeded to Ahmedabad. in which the usurper was wounded. and the Provador. and when informed of our arrival he took from our troops 200 gunners and other men. Besai. Meanwhile Sultan Ahmed had taken the stronghold of Burudj and sent two of his officers. tan When the infidels heard of this they sent an envoy to Khudavend Khan to say that they did not mind so much about B More correctly Broatsh. Sumenat. took the stronghold of Burudj. killed. 6 five in all. a place northwest of Surat. Sultan Ahmed had immediately collected an army to go to Burudj. Diu. in the province of Gujarat. Again another time he tried to poison my food. Shiyul. as Nasir-ul-Mulk died of vexation over his misfortunes. commanding 7 large galleons and 80 gurabs. one of his adherents. This place has from time immemorial belonged to the Moslem rulers of Ahmedabad.. had hired murderers to kill me they were. meaning " Admiral. up entrenchments . Burudj. and. a relation of Sultan Ahmed. A battle followed. Surat. where a youth. however. Minglur. On day we who were the third left behind were at- tacked by the infidel captains of Goa. with elephants and troops to Surat. and then called in the aid of the Governor of the infidels ficient garrison to (Portuguese) at Goa. and Funneyan. But the tyrant joined with the infidels. discovered by the guard and fled." . Kutwal of Surat. and advanced toward Burudj. peace was once more restored in Gujarat. Ketbaye. and threw we were busy preNasir-ul-Mulk. Provador. viz.THE SACRED BOOKS 346 many 5 adherents. Sulthe Ahmed reascended his throne. but. Khudavend and Djihanghir. We went ashore. and his army put to flight. pitched our tents. Hasan Khan. this attempt to take my life also failed. on the right bank of the Nerbudda. proceeded himself to another town. being warned by . In the text.

called tari It so agadji (millet-tree). but I again reminded them that we were on foreign soil." The man was etc. Hadji Memi. one evening after sunset surprised Hussain Aga. determined to kill their Serdar. but I reminded them that we were on foreign soil and must commit no rash Surat. judge according to our law. and peace restored. One of these profli- gateSjYagmur by name. by exposure to the heat of the sun. having indulged in the forbidden drink. but that their hostility Admiral of Egypt. and this fluid. Therefore at the foot of all such trees drinking- booths have been placed. ear for ear.. the Serdar of the Circassians. You are our Admiral. there was some fighting and A two young men were wounded. and " " that our laws had no force here. presently changes into a most wonderful wine. deeds. life for cutioners ! : nose for nose. greatly to the alarm of the envoy.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 847 was chiefly directed toward the humble viz. which says Eye for eye. and my soldiers would have killed the envoy. and we will be the exeto the life. knowing a good deal about our affairs. flows out in a continuous stream . which are a great attraction to the soldiers. he had undertaken to prevent our departure after the holiday of Kurban. than they attacked the envoy's ship and captured the infidel. and. was Then the soldiers pressed round. There is in Gujarat a tree of the palm tribe. but were refused. that I should be given up to them. something of the nature of arrack. What. Some of my men. and one. No sooner had this come to the knowledge of my men. When the ." they cried. who was executed on the spot. " Thereupon I pronounced judgment according " law of the Koran. From its branches cups are suspended. few comrades rushed to his assistance. my They demanded person. the laws of our Padishah hold good everywhere. executed. punish the evil-doers. in the land of a foreign Padishah. and when the cut end of a branch is placed into one of these vessels a sweet liquid. happened that a runaway infidel gunner from one of my ships had enlisted on the ship of the envoy. and implored me to killed.

were given over to Khudavend Khan. A few days took us from Burudj to Belodra. and in Burudj. Ali and Aga. under condition that he should immediately remit to the Sublime Porte the price agreed upon for the sale. with all their tools and implements. Adil Khan had done the same. and with about 50 men." The end was that the greater part of them took service in : . 250 miles northeast of Bombay. In Surat. After receiving a confirmatory note to this effect. their pent-up feelings burst forth and they argued as follows " It is now nearly two years since we have received any pay. our goods are lost. the captain of the gunners (both of which had remained faithful to their Padishah). More correctly Balotra. Aga. in the Province of Pendj -Mahal. The deserted ships.THE SACRED BOOKS 34S nobles of the Begs heard of the occurrence they took the lesson to heart. and the branches swarmed with bats there of such extraordinary size that their wings on the stretch measured 40 inches across. Khudavend Khan had been paying them from 50 to 60 paras per At last day. a town in Jodpur (Radjhputana). when touching the ground. was that the roots hung down from the branches and. 8 and from we proceeded to Champanir. and the ships dismantled the hulks are old. t Ahmedabad. whose crowns reached up to the sky. 310 miles north of Bombay. Champanir. accompanied by Mustafa year the Ketkhuda (chief officer) of the Egyptian Janissaries. planted themselves trees. both from Khudavend Khan and Adil Khan. 9 On our way we saw some very curious trees. The most curious part about the however. the chief town of the Province of that name. But my troops were getting dissatisfied. and the envoy immediately hired a conveyance and went to Sultan Ahmed. a mountain fortress in Gujarat. Gujarat. and our return to Egypt is practically made impossible. I started on my jour7 ney to Ahmedabad in the beginning of Muharram of the 962 of November (end 1552). .

in the vicinity of Ahmedabad. He gave me a horse. Its fruit resembles the plantain 12 At but not in Gujarat." Katar. grows only in hell. Besides these we saw several Zokum trees. with the Sidra-treea of the Mohammedan paradise. " is Bir Katar a team of camels. tered fleet. it would be bad for us. according to the Koran. according to whom these animals live community but acknowledge no head among them. The name of this tree is the Tobi tree." means " ten . from ten to twenty new ones sprung up. to whom I presented my credentials. made the most ridiculous grimaces. and if we were not free to do so. We have need of the Sultan of Turkey. At Cherkes.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 349 and produced new trees. There I visited the Sultan. One day. which I visited. world. Thus from one tree. and serves as food for the condemned." deve." " ! 10 Compare Tuba-tree. and as for the monkeys. At stories of in a nightfall they always retired to their own place. They carried their young in their arms. a tree which. The Sultan. thousands of them made their appearance in our camp every evening. we be his Admiral that should to deliver seemly up expected I became very angry at this speech and cried: thou cursed tongue Thou foundest me with a shatHold. Our ships touch the ports of his Empire. was pleased to receive me most graciously and he assured me of his devotion to our glorious Padishah. but I swear by God Almighty thou shalt see ere to you. a team of 13 for and the camels. and other dignitaries. " team. 11 Parrots were very plentiful. money journey. I met the infidel envoy. present there is only a place of that name known in Oudh. his Grand Vizier Imad-ul-Mulk. camels. 11 Zokum. and strongly brought to our minds the Djihan Shah. 10 and more than a thousand people can find shelter under its shade. is the grave of Sheik Ahmed Magrebi. being at the house of Imad-ul-Mulk. Moreis of it is not he the Padishah the Islamitic and over. After a great many vicissitudes we at last arrived in Mah- 12 and after a journey of 50 days in Ahmedabad mudabad. the capital of Gujarat. and our " host addressed him in this way.

with a very large income. there is a land route ! : : also. the Bats point their daggers at their own breast. the mounted troops fect safety. saying that I would not stay if he gave me the whole of the land. It says: " We roam the waters far and wide. IT Rajput. And bring confusion upon our enemies. probably descended from the ural. 17 i. known in Europe as Barbarossa. With this seal. probably a Turkish sea-song of that time. and to the ruler granted my request out of respect for our Padishah. attack the caravan. Revenge and hatred is our motto. away with all fear." He was silent after that. and the subject was dropped. yield before the victori" 14 To which the unbeous arms of the great Padishah " Henceforth not so much liever made the following answer I replied as a bird will be able to leave the ports of India." It is (Khairreddin Pasha was Suleiman's renowned Admiral. for in its strength all foreign waters were mine command.Altaic . and threaten to kill themselves if they should presume to do the slightest harm to the travelers en14 Very characteristic is the piece of poetry here introduced. Next morning I told my dream to my companions and all were glad with me." whose business it is to escort merchants or travelers from one land into another. of Gujarat.THE SACRED BOOKS 350 long not only Ormuz. who from time immemorial have traded with the harbortowns of Arabia." " Indian i merchants. a warlike race.." more especially from the Province Banians. A few days after this Sultan Ahmed offered me the com- mand of the Province of Burudj. the seal of God to help me. I had a piece of paper before me with Ali's seal upon it. 15 of this land of Banians 18 there is Amongst the learned a tribe which they call the " Bats. For we are Khairreddin's troops. and for a very small renumeration they guarantee their perShould the Rajputs. of the land." " One need not necessarily go by water.) is In the text Bami may possibly be a slip of the pen and intended for "Brahmin. I asked for permission to depart.e. One night in my dream I saw the Khalifa Murteza AH. but Goa itself. but I refused.

the capital of the district of that name in the Presidency of Bombay. and after five days we effect. In five days we reached Patna. carry have no force. the Bats which the people of Ahmedabad had sent with us. this considered a terrible calamity. and the superstition of the people demands that the offenders be put to death. but he treated me very rudely. is This can not be the town of that name in Bengal. to exterminate the whole of their race. and so. and not only the offenders themselves but the chief of the Rajputs deems it necessary to kill their sons and daughters also. 18 traveling in carriages. continued our journey. in The Mohamfact. and visited the grave of Sheik Nizam the Pir (spiritual Here Shir Khan and his brother Musa chief) of Patna.LITERATURE OF THE EAST trusted to their care. Rajputs And generally desist 351 out of respect for the Bats. where I was presented to Mahmud Khan. the evil purpose. the out their threat. their Beg and gave me a letter of protection The camels were hired. came to Radanpoor. that we had not come to render either party any assistance. otherwise it would Bats however. On way we met some friendly Rajputs. i Radhanpur. and insisted on forcibly detaining three of my companions before he would consent to our departure. to fight Behluj Khan. 19 For fear of our siding with their enemies. however. we started on our overland journey to Turkey. medans of Ahmedabad had given us two such Bats as an escort. Occasionally. and after dismissing (free pass). Khan had collected an army. the people tried to retain us. as this to the south and could not be reached from Ahmedabad in more lies five days. and the from their travelers proceed on their way unmolested. about the middle of Safar of the said year. We showed them. But if such a thing does happen. and would not allow us to proceed on our journey until the battle should be over. . and had a pass from their ruler to that Then at last they let us go. but that we only wanted to continue our journey in peace. we the was of great service to us. the ruler of Radanpoor. if a caravan is is attacked and the suicide of the Bats becomes necessary.

" 2 a stone. is found in the head liuhre. and then the firing began on all sides. not prepared for this. the commander of the capital of 6 Sind. 3 the frontier town of Sind. but thanks to the letter of protection and a few presents. Wanga is unknown to me. . but during the last 5 years he had become invalided and unable to mount his horse. the name of a district and a place in the Presidency of Bombay." This had the desired effect they let us pass. Wanga. The throne of Sind was then occupied by Shah Husein He had reigned for 40 years. in the district of Cathiawar in the Presidency of Bombay. until we reached Leaving on the first of Rebiul-Ewel days' journey. 5 At that time Isa Terkhan. had put to death a number of able officers More correctly Parkar or Nagar-Parkar. to Parker. or Nagar Thata). called Tata. of the serpent and the dragon. * More correctly Junaghar. Presidency of Bombay. but to exact the " We are not merpassage money. sent us word that " they had not come to fight. so says the legend." to which I made reply chants and carry nothing but medicines and Mohurs* on which we have already paid duty. Tatta (Thats. Here we hired fresh 4 and Baghicamels. after a ten a town of the Rajputs. river Sihun. The infidels. a Aa a town.THE SACRED BOOKS 352 vn WHAT BEFELL US IN THE PROVINCE OP BIND we came. however. the name of a Province and town in Cathiawar. we were let free quite anticipating further dangers. Immediately I ordered all the camels to be let down on their knees so as to form a ring round us. 1 . and for about ten days we wandered through deserts and sandy places. The Indus. we were on our guard when next day a band of hostile Rajputs commenced a free fight with us. Many Dervishes carry one of these stones in their girdle to trade upon the superstition of the ignorant people. but if there be anything further to pay we are quite prepared to do so." which. TUiless it be intended for Wanna. and in five days we came to Djoona Feth. so now he only went about on board his ship in the Mirza. Here we were surprised by the infidels. in the District of Karachi. : . and possesses miraculous power.

