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Summer Training in: Quality
Needles Private Limited A-8, Sector-57, Noida
Table of Content
Executive summary Serial no. 1.0 Methodology 1.1 Product Development 1.2 Characteristics of Product development 1.3 Description of Product to be Studied 2.0 Needle Bending Machine 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Basic Design 2.3 Use 2.4 Parts of The machine 2.4 Bill Of Material 2.5 Processes Involved
2.6 Operations On Lathe 2.7 Operations on milling machine 2.8 Operations on Grinding Machine 3.1 Conclusion 3.2 References
including Eyed Needles to IS – 9165:1992 of the Bureau of Indian Standards. (QN) was incorporated in 1983 and commenced production about 2 years later. S a l e s m a n a l w a ys h a v e t o f o l l o w u p t h e e x i s t i n g c u s t o m e r a l w a y s h a v e t o t a k e c a r e customer.To prepare this report I mostly depend on the experience and. needles conforming to the German (draft) standard DIN:13170 and U. QN also manufactures special needles including sternotomy needles.500 sq. its production range covers a very wide range of products and some 2. . extending from the smallest microneedles for ophthalmic surgery to the largest post mortem needles. Quality Needles Pvt.m. Typically. The Product Quality Needles manufactures a complete range of needles. Starting from a small factory shed of about 100 sq. r e l a t e d p u b l i c a t i o n a n d m a n y m o r e . Ltd. is certified as a ISO 13485/ISO 9001 from DNV Norway and manufactures needles to whatever specifications the customer may specify. with a covered area housing the offices and manufacturing facilities of around 2. Cardiovascular Needles. a d v e r t i s i n g . cruciate needles etc.Executive Summary Importance of New Product Development in a Country is increasing day By day for providing quality product with punctuality at affordable price and always maintains delivery schedule according to buyer‟s requirement. Premium point Needles for plastic surgery. Sale executive solve it .000 different types and sizes of needles for a large number of diverse customers located all over the world are produced every year. temporary cardiac pacing leads. B a s e d o n t h i s information we prepare this qualitative report based on observation for providing insights of the report topic. the Company manufacturers approx. Sometimes customer focuses various kinds of problem.4031 and maraging grade steel to AISI 455 & AISI 470. The Company has specialized in the manufacture of surgical suture needles and is thus a „single product‟ company in a way. area.200 sq.S. Atraumatic needles are manufactured both of drilled-end and channel type. Primary data are collected from the direct observation. All needles manufactured are subjected to a rigid Quality Assurance protocol. 40 million needles per year. Ltd. Secondary data are collect from t h e c o m p a n y i n s i g h t . About the Company Quality Needles Pvt. secondary data beside this. However.m. We also use primary data are originated by the quantitative research. and are made from stainless steel to AISI 420 / Werkstoffnummer 1. veterinary needles for animal surgery. it has grown steadily over the years and now stands on a total land area of around 3. Federal Specification GGN 211 b.m.
All needle points are honed to ensure the highest standards of sharpness.The grade of steel used is martensitic grade of stainless to German specification Werkstoff nr. The selection of this grade is as per international practice for manufacture of superior quality suture needles. JIS: SUS 420 J2 or AISI: 420. Close control of the metallurgical properties is achieved by hardening the needles in a controlled atmosphere muffle furnace. This reduces tissue drag to a minimum during the suturing operation. either from UK. USA or Japan. The composition is further restricted to ensure better hardenability and corrosion resistance of the needles. Needles are siliconised if so specified by the customer. which ensures adequate stiffness while eliminating brittleness. The steel wire is imported from some of the world‟s best manufacturers. 1. . The hardness is controlled to VPN 525 – 625. equivalent to BS: EN 56D.4031. followed by tempering in a re-circulating type furnace. The needles are polished to remove micro-asperities on the surface by a series of mechanical operations followed by electro-polishing.
