InternationalJournal ofMedicinal Mushrooms, Vol. 7, pp.

103-110 (2005)

Notes on Nutritional Properties of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms
Paul Stamets
Fungi Perfecti Research Laboratories, Kamilche Point, Washington, USA
Address all correspondence to Paul Stamets, Fungi Perfecti Research Laboratories, 50 S.E. Nelson Rd., Kamilche Point, WA 98584 USA; Stametsl@aol.com ABSTRACT: Increasingly, mushrooms are being investigated for their role as nutritional foods. However, few studies have been published on their nutritional profiles. The author grew and submitted 20 species for thorough nutritional profiling. In addition, the effect of sunlight on the production of vitamin D of indoor-grown mushroom while drying was explored with Lentinus eddoes (Berk.) Singer (shiitake mushroom), Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (reishi), and Grifolafrondosa (Dicks.:Fr.) S.F. Gray (maitake). Six to eight hours of sunlight exposure stimulated the production of vitamin D from low levels of 134,66, and 469 IU, respectively, to 46,000,2760, and 31,900 IU vitamin D, respectively. The most vitamin D was produced in Lentinus edodes, whose spore-producing lamellae were exposed to the sun. Dried mushrooms also elicited vitamin D production subsequent to sunlight exposure. Vitamin D is proven as essential for immune function and has now been identified as a major mitigating factor in many diseases, so the sunlight-activated biosynthesis of vitamin D from ergosterols within mushrooms has substantial implications for the mushroom industry in the context of worldwide health. KEYWORDS: medicinal mushrooms, nutrition. Food and Drug Administration, vitamin D, ergosterol, ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol. INTRODUCTION Healthy nutrition and diet are gaining importance, not only in the everyday life of human beings, but also in the treatment of chronic diseases. Doctors worldwide are recognizing that mushrooms are medicinal foods rich in nutrition. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has officially designated mushrooms as "healthy foods." The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is actively testing the effects of medicinal mushrooms—funding clinical studies using mushrooms in adjunct therapies and/or for treatments of patients afflicted with HIV, cancer. obesity, and neurological diseases. Few studies on the nutritional properties of diverse mushrooms have been published since Crisan and Sands (1978) (see Didukh et al., 2004). Because most fresh mushrooms are 90% water, nutritional analyses based on their dry weights are more useful when comparing them to other foods. Mushrooms are rich in protein, very low in simple carbohydrates, rich in high-molecularweight polysaccharides, high in antioxidants, and very low in fat. They lack cholesterol, vitamin A, or vitamin C. They are a good source of vitamin B complex—riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic

ABBREVIATIONS FDA: The Food and Drug Administration; HPLC: high-pressure liquid chromatography; IU: an International Unit for measuring vitamins; NIH: The National Institutes of Health; RDA: recommended daily allowance; UV: ultraviolet 1521-9437/05 $35.00 © 2005 by Begell House, Inc.

103

p. STAMETS

acid (B5)—ergosterols (provitamin D2), and minerals such as potassium, copper, and selenium. High in dietaryfiber,edible varieties range from 20% of dry mass for Agaricus species such as A. bisporus (button mushroom) to up to 50% in Pleurotus species such as the phoenix oyster (Beelman et al., 2003; Didukh et al., 2004). Mushrooms are good sources of essential minerals, especially selenium, copper, and potassium—elements important for immune function and for producing antioxidants that reduce free radicals. Mushrooms also contain numerous medicinal compounds such as triterpenoids, glycoproteins, natural antibiotics, enzymes, and enzyme inhibitors that fortify health. The protein content of mushrooms ranges from 3% for the tough, inedible Fomitopsis offidnalis (ViU.: Fr.) Bond, et Singer to 33,34, and 35% for Lentinus eddoes, Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai, and Agaricus bisporus, respectively. Mushrooms are rich in complex carbohydrates—heavy molecular weight polysaccharides. Our analyses show that P-glucans range from 8.9% in Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., to 14.5% in Grifola frondosa, and to 41% in Ganoderma lucidum. Fat content ranges from 0.3 to 4%, with polyunsaturated fats making up 10-30% of the total dry weight. A 20 g (dry) or 200 g (wet) serving of fresh Grifola frondosa, dried in the sun, provides approximately 75 calories and 5 g of protein. This serving has 0.8 g of fat, made up of about 70% linoleic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid, and up to 15% ergosterol. Such a serving provides the following percentages of the reference daily intakes or RDIs: 17% selenium, at least 30% vitamin D, 8% pantothenic acid, 87% niacin, 4% thiamine, and 464% potassium.This 2-handful serving provides 10% of the protein needed by a 140-pouad person or 8% needed by a 180-pound person. (See www.fda.gov/fdac/special/foodlabel/ rdichrt.html and http://lstholistic.com/Nutrition/ hol_nutr-SONA.htm.) The FDA states that if 20% of our daily nutritional needs are met by consuming a single serving of certain food, then that food is rated "excellent"; that food is "good" if a single serving supplies 10% ofyour needs. Given the FDA's definition of "healthy foods," mushrooms rank "good" to "excellent" in several categories of essential nutrients. Since mushrooms are
104