but as Tata lies on an island and their shot did not reach so far. explaining matters. He also wrote a letter to our glorious Padishah. stored in the fortress of Nasrabad. journey I was given to understand that I should not be allowed to do so until after the successful termination of the campaign." is a great mark of tierpay vermek.e. and are not many of our sons and brethren " in the rebel army ? And this was perfectly true. but when I requested permission to continue my God-sent army . HearIt was ing of my arrival he received me with great honor. and divided it amongst his men. in a word he did not rest until he had quite cleared us from being mixed up in this war with Isa Khan. " He gave us the name of: a mystic army. after which he had captured the treasure. and then proclaimed himself as Humayun Shah. 10 for. Of course I refused Bender-Lahuri ship this offer. last a Mir Isa relinquished to his allegireturned Padishah. I also visited the graves of the Sheiks Djemali and Miri. I had an interview with Sheik Abdul Vahab and received his blessing. earthworks were thrown up and cannon raised thereon. The Mohammedans pleaded in vain that our arms " Are we not could bring no evil upon them.." VOL. " s to distribute festive apparel. compromise was decided upon. all of one nation. the governorof or Duyuli-Sindi. He gave me festive apparel 8 and conferred upon us the title of a 9 he offered me. distinction in Central Asia. . sorcery. 23. the fortress could not be taken. (It says literally that he had this title inserted in the Friday-prayers and ordered the NaJcara 7 to be played. The campaign lasted a month.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 353 belonging to Shah Husein. said they. and he himself with 400 ships had set out against the rebels. his adherence to Humayun " a band of music. At Nevertheless there was great loss of life on both sides. in Literally. your ' guns. then the beginning of the month of Rabia-al-Sani. but as the expression is unknown in Turkey the author has had to circumscribe it.) Thereupon Shah Husein had nominated his adopted brother Sultan Mahmud as commander of the land troops. VI. i. besides all this." " 10 there should be no dragonstone. Asia as a sign of sovereignty." was formerly considered in Central Nakara.

which Mir Isa had divided the remainder amongst his troops. and Shah Husein by water. and other necesWhile the body of Mirza. to Mir Salih. sides we made our way This town had been plundered by the Rajah. deceased. i. with 80 ships. camels. him a Nakara by Tugbeghi. saries. . the chief standard-bearer. Shah Husein died. with his wife and an escort of 50 ships. and in the first days of Djemadi-ul-evvel. him. had sent back the wife of Husein Shah. the name of several places in Sind.000 valiant soldiers. Directly after his father's death. and Mirza sent him a formal acceptance of his He also allegiance by the hand of the Vizier Molla Yari. Beset on all by the Djagatais (Central Asians). called Hadji Begum. "Now Nasirabad. direct descendants of the Transoxanian warriors. which came with Baber to India. the passengers. the soldiers attacked the remaining vessels and plundered them. Argun and Tarkhan are two Turkish We tribes in Central Asia. Sultan Mahmud divided One part was for the wife of the the property in three parts. and barely escaped with our lives. were compelled to take command of the ships. Isa was reinstated in his former rank. of the treasure. and released from prison the ten rebels from the tribes of 11 Argun and Tarkhan. The sailors took flight.e. returned by land to Bakar. we relinquished our At last. Husein Mirza gave ents of submission. he and another sent to Mir Isa by a Khodja. to Nasirpur. 12 very perplexing but I decided at once to turn back. and sent his son Mir Salih with presOn the other hand. We were greeted with the news that Mir Isa. and that his This was son. was pursuing Sultan Mahmud. after firearms. which had sided with Mir Isa.THE SACRED BOOKS 354 ance to Husein Mirza. and it was supposed that she had poisent soned him. to the On the tenth day after his wife had rejoined city of Bakar. from his side. and providing himself with horses. the Bey of the Rajputs. struggling for ten days against the stream. was on its way to Tata. was close behind us.. Mir Salih. with 10. he lent me one of his own ships. Sultan Mahmud returned by land. and we. part The body was taken to Tata .

and then started on our return to Tata. Three days later we passed Mir Salih in the river. forgave me the peace. and allowed me to remain a few days. through whose territory our . also the name of a small State belonging to Kathiawar. would probably have to submit to the Padishah (Humayun). and thus peace be restored. he added. He wrote to the Padishah to assure him of his unWe were alterable loyalty." whereupon he told me to go back with him. and that I might as well travel under his escort. " Sultan Mahmud will never allow thee to pass Bakar. 13 and shortly after we came to Bukkur by the way of Patri 14 and Dible. It was necessary to keep up a perpetual warfare with the people of Semtche and Matchi. intended shortly to send his son Mir Salih to Humayun Padishah. and thus we offered a small gift to the former. is i* Patri. Perhaps meant for Sehivan in Naushar on the Indus. for with God's help he. " We are going to your I said. who thereupon expressed his willingness to submit himself to Humayun. now a station on the railway-line to Bombay." so he gave me fifteen of his crew and thus compelled to turn back. . I course lay. and gave me seven ships with their complement of sailors. struck with the enormous size of the fish (alligators) sporting in the river. One day I chanced upon Mir Isa in a small town of Sind. reached Siyawan. Baroda. and also to send a messenger in advance. Here I fell in with Sultan Mahmud and his Vizier Molla Yari.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 355 prayed long together. Sultan Mahmud. we had another weary ten days to get through. for. and Central India. father. Here I also found the former partizans of the late Mirza. and I insisted upon continuing my journey forthwith. did not suit me. Isa agreed to this. as also with the numbers of tigers on the banks. suggesting that he should give us back the ships lately taken from us. " We have no sailors on board. I went on board his ship with a few small presents. and so we went on our way. and also to make peace with Mir Isa. however. who were tired of fighting and desired Isa received me with great honor." This proposal. he is a son of Ferrukh Mirza and wants to become Padishah. and he asked me where we were going. saying that he past. I said.

at once consented to my departure. using the East-Turkish Dialect (Djagatai). is Aa there are several places called Sultanpoor and Mav. 17 and money for the journey. her highness Fatima in a dream. and many of my companions nearly succumbed with heat and 15 Our author. but found no water. but also a poet. and as One night in a matter of fact I waited for a whole month. wandering. according to the spirit of the age. the Sultan offered to give me an escort by the way of Lahore. and as the season of the Semum (hot winds) had now commenced." i* In the text Kheime we shamiane. 15 after which I requested permission to continue my journey. but preferred to go through the steppe. safe and sound. traveling 18 by the way of Sultanpoor. from Sind. but as the route past Kandahar was made. " 16 Literally. and had learned from her the glad news. a large and a small tent. was not only a brave warrior and sailor. Thus we departed about the middle of Shaaban. He also provided me with a letter of recommendation to Humayun. . when he they were full of good courage. a son of Sultan Haidar. we did not take the route of Djenghelistan (the forest). heard of it. ever route I chose I should have to wait a while yet. the Djagatai tongue maintained itself ae the court-and-booklaoguage in India. and with regard to his choice of words they betray a strong tendency toward the Osmanli dialect. dream I who told me that she had seen saw my my mother. a hostile tribe which had its abode there. When next morning I told this dream to my companions Sultan Mahmud. the latter being more a kind of large sunshade. by the inroads the Ozbeg.356 THE SACRED BOOKS I composed a chronogram on the death of Husein Mirza and presented Sultan Mahmud with two gazels. As the Djats were very troublesome. and an escort of 250 mounted camel-drivers. It is nevertheless interesting to note in how short a time he mastered this dialect and that.unsafe 16 of Sultan Bahadur. warning me to be on my guard against the But whichDjats. He gave me a beautiful horse. This was granted. more than 100 years after Baber. On the second day we came to the spring. and reached the fortress of May in five days. that I should soon be coming home. the stations here mentioned are difficult to identify on the map. In our translation we necessarily omit these poetic effusions as irrelevant. His muse has no special features. a team of camels.

or Kere. and. and reached the town of Multan on the fifteenth of other side We Ramazan. of the very best After quality. 10 in the rear of our and in in the center. 20 On modern maps of India it is marked as Gharra. where I visited Sheik Ibrahim and reUtchi. by which name the Sutlej is also known. In Sadkere I visited Sheik Hamid. after manifold dangers. we came after ten days to 19 or Autchi. I received a blessing from Sheik Mohammed Radjva. for the proverb says truly. stranger is thirst. but our firearms advanced unfrightened them and they did not attack. this experience we deemed it advisable to leave the desert and " to return to Mav. the journey. A an ignorant man. In the beginning of Ramazan we resumed our journey and came 20 Kara. and I had to I placed 10 inspire my own people with fresh courage. we found 500 Djats awaiting us. after receiving permission to continue my journey from Sultan Mirmiram Mirza Hasan. But I have not anywhere come upon a river called Machvara. and thus. and in the first 19 Utsch. which we crossed by means of to the river a raft. Thus. a tributary of the Indus. molested. Our from Sind was afraid of the wood. trusting protection. we proceeded toward Lahore. and on the second day they were recovered. a small place on the left bank of the Pendtjend. The people from Sind also took courage after this." In the steppe we saw ants as large as sparrows. and went with us. escort I also made a pilgrimage to the graves ceived his blessing.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 357 I gave them some Teriak (opium). . front. On the Machvara. and Sadreddin. 10 gunners commenced we in God's caravan. Rukneddin. received his blessing. 21 On the way from Utch to Multan there is a river called Trimba. The people of Sind gave us permission to proceed as far as the 21 and this river was crossed by boats. of the Sheiks Djemali and Djelali. vm MY EXPERIENCES IN HINDUSTAN In Multan I only visited the graves of the Sheiks Baha eddin Zekeria.

in Punjab. and the Beglerbeghi of the Turks. besides several cannon and 400 chariots. took Lahore. War raged on all sides. 2 Also called Firuzpoor. s . He won the battle. After my presentation I ofit is Emperor a small gift. dishah. Mirza Shah. called Delhi. would not let me continue my journey until I had seen the Padishah (Humayun). by the route of Firuzshah 2 in the capital of India. and others to Firuzshah Senbel. Iskender Khan. out of respect and regard for our glorious Paafter him. he received orders to send me forthwith to Delhi. When the Padishah Humayun heard this he immediately left Kabul and marched his army to India. Meanwhile a whole month had been wasted. The river Sultanpoor was crossed in boats and after a journey of 20 days we arrived. and Karwitch. After sending the latter word of my arrival. toward the end of Dulkaada. he sent to Agra. and a chronogram upon the of India.and took cal state of the country 400 elephants. like the Mirimiran of the Persians. Iskender Khan. but finally we were sent off with an escort. 1 Bayana. and. and when I arrived at Lahore the Governor. day the and as That same a brilliant reception. Khan of the Khans. The politiwas as follows: After the death of Selim Shah a son of Shir Khan. had come to the throne. and fought Iskender Khan near Sahrand.THE SACRED BOOKS 358 days of the Month Shawwal we came to Lahore. Khanikhanan prepared a great banquet in our honor we were accorded . all of which pleased the conquest Padishah greatly. night introduced with much pomp and cereinto the mony Imperial hall. Forthwith I begged for permission to fered the 1 Sambal. The Ozbeg. and Humayun sent Shah Abul-Maali with a detachment of soldiers Humayun himself proceeded to his residence at Delhi and dispatched his officers to different places. the former Sovereign of Hindustan. the custom in India to give audience in the evenI that was ing. in the northeast of India..r. also two gazels. As soon as Humayun heard of our arrival he sent the Khanikhanan 8 and other superior officers with 400 elephants and some thousand men to meet us. Iskender Khan escaped to the fortress of Mankut. /. a place in the District of Muradabad.

the rainy season). but this was not granted. " winter. * to which Correctly." s e . to which I replied By special command of my glorious Padishah I went by sea to fight the continue that I : miserable unbelievers.e. "agreement") should be made with him. for it would give the impression had purposely arranged it so.000 rupees.e. and again begged to be aldistrict of Kharcha. however are now close upon the three months of continuous Birshegal? The roads are flooded 6 and impass(i. i. rest. At last I had accomthe astronomical plished observations. Caught in a terrible hurricane. but for only answer I was told that I must at " least remain for one year. adding. very foul weather.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 359 my journey.000. When all this is done. I India. which found much favor.000. but this I could not agree that I : then thou shalt go hence. and about the same time fell into the of the Padishah. and he finally consented. that $5. but labored wrote a chronogram for the occasion. and their exact date in the calendar. I persisted in my en" We treaties. Kurur. Meanwhile able.. ternative.e. i. Assist our astrologers in studying the course of the sun. Instead of was offered a Kulur 4 and the governorship over the I refused. lowed to go.e.. during an audience. Humayun agreed. to. but it is now my plain duty to return to render an account to my Padishah." also " bad weather. I immediately hands Agra ever. is. probably a Hindustani word. remain therefore till the weather improves.." Upon this Humayun suggested the sending of an envoy to Constantinople. to save my going." All this was said solemnly and decisively. One day. and I suggested that some official contract (Ahdnameh.. equivalent to about Birshegal. i. calculate solar and lunar eclipses. In the text Kish. The document 10.000. and the weather should improve before the three months are over. howmy on night and day. their degree of latitude. the conversation turned upon Sultan Mahmud of Bukkur. I had no albut must submit to I took no fate." " rainy sea" son." Compare Kish Kiamet. and instruct us concerning the points of the equator. and it is to be hoped that Gujarat will soon be delivered out of the was wrecked off the coast of hands of the unbelievers.