Idea Generation . A product is a set of benefits offered for exchange and can be tangible (that is. In business and engineering. evaluation. and marketing of new products. According to the PDMA. the organization's mission is "to improve the effectiveness of people engaged in developing and managing new products . or formulation of an entirely new product that satisfies a newly defined customer want or market niche. This mission includes facilitating the generation of new information. It is a cycle by means of which an innovative firm routinely converts ideas into commercially viable goods or services. product development (PD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a product to market. organization. experience." System ofdefinedstepsand tasks suchas strategy. the other involves market research and marketing analysis. Product development is a broad field of endeavor dealing with the design. something physical you can touch) or intangible (like a service. marketing plan creation. and making this new knowledge broadly available to those who might benefit from it.both new manufactured goods and new services. 1. or belief). creation. There are two parallel paths involved in the PD process: one involves the idea generation. concept generation. and commercialization of a new product.Product development Definition The creation of products with new or different characteristics that offer new or additional benefits to the customer. the discipline is focused on developing systematic methods for guiding all the processes involved in getting a new product to market. such as the Product Development and Management Association (PDMA) and the Product Development Institute (PDI). There are a number of organizations dedicated to supporting product development professionals. Sometimes referred to as new product development (NPD). Companies typically see new product development as the first stage in generating and commercializing new products within the overall strategic process of product life cycle management used to maintain or grow their market share. helping convert this information into knowledge which is in a usable format. Product development may involve modification of an existing product or its presentation. product design and detail engineering.
corporate spies. Lots of ideas are being generated about the new product. salespeople. 2. or store concepts .Weaknesses. . Out of these ideas many ideas are being implemented. or ethnographic discovery methods (searching for user patterns and habits) may also be used to get an insight into new product lines or product features. service. company's R&Ddepartment. Opportunities & Threats). focus groups. employees.is often called the "fuzzy front end" of the PD process Ideas for new products can be obtained from basic research using a SWOT analysis (Strengths .idea generation techniques can begin when you have done your OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS to support your ideas in the Idea Screening Phase Concept Development and Testing Develop the marketing and engineering details Investigate intellectual property issues and search patent data bases Who is the target market and who is the decision maker in the purchasinprocess? What product features must the product incorporate? What benefits will the product provide? How will consumers react to the product? How will the product be produced most cost effectively? Prove feasibility through virtual computer aided rendering and rapid prototyping What will it cost to produce it? Testing the Concept by asking a number of prospective customers what they think of the idea usually via Choice Modelling.Idea Generation Brainstorming of new product. competitors. Market and consumer trends. Many reasons are responsible for generation of an idea. trade shows. The ideas use to generate in many forms and their generating places are also various.
what-if planning Commercialization (often considered post-PD) Launch the product .Business Analysis Estimate likely selling price based upon competition and customer feedback Estimate sales volume based upon size of market and such tools as the Fourt-Woodlock equation Estimate profitability and break-even point Beta Testing and Market Testing Produce a physical prototype or mock-up Test the product (and its packaging) in typical usage situations Conduct focus group customer interviews or introduce at trade show Make adjustments where necessary Produce an initial run of the product and sell it in a test market area to determine customer acceptance Technical Implementation New program initiation Finalize Quality management system Resource estimation Requirement publication Publish technical communications such as data sheets Engineering operations planning Department scheduling Supplier collaboration Logistics plan Resource plan publication Program review and monitoring Contingencies .
The team is responsible for all aspects of the project. development research is typically expensive and product life cycles are relatively short. For the more innovative products indicated on the diagram above. revenue. In this case. and profit These steps may be iterated as needed. value and need) Product Costs (fixed & variable) Forecast of unit volumes. a more flexible approach may be advisable. great amounts of uncertainty and change may exist which makes it difficult or impossible to plan the complete project before starting it. many companies are completing several steps at the same time (referred to as concurrent engineering or time to market). and they usually report to senior management (often to a vice president or Program Manager). provide access to a wider skill set and speeds up the overall process. To reduce the time that the PD process takes. Produce and place advertisements and other promotions Fill the distribution pipeline with product Critical path analysis is most useful at this stage Product Pricing Impact of product on the entire product portfolio Value Analysis (internal & external) Competition and alternative competitive technologies Differing value segments (price. Many industry leaders see new product development as an ongoing process (referred to as continuous development) in which the entire organization is always looking for opportunities. from initial idea generation to final commercialization. . Because the PD process typically requires both engineering and marketing expertise. In those industries where products are technically complex. strategic alliances among several organizations helps to spread the costs. Most industry leaders see new product development as a proactive process where resources are allocated to identify market changes and seize upon new product opportunities before they occur (in contrast to a reactive strategy in which nothing is done until problems occur or the competitor introduces an innovation). crossfunctional teams are a common way of organizing projects. Some steps may be eliminated.
