Two-Phase Flow Patterns for Evaporating Flow
D. P. Frankum V. V. Wadekar HTFS, AEA Technology, Harwell, Oxfordshire, 0 X l l ORA, England B. J. Azzopardi Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, England
• Results of the analysis of empirical flow-pattern maps and theoretical models are presented. The flow-pattern maps are examined against available nonadiabatic data under flow boiling conditions, and modification of the flow-pattem transitions due to evaporating flow are discussed. Theoretical models are generally found to be better than the empirical flow-pattern maps, with good agreement obtained against the data. © Elsevier Science Inc., 1997

Keywords: fluid dynamics, two-phase, evaporation~boiling, data (experimental), velocity
formed with adiabatic air-water systems. This work, along with other work covering evaporating flows, is described here. Empirical Flow-Pattern Maps Data collected from flow-pattern observations may be presented as a flow-pattern map, a two-dimensional plot attempting to separate the flow patterns into particular areas. The simplest types of flow-pattern maps present the data for a particular type of fluid and geometry only. Bennett et al. [2], Bergles et al. [3], and Mayinger and Zetzmann [4] plotted total mass flux against quality. However, these flow-pattern maps may not be reliable when used for fluids or tube geometries other than those from which they were obtained. Mayinger and Zetzmann [4] generalized total mass flux against quality plots by plotting the total mass flux against a dimensionless number, Z: z

INTRODUCTION Two-phase vapor-liquid flow in a tube can adopt many geometrical configurations of the distribution between the liquid and the vapor phases, which are commonly known as "flow patterns" or "flow regimes." The many different types of flow patterns that may develop have been described by Hewitt and Hall-Taylor [1]. The flow regimes in a vertical tube may be broadly divided into the following four different types: (1) bubble flow, where the vapor phase is in the form of bubbles distributed within the liquid continuum; (2) plug flow, where the vapor bubbles have a cross-sectional area closely approaching that of the tube and, in smaller-diameter tubes, are "bullet" shaped, with the bubbles separated by a length of liquid that may contain a dispersion of smaller bubbles; (3) churn flow, where the structure is unstable, with the vapor plugs becoming narrower and irregular while the liquid slug is destroyed by regions of vapor bubbles; (4) annular flow, where a liquid film layer is present on the tube wall, with a vapor core in the center of the tube, which may or may not contain entrained droplets. In most of the reported experimental and modeling work, the transition of flow patterns is performed for adiabatic (no heat addition) two-phase flow. However, in industrial processes, in many c.ases, two-phase flow develops under nonadiabatic conditions--for example, during boiling or condensation in the petrochemical, chemical processing, and refrigeration industries. In this paper, current methods available for flow-pattern transition and flow-pattern maps for adiabatic flow will be examined and compared with the available data for evaporating flows. Possible modifications to the adiabatic methods, to account for the effect of heat addition, will then be described. F L O W - P A T t E R N MAPS Most of the work published for empirical as well as theoretical two-phase flow-pattern maps has been per-



where Xg is the mass quality, m an empirical exponent, and P/Pc is the reduced pressure--that is, the ratio of the system to critical pressure of the fluid. Three fluids systems (steam-water, Refrigerant-ll, and Refrigerant-12) were considered, with the transitions being approximately represented by the same line on the flow-pattern map for these three different fluids. Fair [5] plotted the total mass flux against the reciprocal of the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter (l/Xtt). This coordinate was chosen following the success of Lockhart and Martinelli [6] in correlating their adiabatic two-phase data for pressure drop and void fraction by the LockhartMartinelli parameter. Hewitt and Roberts [7] presented a generalized flowpattern map for vertical upward flows in round tubes, Data from air-water mixtures and steam-water mixtures in

Address correspondence to D. Frankum, AEA Technology, B404 Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 ORA, England.