so versatile—they can be baked, boiled, broiled, or sauteed—they can incorporated into a wide array of recipes palatable to the public. Mushrooms producing enzymes and enzyme inhibitors are useful to medical practitioners and nutritionists composing menus customized for their patients. Suites of enzymes are secreted by the mycelium as extracellular metabolites. These enzymes—laccases, cellulases, lignin peroxidases, and manganese superoxide dismutases—are weU known for their power in decomposing plant fibers and environmental toxins (Sasek et al., 2001). Mushrooms also produce enzyme inhibitors. Chen et al. (1997) tested many foods for aromatase inhibitors and found several mushrooms with an especially high concentration of these substances, which interrupt the conversion of androgens to estrogens, significant for postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer. Similarly, some mushrooms inhibit 5 alphareductase, an enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydro testosterone, which stimulates growth of the prostate. Increases in 5 alpha-reductase are associated with the growth of prostate cancer. To AdXe.,Agaricus bisporus inhibits aromatase the most of about a dozen species tested (Grube et al., 2001; Chen, 2004). Western medical practitioners are starting to recommend mushrooms as preventive or adjunct therapies for fortifying health and dealing wdth several medical conditions. Mushrooms are appropriate in diets for treating obesity, adult-onset (non-insulin-dependent) type II diabetes, and immune disorders. Mushrooms are also some of the best sources of ergosterols, which are thought to inhibit angiogenesis, the proliferation of blood vessels supporting tumors. The biochemical pathway for creating ergosterol may have precursors that also limit carcinogenesis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The mushrooms featured in this study were grovim by the author according to the methods outlined in Stamets (2000).The mushrooms were grown indoors wdth minimum natural light exposure (~100 lux) diffused through polycarbonate skylights. Mushrooms, upon harvesting, were either dried indoors in darkInternational Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS

ness or, as indicated, exposed to sunlight from 10 AM to 4 PM between June and September at Fungi Perfecti Research Laboratories, coordinates N. 47.14970 & W. 123.03905. Once exposed to sunlight, fruiting bodies were harvested and dried indoors by commercial dyers or outside under summer sun. The products were then subjected to standardized HPLC analysis in conformity with the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (2000) 17th Ed., AOAC International, Gaithersburg,MD, USA, Official Metliod 982.29 (Modified) at Warren Analytical Laboratories, Greeley, Colorado.

Influences of Habitat on Mushroom Nutritional Content Even within a single mushroom species, nutrient and mineral levels can vary greatly, influenced by habitat and growing medium. For instance, specimens of a particular strain o£Pleurotus species grown on sawdust are 32% protein and have 89 mg/100 g of niacin; the same Pleurotus species grown on straw are 27% protein and 54 mg/100 g of niacin. Some mushrooms concentrate minerals more than others, depending on where they are cultivated. Beelman (2003), ofthe Nutrition Research Advisory Panel ofthe American Mushroom Institute, found that the region in which Agaricus bisporus are cultivated causes selenium content to vary. Crops originating from Texas and Oklahoma have significantly higher concentrations of selenium than samples from Florida and Pennsylvania. This subject is covered in much more extensive detail in a forthcoming publication (Stamets, 2005).