Nurture a project culture.. The Fuzzy Front End ends when an organization approves and begins formal development of the concept. A new product pricing process is important to reduce risk and increase confidence in the pricing and marketing decisions to be made. money. Bernstein and Macias describe an integrated process that breaks down the complex task of new product pricing into manageable elements. thus setting the course for the entire project and final end product. Ullman references below. The adoption of a new technology can be analyzed using a variety of diffusion theories such as the Diffusion of Innovations theory. and the product‟s nature.” and its cycle time should be included in the total development cycle time. It is the phase between first consideration of an opportunity and when it is judged ready to enter the structured development process (Kim and Wilemon. notice that because both engineering and marketing expertise are usually critical to the process. People respond to new products in different ways. 2002 Koen et al. Opportunity Identification Opportunity Analysis Idea Genesis Idea Selection Concept and Technology Development . Observe that this article is slanted more toward the marketing side. choosing an appropriate blend of the two is important. it can consume 50% of development time and it is where major commitments are typically made involving time.It includes all activities from the search for new opportunities through the formation of a germ of an idea to the development of a precise concept. Consequently. Although the Fuzzy Front End may not be an expensive part of product development. The Fuzzy Front End is the messy "getting ended" period of new product engineering development processes. The Path to Developing Successful New Products points out three key processes that can play critical role in product development: Talk to the customer. 2001).Also. this phase should be considered as an essential part of development rather than something that happens “before development. It is in the front end where the organization formulates a concept of the product to be developed and decides whether or not to invest resources in the further development of an idea. For more of an engineering slant. Keep it focused. see the Ulrich and Eppinger.
investment requirements.. These activities are often chaotic.. Here extensive efforts may be made to align ideas to target customer groups and do market studies and/or technical trials and research. "Phase 0". Cooper and Edgett (2008) affirm that vital predevelopment activities include: Preliminary market assessment Technical assessment . concept generation. and. During this part of the front-end. In comparison. The process of the idea genesis can be made internally or come from outside inputs. especially. It is done to translate the identified opportunities into implications for the business and technology specific context of the company.Cooper (1988) describes the early stages of NPPD as a four step process in which ideas are generated (I). it is mentioned that the Fuzzy Front End generally consists of three tasks: strategic planning.e. e. which then lead to a structured NPPD (New Product & Process Development) strategy. The third element is the idea genesis. resources will eventually be allocated to new projects.. subjected to a preliminary technical and market assessment (II) and merged to coherent product concepts (III) which are finally judged for their fit with existing product strategies and portfolios (IV).In a glossary of PDMA. Stage 0). R. The term Fuzzy Front End was first popularized by Smith and Reinertsen (1991). Using the guidelines established here. the business case is developed based on estimates of the total available market.The first element is the opportunity identification.G.. The second element is the opportunity analysis. The fifth element is the concept and technology development. the subsequent new product development process is typically structured. unpredictable. which is described as evolutionary and iterative process progressing from birth to maturation of the opportunity into a tangible idea. and formal. pre-technical evaluation. The Fuzzy Front End is also described in literature as "Front End of Innovation". Some organizations consider this to be the first stage of the NPPD process (i. customer needs. In a more recent paper. "Stage 0" or "Pre-Project-Activities".g. Its purpose is to choose whether to pursue an idea by analyzing its potential business value. a supplier offering a new material/technology or from a customer with an unusual request. predictable. competition analysis and project uncertainty. A universally acceptable definition for Fuzzy Front End or a dominant framework has not been developed so far. The fourth element is the idea selection. and unstructured. In this element. large or incremental business and technological chances are identified in a more or less structured way.
This model is structured in three phases and three gates: . In the in-depth study by Khurana and Rosenthal front-end activities include: product strategy formulation and communication opportunity identification and assessment idea generation product definition project planning executive reviews Economical analysis. benchmarking of competitive products and modeling and prototyping are also important activities during the front-end activities. The outcomes of FFE are the mission statement customer needs details of the selected concept product definition and specifications economic analysis of the product the development schedule project staffing and the budget a business plan aligned with corporate strategy In a paper by Husig. Kohn and Huskela (2005) a conceptual model of Front-End Process was proposed which includes early Phases of Innovation Process. VoC (voice of the customer) research Product concept testing Value-to-the customer assessment Product definition Business and financial analysis These activities yield vital information to make a Go/No-Go to Development decision. Source-of-supply-assessment: suppliers and partners or alliances Market research: market size and segmentation analysis.