the Imperial and the Sovereign's special confidant a superb youth. saying that it would be presumption on my part to accept such praise. He wrote under the name of Newai. on the contrary. archer.360 THE SACRED BOOKS was drawn up. enjoy to this day great popularity amongst the Turks of the interior of Asia. meaning "decree"). s Mir AH Shir. This incident furnished the material for a gazel." The descendants of Baber first introduced into India the use of the yellow dye. He me all . which soon became popular The same over India and were in everybody's mouth. " " he who holds the waterwater-basin. The Sultan was much pleased. 8 I modestly declined the epithet. Where" If for one more upon the Sovereign remarked year thou perfectest thyself in this kind of poetry thou wilt altogether supplant Mir Ali Shir in the affections of the people of the Djagatais. 906 (1500)." and Afetabedji. used to take part in the poetical discussions. saffron. the greatest poet of the Turks in Central Asia. tora. this being the Tughra." In a word. that. and both he and his Vizier Molla Yari expressed their thanks for my intervention in a private letter. according to Khondemir. others hold that it is the impression of the hand. acquaintance with the Afetabedji. The former Khans of Khokand had received the title of Afetabedji from the Sultan of Turkey. and the Emperor dipping his fist in saffron 7 pressed it upon the paper. and provided with material for two gazels. hence the expression al-tamga. his favor. and later on also among basin". " red seal. . in the year 844 (1440) and died in H. a in Central court Asia. Humayun loaded me with marks of : One day I was talking to Khoshhal. with which the Sovereign was so delighted that he called me a second Mir Ali Shir. In Central Asia. I should consider myself fully rewarded to be allowed to gather up the gleanings after him. which I showed to his Majesty. Afetabe. Thereupon Mahmud. who had entrusted me with the transaction. which are unquestionably superior to any other East Turkish productions. His compositions. Some say that it is merely a flourish. good fortune attended my Abdurrahman Bey. was born. high dignity the Moguls in India. a courtier who 9 also rejoiced in the con- ' Opinions differ as to the exact nature of the Tughra (signature of Turkish rulers: more correctly. or Imperial the document was sent to Sultan signature. Turkish monarchs used to dip their hand in blood.

for the inhabited world (the fourth part of the present inhabited world) is 180 degrees longitude and from the equator about 60 degrees latiIts area.e. One day he asked me whether Turkey was larger than India. Rum is generally understood to stand for the West." replied Humayun. 11 In each of these regions the Padishah of Turkey appoints his Beglerbeg and Kadi. that the seven regions over which Iskender (i. the sixth Kaffa.668. " the first is Yemen." Turkey possessions in all these " asked Humayun. India is appears to me. and I " If said by Turkey your Majesty means Eum proper. the fifth Constantinople. but it is not reasonable to suppose that he actually visited and personally ruled these seven regions." I replied. regions ? son. History records the life and the reign of Iskender. covers 1. the second Mecca. 10 Our author means by Siwas the old seat of the Osmans. it of Eum.. 10 then India is decidedly the larger. were identical with the present Empire of the Padishah of Turkey. He also entered the poetical contest. for the campaigns of Suleiman against Vienna fall about this time. . and the seventh Ofen and Vienna. your Majesty. Possibly. " Yes.670 fersaJches. but if by Turkey you mean all the lands subject to the ruler not by a tenth part as large. the third Egypt. and more particularly for the Ottoman Empire. in the same way as the Padishah of Turkey " But has the ruler of does. who rule and govern in his name. but in India and in Central Asia. i. Moreover. the fourth Aleppo. I was told in Guthe Bashi and Kara Hasan (God merchants by Khodja jarat. fidence In a word. Alexander the Great) had dominion. certainly. according to astronomical calculations." I said." " I mean " " the entire Empire.. this is a mere boast on the part of the Turkish Admiral.e.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 361 and affection of the monarch. and I was constantly in the presence of the Emperor. : the province of Siwas. poetical discussions were the order of the day. It is therefore an utter impossibility for any man to visit and govern all these lands in per- tude. in the Far East the news of the conquest of Vienna' may have found credence. Perhaps he only owned a portion of each of these regions (Iklini). and I composed two gazels upon him. and was his constant in companion private life. Then. 11 As the Turks never conquered Vienna.

has he the right of the Khuibe ? well-known fact." I replied. has such honor ever before been vouchsafed turning to his nobles. or Friday prayer. . and visited the graves of Shah Kut- visit the graves of the I accompanied him. and I remarked that he also held his office under the Padishah of Turkey. " if that be " " It is a so. We Nizam Weli. they brought Khakan of China." This statement seemed to satisfy everybody and we prayed together for the welfare of One day back to the my Sovereign. said bear the title " ? " : of Padishah is The Sovereign (Humayun). I turned to the " It would be Emperor. the Pir of Delhi." Another time we were talking about the Khan of the Crimea. " that my Padishah alone has the power to grant the right of Khuibe and of coinage. Medina. of Sheik Khosru I quoted some of his best poems. and the Kibla Padishah was Sovereign the request before the (Direction of the prayer). which he granted forthwith. saying. he alone and no one else in all the world. presumption on part to my 12 Khatib is the name of the Mollah who on Fridays says the Khutbe. Sheik Ferid Shekr-Ghendj. Mir Khosru Dehlevi. stating that their of Mecca." said Humayun. Surely the only man worthy to the ruler of Turkey. Ever since that time the name of the Padishah of Turkey has been included in the Bairam prayers. When the conversation turned upon the poetical works of Mir beddin. " But. he even went so far as to clothe the Khatib 12 in a robe of honor and to make him ride on an elephant through the city. and to whom. that when the Turkish merchants in China desired to insert the name of their Sovereign in the Bairam prayers on Bairamday. and therefore entitled to have his The Khakan.THE SACRED BOOKS 863 alone knows whether their story is true). name though an unbeliever. and under their in- fluence I conceived a most telling distich. I ask. had insight enough to see the justice of their request. how. and Mir Husein Dehlevi. Emperor planned a little excursion on horse- holy Sheiks of Lahore. then. alinserted in the Bairam prayers. in which the names of the Caliph and of the local ruler are inserted.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 363 13 powers against those of Mir Khosru. but that I was expected to The rainy season was offer my request formally in verse. wherever he heard the summons. day actually brought me the glad news that been my petition had granted. and alms were distributed amongst the poor. By my my tion of poetry. is . died 1324. It was his wont. born 1253. " this is truly sublime ! to make mention of It is not so much here object rather to show but up Humayun's appreciapoetic effusions. He wrote in Persian. and received great injuries to his head and arm." said Humayun. but he has inspired me.. . but also presents and letters of safe congently to intercede for me. duct. He did so now. world that the Sovereign was in good health. the Muezzin announced the Ezan just as he was descending the staircase." measure my the following: " " Truly great is only he who can be content with his daily bread. Humayun had given audience on Friday evening. All was ready for the start. I him two brought empty-handed gazels. but unfortunately fell down several steps. upon leaving his castle of pleasure. but for two days It was announced to the outer they kept the matter secret. when. the keeper of the Imperial Seal. and asked him to use his influence to In order not to come obtain permission for me to depart." cried the monarch. and I would fain recite my couplet before your " Let us hear it. for I received not only permission to leave. now at an end I wrote to the monarch. and I recited Majesty. Truly the proverb rightly says. enclosing two gazels. On the third day. which had the desired effect. however. to bow the knee in holy reverence." " God. from Delhi). " There is no guarding against fate. which language had been introduced into India with the spread of Islam. one of the greatest poets of India. On another occasion I called upon Shahin Bey. For happier is he than all the kings of the earth. and begged him urShahin Bey promised to do his one he and best. Mir Khosru Dehlevi (i." Everything was confusion in the palace.e.

He was stunned at the time and. and on the Tuesday it was thought advisable to give them a sight of their monarch. the staff slipped on the polished marble of the steps. he stopped. the Atabek (tutor) of Ekber. 15 He was immediately informed of the sad event. supporting himself on his staff. only somewhat slighter of visit his country-seat. them and told them how at the of Sultan Selim death courage the situation managed was saved by the wisdom of Piri Pasha. as is usual on such occasions. they did not know how to act. Meanwhile the Khans and Sultans were in the greatest conI tried to ensternation. however. who bore a striking resemblance to the late Emperor. was on the Monday. A man called Molla Bi." His son Djelaleddin Ekber was at the time away on a journey to visit Shah Ebul Maali. On the fourth day after his accident he expired in the forty-ninth year of his age and the twentysixth of his reign. and the King fell headlong over the parapet. and sat down on the steps till the crier had done. later on. however. All this. The divan (coun- abroad. it was announced that on account of the unOn the next favorable weather the trip had to be abandoned. Soon after. 14 Well may " We come from God and to him do we rethe Koran say. . This advice was followed. He then endeavored to rise.THE SACRED BOOKS 364. although he soon recovered his senses. somewhat alarmed the army. day a public audience was announced. by taking similar measures. who news of his death from being noised to prevent the I suggested that. accompanied by the Khanikhanan. Humayun. repeated the creed. but as the astrologers did not prophesy favorably for it. the faithful follower of and. this also had to be given up. and was descending the stairs (which in such situations -are narrow steps on the outside of the building and only guarded by an ornamental parapet about a foot high). of State) met as usual. he died of his wounds. the nobles were summoned. Hearing the call to prayers from the minarets. that turn. " " i* relates his death as folElphinstone in the History of India lows: "He had been walking on the terrace of his library. IB This is meant for Bairam Khan. they might keep the Sovereign's death a secret until the Prince should return. and a public announcement was made that the Emperor intended to cil and would go there on horseback. the injury he had received was beyond cure. including the 16 years of his banishment from his capital.

where I met Djelaleddin Ekber and the Khanikhanan just 20 opposite the fortress of Mankit. and accordingly I went as far as Kelnor. Traveling by the way of Sani-Pata. I came to Samani. 18 and Bachuvara. would not permit me to leave.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 365 stature. The only way therefore was to go back to the Emperor (Ekber). and with the news of the Emperor's recovery I reached Lahore about the middle of the month Eebiul Evvel. is the want of reserve wherewith this Very striking lie is spread to serve a political purpose. Meanwhile Prince Djelaleddin Ekber had ascended the throne. a town in the province of Oudh. is Matchivara. and the recovery of the monarch was universally credited. and that he was in good health. and in Lahore and many other places his name was inserted in the Friday prayers. Karnal. as well as the people from the riverside. I was informed through Molla Pir Mehemmed. while many officers and dignitaries. 19 by the road of Sahrandi to Matchuvara and crossing the Sultanpoor by boat I returned to Lahore by a forced march. on seeing their Sovereign. Panipat. way from 17 of India. Perhaps Bachrewan." calls this man Pir Mohammed. and Tani Sera. against the Sakkars. This was on a Thursday. in the same order on the Delhi to Lahore. for he professed to have received orders from tho new Emperor that no one was to be allowed to go to Kabul and Kandahar. however. made The physijoyful obeisance to the sound of festive music. i . the Governor of Lahore. "History of India. and the first Secretary in front of him. The Chamberlain hall. I took leave of all the grandees. 21 Elphinstone. was arrayed in the imperial robes and placed on a throne specially erected for the purpose in the large entrance His face and eyes were veiled. Khoshhal Bey stood behind. Tanesar. a town in Punjab in Ludiana. cians were handsomely rewarded. 16 where I communicated the news to the Governor that the Padishah (Humayun) was giving audi17 From there I went ences. 20 A stronghold built by Selim Shah on the boundary mountains of Sewalik. Kirnat. Mirza Shah. these names are given as Sonand Samani. 21 the 16 On modern English maps pat. Pani-Pata.