that some nutrients and active medicinal compounds degrade v^dth time. Some mushroom samples were up to 1 year in age before testing, stored at room temperature (20 °C), in a dark location. According to the USDA, 84 g of fresh, or about 8 g of dried, Agaricus bisporus constitutes a single serving. To simplify the math for the hungry mycophile, I rounded the daily serving to 100 g fresh. The following tables were created from the analyses of 100 g samples of (^nV^ mushrooms. Each nutrient is listed as a percentage of total mass. To examine the nutrients in a single daily dietary serving, simply divide each percentage by 10 to see how much nutrition a consumer would get from eating a serving of the listed species (Table 1).

Influence of Light Exposure on Vitamin D Content of Mushrooms Most gourmet and medicinal mushrooms, unlike button mushrooms, require light. Light exposure influences vitamin content in mushrooms, particularly the conversion of ergosterol to provitamin D2. In the human body, UV light transforms calciferol, but not ergosterol, into vitamin D. We conducted a series of experiments growdng a strain of shiitake on the same substrate under different light conditions and achieved some surprising results in vitamin D production. The mushrooms were then subjected to standardized HPLC analysis in conformity with the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (2000) 17th Ed., AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, Official Method 982.29 (Modified). Lentinus edodes that were grown and dried indoors had only 110 IU vitamin D. (IU is an International Unit for measuring vitamins; 1 IU of vitamin D is equal to 40 ng ofvitamin D). Freshly picked indoorgrovvTi shiitake mushrooms, when placed outdoors to dry in the sun, produced an astonishing 21,400 IU of vitamin D per 100 g. Mushrooms from the same strain, when grovm outdoors in sunlight and dried in the dark, produced only 1620 IU. When L. edodes were dried, gUls facing the sun, the vitamin D soared to the highest levels tested, 46,000 IU compared to 10,900 IU with gills down. Even more surprising 105

RESULTS

In order to find out the precise nutritional value of mushrooms grown on difFerent substrates, we sent a set of samples of our certified organic mushrooms to Warren Laboratories (http://www.warrenlab.coni/ associates.htm). The scope of our analyses exceeds the current FDA's food labeling requirements, since we identify some ingredients significant to the unique nutritional profiles of mushrooms that do not appear on the FDA's list of nutrients. Note

Volume 7, Issues 1&2, 2005

p. STAMETS

TABLE 1. Nutritional Profiles of Diverse Mushroom Species
Total unsaturated fat g/100 g Polyunsaturated fat g/100 g a Complex carbohydrates g/100 g Carbohydrate g/100 g r

Saturated fat g/100 g

Agaricus bisporus Portobello Agaricus bisporus Crimini Agaricus brasiliensis Brazilian "Blazei" Flammulina populicola Enokitake Ganoderma lucidum Reisbi Ganoderma oregonense Oregon Polypore Grifola frondosa Maitake Hericium erinaceus Lion's Mane Lentinus edodes Shiitake Pholiota nameko Nameko Pleurotus djamor Pink Oyster Pleurotus ostreatus Pearl Oyster P/eurotus ostreatus var. columbinus Blue Oyster Pleurotus pulmonarius Pboenix Oyster Pleurotus tuber-regium King Tuber Trametes versicolor Kamilche Turkey Tail