Experimental Thermaland Fluid Sciehce 1997; 15:183-192
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Different tube diameters between 32 and 142 mm were used with different fluids to encompass a wide spread in the density. and Barnea [14] have all presented flow-pattern maps based on physical modeling of the transition boundaries• The transition mechanisms proposed between the four basic flow patterns (bubble. 2 and pgb2). .2] . and bubble mechanisms. wake effects. as will be discussed in the section on practical significance. plug-to-churn-flow transition is not as well defined and as well characterized as are other transitions. = 3. eg. Nondispersed bubble to plug flow. The resulting flowpattern map was a plot of the dimensionless liquid velocity number iq(pl/go') 1/4 against the vapor velocity number /. McQuillan and Whalley [12] proposed > [go-(. The upper hmit for the void fraction was taken by Taitel et al. two opposing processes are acting on the bubbles: (1) coalescence of the smaller bubbles by impact to form larger bubbles and (2) breakup of the larger bubbles into smaller ones caused by turbulence in the liquid phase.g(pl/gtr) 1/4. They concluded that the flooding mechanism proposed by McQuillan and Whalley [12] and the bubble entrainment model of Brauner and Barnea [23] were based on phenomena normally associated with plug flow and showed good agreement with experimental results. which was developed for horizontal tubes with diameters in the range of 0. viscosity. In this case. [10] as 0. to give i. The void fraction in dispersed flow can increase beyond the critical value. [10] claimed that. Moreover. (4) McQuillan and Whalley assumed that.184 D.52. the effect of slip between the two phases is negligible. churn. as determined by Brodkey [18]. increasing the vapor flow rate will cause the bubble flow to become unstable at a critical value of the void fraction. assuming a maximum void fraction of 0.. the transition from bubble flow to plug flow would be suppressed for void fractions in excess of the critical value. Sevik and Park [17] assumed that the breakup of bubbles was due to pressure forces causing the bubbles to oscillate at their natural frequency and established the maximum stable bubble size in a turbulent liquid field. produced the following equation: vl + /'g >->0. Frankum et al.Pg) }l/4 t~ . of 0. Bubble-Plug Transition In bubble flow. where turbulence forces dominate over the coalescence forces. Therefore. Taitei et al.0i~g .01 to 0. (3) a 23. 21]. [10] modeled the transition for bubble-toplug flow by considering the relative rise velocity of a single bubble in an infinite liquid. The coalescence of the bubbles depends on both the rate of impact and the number of bubbles in the flow. Equating the bubble size with the maximum spherical bubble size. and annular) are discussed here. McQuillan and Whalley [12]. [10] assumed that turbulent breakup could prevent coalescence only if the bubble size produced were small enough to remain spherical.P. Both then performed a similar analysis.25. McQuillan and Whalley [12] used a value of 0. This critical void fraction has been determined both theoretically and experimentally. the mechanisms that cause the transition between the successive flow patterns need to be identified. Taitel et al. provided the bubbles produced were small enough to remain spherical.74 for a true hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. such that turbulence is caused by bulk flow alone and therefore should not be affected by tube inclination.5-m-long. Radovcich and Moissis [15] considered the individual bubble fluctuations within a cubic lattice structure and determined a relation between frequency of bubble collision and void fraction that indicated that the collision frequency became very high at a void fraction of 0. the map represented principally the superficial velocity of each phase.8-mm-diameter vertical tube was used to develop a map where the flow regimes were plotted in terms of the superficial momentum flux of the two phases (pL/. [24] of a vertical tube with cocurrent flow showed flooding waves within the Taylor bubble in plug flow as the transition to churn flow was approached. then large vapor pockets may appear and lead to plug flow. of 0.127 m. e.15I g°-( P-l -. If bubble coalescence dominates over the breakup forces.1. plug and churn flow can be grouped together as intermittent two-phase flow.25. indicating a cubic lattice of bubbles. Mishima and Ishii [11].25. Gould [9] used the same axes. Bilicki and Kestin [13]..3. at the high liquid velocities under consideration. who investigated transition mechanisms due to entrance effects.072 -.. and surface tension of the flowing fluids. Plug-Churn Transition Because the definition of churn flow itself is a subject of considerable debate [20. [10] examined these physical mechanisms to produce a series of equations to account for both physical properties and tube geometry. the bubbles will break up to give dispersed bubble flow. as described in the section on nondispersed bubble to plug flow.. from the heat-transfer point of view. This value agrees with the experimental results obtained by Griffith and Synder [16]. 31. because the same physical property group was used in both coordinates. flooding. and.. The model of McQuillan and Whalley [12] was further improved by Jayanti and Hewitt [22]. Duns and Ros [8] collected flow-pattern information in a vertical column 10-m long.3 for the transition between dispersed bubble flow to plug flow but made no allowance for turbulence. Taitel et al. plug. Taitel et al. Mishima and Ishii [11] used a critical void fraction value of 0. A number of transition models have been reviewed by Jayanti and Hewitt [22]. [19]. who applied a film thickness correlation over a wider range of film Reynolds Nondi~persed to dispersed bubble flow. Subsequently video imaging by Jayanti et al. 4D°'429(or/pl)°'°89[g(pl-46 pg)]°'4 vl /91 Theoretical Flow-Pattern Maps for Adiabatic Flows To construct a theoretical map. Using the equation of Weisman et al. (2) Dispersed bubble flow to plug.