forcibly prevent the self-sacrifice. endeavored to check the custom. the late Padishah. as He died in 1563. Amongst many strange and wonderful things I saw in I India must make mention of a few. if." and in India Hindu. after examining the ferman of his father. Consequently they are heathen. have none of the four Sacred Books. herself to be burned. where he was afterward defeated and imprisoned in Humayun Lahore. that during the interregnum I should remain where I was. For this reason. My verses pleased the Mirza and. Gospels. 22 Ebul Maali. a Said from Kashgar. he gave me leave to continue that I should travel in my journey. a man dies his body is burned by the river- If the deceased leaves a wife past child-bearing she is not burned. given to me by preferred. and that in a short time he would appoint me to some post either in Hind or Sind. however. presenting him at the same time with a chronogram on the death of his father. He had rebelled against Ekber and had taken possession of Kabul. fate decrees that their king must die. who had entered the service of in 1551. the relations celebrate the occasion with Should the Mohammedans interfere and great rejoicings. officers of the Padishah are always present on such occasions.. and no other be raised. whichever I I hastened to produce my ferman. The unbelievers are " " called in Gujarat Banian. long before that time. Tevrat. and began to journey with the four Begs. 22 who meanwhile had been taken prisoner. 2* The burning of widows (Suttee) has in recent times been put a stop to by the English. to pre- vent any act of violence. company with the four Begs. 24 the teacher or tutor of Ekber. was In return for my chronoconfined in the castle of Lahore. If a wife of her own free will offers side. and believe in fate (kademr prepare for my the When i-alerri). therefore. Ebul Maali. viz. . while our author calls him Khodja Bairam Khan. stipulating. which he was about to send with troops to Kabul. these. " Believers in the Literally. and Psalms. Koran. she is not past that age she is unconditionally burned. however. and it is very characteristic that the Moguls had." They 23 do not belong to the Ehli-Kitab. I received lakh for a gram traveling expenses. Book " .THE SACRED BOOKS 366 Khodja of Bairam Khan.

the plain. " God be merciful As the When ! 23 is Also called khutass and kudaz. Wild oxen (Gau25 are hunted in a similar manner. Next we came to Bahara. and hunting. then they are driven to mix with the wild gazelles. too long. although they belong unquestionably to the terrestrial I might go on enumerating many more interesting and curious things to be seen in India. managed where another river had to be crossed. flayed him with his tongue from head to foot. a kind of horned cattle. perhaps that accounts for their being called Bahrv-Kutas (which means seaIcuias). he exclaimed. in which several men are hidden. The Emperor vouched for the truth of this story with an oath. and their tongue is stronger supposed to have such force that they can kill a man with it. which had to be crossed. possibly escape. and can not This method is in use all over India. The best Tcuias are found in the land of Bahr-itch. Buffaloes are very plentiful in the steppes. bringing their heads in close proximity to those of The noose which is round the antlers of the tame the others. I told the Governor (Khodja) of this place what Ekber had commanded. we built a raft of barrels and chairs and so to reach the other side. and came presently to another large stream. but they are much Tcutas') that other animals of their kind. having overtaken a man. used as an ornament to hang round the horse's neck. and the latter soon make up to their tame com- Another curious custom A noose is is lightly panions. We crossed the River Lahore in ships. but it would keep me animals. struggles the more it gets entangled. this time in ships. Like seeks like. About the middle of Eebiul Ewel we left for Kabul. They are hunted with elephants.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 367 the use of tame gazelles in thrown over their antlers. Turrets are placed on the elephant's Thus they traverse back. animal falls The more it over the head of the other and pulls it down. Finding no ships at hand. Their tail . The Emperor Humayun once told me a story to the effect that one of these wild oxen. and as soon as the elephant comes up with the buffalo he attacks him with his teeth and holds him till the hunters get off his back and capture him.

Peshawur. in fact. Bactria." So I relinquished the claim my upon tribute-money and continued my journey with the others. for them to delay. and follow them as soon as I could. Soon after. but by the time we had reached the top there were thousands of them gathered together. Generally translated by "rhinoceros. and reached Djushai. We seized our guns.. In the mountains we saw two rhinoceroses (Kerkedans)* each the size of a small river Nilab 26 It appears from this passage that the Emperor's guests only received the gifts allotted to them when on their return journey. So far the Afghans had not seen us. collect the moneys and still owe them.e.THE SACRED BOOKS 368 Padishah was dead we have not collected the taxes. " blue water. and might possibly have taken refuge with his brother Kihmerd Bey in Kabul. situated on the river Djehlam. and at daybreak we arrived at the foot of the mountain. as our author state*." can not possibly be the river Kabul.." 26 Mir Babu's and the other Begs who were of the company consulted together and decided that as Shah Abul Maali had escaped from his prison in Lahore. I argued that the roads were unsafe and dangerous and would be much better to keep all together. Bakhtar-Zemin. hand them over to you. *T Khoshab. and with God's help managed to get out of their way. i. 29 and the covetous XI OUR EXPERIENCE IN BAKHTAR-ZEMIN (KABULISTAN) In the beginning of the month Djemaziul-Ewel we left the and turned toward Kabul. had. the people I will send round. or Bakhtarland. After crossing the rivers Khoshab 27 and Nilab 28 in ships. For fear of the Afghans under Adam Khan. the name of a town in Punjab.e. I acted on the principle that " The contented mind shall be satisfied But that it man shall be humbled. we crossed the Khaiber Pass. I set foot upon the shore of Bakhtar. i ." Baber (1356) makes men- Nilab. it would not be safe. and came to the town of Pershuer. we made a quick march through the night. and not the name of the river itself. i. but they suggested that I should wait till the tribute-money was collected. to collect them from the authorities of the districts through which they passed.

to which tribe the dancing and singing damsels and the prostitutes generally belonged. and after a very toilsome 3 journey through Hezareland. and pleasure-gardens with running brooks. if they had the mind to do so. they have a horn on their nose about two inches In Abyssinia these animals are much more plentiful.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 369 elephant. In every corner were gaily 4 enticing one with music and song to dressed. slender Lulls the the join merry crowd populace. 2 Presently we reached Laghman. in fact. of Evvel ul and came to Karabag. seemed to have no thought for anything but for pleasure and enjoyment. in Central Asia. had no time for such frivolities. dwelling between Herat and Kabul. tion of this animal under the name of gherek. and that it would be far better for us to wait a few days in Kabul. 5 and Djemazi beginning from there to Tcharikar and Pervane or Mervan." and Tchinyane. we entered Kabulistan and its Here I visited the two sons of Humayun. compare Tchenghi. Gipsy. Pleasure and merriment prevailed everywhere. to accompany me. " Who would long for houris and the Paradise whose good fortune has brought him amongst the Lulls of Kabul ? " We. surrounded by mountains covered with snow. the name given to the Gipsies. feasting and banqueting were the order of the day. the Chief of the Ferashi and Peshai. VI. east of Kabul. Mehemmed Hekim Mirza and Ferrukh Fal Mirza I also saw . Hezare is the name of the mountainous region. long. 24. " " " musician. Thereupon the Governor commanded Mir Nezri. marked on the maps merely as Bag VOL. and he describes it as Perhaps more correctly Lughman. northeast of Peshawur. capital Kabul. also the name of an Iranian Mongol tribe. Mun'im Khan remarked that the roads were snowed up." dancing girl. 2 3 . This used also to be the case in Turkey. and his men were to conduct our horses and goods We left accordingly in the safely across the mountain pass. our only aim and object was to reach home as soon as possible. Mun'im Khan. that the Hindu Kush could not possibly be passed." 6 Kara-bag (black garden). Kabul itself is a treated was mayun. * Luli is. being about the size of a buffalo. after presenting the ferman from HuI with much honor. but I quickly replied that men could overcome mountains. however. . and. beautiful city.

leads to Badjgah. which. hostility and Borak Khan. and spent the night in a village at the foot of the pass. the same route which was taken by Sheibani Khan. and they took us across to the other side of the mountain. He collected his men. Kulab. it is quite eviwhy our author chose this very difficult. a cousin of Baber's. entered into a poetical competition with me. the more so as Pir Mohammed's younger brother had raised a revolt in Kunduz. There was attention and loaded me with signs of his favor. and was afterward established by Humayun as ruler over the whole of the Upper-Oxus territory. which districts were now in great tumult. XII THE CONDITION OF BADAKHSHAN AND KHATLAN Early in the month of Redjeb we came to the city of Anfrom there through Badakhshan to Tali1 and kan. Part of ber's adversary.THE SACRED BOOKS 370 This was Nezri's native country. and from there into the valley of Enderab. Pir the ruler between Mohammed Khan. and journeyed . 2 From the political condition already referred to. They advised me therefore to travel by the way of Badakhshan and 2 Khatlan. Pervan passes. The Mirza. but the other. the ruler of Transoxania. and Termed. starting from the place of that same name. across the Dendanshiken (tooth-breaker). and both Suleiman and his son presented me with introduced (garden). who understood poetry. and the roads were made unsafe. which lies more to the This is one of the east. Our author did not take the route now generally used. and derab. Kavadian. Tcharikar lies north of Kabul. ancient Khatlan. 1 Suleiman Shah was the son of Khan Mirza the Wise. also called Khutl. On the day of our arrival the Mirza had met us. and Pervane lies in the same direction as the pass of that name at the foot of the Hindu Kush. roundabout route past dent Badakhshan. and which was the one followed by Baber. of Balkh. Baduring his campaign against Khosru Shah. and received me in his pleasure-garden I offered him some presents and a gazel. where I had an interview with Suleiman Shah his son Ibrahim Mirza. is now included in the Province of . me next day to his father. It was a very difficult passage. to whom I also offered and The Sovereign also showed me much a gifts gazel. but we accomplished it that day. He had usurped the throne of Bedakhshan in 1508.

and Humayun's garden Duabe. which. i. a tributary of the Oxus. formerly known as Hissar-i-Shadman.e.. the his younger sister. e Now Kulab (1. between Sehri-Sebz and Sari-Asiya (Yellow Mill). s Now Semti. Senghirdek is mentioned on the modern maps of Central Asia. and dismissed the men who had escorted us. 1 Timur Sultan. 7 Neither Charsui nor Pul-i-Senghin are to be found on any modern map. Then on to Tchaganian. and after presenting my letter of recommendation he gave me an escort of 50 men7 to conduct me to Charsui. from the Kashgar (eastern) side.810 feet above the sea). Hissar-iShadman. where I crossed the Pul-i-Senghin (stone bridge). capital of Badakhshan. i. 3 On the day that I crossed the bridge I first set foot on Transoxanian soil. we may take it that the Kafirnihan river was then the boundary-line of Transoxania. formed It the al- at the foot of was Suleiman Shah. places the former in the dominion of the latter province. 5 I approached Dalli. on the left side of the Pendje. situated at the confluence of the Ilek and the KhankaDerya. 6 where I met with Djihanghir Ali Khan. in Khatlan. where I visited the grave of the Khodja Yaakub Tcharkhi. who made KiShm his residence. ways rains and a considerable stream is 3 Feizabad is now the capital of Badakhshan. the Kagalga 2 of and passed Mount Senghirdek. besides giving me a letter of recommendation to Djihanghir Ali. 3 where it I visited Ozbeg rulers.. After a day's rest I proceeded to Bazar No (New-Market). and from there to Bender Semti. is not mentioned in any lexicons or vocabularies. 1 Hissar. the ruler of Khatlan. 2 Probably an ancient title. Kishm. as the name of a . and proceeded from Kalai Zafar 4 to Rustak. situated on a tributary of the Oxus. in its present form. and from there to a little place called Tchiharshembe.e. who had married and so I journeyed to I saw the Sovereign's pleasure-garden. and made a pilgrimage to the grave of Seid Ali Hamadani. but as the author identifies Hissar with Chaganian. and from there I went to Kulaba.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 371 horses and garments of honor. * Kalai Zafar ( castle of victory ) is situated on the Kotchke.

the Aga of the Osmans place to him. and died in 1556. i. He then took the stronghold and marched to which Seid Burhan. He died in the year 1551. He. hammed Khan. in return for my humble offerings. who gave me permission to continue my journey to Samarkand. Seng" a stone tent. kand. With great difficulty we got across the mountain we touched 4 the situated between the two last-named places . a son of Mahmud Khan. He began by taking Samarkand and proceeded to Shehri-Sebz. Kesh. where the brother of Pir Mohammed Khan then reigned. the ruler of Samar6 Pir Mowas dead. who. Samarkand. When Borak Khan entered Sam8 had just started with a arkand. and Borak's first business was to settle this matter. The next station was Sehri-Sebz.. and. 7 in Bokhara. in which the Ketkhuda (overseer) of the Osman soldiers fell. which our author mentions. invaded the land. (5181 feet). however. 6 Borak Khan. Called by abbreviation Burhan Khan. where a great battle was fought. place he laid siege to. and took possession of the capital.e. and Burhan Seid Khan. favored by the bad government of Burhan Khan. in Balkh. He died in the year 1555. relinquished the and retired to Karakul. stream and of a place. the time of ruler of Bokhara. and in the beginning we reached Samarkand. where I met Hashim Sultan. who was defeated by Sheibani. gave up the place to Seid Burhan. consisting of Kirghises and Kalmuks. are the more valuable to us as we find no mention of them anywhere else. The incidents connected with his reign. He was a native of the steppes in the northeast of Transoxania. little town of Mazar. made peace with Borak. It was this same Borak Khan to whom his Majesty the Padishah had sent cannon and guns by the hand of Sheiks Abdullatif and Dadash.THE SACRED BOOKS 372 the mountain. and Borak had taken his place." ghirdek means * This must be Mount Karatepe (Black Hill). At of Shaaban dise. declared their independence. but not as the name of a mountain. He reigned only a short time. and I marveled at the wonderful works of God. s Aga of the Osmans was the title of a commander of the Janissaries 7 . my arrival Abdullatif Khan. he and his horsemen. an uncle of Obeidullah. the Bokhara. which is a perfect paraHere I saw Borak Khan 5 (more correctly called Noruz Ahmed). gave me a horse and garments of honor.