Go/No-Go for development The final gate leads to a dedicated new product development project. improvements to existing product lines. The traditional Stage Gate (TM) process was designed for incremental product development. and uncertainty) make it difficult to see the FFE as a structured process. Idea evaluation 3. platform and breakthrough products are. project or concept definition. ambiguity. additions to existing platforms and repositioning of existing products introduced in markets. [ Breakthrough products are new to the company or new to the world and offer a 5-10 times or greater improvement in performance combined with a 30-50% or greater reduction in costs. Opportunity screening 2.g. Incremental products are considered to be cost reductions. However. 2005  argue that front-end not need to be fuzzy. but are associated with technologies which require new discoveries. namely for a single product. Platform products establish a basic architecture for a next generation product or process and are substantially larger in scope and resources than incremental projects . Peter Koen argues that in the FFE for incremental. platform and radical projects. The FFE for developing a new platform must start out with a strategic vision of where the company wants to develop products and this will lead to a family of products. Kim and Wilemon. 2002).. The gates are: 1. Phase 3: Detailed product.but rather as a set of interdependent activities ( e. Many professionals and academics consider that the general features of Fuzzy Front End (fuzziness. Husig et al. three separate strategies and processes are typically involved. Phase 2: Preliminary definition of an idea or concept. but can be handled in a structured manner. It is worth mentioning what incremental.Phase 1: Environmental screening or opportunity identification stage in which external changes will be analysed and translated into potential business opportunities. Projects for breakthrough products start out with a similar strategic vision. and Business planning.
STEP 2. Market research. or the invention of innovative new products. Performance research leads to product improvements for competitive markets. on existing prototypes or markets. DESIGN .PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS STEPS STEP 1. leads toward new products or upgrades that meet consumer desires. This step leads directly to the parameters and concepts that govern the design step. RESEARCH Research can be market research or performance research.
This sets the goal for the appearance and performance of the product. Final Design The Final design step is concerned with making the concept manufacturable. It determines the overall geometry and performance of the product. In that case the design process is a single step. or sub-steps. DESIGN ANALYSES . Preliminary and Final Design. Sometimes a product is composed of one or a few individual parts. then it is useful to break the design process into two parts. or concepts. The result becomes the framework to organize and direct a detailed. It specifies everything needed to govern production. This results in a complete Bill of Material. The preliminary design is an 'overall' step. CAD files and plans to source and assemble. with less concern about how to manufacture. Preliminary Design: If the product is considerably more than a single part made on one machine. final design.The Design Step carries a concept to a finished set of drawings or other media that govern how to build a physical prototype. As the number of pieces or components in a product grows. such as a typical bicycle with hundreds of parts. This step may result in multiple approaches. then a preliminary design step is useful. that compete mostly on overall appearance. It considers everything on a part level. drawings.
such as the finite element analysis above (Glidecycle rear fork). This step lowers the cost and performance risks associated with prototype and STEP 4. like fit or strength or weight. These verify peformance. TESTING (PRE-PRODUCTION PROTOTYPES) . prior to building a physical prototype.Analyses. are performed on a design prior to prototyping and testing.
Note: After first articles are received from production. Pre-production testing also includes any documented test methods and standards that may exist for the product type. they are addressed both in instructional literature and product specific warning labels. The goal of the hazard analysis is to identify any potential safety issues that may be presented by the product. STEP 5. This step is very similar to the Research step. HAZARD ANALYSIS The Hazard Analysis is conducted throughout the development process.Testing of the final 'production-like' prototype is performed to ensure that the performance is met prior to moving the product into production. It is finalized before the product is in production. These tests would be repeated for production articles. In consumer products/child products. Testing prototypes lowers the risk of non-compliance with deliverable items. MANUFACTURE AND RELEASE . If not. the issues are addressed by design. Testing of the prototype performance maybe be both market analysis. as well as use-testing. STEP 6. this step requires a third party test lab certified by CPSC. quality assurance testing is done to ensure and document compliance with established regulations and standard. If possible.