355

34.44

4

3.10

1.43

1.46

0.30

47.38

24.68

22.70

20.90

340

33.48

2.39

0.41

0.44

0.26

46.17

24.27

21.90

19.10

362

35.19

3.39

1.51

1.72

0.37

47.70

26.50

21.20

21.00

346

26.59

3.06

1.08

1.22

0.23

52.95

30.55

22.40

25.80

376

15.05

3.48

0.50

1.20

0.27

71.00

69.30

1.70

66.80

367

13.27

2.52

0.21

0.48

0.01

72.79

72.09

0.70

72.00

377

25.51

3.83

1.12

2.08

0.34

60.17

41.37

18.80

28.50

375

20.46

5.06

0.83

1.85

0.76

61.80

40.90

20.90

39.20

356

32.93

3.73

1.30

1.36

0.22

47.60

31.80

15.80

28.90

364

33.65

3.91

1.01

1.29

0.17

48.36

29.26

19.10

28.10

356

30.20

2.86

0.91

0.97

0.16

52.76

29.66

23.10

43.80

360

27.25

2.75

1.16

1.32

0.20

56.53

38.43

18.10

33.40

355

24.64

2.89

1.05

1.18

0.16

57.61

35.31

22.30

34.10

355

19.23

2.70

0.53

0.62

0.11

63.40

51.60

11.80

48.60

329

14.97

0.31

0.04

0.05

0.02

66.68

66.68

0.00

65.50

369

10.97

1.51

0.27

0.32

0.06

77.96

76.06

1.90

71.30

106

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

Dietary fiber g/100 g

Calories

Protein g/100 g

Fat g/100 g

Sugars g/100 g

NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS

Vitamin D #» • • iu/i00 9-li|Sf

Niacin (B3) is;;; ^' ••mg/IOOgSlifyt;-

Riboflavin (B2) ;* " mg/100 g

Vitamin ^'11*^' mg/100 9 ! i

••ila;^. •

Pantothenic Acid (B5) mg/100 g j

•'mg/100'g'iiip'':

Vitamin A ; IU/100g ,

. Copper-"|||>|I> mg/100 g |;

Cholesterol 1: mg/100 g •

Potassium mg/100 g f i j

Calcium ;< mg/lOO g ##

Thiamine (Bi) mg/100 g

Selenium mg/100 g

0

0

0.27

4.13

69.20

12.70

0

235

23

4.33

21 .

4500

0.415

0

0

0.23

3.49

38.50

21.70

0

26

9

20.8

48 .

4800

0.066

0

0

0.26

2.40

58.50

14.20

0

737

36

4.28

19 .

5200

0.35

0

0

0.35

1.69

60.60

10.90

0

113

14

0.61

83 .

3100

0.054

0

0

0.06

1.59

12.40

2.70

0

66

37

13 .

13

760

0.014

0

0

0.20

1.49

20.90

2.10

0

32

18

11 .

43 .

850

0.039

0

0

0.25

2.61

64.80

4.40

0

460

31

1.88

76 .

2300

0.056

0

0

0.16

2.26

11.80

7.40

0

57

8

1.66

6

2700

0.091

0

0

0.25

2.30

20.40

11.60

0

110

23

1.23

55 .

2700

0.076

0

0

0.28

3.06

106.00

17.50

0

38

18

16 .

16

2500

0.103

0

0

0.26

2.45

65.80

33.20

0

136

5

1.61

11

4600

0.175

0

0

0.16

2.04

54.30

12.30

0

116

20

1.69

91 .

2700

0.035

0

0

0.16

2.14

48.30

13.70

0

214

3

1.19

52 .

4400

0.083

0

0

0.10

1.68

23.80

8.80

0

178

9

1.03

65 .

2600

0.09

0

0

0.07

0.65

7.30

3.20

0

65

12

0.13

35 .

500

0.092

0

0

0.07

1.06

9.30

1.70

0

62

34

0.65

87 .

570

0.007

Volume 7, Issues 1 &2, 2005

Sodium ; : mg/100 g 52 3 43 19 6

Iron

2

14

4

18

4

13

48

31

16

2

6

107

p. STAMETS

TABLE 2. Influence of Sunlight on Vitamin D Content in Medicinal Mushrooms Species Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake {Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake {Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Shiitake (Lentinus edodes)
Reishi

Form Fruitbodies Fruitbodies Fruitbodies Fruitbodies Fruitbodies Fruitbodies Fruitbodies Stem butts

Substrate Sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust Rice Rice Supplemented Sawdust Supplemented Sawdust Supplemented sawdust Supplemented sawdust