LITERATURE OF THE EAST 373 few men on their way to Turkey. decided to send Sadr Alem. and the grave of the 444. whose grave in Aulia Ata is to this day eagerly visited by pilgrims. written 10 Besides these places I visited the graves by Ali himself. and from Samarkand the Russians took it to St. has not descended from Caliph Ali. came here unexpectedly in contact with his countrymen. he added his Majesty the Sultan of Turkey. but the copy of the Koran here referred to was extant in the Mausoleum of Timur. ian sages. a descendant of Jesewi. letter. and also to the Koran. nor yet from Caliph Osman. although a very old manuscript in Kufi letters. of the following sheiks and sages: the author of Hidayet." He offered the government of a Province. . but I said that with such a small army nothing could be done. Sublime Porte As a matter of fact he had already to explain the situation. for I can do nothing. This latter. to the cloak and to the I made wooden shoes of the Prophet. and the Kazizade of Eum. therefore. Petersburg. and the remainder joined his son. something may yet be done. without me my Padishah. One day. Khodja Abdi-derum. while talking to- which Sultan Suleiman had sent from Constantinople to Samarkand to support the authority of the Eastern Turks. 10 When in Samarkand I could learn nothing about the cloak and the Naalin (wooden shoes) of the Prophet. but if : thou wilt help me. however. Ahmed Tchaush was also on the point of returning to Turkey by the way of Bokhara and Kharezm. it has been brought to Turkestan by the descendants of Khodja Ahrar. in willingness in the future to satisfy He discharged me. for part of the Janissaries had enlisted under Seid Burhan.000 Transoxan. moreover that. the Tchopanata. 9 and gave him a Khodja Ahmed which he expressed his every wish of the Sultan. Ebu Mansur Matridi Shah-Zinde. I could not stir He thereupon proposed to send an envoy to the the consent of in the matter. During my stay in Samarkand a pilgrimage to the grave of the prophet Daniel. But to return to Borak Khan. the patron saint of Turkestan. About 150 remained faithful to Borak Khan. When he had communi" I am now as a liar before cated all this to me. Khodja Abdi-birun. Our author. Khodja Ahmed Jesewi. however. having taken the way of Tashkend and Turkestan. Khodja Abdullah. to the place of the Khidr (Elias).

touched Kala and Ker12 at Duabe. an interesting fact and easily explained when we consider that. the ruler of Bokhara." now " I cried. both Kirghizes and Turkomans are described as heathen. name is Zerefshan." said the Khan. For in his eyes his native town is superior even to Bagdad. crossed the river of Samarkand arrived at Ghidjduvan. who gave no quarter to Mussulmans. and that the roads swarmed with robbers and highway11 but plundered men. we went on to Pul Rabat. me which of all the cities I had visited I replied with the following stanza : " Far from home no one longs for Paradise. As the Mirza was not here. accosted us with we were going. and no news concerning him could be obtained. and we pray thee " How to help us. Suddenly Khan AH Bey. or Kohik. on the . On the fifth of Ramazan we started. he decided to travel through Bokhara. Ghidjduvan. To this I agreed. Borak Khan has not requested us to do so. Borak Khan advised me thereupon to remain at Ghidjduvan until the return of the envoy." he said : ! 11 Consequently they belonged at that time still to the Shaman faith. the most northerly town of the Khanate Its i* Wafkend river. on the conthe question whither Bokhara. Meanwhile the troops of Prince Kharezm Shah had prepared for battle. and so mineh. but otherwise we were to wait until he sent some one to conduct us safely through Bokhara. When I replied : " To " Seid Burhan. Unfortunately. Sadr Alem proposed to go by Turkestan. 13 where I visited the grave of Khodja Abdul Khalik." " Thou hast spoken well. the Prince's tutor. he asked pleased me most. If no hostilities took place we might travel by that way. but when he was told that the Xogai tribe of the Mangit committed violence upon travelers. at the time of Timur. threatens to attack Prince Kharezm Shah. and ill-treated any that came in their way. just then the news came that Seid Burhan had again declared war with Borak Khan. Now as regards the embassage to Constantinople. " we help no man . and that the latter' s son Kharezm Shah had been attacked.THE SACRED BOOKS 374 gether.

from the opposite direction. who renewed his request that we should help him. companions. and while the others retreated with the Ozbegs into the Rabat where they were attacked by Seid Burhan. and the Seid announced that the Mirza sent us greeting and desired us not to proceed any So we were comfarther. I heard that he was quartered close to charge army i* May stand for colored coat. Seid Burhan advanced with 1. hence the Literally. but I refused again. I had an of ten With back. a Seid sprang forward and commanded the Ozbegs to Both sides held back. leaving his colors. Immediately we prepared to fight. " " expressions.e. The Prince's bearing was very haughty before he had sighted the enemy..LITERATURE OF THE EAST 375 Ghidjduvan." meaning people that go barefoot." and at the same time they struck trary." one of when stop. my companions. vagabond. crying: upon iehapan) (Ala of the Mirza. took flight. therefore well equipped for war. 15 i. than the Prince retreated across the I went on with six bridge to the Rabat (Karvanserai). leaving my horse in of two men. which I left behind in me the court of the kiosk. musical and other military instruments behind him on the battle-field. whereupon ten guns were forcibly taken from us and we were commanded to remain mere spectators." and vagrant." But no sooner had Seid Burhan appeared in sight. I went on to meet the to inquire after the Mirza. to turn my companions pelled interview with the Mirza. Prince. turn back. and 40 Turkish archers. but to look on from a distance. In a moment he defeated the Prince. " ** Red feet. and merely indicates the distinguishing color of the regiment. who. young men from Bokhara. and there to So we continued on our about 100 redcoats Minar we As (Spire) approached way.000 Kizil-Ayaks. being wounded by a bullet." . Of my three companions which fled with the one was wounded by a lance and died soon after. he has charged us to go to await the return of the envoy. receive the first box on the ear. " In 14 the name down rushed us. for as the proverb says: " Our own Until we fist is always of iron.

all my cooking apparatus. what then is the meaning of this ? (commander of 10 men) immediately stopped the attack serving under the to my Khan. which. resting at a little distance. and my glorious Padishah will be gracious . during which transport two more of my people were attacked and received sword wounds. he said. and 10 saddle-horses. which were With much difficulty I got across the soldiers. and asked to be conducted into his presence. Fortunately the attack had been witnessed by the Osmans recognized me and came is the guest of our " The Ozbeghi Prince. attended by a few men. thus to me " : Be thou my guide in this and in the next world this land shall henceforth belong to thy Padishah. some villain wounded me with an arrow.THE SACRED BOOKS 376 the Rabat. hastened to me. embraced me. as we were innocent and by the stolen As I approached the place I called reproach. and begged my forgiveness. whereupon the latter. we reached that night." He commissioned two officersto conduct us over the bridge. ! . that I had become mixed up in the battle and I had been attacked on the principle of the proverb which says: " Wet and dry burn together. I while was bridge. and. I lost on this occasion a beautiful led-horse. had escaped. a glorious youth. This was the signal for a general attack. O Khan that I shall report before the Sublime Porte the injustice which has been done to thee." Thus Rabat fell into my hands and you my with it some of the lost horses. to please me. one pack-horse." " if thou gavedst me the whole land of so. ordered the Turkish soldiers stationed in the Rabat to hand the place over to me. swords were raised on all sides. Transoxania I could not stay here. and just as I was crossing the bridge. My two men. for it was by accident. who had been taken prisoner in the fight. and so we proceeded to the Seid Burhan spoke town. calling out " : This man and apprized the Khan of what had taken place. for the sake." was my reply. Know. but many of the firearms free out from all " : were irrevocably lost. they had rescue. I am here. thou " Not shalt rule in Bokhara and I will retire to Karakol. the Khan. and the Khan will pardon Stop fighting . and I was very near losing my life.

who apologized to me for his son (Kharezm Shah). 18 to Kharezm. Kazi Khan. Consequently the left side of the river. Our way crossed the led first to Karakol. Curious it seems that 300 years ago lions were so plentiful in . Sadr esh Sheriat. where we ships. at last I desired permission to continue my journey. Khodja Ebn Hifz Kebir. Eyub and Sarakhsi.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 377 unto thee. he gave a banquet in my honor and showed me much kindness. and came only to be reckoned to Bokhara after the seizure of Abdullah Khan. and during the fortnight which I spent in Bokhara he visited my me every day in the pleasure-garden which served as I composed a gazel in his honor. then to Farab. was Tchardjui. i7 is is Name of the Shiite saint in Meshed. compelled to give in. for a besides giving him two gelding. and possibly the government of these provinces will be entrusted to thy care. make pilgrimages to the graves of Bahaeddin Nakishbendi. Seid I delayed in Bokhara to Mir Kelal (the spiritual head of Baha-eddin). Meanwhile the envoy from Borak Khan had arrived. change my led-horse change for his brass ones. a brother of Imam Ali Musa. and made peace with Seid Burhan through the mediation of the Ghidjduvani Abdul Sultan." These words pleased the Khan. is Tchardjui (more correctly Tchihar-djui. took the road through the wilderness By 19 it was day and by night we had to wage war against lions I touched Iranian stopped at . he demanded of me that I should give him our iron guns in ex- He pressed me so hard that I was and received 40 brass muskets in return I also had to exfor all the iron ones which we had left. When delighted him and led to many poetical discussions. 16 where I visited the grave of 17 Then we Khodja Meshed. Sultan Ismail the Samanide. and after that I journeyed to Kharezm. precious books." after four tributaries of the Oxus which are there) was at that time Persian territory. namely Khorassan. Tadj esh Sheriat. Tchar Bekir. Thus peace and security were once more restored. and early in the month Shavval Oxus in The first town I soil. meaning "four brooks. which highly residence.

the three sons of Agatai Khan. moreover. but at last. Their rival to the throne was Hadjim Khan. carriages. who was then the ruler of Kharezm. the grave of Pehlevan Mahmud Pir. was brought to my knowledge that the holy Sheik Abdullatif had died in the city of Vezir. my spiritual adviser in Sufism. Having received letters of commendation to the Manghit chiefs. we reached Heza20 and from there in five days. them i Dost Mohammed Khan. . where I made the acquaintance of Dost Mohammed Khan and his brother Esh-Sultan. or simply Dost. after ten days of unutterable weariness. and (the expounder of the Koran). I recited the whole Koran over his grave. When it Mahmud to Sultan. I could not rest until I had made a pilgrimage to his grave in company with a few friends. and a few Aazam). where I visited resp. while in modern times there has been no sign of in the steppes of Turkestan.THE SACRED BOOKS 378 not safe for one man to go alone to draw water . . we traveled in of the company Most Moslems. to insure for him' everlasting peace and bliss in Paradise. XIV OUR EXPERIENCES IN KHAREZM AND DESHTI-KIPCHAK Toward the end of Shavval we left Khiva. and his brother Esh-Sultan.Imam Mohammed Bari'i. were both sons of Budjuga Khan. 1 I vis- Nedjmeddin Kubera. where Sheik Sadr Alem. who conquered both in turn and put them to death. Our party consisted Husein of Kharezm of Makhdum the Sheik's (daughter son. Khiva. had meanwhile also arrived. Timur Sultan. wore clothes of sheepskin and they wanted us to do the same. from Hadji Mohammed Sultan. Sheik AH Eametin. Molla Husein Kharezmi ited the graves of Sheik and Hekina Ata. besides ourselves of the wife of Sheik those parts. 20 In the text called Hezarus. Sahib Kuduri. I returned Kharezm. by mistake. the envoy of Borak Khan. and in five days we came to Kharezm. Seid Ata. As this saint had been. Djar Ullah Ulama. Sheik Khalweti Yan. We also cooked a pilaf (a rice dish) and I prepared a chronogram in commemoration of his death.