because .g Og + i~j Pl. Resistive heating to as much as 1200 k W / m 2 was used to heat water at pressures as high as 68. 3. Hosler [28] noted flow patterns for steam-water mixtures inside a rectangular channel at pressures as high as 137. [10] of the entrained droplet being accelerated by the gas core was incorrect and proposed the following inequality: Fr* > 1. The map does not adequately predict the annularflow transition. the following conversion is used to reproduce the data on superficial velocity plots: rh = i. [10] proposed that annular flow occurs when the vapor flow rate becomes sufficiently high to entrain liquid droplets. with the transitional data being predicted as either intermittent or annular. A total of 59% of the water data points were correctly predicted. The data of Bennett et al. [29] for boiling inside vertical channels. Similar conclusions may be drawn from Table 1 for Fair's empirical flow-pattern map.Two-Phase Flow Patterns numbers and modeled the effect of length of the falling film on the flooding velocity. The flow-pattern map of Duns and Ros [8] is shown in Fig. A number of the flow-pattern points for the Refrigerant 12 data were noted as transitional. for the flow-pattern map of Fair [5].5 Fr* = Vgpg (7) [up( 0. [29]. transitional. 1-4 for the various experimental flow-pattern maps. C o m p a r i s o n s with Empirical Flow-Pattern Maps [2] for steam-water systems. The flow-pattern map of Hewitt and Roberts [7] showed very good agreement with the data of Bennett et al. with the remaining wall consisting of a resistively heated metal strip. 185 glass. and annular flow for steam-water. This number was found to be 3. Therefore. Celata et al.3-m-long.5 bar are shown in Figs. (8) /'g P~ (9) Xg rh Hosler's [28] data presented actual quality rather than thermodynamic equilibrium quality. 7. In Fig. . This good agreement is not surprising. with a general tendency of predicting the data as pertaining to intermittent flow. Observations have also been recorded by Kattan et al.pg)] 1/4 The preceding dimensionless group is recognized as the Kutataladze number. This method also predicts the Refrigerant 12 data of Celata et al. [2] examined flow patterns for steam-water mixtures inside a 3. [2] for all the different types of flow patterns. as shown in Table 2. and is given by • 0. whereas intermittent-flow data are determined as bubble-flow data.9 bar. [2].65-m vertical titanium tube of 12. with all the annular-flow data being predicted as either bubble or intermittent flow. McQuillan and Whalley [12] suggested that the assumption of Taitel et al.6-mm diameter. and annular flow. against the different empirical flow-pattern maps. Hosler [28]. [32] for flow boiling in horizontal channels. [2] at 34. but this topic is outside the scope of the present discussion. A total of 80% of all data points were correctly determined. [29] determined flow-pattern information for Refrigerant 12 inside a 2. the plugflow data are predicted generally as bubble flow. (5) [ o ' g ( p . A glass section through which photographs could be taken of the flow pattern was placed at the exit of the test section. Therefore. the agreement with the data of Celata et al. A panel adjudicated the prevailing flow pattern from the photographs. the ratio of the inertial to gravitational forces. because the data are biased toward the intermittent-to-annular transition. For Refrigerant 12. Taitel et al.pg)]05 • This value was confirmed experimentally by Bennett et al. intermittent flow. The minimum vapor velocity was determined from a balance between the gravity and the drag forces acting on the droplet. the flow patterns listed in Table 2 are intermittent. The channel dimensions were 25•4 mm by 3•43 mm and 610 mm long• The flow pattern was determined from visual observation of the glass channel. at pressures of 12-27 bar.72-mm-diameter tube by using an optical probe. who empirically determined the gas velocity necessary to lift a liquid film during flooding experiments. . respectively. Data have