the other involves market research and marketing analysis. Idea Screening: The object is to eliminate unsound concepts prior to devoting resources to them. Addtionally. or through a policy of Open Innovation. employees. For an in-house manufacture. Concept Development and Testing: Develop the marketing and engineering details and test the concept by asking a sample of prospective customers what they think of the idea . The most expensive part of a new product development is the capital for of the production process required to make it.not always followed in order: 1. trade shows. There are two parallel paths involved in the NPD process : one involves the idea generation. focus groups. customer responses from use may also point to ways to improve product performance. competitors. As long as a product remains in the market. often times the improvement points toward changes in product components.. and detail engineering . Will the product be profitable when manufactured and delivered to the customer at the target price? 3. Idea Generation: Ideas for new products can be obtained from customers (employing user innovation). new product development (NPD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. 2.The final part of the development process is placing the product into production. the company's R&D department. the Product Development Process remains open. The screeners must ask at least three questions: Will the customer in the target market benefit from the product?. The manufacturing process is one that can always find improvement. this includes a product assembly plan. In business and engineering.. product design. There are several stages in the new product development process. salespeople. corporate spies. Companies typically see new product development as the first stage in generating and commercializing new products within the overall strategic process of product life cycle management used to maintain or grow their market share. Is it technically feasible to manufacture the product?.
screening may be done in rounds with the first round involving company executives judging the feasibility of ideas while successive rounds may utilize more advanced research techniques. Test the product (and its packaging) in typical usage situations. The dynamic nature of group members floating ideas. estimate sales volume based upon size of market and estimate profitability and breakeven point. SCREENING In Step 2 the ideas generated in Step 1 are critically evaluated by company personnel to isolate the most attractive options. IDEA GENERATION The first step of new product development requires gathering ideas to be evaluated as potential product options. creative thinkers from inside and outside the company gather and share ideas. and gaining insight on competitive product developments through secondary data sources. Critical path analysis is mos Step 1. and the company‟s sales force. As the ideas are whittled down to a few attractive options. Beta Testing and Market Testing: Produce a physical prototype or mock-up. where one idea often sparks another idea. One important research technique used to generate ideas is brainstorming where open-minded. Produce an initial run of the product and sell it in a test market area to determine customer acceptance 6. Commercialization: Launch the product. 5. For many companies idea generation is an ongoing process with contributions from inside and outside the organization.4. Technical Implementation: Involves managerial planning and focusing on feedback. Fill the distribution pipeline with product. rough estimates are made of an idea‟s potential in terms of . channel members. encouraging customer comments and suggestions via toll-free telephone numbers and website forms. Make necessary adjustments to ensure product is ready for launch 7. Many market research techniques are used to encourage ideas including: running focus groups with consumers. Step 2. Make adjustments where necessary. Conduct focus group customer interviews or introduce at trade show. Produce and place advertisements and other promotions. Depending on the number of ideas. Business Analysis: Estimate likely selling price based upon competition and customer feedback. can yield a wide range of possible products that can be further pursued.
focus groups are convened where the ideas are presented to a group. level of interest in purchasing the product. PRODUCT AND MARKETING MIX DEVELOPMENT Ideas passing through business analysis are given serious consideration for development.. and competitors‟ response if the product is introduced..g. production costs) and financial projections (e. and competitor analysis. frequency of purchase (used to help forecast demand). customers may be shown a concept board displaying drawings of a product idea or even an advertisement featuring the product. BUSINESS ANALYSIS At this point in the new product development process the marketer has reduced a potentially large number of ideas down to one or two options. unlike the concept testing stage where customers were only exposed to the idea.). production costs. Step 5. in this step the customer gets to experience the real product as well as other aspects of the marketing mix. direct from company. operational costs (e. Acceptable ideas move on to the next step. the organization must determine if the product will fit within the company‟s overall mission and strategy. and price points to determine how much customers are willing to spend . Now in Step 4 the process becomes very dependent on market research as efforts are made to analyze the viability of the product ideas. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING With a few ideas in hand the marketer now attempts to obtain initial feedback from customers. which is a physical but generally non-functional version of product idea. storyboards) and not in actual working form. etc. Once the prototype is ready the marketer seeks customer input. (Note. Additionally. in many cases the product has not been produced and still remains only an idea. Favorable customer reaction helps solidify the marketer‟s decision to introduce the product and also provides other valuable information such as estimated purchase rates and understanding how the product will be used by the customer. However.. such as advertising. Step 3. often in the form of concept board presentations (i.g. retail store.g. pricing.) The key objective at this stage is to obtain useful forecasts of market size (e. secondary research. and external marketing research. such as discussions with production and purchasing personnel. profit potential.g. Companies direct their research and development teams to construct an initial design or prototype of the idea. Step 4. distributors and its own employees. Reaction that is less favorable may suggest the need for adjustments to elements of the marketing mix.. Marketers also begin to construct a marketing plan for the product. and distribution options (e. overall demand). such as customer and distributor surveys. In some cases focus groups are exposed to a mock-up of the ideas. For instance. During focus groups with customers the marketer seeks information that may include: likes and dislike of the concept.sales.. Much effort is directed at both internal research. Once these are made the marketer may again have the customer test the . sales and profits). Generally.e.