about one hour's distance from the Caspian Sea. but Pallas in the past century found only extensive ruins s to indicate the place. for three years time ( 1554 ) Czar Ivan Wassilyewich had conquered * By Deshti-Kipchak. inhabiting the steppe between the Aral and the Caspian Sea. At last we came to a place called Sham. For more than a month we wandered about in the Deshti 4 Kipchak (Kirghiz steppe). they attack them.LITERATURE OF THE EAST for they said. Oriental writers understand the steppe situated between Kharezm and the Volga Ibn Batuta likewise accomplished the distance between territory. It was late in the autumn. The way is blocked. These latter were quite naked. the steppe of the Kipchaks.e. and sians." The rest of the company. one desert steppe." In vain I : quoted the lines: "We are but poor beggars." Thus equipped we started in the first days of Zilkaada. not a wild ass (Onagre) can be seen. Saraidjik. and shortly after to Saraidjik. the Manghit 2 379 are worse even than the Oz- and when they see strangers they invariably take them for Russians. as I said to encourage my people: wise man follows the ways of the world and makes no trouble of it. were The tribe of the Manghit. be warned and go back. . of Central Asia feared the Russians. now the -home 2 of of the Kirghizes. for there is not a vestige of verdure. now belonging to the settled population Khiwa. i. for. 5 where we met some Hadjis and three of the Moslems which had been discharged at Samarkand. and at that time of the year not a bird. It was one interminable wilderness. especially the merchants.. Thus we were compelled to don the outlandish garb begs. 3 The Nomads before that Astrakhan. seems at that time still to have led a nomadic life. small palace on the bank of the Ural. our Aga has been plundered by the troops of Arslan Mirza. Jenkinson in 1558 found the place still intact. and at sight of us they " cried Whither go ye ? Astrakhan is taken by the RusAhmed Tchaush has fought in battle with them. what harm can befall us? For ten armed men can not rob one who has nothing. Kharezm (now Urghendj) and Saraidjik in 30 days. 3 which is synonymous to saying. "A (sheepskin). not a drop of water to be found.

and ment I quoted the proverb " To the : " in support of my lover is Bagdad argu- not far so at last the Khan had to give in. inquired of me by which route I now proposed to " I will go by the way of Meshhed in travel. and concerning these districts we learned that the Persian King was in perfect harmony sians the with our glorious Padishah. At that time the King of Persia was Thamasp Shah. the way to Bagdad is long. There remained therefore only way of Khorassan and Irak. He agreed to . and." " Remain here with In the us. for about this time a gorgeous ambasay was sent by the ruler of the Ottoman Empire to Kazvin. but we heard that the Circashad raised a revolt.7 but that the Bey of Kizilbash (the Shiite officer) would probably prevent us from obtaining " Where God admittance to the Shah. who would not permit any Turks to Next we made inquiries about the roads of pass that way. As regards our route my first plan was to travel by the way of the Caspian Sea and Shirvan. Ancient Theodosia in the Crimea. Circassia." But I could not agree to this. they proposed to delay a few days in Kharezm and await " events. Thereupon the Khan said is : spring the Manghits seek their pastures. but all the rest remained in Kharezm. gave me a beautiful horse. and to my companions he gave the carriage in which we had traveled up to distant my here. to Khorassan Irak Adjemi. departure. and when Dost Mohammed Khan. the ruler of Khiva.THE SACRED BOOKS S80 not of my opinion. 7 . remember. I replied. for: from the devil and patience is from God. and so I reluctantly retraced my steps to Kharezm. I thought to myself. but my companions did not like this. and it so happened that he was on friendly terms with Sultan Suleiman. possibly the Russians may also quit the land by that time. past Demir-Kapu. The envoy returned to Samarkand. and from there to Bagdad." Speed The envoy and the other Moslems were of the same mind. because the Mussulman army which had 6 lately broken up from Kaffa had become involved in a bloody war with Abdullah Khan. as recorded by liauzat es Sefa in the Seventh Book.

culture had reached a considerable height along its shores. so 8 after duly consulting the horoscope. as it was at that time the more important of the two. ready Khiva. As the Oxus. man's attempts are but futile . and trusting in God. and crossed the river on his way to Khorassan. I decided to The camels were hired and all was travel through Persia. As our author came from Kharezm. the direction here indicated by Sidi Ali must be one of the two courses which ran either from Hezaresp or from Khanka in southwesterly direction into the Caspian Sea. . xv OUR FATE IN KHOBASSAN divine grace we got safely across the Oxus l and encamped on the opposite shore." is consulted by opening the Koran at hazard and the passage at which it opens gives the answer. horoscope. who welcomed him joyfully " Mir Sidi Ali has read the Koran from Vezir : over s my grave in Vezir. the ruler of to take leave I went . according to Abulgazi. a brother of Tin Sul- and being well stocked with provisions and large skins for water. or by seizing the rosary (Tesbih) at hazard. a letter of commendation to Ali Sultan. in its course down-stream from Tchardjui. he refers here undoubtedly to the old course of this river. Thereupon we gave half of our arms to the Khan. who had come to Kharezm in company with another holy sage. and he has supplicated for " my pat- Istikhare. we started on our journey to Kharezm in the beginning of the month Zilhidje. on the left shore of the Oxus. i This passage is of special geographical interest. and. Arrived in the town he had thus addressed the people. moreover. of Dost Mohammed. reveals several old river-beds. Another way is by the throwing of dice. and having made quite sure that there was no other way open to us. and the We received other half to his younger brother Esh Sultan. the holy Makhdum Aazam.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 381 " does not slay. the wife of Sheik Husein sent me a message to say that she had a dream in which she had seen her father. While there. who remarked casually that it was quite impossible for us to travel with firearms through the enemy's land. mentioned by Abulgazi. Most likely it was the latter branch. tan. when the even or uneven number of the beads decides the question. awaiting the arrival of the rest By of our party. " " they who fear death should not venture on travels .

to best answer acted to give a fool. ronage. the son of Behram Mirza. In the course of our conversation. and his Vekil (representative) called Kokche Khalipha. and Osman. made a pilgrimage to the grave of prince of Khorassan. also Suleiman Mirza. during the great storm some time ago. for everybody in these parts is devoted to his Majesty our 5 and Tus. and paid a Tumen to Mutawali (the overseer of the Mosque and Mausoleum) and I also paid a Tumen to the Seid. They pressed I and told them the story of Khodja Nasreddin. and came to Nesa. but I upon the principle that silence is the and I was silent. on the same road. 8 Bagwai. Its ruins have been visited by many modern travelers in the neighborhood of Ashkabad. who occupied the throne there. the When at sea." safely through I struck camp next morning and the day following we arrived 2 we passed through. . who was once asked to read the Koran in the Mosque. Padishah. 2 This is Derum. Imam Ali Musa Riza. it is the modern Kahka. now I fulfilled my vow. but is now no longer marked on the map. where I immediately tan. to whom I offered my letter of commendation from Esh Sultan. me. Omar. and brother of Tin Sultan.THE SACRED BOOKS 383 come to help him and to lead him This message filled me with joy. former Governor of Merw. * Nesa. . these gentlemen naturally wished to draw me into an argument upon the succession and sanctity of the Caliphs Ali. Ebubekr. as situated on the old road from Kharezm to Khorassan. a station on the Trans-Caspian line. situated in the north of Persia. In Meshhed I found Ibrahim Mirza. I had vowed to give a Tumen to the Imam. 3 which place we also passed. 6 Abiwerd is more correct. frequently mentioned in the Middle Ages. unmolested by Mahmud Sulin Dorum . I have therefore and proceeded to Bagwai. the son of Shah. 4 without being hindered by Pulad Sultan. frequently mentioned by Abulgazi. Here I found Ali Sultan. Khorassan. Thus we came to Bawerd (Abiwerd) where I visited the graves of Imam Mohammed Hanifi and of the poet Firdusi and on the first of Muharram of the year 964 I reached Meshhed-i-Khorassan. and was allowed free passage. who entertained me at a banquet. however.

and it might be advisable to search them. with my two attendants.. disguised as an Osmanli. but I was strictly Curiously enough. this is not the place. and I It was with great difficulty that refuse to be questioned. or perhaps they are the bearers of a secret correspondence. the same custom still prevails in Persia. it will not forget to take thee out of it. but I comforted them with the sayings.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 383 " " And now. and the next morning 200 men in armor (Jcurdji) surrounded the kerv&nserai and took us prisoners. As the proverb says " Those who can not be caught by fair means will be by foul play." The Mirza (Ibrahim) approved of this plan. They made us undress. and had them all put into a bag and sealed. By night and by day. " He who falls " Since through no mistake of his will not shed tears. " Patience is the key to the final goal. My horses were given in another man's charge. One of the guests. . on the march and at rest. for I visited this land three hundred years later. " It not seemly to send such people as these to the Shah. When my companions saw this they trembled for their lives." which he had replied. and my other effects were entrusted to Mutawali's keeping.and then take flight ? Very possibly they belong to the Ottomans that were sent to Borak Khan. it was always this same vexed question of the succession." and further. I was taken to the apartment of the Kokche Khalipha. do we know that they may not kill the men we give is How them as an escort." I at last rid 6 myself of them. A little later all were put in chains." on So we calmly resigned ourselves to our fate. I had much to suffer from the indiscretion of the Shiite fanatics." " I have not come hither to I said. The next day the Mirza took from me all my official papers and sundry letters which I had received from different princes." We were each of us put in charge of one of the guards. was a miscreant. argue with you. which had to be when discussed. unfortunately. except myself." and : fate has not forgotten to bring thee into this world. of the name of Ghazi Bey he gave vent to his wrath in these words : . and as it was winter we suffered much from the cold.

my heart was very heavy. As the Shah is on friendly terms with the Padishah of Turkey it is not : right that we should in any way trouble this pilgrim now in the Ashura 8 days. I wrote a gazel to comfort myself.' suspicion. s ." not lose their effect upon the Mirza. The news of this dream spread rapidly through up the people. If the man be a traitor. This composition caused great excitement among the nobility of the place. Ashura days. About the same guarded by not a little. and being in a semiconscious state. but many of my other possessions I never recovered. Mutawali and Seid went to the Mirza and said " This man came on a pilgrimage to visit the shrine of the Imam. From my side I pointed out to him the unreliableness of the information upon which he had acted. and a Yassaul to the Shah in a sealed bag. and in order further to enlist his sympathies in my favor I sent him three poems. He is under a vow and desires to go to the Shah. partly for fear of the Shah. Ali Bey. He loaded me with He also presents and gave another banquet in my honor. who had charged him to go and set Mir Sidi Ali free.THE SACRED BOOKS 384 This action of the Mirza troubled me five men. quatrain. and the whole of my correspondence was con- veyed by his armour-bearer. ' A and there need be no further question of These words of the wise man and of Seid did his countenance. for as the Koran says. were kept as holy days." a poem consisting of four-line verses. I fell asleep. and although I tried to make light of it. the transport being effected on a barrow i " Murabba. which. especially in the Shiite part of Persia. spiration in the form of a Murabba which I sent to Mutawali. he gave us our liberty on the tenth of Ashura. Four valuable books were taken. after which. a divine in7 was vouchsafed to me. time one of the attendants of the Imam declared (whether it was true or feigned I can not say) that in his dream he had seen the Caliph Ali. restored to us our horses and our clothes. and with the inspiring thoughts suggested by it fresh in mind. and partly regretting his rash deed. the first ten days of the month Muharram. whose sympathies were the town and stirred now all turned in my favor. it is sure to traitor is known by come to light.