also been reported by Tippetts [30] and Lu and Zhang [31]. Mishima and Ishii [11] suggested that annular flow transition occurred as a result of either flooding of the falling liquid film or destruction of the liquid slugs or large waves by entrainment or deformation. the annular-flow data are predicted well. They found that the transition occurred for a void fraction of between 0. Eqs. where Fr* is the modified Froude number. However. but this percentage was primarily due to a majority of the data being in the bubble-flow region• Not surprisingly. N O N A D I A B A T I C FLOW-PAT'FERN DATA Flow-pattern determinations have been recorded by Bennett et al. as can be observed in Fig.1.9 bar. although these data are in a less-accessible form. and Celata et al. (6) which was first suggested by Wallis [27]. Only the transition between intermittent flow to annular was studied in detail• Papers dealing with nonadiabatic data present them in the form of total mass flux against quality. is poor. 2. with some disagreement among the members.2 by Pushkina and Sorokin [26]. The droplet size was evaluated by equating the impact force of the vapor that tends to shatter the droplet to the surface tension force that holds the droplet together to give • 1/2 = 3. Plug-Churn to Annular Transition Haberstroh and Griffith [25] studied slug-annular transition in various fluid systems and tube diameters. provided that the subcooling is not very large. The flow pattern are separated into bubble flow. These data were not included in the calculation of the percentage of the data points correctly predicted. [29] well.9. whereas the bubble flow is predicted well.8 and 0. Three walls of the channel were made from The observed flow-pattern data for the water and Refrigerant 12 vapor-liquid two-phase flow are compared in Tables 1 and 2. at 96%. Bennett et al. (8) and (9) should give a good approximation of the actual superficial velocities. 1.

O f the empirical flow-pattern maps evaluated. Table 1. However. The annular transition b o u n d a r y was accurately determined.85 suggested by Mayinger and Z e t z m a n n [4]. for the data of water and Refrigerant 12.186 D .45. Observed Flow-Pattern Data Against Predicted Flow Pattern for Various Empirical Flow-Pattern Maps for Water Data (Observed Pattern) Model Fair [5] Predicted Pattern Bubble 17 7 0 24 0 0 12 10 2 16 6 2 14 1 9 Bennett et al. the churn-annular flow was included in the annular region. the data of Bennett et al. Figure 5. F r o m Table 1. This value compares well with the range 0. The Refrigerant-12 data were predicted with 85% of the points correct. Owen [33] r e c o r d e d adiabatic-flow-pattern information for air-water in a vertical tube of 32-ram diameter. The data were plotted by using the same coordinate system as that of Hewitt and R o b e r t s [7] and led to new transition boundaries. where it may be observed that the agreement for the Hosler [28] data is 83%. P . [2] Intermittent Annular % Correct Bubble 17 21 0 27 11 0 1 34 3 16 19 3 13 22 3 2 14 45 10 48 3 2 0 59 2 0 59 0 2 59 67 360 50 3 394 19 0 21 376 16 351 46 16 316 86 11 Hosler [28] % Total Intermittent Annular % Correct Correct 19 90 3 55 57 0 4 81 27 16 69 27 14 65 33 1 45 121 3 164 0 0 11 156 1 10 156 1 12 154 83 80 Bubble Intermittent Annular Duns and Ros Bubble [8] Intermittent Annular Hewitt and Bubble Roberts [7] Intermittent Annular Owen [33] Bubble Intermittent Annular Mayinger and Bubble Zetzmann [4] Intermittent Annular 31 65 59 85 37 44 76 83 82 77 77 77 these data were used to develop the transition boundaries. 