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**Total Coloring of Certain Double Vertex Graphs
**

Zeynep Yorgancioglu Ya¸ar University s Department of Mathematics Faculty of Science and Letter 35100-Izmir, Turkey Pinar Dundar Ege University Faculty of Science Department of Mathematics 35100-Izmir, Turkey

Abstract In this paper we investigate the total coloring number for double vertex graphs of some of the most common classes of graphs.

Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: 05C15 Keywords:Total Coloring, total chromatic number, double vertex graphs

1

Introduction

Total coloring was introduced by Behzad and Vizing in numerous occasions between 1964 and 1968 [4]. Behzad stated the total coloring number of several classes of graphs in his Ph.D. thesis called ”Graphs and their chromatic numbers”. In this paper we give total coloring number for double vertex graphs of some of the most common classes of graphs. We consider (simple) graphs which are ﬁnite, undirected with no loops or multiple edges. A total coloring of a graph G is a coloring of all elements of G, i.e. vertices and edges, so that no two adjacent or indecent elements receive the same color. The minimum number of colors is called the total chromatic number χT (G) of G [2].

4 The total chromatic number of double vertex graph of G is. So the total chromatic number of graph U2 (G) is at least one more than the maximum degree of U2 (G). Theorem 2. the maximum degree vertex and the indecent edge(s) to this vertex must be colored. then y and v are adjacent in G [5]. The notations which are used in the study are given below: Δ(G): Maximum vertex degree of G. PROOF: The number of vertices and edges of the graph H is less than the number of vertices and edges of the graph G.n : Complete bipartite graph of order (m+n).2272 Z. Cn : Cycle of order n. Theorem 2.2 [5] If G is a connected graph. we discuss some of the theorems about total coloring and we give total chromatic number for double vertex graphs of the most common classes of graphs. then the double vertex graph of G is a tree if and only if G = K3 or G = P3 . Theorem 2. then its double vertex graph is bipartite if and only if G is bipartite. y} {u. v}| = 1 and if x=u.1 [5] The double vertex graph of a graph is a cycle if and only if G = K3 or G = K1.5 There is a relation between total chromatic number of double vertex graph of G and total chromatic number of double vertex of subgraph H of G. Km. Yorgancioglu and P. 2 Total Coloring Of Double Vertex Graphs In this chapter. Theorem 2. y} and {u. Pn : Path of order n. χT [U2 (G)] ≥ Δ[U2 (G)] + 1.subsets of V such that two distinct vertices {x. Dundar The double vertex graph U2 (G) is the graph whose vertex set consists of all 2. S1. Nn : Null graph of order n. Theorem 2. (which is a graph with no edges). χT [U2 (G)] ≥ χT [U2 (H)].3 [5] If G is a connected graph. The maximum vertex degree of the double vertex graph H is less than or equal to the maximum vertex degree of the double vertex graph G. v} are adjacent if and only if |{x.n : Star of order (n+1). PROOF: For total coloring of the double vertex graph with the minimum color. So the number of edge coloring and .3 .

PROOF: For total coloring of the double vertex graph of cycles with the minimum color. . χT (Pn ) = Δ(Pn ) + 1 = 3 Theorem 2.7 [1] The total chromatic number of Cn is. indecent to these edges.n ) + 2. Theorem 2. So (4 + 1 = 5).10 The total chromatic number of U2 (Cn ) is. And the maximum degree of graph U2 (C3 ) is 2 so (2 + 1 = 3). χT [U2 (Pn )] = 5.n ) is. the maximum degree vertex and the indecent edge to this vertex must be colored. (n > 3).8 [1]The total chromatic number of Km. m = n Theorem 2. χT [U2 (C3 )] = 3.6 [3] The total chromatic number of Pn is. both vertex coloring and edge coloring are needed so the total chromatic number of the graph U2 (H) is at most total chromatic number of the graph U2 (G). n=0 (mod=3) 4.n ) + 1. The maximum degree of graph U2 (Cn ) is 4 (n > 3). (n > 2).9 The total chromatic number of U2 (Pn ) is. χT [U2 (S1. χT [U2 (Cn )] = 5. χT (Km. χT [U2 (P3 )] = 3 and χT [U2 (P4 )] = 4. otherwise Theorem 2. For edge coloring 4 colors are enough and one more color is needed to color a vertex. m = n Δ(Km. χT [U2 (Cn )] = 5. Theorem 2.11 The total chromatic number of U2 (S1.Total coloring of certain double vertex graphs 2273 vertex coloring of graph U2 (H) is less than or equal to graph U2 (G). So (n-1+1 = n).n ) = Δ(Km. Theorem 2. The maximum degree of graph U2 (Pn ) is 4 (n > 4). (n > 4). So (4 + 1 = 5). For edge coloring 4 colors are enough and one more color is needed to color a vertex. PROOF: For total coloring of the double vertex graph of paths with the minimum color. indecent to these edges. the maximum degree vertex and the indecent edge to this vertex must be colored.n is.n )] = n. χT [U2 (Pn )] = 5. And the maximum degree of graph U2 (P3 ) and graph U2 (P4 ) is (n-1). For the total coloring. χT (Cn ) = 3.