" to things only. After visiting the grave of Imam Djafar in Damgan.LITERATURE OF THE EAST 385 about the middle of Muharram of the said year. a degree of rank amongst the Janissaries. for this message (from the dead) virtually saved my life." This was his dream. however. Traveling in the same caravan with us was one of the wives of the Shah and one of the wives of Behram Mirza. moreover. and Sheik (ferideddiri). traveling from Mazendran to Bestam." we soon got free from these firebrands and continued on our way. had written a passport and sealed it. Here I also met with Aga Kemal. That night one of our company called Eamazan the pious. did not interfere with us. who. and when I heard of it I rejoiced greatly and thanked God for his mercy vouchsafed. XVI OUR VICISSITUDES IN IRAX-ADJEM Arrived in the Province of Irak we skirted the Demavend range. where we visited the graves of Mohammed Aftah." The Sheik. a little hostility. VI. captain of a division. mind" The ful of the saying peace of two worlds depends on two friends and flattery to foes. 25. we proceeded to Semnan. Sheik Bayazid Bestami." VOL. By my advice my companions comported themselves with due courtesy and modesty toward the retinue of these ladies. courtesy in I visited the graves of Imamzade Arrived Nishabur of Attar Mohammed Mahruk. " In this place they tried to draw us into sectarian con- i Boluk-Bashi. The next day we reached Damgan. . the Vekil of Khorassan. and they treated us kindly. I made their acquaintance. literally. and known as Boluk Bashi. and Sheik Ebulhasan Harkani. 1 had a dream. who were both returning from a pilgrimage to the shrine of the Imam. Bayazid Bestami with 40 Dervishes had appeared unto him and had spoken " Let us pray for the safe return of Mir Sidi Ali. In Sebzevar we met with : but acting on the principle that " Barking dogs bite not. "that we might not be molested by the way. where we visited the grave of Sheik Ala-ed-Dowleh Sem- thus : nani.

and acted upon my advice.e. and the Kurdji-bashi was sent to fetch him. The reason of this was that certain things which had happened during his rule had come to light. 2 where I made pilgrimages to of Imam Abdul Azim. and by command of the Shah one of the nobles of Kazvin had been executed. and reminded them " Ust ur zahbak. which says " hide " thine habak" i. " and I argued with them. the capital of Irak. one of the neighboring villages. opinions. and the Kurdji-bashi for in this Sevindek Aga. and had now recalled him to Kazvin. Not one of you has traveled more than I have. some followers of Ismail had been put to death. under the protection of Mohammed Bey. who assured me of the unwavering devotion of the Shah to our glorious Padishah. After this the Shah com- manded Prince Mohammed Khudabend to appear before him. Persia. also by order of the Shah. we came to Rei. the Divan Bey 2 5 of the Great In the immediate vicinity of Teheran. zahabek in mazof the Hadis. thy gold.THE SACRED BOOKS 386 but I restrained my comrades.. 4 Upon the Shah being told of our arrival we were none of us allowed to enter the city." . Here I also met Mohammed Before long 3 Khudabend. and thy faith ." They saw the wisdom of my words. : A wise man does not heed the words of the vulgar and the igno- rant. but had to take up our quarters in Sebzeghiran. * Kurdji-bashi. and experience has made me wise. for the distance from Rei (Teheran) to Kazvin can easily be accomKazvin was at that time the capital of plished in two or three days. Journeying from Rei it took us a month and a half (to the end of Safar) before we reached Kazvin. " chief armor-bearer. saying. troversies. and in like manner. the the graves consort of Imam Husein. a son of the Shah's. I was very pleased to meet the Prince. " first secretary. Their presence was accounted way: Some time ago the Shah had sent Ismail Mirza from Kazvin to Herat. e Divan Bey. and of Bibi Shehrbanu." *Thi8 surely must mean a month and a half after entering Persia.

by Tebriz and Van. Following up this information. and. at the court of the Shah it is also the title of the overseer over the culinary department. and said people here have evil intentions. and we beg to be to the Shah. Maasum Bey was also commissioned to give me the glad news. Literally." But I replied " People who have wandered so long in foreign parts carry no cash about them. and that in consequence of this Kokche Khalipha and Mir Munshi (first secretary) had been deprived of office. so he set us free. and the ladies who had traveled with us bore witness that we were poor and harmless folk." a sort of master of ceremonies. I believe in the He who is appointed to die can not words of the Koran delay the hour. e ' . if I liked. were told that the Shah was very angry that we had We been allowed to leave Meshhed without any further inquiry. i. give it to me to keep. : ' : " slay. The Shah commanded his Vekil. Ishik Agasi.e. Bey. and if Providence deliver you out of this plight. that I was free to go where I liked. to offer me a banquet. as an envoy was shortly to be sent to the Sublime Porte. It so letters Thereupon I requested that my desire might be made known I said.. came to " The us by order of Yassaul Pir Ali. AH Bey. the Kapchadji. I had sent the Shah a quatrian which had found much favor.' happened that the Shah had by this time examined the which had been conveyed to him in a sealed bag. I will return it if on the other hand evil should befall you it is better that your riches should fall in the hands of friends than of foes. down our names. if you have any ready money about you. and they who fear death do not venture so far from home. Moreover. "representative". " We are not prepared to meet the hardships of the Van road in the winter time. 7 Maasum Bey. at night. after which he would himself entertain me. I might. travel by the way of Azerbaidjan. and and gave his people private instructions to watch us strictly until further orders. the number of our horses. and without God's permission no man can : .LITERATURE OF THE EAST Vizier who Maasum took 387 Presently the Ishik Agasi* arrived. " chief porter.



allowed to travel by the





which request he

graciously granted.
On the second day

we were invited by the Shah to a banquet,
and I presented my humble offerings. During the feast we
conversed upon poetical and other subjects, and the Shah remarked to his courtiers " These men do not look like in"
triguers they are only pilgrims and religious fanatics
and on the strength of this verdict Kokche Khalipha and Mir
Munshi were reinstated in their office. I received a horse
and two changes of robes, a bale of silk, and several other
things; the two Serdars received each two robes of honor,
and my five traveling companions, each one. Altogether the
Shah behaved handsomely to us and showed a marked respect


for the person of his Majesty the Padishah.
One day I was invited to a banquet in the large music-hall,
To give some
all the Beys of the royal family being present.

idea of the magnificence here displayed I will only mention

from five hundred to one thousand Tumens 8 had been
There were some hunspent on the decoration of the hall.
dreds of velvet and silken brocaded carpets, painted and emthat








cushions and exquisitely artistic tents, canopies, and sunshades.

Yuzbashi Hasan Bey, one of the Shah's confidants, turned
me and said " Is not this indeed a treasure-house ? " " It
is," I replied,
yet the wealth of kings is not measured by
their gold and silver but by their military power."
remark silenced him he did not return to the subject.
As the envoy had already started for Tebriz I was detained
for another month, during which time the Shah showed me
much attention, and I spent a good deal of my time in his
One day he ventured the remark " Why were
those 300 Janissaries sent from Turkey to assist Borak
Khan ? " I answered that these had not been sent to
strengthen Borak Khan's forces, but merely as an escort to
the late Sheik Abdullatif, because it was a well-known fact




ducat " in Persian, but as the word is here used in
would appear that something has been omitted.

Tumen means
the dative





had killed Baba Sheik, a son of the
Jesewi, on the road from Astrakhan, and that
If the Padishah had
that route was therefore made unsafe.
that the Circassians



intended to send military help, not three hundred, but some
thousands of Janissaries, would have gone to Bokhara.
Another time I was drawn into a religious dispute with
Mir Ibrahim Sefevi, one of the Shah's relatives and a sage.

The conversation ran





as follows


do the learned

of Turkey call us

said that the followers of the Prophet have been
insulted by your countrymen, and according to the



statutes of our religion he
is an unbeliever."
IBRAHIM: "That is what

says, but according to
pardonable offenses."





insults his superiors

Imam Aazam (Ebn Hanifa)
Imam Shafi this belongs to the


understand that it is customary with you to accuse
Ayesha, the wife of the Prophet (may God have
mercy upon her), of immorality, and as this throws a
stigma on the Prophet's name, it is synonymous to
blasphemy. The people who can do this are in a
state of apostasy, and their life is forfeited.

goods can be confiscated and their men put in prison.
Any one persisting in this unbelief is subject to imprisonment, but if they renounce they may, without
their wives, with or without marriage. . . ."
" I
must contradict this. In our eyes also,
any one who accuses Ayesha of immorality is an un-



and a blasphemer and contradicts the Koran
God Almighty testifies to

because in the Sacred Book

The Circassians were at that time not yet Mohammedans, for they
were converted later on by Ferrukh Pasha.
It appears from this passage that the Pilgrims' route from Central
Asia to Mecca led in those days past Astrakhan, i.e., by Kharezm and
the lower Volga, and from there across the Caucasus via Constantinople to Arabia, about the same as in modern times, when pilgrims
travel by the Trans-Caspian line, via Batum Baku and Constantinople
to Mecca.



allowed to travel by the





which request he

graciously granted.
On the second day

we were invited by the Shah to a banquet,
and I presented my humble offerings. During the feast we
conversed upon poetical and other subjects, and the Shah remarked to his courtiers " These men do not look like in"
triguers they are only pilgrims and religious fanatics
and on the strength of this verdict Kokche Khalipha and Mir
Munshi were reinstated in their office. I received a horse
and two changes of robes, a bale of silk, and several other
things; the two Serdars received each two robes of honor,
and my five traveling companions, each one. Altogether the
Shah behaved handsomely to us and showed a marked respect


for the person of his Majesty the Padishah.
One day I was invited to a banquet in the large music-hall,
To give some
all the Beys of the royal family being present.

idea of the magnificence here displayed I will only mention

from five hundred to one thousand Tumens 6 had been
There were some hunspent on the decoration of the hall.
dreds of velvet and silken brocaded carpets, painted and emthat

in figurative designs; quantities of luxurious
cushions and exquisitely artistic tents, canopies, and sun-


Yuzbashi Hasan Bey, one of the Shah's confidants, turned
me and said " Is not this indeed a treasure-house ? " " It
is," I replied,
yet the wealth of kings is not measured by
their gold and silver but by their military power."
remark silenced him; he did not return to the subject.
As the envoy had already started for Tebriz I was detained
for another month, during which time the Shah showed me
much attention, and I spent a good deal of my time in his
One day he ventured the remark " Why were
those 300 Janissaries sent from Turkey to assist Borak
Khan ? " I answered that these had not been sent to
strengthen Borak Khan's forces, but merely as an escort to
the late Sheik Abdullatif, because it was a well-known fact



Tumen means
the dative



ducat " in Persian, but as the word


here used in

would appear that something has been omitted.




had killed Baba Sheik, a son of the
Jesewi, on the road from Astrakhan, and that
If the Padishah had
that route was therefore made unsafe.

that the Circassians



intended to send military help, not three hundred, but some
thousands of Janissaries, would have gone to Bokhara.
Another time I was drawn into a religious dispute with
Mir Ibrahim Sefevi, one of the Shah's relatives and a sage.

The conversation ran







as follows


do the learned


of Turkey call us


said that the followers of the Prophet have been
by your countrymen, and according to the


statutes of our religion he

an unbeliever."
IBEAHIM: "That is what


insults his superiors


says, but according to
pardonable offenses."


Imam Aazam (Ebn Hanifa)
Imam Shafi this belongs to the


understand that it is customary with you to accuse
Ayesha, the wife of the Prophet (may God have
mercy upon her), of immorality, and as this throws a

stigma on the Prophet's name, it is synonymous to
The people who can do this are in a
state of apostasy, and their life is forfeited.


goods can be confiscated and their men put in prison.
Any one persisting in this unbelief is subject to imprisonment, but if they renounce they may, without
their wives, with or without marriage. . . ."
" I must
In our eyes also,
contradict this.


any one who accuses Ayesha of immorality is an unand a blasphemer and contradicts the Koran
because in the Sacred Book God Almighty testifies to



The Circassians were at that time not yet Mohammedans, for they
were converted later on by Ferrukh Pasha.
It appears from this passage that the Pilgrims' route from Central
Asia to Mecca led in those days past Astrakhan, i.e., by Kharezm and
the lower Volga, and from there across the Caucasus via Constantinople to Arabia, about the same as in modern times, when pilgrims
travel by the Trans-Caspian line, via Batum Baku and Constantinople
to Mecca.




But all the same we can not
the virtue of Ayesha.
love her because she set herself against Ali."
How do you explain it that although the Hadis deUlemas are on a level with the prophets
of the people of Israel, it nevertheless frequently happens that offensive language is used against the
clares that the

former ? "
" Does the name Ulema not include our UleIBBAHIM





" In a facetious
way it includes all Ulemas, but beis
fact that it is said of them :
The flesh of the Ulema is poisonous, their odor is

sickening, and to eat them is death ; and if in spite of
this men will insult them, they must pay the penalty
both in this world and in the next."


this he could

make no


and I turned the con-

versation into another channel.


The Shah once

Tell me, since thou hast
said to me,
traveled so much, which of the cities thou hast visited pleases
thee best."
And I replied : " I have indeed seen most of the
cities of this world,

but I have found none to compare with

Stamboul and Galata."

The Shah allowed this to pass, and continued " At how
many Tumens dost thou estimate the combined income of the
Beys and Beylerbeys of Turkey ? to which I replied


Beys and Beylerbeys of Turkey receive payment according
to their rank, but they

enjoy besides this generally a private
Other princes remunerate their officers in proportion to the pay of the regiment which they command, but if
the pay of the Beys and other officers in the service of the
Emperor of Turkey were to be based upon this foundation,
it would run not into Tumens, nor yet Lakhs,
but into
Kulurs. To give you an example: The payments made to

the Beylerbeys of Rumelia, Anatolia, Egypt,


each in themselves, as

Hungary (Bu-

Ofen), Diarbekir, Bagdad, Yemen, and Algiers,




any other prince would lay

Lakh, about $500,000, a sum only used in India.