4. is Table 2. Observed Flow-Pattern Data Against Predicted Flow Pattern for Various Empirical Flow-Pattern Maps for Refrigerant 12 Data (Observed Pattern) Model Fair [5] Predicted Pattern Bubble Intermittent Annular Bubble Intermittent Annular Bubble Intermittent Annular Bubble Intermittent Annular Bubble Intermittent Annular Intermittent 1 30 0 31 0 0 0 19 12 1 18 12 6 25 0 Celata et al.7 given by Mayinger and Z e t z m a n n [4] for water. [29] Transitional 0 20 11 9 22 11 0 6 25 0 6 25 0 17 14 Annular 0 2 46 1 47 0 0 0 48 0 0 48 0 3 45 % Total Correct 96 Duns and Ros [8] 0 Hewitt and Roberts [7] Owen [33] 85 83 Mayinger and Zetzmann [4] 89 . for ease of comparison. This map. The value of the exponent.95 < m < 1. m. this value does not compare favorably with the value of 0. W i t h this value. in reality. which is significantly greater than that of Hewitt and Roberts [7] of 37%. Frankum et al. Unfortunately. [2] and Hosler [28] were predicted correctly at 77% of data points and the refrigerant data at 89%. similar to that of Hewitt and R o b e r t s [7]. The agreement with the Refrigerant-12 data was 83%. The overall n u m b e r of water data points correctly predicted was 44%. used in Eq. shows the flow m a p of Mayinger and Zetzmann [4]. (1) was set at 1. as shown in Fig. but a majority of the bubble-flow data are predicted as intermittent flow. the Hosler d a t a are not as well predicted. the m a p of Fair [5] p r o d u c e d the best overall results.

[29] and Lu and Zhang [31]. This is broadly in agreement with conclusions drawn by other workers-for example.5 bar. against the predicted flow patterns for the different theoretical flowpattern maps.1 1 10 100 Effect of Heat A d d i t i o n o n F l o w . the superficial gas velocity increases with a corresponding reduction of the liquid superficial velocity. Celata et al. . owing to the difficult and subjective nature of flow-pattern observations. Comparisons w i t h A d i a b a t i c Theoretical Models The data of Bennett are compared in Fig. Empirical flow-pattern map of Duns and Ros [8] for the data of Bennett et al. which predicted a number of the transitional points as bubble flow. and Refrigerants R l l .= 0 0 512 i ! 11111 0. For the Refrigerant 12 data. respectively. Table 4. as the quality increases. As will be discussed in the next section. Nevertheless. In this section. indicate that the adiabatic methods of flow-pattern predictions may not be accurate. 1=[ " 10 ° i i °° ~"/ I " " 1 " 0. They found 84% of the points to be correctly predicted. They analyzed 1399 points covering adiabatic and boiling flows for systems consisting of air-water. which is close to the prediction noted here for boiling data only. therefore. For evaporating flow. and McQuillan and Whalley [12]. it can be observed that the models predict the water data correctly between the range 7881%. the range was 62-86%. The observed flow patterns for water and Refrigerant 12 are shown in Tables 3 and 4. it appears that the adiabatic flowpattern maps and flow-transition models are performing reasonably well with the flow boiling data.Two-Phase Flow Patterns 187 A iA . an extension of the common mass flux versus quality plots. DISCUSSION 0. a high accuracy verification of a given method may not be possible. [10]. Moreover. steam-water. Mishima and Ishii [11]. there appears to be less incentive for developing flow-pattern-transition methods for nonadiabatic flows to improve predictive capability. using the reciprocal of the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter instead of quality. nitrogen-water.P a t t e r n T r a n s i t i o n From earlier sections. Weisman and Kang [34]. Moreover. [2] at 34. heat-transfer experiments. 6 with the flow-pattern-transition methods of Taitel et al. arising from the differences between nonadiabatic and 1IX= Figure 1. and 113. [10]. R12. we delineate various factors.5 bar. [2] at 34. with the lowest being the model of Taitel et al. Empirical flow-pattern map of Fair [5] for the data of Bennett et al. McQuiUan and Whalley [12] produced a statistical analysis similar to that presented in this paper for their model. which provide a less-subjective method of a broader classification of flow patterns. One of the reasons may be that it is difficult to observe flow patterns under truly flow boiling conditions.Ol i ' ' From Table 3. the objective of basing our methods on more realistic physical models is always worth pursuing.1 1 10 8kay) 100 1000 Figure 2.