Growth and drying conditions Grown in dark, dried in dryer Grown in dark, dried in dryer Normal growth conditions, filtered light, dried in dryer Normal growth conditions, filtered light, sun dried Sun grown (fruiting from composted kit), dried inside Normal growth conditions, filtered light, sun dried gills down Normal growth conditions, filtered light, sun dried gills up Normal growth conditions, filtered light, dried in dryer, ground into powder, no sun exposure Normal growth conditions, filtered light, dried in dryer, ground into powder, 6-8 hours sun exposure Grown inside, freeze dried, no sun exposure Grown inside, freeze dried, 6-8 hours sun exposure Normal growth conditions, filtered light, dried in dryer, no sun exposure Normal growth conditions, filtered light, dried in dryer, 6-8 hours of sun exposure Normal growth conditions, filtered light, dried in dryer, no sun exposure Normal growth conditions, filtered light, dried in dryer 6-8 hours of sun exposure

Vitandin D content (lU/IOOg) 134 15 110 21,400 1,620 10,900 46,000 137

Stem butts

939

Mycelium Mycelium Fruitbodies

<20 <20 66

(Ganoderma lucidum)
Reishi

Fruitbodies

2,760

(Ganoderma lucidum) Maitake (Grifola frondosa) Maitake (Grifola frondosa) Fruitbodies Fruitbodies

460 31,900

to this author was that Grifo/afrondosa, after being grown indoors in filtered light and dried indoors in the dark, produced 31,900 IU vitamin D upon sun exposure from an ambient level of 460 IU (Table 2). The implications are that vitamin D could be regulated by the controlled exposure of dried mushrooms to sunlight. Similarly, overproduction of vitamin D could become a health concern if too many vitaminD enriched mushrooms are consumed. Mau et al. (1998) also showed that outdoor-grown Lentinus edodes contained 5 7 times more vitamin —
108

D than the indoor-grown variety, and that shiitakes grown in latitudes closer to the equator naturally had more vitamin D than those grown in northern regions. In this study, artificial UV exposure from a germicidal lamp for only 1 minute tripled concentrations, with a corresponding decrease in ergosterols. However, exposure to UV for 2 hours decreased vitamin D by 12%, because the radiation began breaking down the vitamin. Perera et al. (2003) determined that vitamin D production is most concentrated in the gills of Z,. edodes, with half as much in the caps,

Intemational Joumal of Medicinal Mushrooms

NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES OF CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS

and a third as much in the stems. Efficiency in converting ergosterol to vitamin D was optimized when mushrooms were at 70% moisture. Earlier in human history, we got our vitamin D from chemical processes in our skin triggered by exposure to sunlight. As our ancestors migrated from areas near the equator to regions with shorter days and colder areas where we wore more UV-blocking clothing, our bodies produced less vitamin D. One well-known disease from vitamin D deficiency is rickets, which affiicts mosdy children; another effect is decreased bone density. (The FDA dietary labeling guidelines for recommended daily intake (RDI) ofvitamin D is 400 IUs ofvitamin D, equivalent to 10 |ig. Up to 1000 IUs of vitamin D may be helpful for immune support). (Raloff, 2004). Vitamin D deficiency may be a cofactor in the growth ofbreast, prostate, and colon cancers and some immune disorders. Mushrooms, particularly Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor, have been

the subject of research papers addressing these specific cancers. Logically, all research on animals using medicinal mushrooms should take into consideration the infiuence of the vitamin D inherent within the mushrooms being used for the study. Sunlight drives vitamin D synthesis in fiingi, fish, plankton, reptiles, and mammals. There are two distinct pathways for synthesizing vitamin D. In fungi, short-wave ultraviolet light (UVB) converts ergosterols to provitamin D, called D2 or ergocalciferol. In parts of the world where vitamin D deficiencies are common, eating fresh shiitake exposed to sunlight may boost vitamin D levels and mitigate deficiency-related diseases. Another form of vitamin D is vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol, which is manufactured from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the human skin during sun exposure. In summertime, a young Caucasian person's body can make 10,000 IUs after 30 minutes of sun exposure. Our body protects itself from excess vitamin D production through the activities of the parathyroid gland. If too much vitamin D is consumed, then a reverse pathway denatures vitamin D. In the process, calcium and phosphorus, whose intake had been enabled by vitamin D, are now eliminated from the body. In the event of a severe vitamin D overdose, damaged bone density and blood chemistry could