n )] = n.n ) is (n-1). For edge coloring.1 )] = 1 Theorem 2. PROOF: Km. Theorem 2.n )] = Δ(Km. the maximum degree vertex and the indecent edge to this vertex must be colored. So (n-1+1 = n) χT [U2 (S1.1 )=N1 so χT (N1 ) = χT [U2 (S1.7 for n=3k. 3 Conclusions In this study. So from Theorem 2. χT [U2 (Km.2274 Z.12 The total chromatic number of U2 (Km. From Theorem 2. Through this idea we used some of the total chromatic number of certain graphs to evaluate the total chromatic number of double vertex graphs of the some certain graphs.3. Whenever m=n or m=n. .n ) + 1 . The most common classes of graphs’ total chromatic number are used to evaluate the total chromatic number of graphs. (n-1) colors are enough and one more color is needed to color a vertex. XT [U2 (K1. PROOF: From Theorem 2. So the total chromatic numbers of P3 and U2 (P3 ) graphs are equal.n )] = Δ(Km. From Theorem 2.2 )=U2 (P3 )=P3 so χT (P3 )= χT [U2 (S1.3 is a cycle C6 .7 for n=3k.1 the double vertex graph of a complete bipartite graph K1.2 )] = 3 (from Theorem 2. Dundar PROOF: For total coloring of the double vertex graph of stars with the minimum color. XT (Cn ) = 3 so XT [U2 (K3 )] = XT (C3 ) = 3.n is a complete bipartite graph and its double vertex graph is also bipartite graph from Theorem 2.n ) are never equal.14 XT [U2 (K3 )] = XT (C3 ) = 3. U2 (S1.6). For n ≤ 2.13 XT [U2 (P3 )] = XT (P3 ) = 3 PROOF: The double vertex graph of a path P3 is a path P3 . It is not easy to evaluate the total chromatic number of graphs. total coloring and total chromatic number for double vertex graphs of some of the most common classes of graphs are discussed.n ) is. indecent to these edges. For n > 2. the maximum degree of graph U2 (S1. From Theorem 2.3 )] = XT (C6 ) = 3. χT [U2 (Km. U2 (S1.8. Theorem 2.n ) + 1. Yorgancioglu and P. the double vertex graph of Km.n is bipartite and m and n of U2 (Km.1 the double vertex graph of a complete graph K3 is a cycle C3 . XT (Cn ) = 3 so XT [U2 (K3 )] = XT (C3 ) = 3.

S. New York.Verlag. Springer . Received: February. (1998). Graph Coloring Problems. 709-715. [5] Y. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Isobe. 2011 . Germany. X.J. [2] S. (1995). (2005). Cycles and Stars..Colouring of Paths. R. Combinatorics Advances. Graphs and Combinatorics.D. von Dipl.. (2002). Lick and J. Jensen and B. Wiley-Interscience. Vill`.Mahmoodian. Survey of Double Vertex Graphs.Total coloring of certain double vertex graphs 2275 References [1] C.s. 100-113. Toft. Nishizeki. U. Springer . [4] T.Verlag.A.M.R.t] . a Math. A Polynomial . Colbourn and E. Liu. [r. Zhou and T.S. [3] S. Alavi.Time Algorithm for Finding Total Colorings of Partial k-trees. (1995).

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