-Z~............. owing to bubble generation at the tube wall. ptO~ (kg/s2m) ........ However..... This flatter void profile may reduce bubble coalescence.....O s Figure 4. ° x (kg/s~) ......... ZX l ..... the temperature gradient between the bulk and near-tube-wall fluid may lower the viscosity and reduce the wall shear stress...... This feature is well documented for subcooled flow boiling by Hahne et al. { i c~j i:.. Empirical flow-pattern map of Hewett and Roberts [7] for the data of Bennett et al..P. I . leading to a delay in transition until a higher void fraction is reached... Therefore it is likely that there is preferential vapor generation from the liquid films directly into the 10 s I (kg/s2m) 101 : lool lO o o 10 ~ 10 2 o 10 3 o 10 4 . there is no conclusive evidence to prove it.... ... The void fraction profile. Convective heat transfer dominated region. [2] at 34. Empirical flow-pattern map of Owen [33] for the data of Hosler [28] at 55........ Plug-Churn to Annular Transition This transition may be best examined by considering the two boiling mechanisms individually..........0.u= [ f ---bb...... Bubble-Plug Transition In a flow boiling situation........... is expected to be much flatter for similar quality conditions than in adiabatic flow..... Frankum et al..2 bar.... ..... (k~s~m) ~ 10 10 4 10 s tion...... + ............ [35]............y 101 .'..... that could affect the adiabatic flow-pattern transition mechanisms.... affecting the local turbulence that may cause bubbles to either coalesce or remain dispersed. under boiling conditions.. In addi- lO o 10' 10 2 p. ~ ! " {'~..loo Figure 3. .. the bubble flow region is characterized by uneven void fraction distribution because of the vapor bubble generation at the wall.188 D.. 10 5 AA lo' . adiabatic flows........5 bar..... The falling liquid film associated with vapor plugs can be expected to have significantly better convective heat transfer than the liquid slugs.....

.5 bar. ....0 r~ 0 \ . [2] at 34.. .. [2] at 34...~ 0 .. 10 : 1(]0 J I11 0. . m ..( i 111 : 0. ~ t y {m/s) (c) Mishima and Ishii [11] 10 (d) McQuillan and Whalley [ 12] 10 t J I A ! OC kA 6~Ai~ A : O0 6 ~Q * 0 ~ AAAa . ..1 i 1 "i.1 .. .01 nl 10 I nn (11 1 (101 0.."7" AA A ~ !AA AA.pmlk. ..01 lOO Figure 6. a . . .5 bar. | 1 1 • o i1~ I 0...1 1 A .. . i 0..5 I 1... d . Empirical flow-pattern map of Mayinger and Zetzmann [4] for the data of Bennett et al... .. ] 0.5 Z 2 Figure 5.1 ~ 1 10 I nn ~.~mOmvwciy (m/~) 0== v .. .. .~A aAala i 0. .-/nlular E X :3 300O .. ~ . 0 ¢ 0 0 0.Two-Phase Flow Patterns 189 5O(2O 4OO0 iN o Churn .01 0.... . Theoretical flow-pattern maps against the data of Bennett et al.a l31 iy _ 2OOO oo . (a)Taitel eta 1110] 10 (b) Weisman and Kang [34] 1 f l o * A O0~a A 0 •. i Annular 1000 . . ° Ek.. A ~ A ol i t I 0 ..1 a 4. ...