result as calcium and phosphorus levels plummet, and in extreme cases can be life threatening. TKis bidirectionality of vitamin D regulation points to the importance of knowing how much to consume, and how much sunlight you need. Other factors afiFecting the nutritional impact of ingesting mushrooms include heat treatment, particle size, and carriers. Uncooked mushrooms are difficult to digest, and upon tenderizing through cooking, the tough skeletal cells soften, rendering a form more readily assimilated by human digestion. Whole mushrooms eaten raw pass largely undigested through the human intestines, imparting little if any nutritional value. Reducing particle size in combination with thorough cooking increasing absorbability, although some vitamins, particularly vitamins B, degrade with exposure to higher temperatures. As research studies mature, mushrooms move to the forefront of foods with powerfiil properties usefiil for nutritionists and doctors as they design diets for patients.ihe quality of mushrooms is a reflection of the environment in which they are grown and how they are handled subsequent to harvest. Mushrooms from polluted lands, whether from Asia, Europe or the US, concentrate heavy metals, and in some cases (as with cadmium, mercury, cesium) with spectacular efficiency. Other variables, including sunlight exposure, drastically influence vitamin D content. Such variables mean that a shiitake grown outdoors in Asia may be quantitatively different in its nutritional profile than a mushroom grown indoors in the United States, although they may look the same. Furthermore, dried mushrooms low in vitamin D can be used as a source for producing substantial amounts of vitamin D by exposing them to a few hours of sunlight, a simple technique that could help lessen cancer rates and alleviate osteoporosis-related illnesses throughout the world.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author thanks the employees of Fungi Perfecti Research Laboratories, particularly Damein Pack, Steve Cividanes,James Gouin,Bulmaro Solano,and Dusty Yao, for their assistance. 109

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REFERENCES
Beelman R. 2003. Executive summary. Nutritional Research Advisory Panel Meeting, September 17. 2003. Mushroom Council, American Mushroom Institute, Washington, D.C. Beelman R. B., Royse D. L., and Chikthimmah N. 2003. Bioactive components in button mushroom^^ancics bisporus (J.Lge) Imbach (Agaricomycetideae) of nutritional, medicinal, and biological importance (review). Int J Med Mushr, S, 321-337. Crisan E. V. and Sands A. 1978. Nutritional value. In: The Biology and Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms. Chang S.T. and Hayes W.A., eds. Academic Press, New York, pp. 137-168. Chen S., Kao Y. C , and Laugthon A. 1997. Binding characteristics of aromatase inhibitors and phytoestrogens to human ziomatase. J Steroid Biocbim Mo/Biol, 61,107-115. Chen S. 2004. Personal communication. Didukh M. Ya., Wasser S. P., and Nevo E. 2004. Impact of the family Agaricaceae (Fr.) Cohn on nutrition and medicine. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.-G., RuggeU, 205 pp. Grube B. J., Eng E. T, Kao C , Kwon A., and Chen S.

2001. White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell Yiv6MtrMion.J Nutrition, 131,3288-3293. Mau J. L., Chen R R., and Yang J. H. 1998. Ultraviolet irradiation increased vitamin D2 content in edible mushrooms./^^ff Food Cbem 46,5269-5272. Perera C. O., Jasinghe V. J., Ng F. L., and Mujumdar A. S. 2003. The effect of moisture content on the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D in shiitake mushrooms. Drying Tecbno/, 21,1091-1099. Plotnikoff G. 2004. Personal communication. RaloffJ. 2004. Vitamin D: what's enough? Science, 166, 248-249. Sasek V., CajthamlT, and Bhatt M. 2001. Use of fungal technology in soU remediation: a case study. Water Air Soi/Po//ut Focus, 3,5-14. Stamets P. 2000. Growing Gourmet & Medicinal Mushrooms. 3 ed. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. 574 pp. Stamets R 2005. Mycelium Running. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA, in press. Stamets P. and Yao D. 2002. MycoMedicinals: an informational booklet on the medicinal properties of mushrooms. Mycomedia Productions, Fungi Perfecti, Olympia, Washington, 96 pp.

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