This proportion holds good
out on the whole of his army.
for all the other Beylerbeys also, and is in strict accordance
Quite a
with the superior standing of our government.
different system is adopted for the troops

under Khans and

Sultans, for there is always an element of uncertainty there ;
but in Turkey the army belongs to the Padishah. All Bey-

and officers are his servants, and an Imperial com11
law and can not be trifled with."
On this same occasion some of the officers asked whether
the documents which had been taken from me by Ibrahim
Mirza in Meshhed had ever been placed before the Shah.
This question was answered in the affirmative, but I did not
like to pursue the subject, mindful of the saying
and I turned
evil slumbers, cursed be he who arouses it




the conversation into another channel.
I preferred to plead



cause with another gazel, which
finally led to the

Shah graciously accepted, and which

desired result.


received permission to leave.



and devotion to
his Majesty the Padishah, gave me more presents, and commanded Nazr Bey, a brother of Yuzbashi Hasan Bey, to accompany me on the journey.
While in Kazvin I made a pilgrimage to the grave of
Imam Shahzade Husein, and in the beginning of Rebiul Evvel I started on my journey to Bagdad.
Near to Sultani, we passed Abhar, and I stopped to visit
the grave of Pir Hasan, the son of Akhi Avran, then on to
Kirkan, where I visited the grave of Mohammed Demtiz
a son of Khodja Ahmed Jesewi, and from there to Derghezin
and Hamadan, in which latter place the graves of Ain-ul-Kua

letter expressive of his unalterable respect


Our author refers here to the Feudal system still in use in Central Asia at the time that I was there, and he rightly criticizes the
limited power of the rulers, which is the necessary result of it. In
Persia the relation between the Khans and the Shah was based upon
this principle till quite within modern times. The Sultans of Turkey,
when at the zenith of their power, were absolute sovereigns of their

But at the commencement of the decline the same relationship
established there, as we see from the conduct of the Derebeys.
12 Demtiz means "some one
possessing strong, i.e., active or powerful dem or nefes (breath)."




and Pir Ebulalay, the armor-bearers of the Prophet, were
At Saadabad, our next station, I was met by the


who treated me with marked attention.
Then we took our way by Mount El vend and Nihavend



Suristan) to Bisutim, where I visited the grave of Kiazim,
and in the village Weis-ul-karn, the grave of the saint of that
name. We then proceeded to Kasri-Shirin and through

Kurdistan to the fortress Zendjir. While there we were
interested in watching a Huma bird
high up in the
we were thereThis
good omen,
fore well pleased.
Some enlarged upon the good fortune


presaged by his appearance, others spoke of the curious prop-


erties of the bird, of
Sa'di sings :
" The Huma is
distinguished from all other birds,
In that he lives on bones, yet is not a bird of prey."

It is a known fact that this bird feeds exclusively on bones.
The legend says that the Huma, before demolishing a bone,
carries it up high in the air, and then drops it, with the result
that it breaks into many pieces.
He then swoops down upon
these, divides them into equal portions, and devours them.
This is the origin of the saying, when Persian officials,
through extortion, obtain more than they can well digest:
They should follow the example of the Huma bird and di-

vide their spoils into smaller, equal portions."
Here, at Zendjir, I dismissed Xazr Bey, whom the Shah

had given me as an escort, and after crossing the great river
Tokuz Olum 14 we came to Ban (or Sheri Ban). Toward
the end of the same month of Eebiul Sani we reached Bagdad,
where we were most hospitably received by Khizr Pasha.
We did not delay, however, but hurried on to Turkey.
Huma, name of a mythical bird, a kind of Phoenix, which, as the
legend says, lives in the air and never touches the earth, and is held
to be a good omen. Thus, for instance, any one who has been overshadowed by this bird is destined to be a ruler. Hence the word

Imperial," an epithet applied to royal persons.
Tokuz Olum, signifying "nine fords" (if Olum be taken for the
Turkoman word of the same meaning), is not known as the name of a
great river, because, besides the Tigris, there are no large rivers in the


neighborhood of Bagdad.




In the beginning of Djemazi-ul Ewel we crossed the Tigris
in ships, and after revisiting the sacred graves there we journeyed on. Past Kasri, Semke, and Harbi we came to Tekrit
and Mossul, and by the old road of Mossul and Djizre to


there by Diarbekir and

Mardin we reached

I saw Iskender Pasha, who received me most
In the course of conversation I told him some

Amed, where

of our adventures, to which he listened with



and exclaimed " You have gone through more than even
Tamum Dari has done, and as for all the marvelous things
which you have seen, they are beyond the dreams of even
Balkiah and Djihan Shah."
Questioned upon the different sovereigns and armies of the
" In all the world there is no
countries I had visited, I said
country like Turkey, no sovereign like our Padishah, and no
army like the Turkish. From East to West the fame of the
Ottoman troops has spread. For victory follows their banner
wherever they go. May God keep Turkey in wealth and
May he preserve
prosperity until the last day shall dawn.
our Padishah in health and happiness and our troops ever







asked whether our name was known in those remote
Certainly, more than you would think."
In the further course of conversation I learned that a report
death had reached the Porte, and that therefore the
Egyptian Admiral had been given to Kurdzade, the
Sandjak-bey of Ehodus. I thought to myself: "Long live


Padishah, I shall easily obtain another office ; and I
comforted myself with poetic effusions. Of course I trusted
in God Almighty, nevertheless I was always thinking about
the conquest of Ormuz and Gujarat, and I argued thus to
" These fantastic
dreams have so filled thy brain, that
thou art being drawn down to the earth by them ; the spirit
of wandering is so strong in thee that thou canst not give thy
bodv rest until it shall return to dust."



of Hadji Bairam Sultan and his children. years of much sorrow and misery. God be praised. a native of that place. is the grave of Sheik Shemseddin. Ghazi. After this I continued Ken my journey to Stamboul. and on the second day after my return I traveled thither. now Ismid. . i. Iznikmid. where I crossed the Bosphorus. has better preserved the ancient Greek name. my relations. and reached Constantinople in safety. the grave of the prophet Zilkefl. From Beybazari we came to Boli. I had the good fortune to be most gra- my ! 1 2 " Chashneghir. the first station on Turkish territory. and to Balam Sultan then on to Kirshehr and the graves of Hadji Avran and Aashik r Pasha. from there by Kharput to Malatia and the grave of Seid Ghazi Sultan. of many privations and perplexities. and on to Kunik. but now in this year 964 (1556). who gave me his distinction Wahab blessing. and brought me back to this most beautiful country of all the earth. across the Kara Hissar Behram Shah. in the hope soon to set Arrived in Arghini I visited eyes again on Constantinople." probably the name of the builder.e. From there our way led past Ghekivize and Skutari. and shortly after I reached Siwas. Glory and praise be to God the Giver of all good things His Majesty the Padishah happened to be at Adrianople.. 1 I visited the grave (Halys) by the bridge of Chashneghir. and to call upon Ali Baba. crossing the Kizil Irmak plain of to . next we came to Tarakli Yenidje and Keive. where. to pay him homage. cup-bearer. and the Khidr. where I made pilgrimages to the graves of the saints of that place. I have once more returned to my own people. and had a friendly interview with Djenabi Pasha. touched Modurn. and through Bozauk to Hadji Bektash. past Ayas \ arsak to Angora. who led me safely through manifold dangers.THE SACRED BOOKS 394 I resumed my journey to Turkey. on to Sabandja and Iznikmid the grave of Nebi Khodja. Ali Pasha received me there with marked I delayed a short time to visit the grave of Abdul . with the bridge over the Sakaria 2 and river. past Agadj-Deniz. Four years have passed away . and friends. in the beginning of Redjeb.

and was appointed Muteferrika for Egypt. years they had been away. but in a quiet and mind lieth the secret of the true strength which contented But if in God's providence he should be perisheth not. 395 The high Viziers. superintendent of the finances of the . Let him never cease to long for the day that he shall see his native shores again. had his salary increased with eight dktclie. and especially Vizier Eustem Pasha. and always cling loyally to his Padishah. 3 Timor DefterdarligM. and the transcript of it was accomplished in the month Safar of the year 965 (1557). and the others They received their pay for the four joined the volunteers. Thus in his gracious kindness his Majesty had pleased and to Constantinople. and he shall . nominated to the post of Egyptian Tchaush. driven from home. He who wishes to profit by this narrative let him remember that not in vain aspirations after greatness.. He who doeth this shall not perish abroad God will grant him his desire both in this world and in the next. rejoice in the esteem and affection of his fellow-countrymen. And the Ketkhuda (intendant). loaded me with kindI was appointed to join the Corps of the MuteferriJca nesses. (officers in attendance on the Sultan) with a daily income of sixty aktclie.LITERATURE OF THE EAST ciously received by his Imperial Majesty. and forced to wander forth in the unknown.e. I completed this narrative in Galata in the month Shaaban of the year 964 (1556). let him still always keep in mind that love for one's native land is next to one's faith. satisfied us all. Toward the end of Rajab his Majesty the Sultan returned and on the day that he entered the Konak 3 of Tchataldja I was appointed Defterdar of Diarbekir. army. payment being made out of the Egyptian treasury. who had accompanied me on my travels. and perchance be caught in the turbulent waves of the sea of adversity. i. eight One rikiclie of the Boluk-Bashi (Chef d'Escadron) received and my other traveling companions each six One of these latter was aldche above their ordinary pay.


consult: BARON MACGUCKIN DE SLANE. MARGOLIOUTH. New York. Scribners. It includes: E. six volumes. WM. HITTI. AEBUTHNOT. "Albiruni's Chronology. S. A. "New Arabian Nights" (London). W. 1890). 1905). Islam" (London. VON HAMMER. The and history theme is covered by: general R. "Ibn KhaUikan's Biographical Dictionary" (Paris. STANLEY LANE-POOLE. F. "Supplementary Nights" (London. "Arabic Authors" (London. "Life of Mahomet" (new edition. LANE. four volumes. 1882). "Speeches and Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammed" (London. 1884). For the legends of Mohammed. "The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night " (London. F. read WILLIAM MUIB. "Mishcat ul-Masabih. NICHOLSON. 1810). PHILIP K. 1842-1871). 397 ." For romance the list is almost endless. "The Thousand and One Nights" (London). a Collection of Traditions Regarding Muhammed" (Calcutta. N. 1887). : D. ten volumes. SIR RICHARD BURTON.BIBLIOGRAPHIES MEDIEVAL ARABIC Some of the general works recommended for the early Arabic literature are also of value for this volume. nine volumes. "A Literary History of the Arabs" (New York. SIR RICHARD BURTON. three volumes. "Al Baladhuri's History of the Mohammedan Conquest" (Columbia University. Edinburgh. "Plain and Literal Translation of the Thousand Nights" (London. "Mohammed and the Rise of 1912). 1885). A. JOHN PAYNE. 1907). MATTHEWS (translator). J. 1916). For history and biography. "Abulfeda's Life of Mohammed" (Elgin). MURRAY.

"Ottoman Poems" (London. "The Maquamat of 1820). L. literature itself. 1903). W. etc. J. "Tales of the Caliphs" (New York. FREEMAN. J. a Bedoueen volumes. LANE-POOLE. 1911). "History. R. HAMILTON. GIBBONS. L. E. DAVEY. 1907). J. 1909). "Turkey and Its People" (London. CHAS. For the J. System. WELLS. "The Assemblies F. . "The Mohammedan Dynasties" (London." W. GIBB. D. consult : J. 1911). And most important new and New 1903). TURKISH LITERATURE For the general conditions and history of Turkey. SIR CHAS. DE BOER. 1897). 1903). read: SIR EDWIN PEARS. C. W. 1902). "The Sultan and His Subjects" (London. "History of Ottoman Poetry" (London. two volumes. BURCKHARDT. STEINOASS." (Scribners. "Foundation of the Ottoman Empire" (New York. B. GIBB. 1915). Arnold. S. etc. and Schaade. prudence. MACDONALD. "History of Philosophy in Islam" (London. of all for general information is the authoritative "Encyclopaedia of Islam. "Antar. ALLAN RAMSAY. "Turkey in Europe" (London. A. "Development of Muslim Theology. H. 2d edition. E. "Tales from Turkey" (London. CHENERY and T. J. W. New York. (London. ELIOT. T. P. GARNETT. 1916).. C. A. Romance" (London. E. 1908)." edited by Houtsma. S. "The Ottoman Power in Europe" (Macmillan). For philosophic themes. 1914). 1898). "Arabic Proverbs" (London. Juris- York. read : REDHOTTSE. PRENDERGAST. 1830). "The Story of Turkey" (New York.BIBLIOGRAPHIES 398 T. FIELD. revised edition. Turkish Life in Town and Country" (Putnam. 1891). LANE-POOLE. 1882). "Turkish Chrestomathy " (London. four of Al-Hariri" Al-Hamadhani" (Madras. of Turkish Poetry.