the uneven generation of vapor into liquid slug or vapor plug can go in the opposite direction with an increase in the operating pressure. indirect evidence indicates that adiabatic transition criteria for the transition from plug-churn flow to annular flow may not be as accurate for flow boiling. the local wall superheat will be lower than that in the liquid slug region. [11] McQuillan et al.P. These thermal measurements obtained from a 14. This preference can affect the transition to annular flow by accelerating and increasing the size of the vapor plug. [2] Intermittent Annular %Correct Bubble Hosler [28] Intermittent Annular %Correct % Total Correct Taitel et al. we will need more systematic experiments at different pressures. Because nucleate boiling heat transfer and convective heat transfer slow opposite trends with respect to pressure. Wadekar Table 4. the only reported work that covers the effect of flow patterns on vertical flow boiling heat transfer is that of Wadekar and Kenning [36]. [34] Intermittent Annular Mishima Bubble et al. causing the size of the liquid slug to increase in relation to that of the vapor plug. Observed Flow-Pattern Data Against Predicted Flow Pattern for Various Adiabatic Theoretical Models for Water Data (Observed Pattern) Model Predicted Pattern Bubble Bennett et al. Table 3. Along with other variables. To verify these specu- lations. Frankum et al. potentially nucleate boiling could lead to higher vapor generation into the liquid slug rather than the vapor plug.190 D. Nucleate boiling can dominate the flow boiling heat transfer at high wall superheats.4-mm-diameter tube show two distinct regions of heat-transfer behavior. [10] Weisman et al. Owing to higher convective-heat-transfer coefficients associated with vapor plugs. This implies that nucleate boiling can be more pronounced in the liquid slugs that in the vapor plugs. [12] Bubble Intermittent Annular Bubble Intermittent Annular Bubble Intermittent Annular Bubble Intermittent Annular 11 1 19 7 20 4 7 5 19 6 8 17 2 0 29 0 10 21 0 4 27 0 5 26 0 0 48 0 0 48 0 0 48 0 0 48 62 86 67 71 . they measured local wall temperatures at a number of points along the length of the test section. who analyzed the results obtained by Kenning and Cooper [37]. [34] Mishima et al. Kenning and Cooper conducted experiments essentially for flow boiling in electrically heated tubes. no observations of flow pattern were made. [12] Intermittent Annular 23 0 1 20 1 3 23 1 0 22 1 1 23 13 2 12 24 2 14 24 0 11 25 2 9 0 58 2 1 58 2 10 49 2 0 59 76 83 78 86 338 56 19 320 66 27 348 50 15 315 65 33 41 52 19 9 53 50 23 82 7 9 48 55 2 16 149 1 7 159 6 25 136 1 1 165 78 78 77 78 82 81 76 78 vapor plugs rather than the liquid slug. Bubble [10] Intermittent Annular Weisman Bubble et al. [11] Intermittent Annular McQuillan Bubble et al. Flow Patterns f r o m T h e r m a l Measurements To our knowledge. Thus. Nucleate boiling dominated region. Observe Flow-Pattern Data Against Predicted Flow Pattern for Various Adiabatic Theoretical Models for Refrigerant 12 Data (Observed Pattern) Model Predicted Pattern Intermittent Celata et al. This particular point is discussed in detail in the next section. [29] Transitional Annular % Total Correct Taitel et al. At present.

The LockhartMartinelli parameter as a correlating parameter for the pressure drop was noted by Holt et al. was found to have the best performance for these types of maps. to examine the forces holding bubbles together. R. The theoretical models were generally found to perform better than the empirical flow-pattern maps. Bergles. Importantly. P. Paper No.Xg)/Xg]0"9(pg/Pl)0"5('Fll/T~g) 0"1 Mayinger and Zetzmann parameter. K. Flow Pattern of Two-Phase Flow Inside Cooled Tubes: A Generalized Form of Flow Pattern Map. m g gravitational acceleration. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE W O R K The analysis presented herein shows that the theoretical flow-pattern maps.. 1970. Fair. Proc. 105-123.. (7) Martinelli parameter. 9. A.. J. E. Further work is required to determine the effect that evaporating flow has on the transition mechanisms and 191 hence flow-pattern boundaries. 1968. 180.. Mech. and Zetzmann. K. Flow..E. In addition to the flow patterns at different flow conditions. Hewitt.Two-Phase Flow Patterns and Kenning [36] related these two different behaviors to a broad classification of intermittent two-phase flow and nonintermittent two-phase flow. under flow boiling conditions. based on adiabatic flow-pattern-transition mechanisms. This is encouraging for design engineers needing to predict the local flow patterns in industrial heat exchangers. The work carried out in the present paper demonstrates that the methods based on an adiabatic approach essentially perform satisfactorily in predicting the currently available evaporating flow data. J. NOMENCLATURE D diameter..A. The level of agreement between the nonadiabatic data with the flow-pattern models is similar to that found by McQuillan and Whalley [12] for their model. G. N. S. are adequate in predicting the flow patterns for evaporating flow. and Lacey. Istanbul. [(1 -. to investigate the effect of the rate of change of the developing flow. Among the empirical methods. given by Eq. local heat-transfer coefficients and pressure-drop measurements are required to determine how they are affected by the flow regimes. 1976. G. 5. or changes in the system pressure. 1965.surface tension. surface tension. F. Bennett. .. Eq. the normal mechanism for transition to annular flow is likely to be different.S. k g / m 3 o. The performances of all the theoretical models are comparable to one another. F. Annular Two Phase Flow..C. A. R. U. the paper also draws attention to the inadequacy of present methods in predicting the flow patterns judged from the thermal measurements. R. Turkey. NYO-3304-13. 2.. Keeys. and Bourne. m2/s p mass density. In general. 4. I. W. using the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter. N s / m z v kinematic viscosity. Part 3C. that if other phase absent) where i is 1 or g. H. bar /'i superficial velocity of a phase (i. latent heat.. Hewitt..81 m / s 2 m constant rh mass flux (mass velocity). (1) REFERENCES 1. P. PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE / USEFULNESS Empirical as well as theoretical methods for flow-pattern prediction are based on an adiabatic approach. What You Need to Design Thermosiphon Reboilers.. This is especially important because the present methods do not correctly predict the flow pattern as judged from the thermal measurements. m / s Xg quality of gas-phase mass flow fraction Greek Symbols % void fraction 7/ dynamic viscosity.. Pergamon Press. A question therefore is always asked about their validity for evaporating flow because it occurs in practical equipment such as reboilers of vaporizers. E. A. 3. G. They included slug and churn flow in the intermittent category and annular flow in the nonintermittent category. Petroleum Refiner 39(2).. Kearsey. Further information would be desirable for different systems. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Two-Phase Flow.e. More systematic experimental work is indeed necessary in this direction. 1960. Investigation of Boiling Flow Regimes and Critical Heat Flux.g. They showed that it was possible to predict the boiling data in the intermittent flow region by a slug flow heat-transfer model. M. (6)] used for the transition to annular flow. Visualisation Studies of Boiling at High Pressure. Wadekar and Kenning noted that transition from the intermittent and nonintermittent region as deduced from heat-transfer characteristics does not coincide with the standard adiabatic criteria [e. given by Eq. for example. [38] to perform as well as most other pressure drop correlations. and Hall-Taylor. Roos. that of Fair [5] can be recommended. kg/(m z s) p pressure. Vol. Mayinger. 5. C. N / m Subscripts c critical g gas phase (including vapor phase) 1 liquid phase Dimensionless numbers Fr* Xtt Z modified Froude number. Based on Investigations in Water and Freon. They have raised a possibility that. This is an area for further work and is discussed later. Report No. This authors gratefully acknowledge the permission given by the Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Service (HTFS) for publication of this work.. J. Although the agreement between the predictive methods and the observed data is satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS The empirical flow-pattern map of Fair [5]. with. with predominantly adiabatic data.. there was little difference in the reported level of agreement between the various models. August 16-27. to investigate the effect of the dominance of the nucleate boiling or convective mechanisms. F.

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