and also obtains constant shape in the bending process. Finally. This is an equipment to adjust angle of probe card‟s pin. this step is used to gauge the feasibility of large-scale. It adjusts bending angle and end length of the pin depending on user‟s requirement. Some firms introduce or roll-out the product in waves with parts of the market receiving the product on different schedules. Step 7.product. In addition. But other companies may seek more input from a larger group before moving to commercialization. With computer simulations customers may not be directly involved at all. In more controlled test markets distributors may be paid a fee if they agree to place the product on their shelves to allow for testing..g. In addition to gaining customer feedback. therefore responds to various pin products. is designed to bend probe card pin by proper angle. . COMMERCIALIZATION If market testing displays promising results the product is ready to be introduced to a wider market. In some cases. which is exposed to the full marketing effort as they would be to any product they could purchase. In some cases the marketer accepts what was learned from concept testing and skips over market testing to launch the idea as a fully marketed product. cost effective production for manufactured products. This allows the company to ramp up production in a more controlled way and to fine tune the marketing mix as the product is distributed to new areas. Product to be studied The product under consideration is The Needle Bending machine. one city). Instead certain variables are entered into a sophisticated computer program and estimates of a target market‟s response are calculated. especially with consumer products sold at retail stores. Step 6. Needle Bending Machine. such as a store. Another form of market testing found with consumer products is even more controlled with customers recruited to a “laboratory” store where they are given shopping instructions. reading the numbers of pin bending from a counter mounted is available. Product interest can then be measured based on customer‟s shopping response. NBM series. With virtual reality testing customers are exposed to a computer-projected environment. The most common type of market testing makes the product available to a selective small segment of the target market (e. and are asked to locate and select products. MARKET TESTING Products surviving to Step 6 are ready to be tested as real products. the marketer must work hard to get the product into the test market by convincing distributors to agree to purchase and place the product on their store shelves. there are several high-tech approaches to market testing including virtual reality and computer simulations. and it minimizes failure rate by high quality bending process.
as they are built (manufacturing bill of materials). At present this BOM is used as a data base to identify the many parts and their codes in automobile manufacturing companies. components. the BOM is also known as the formula. or ingredients list. Once the design of the circuit is completed. sub-components. A bill of materials "implosion" links component pieces to a major assembly. parts and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end product. BOMs are hierarchical in nature with the top level representing the finished product which may be a sub-assembly or a completed item. the BOM list is passed on to the PCB layout engineer as well as component engineer who will procure the components required for the design. Line. BOMs that describe the sub-assemblies are referred to as modular BOMs. intermediate assemblies. An example of this is the NAAMS BOM that is used in the automotive industry to list all the components in an assembly line. Tool. . or confined to a single manufacturing plant. In process industries. The different types of BOMs depend on the business need and use for which they are intended.recipe. Unit and Detail. while a bill of materials "explosion" breaks apart each assembly or sub-assembly into its component parts. subassemblies. The first hierarchical databases were developed for automating bills of materials for manufacturing organizations in the early 1960s. It may be used for communication between manufacturing partners. A BOM can define products as they are designed (engineering bill of materials). In electronics. as they are ordered (sales bill of materials). or as they are maintained (service bill of materials). No physical dimension is described in a BOM.Features Minimal size Easy to adjust length and bending angle of probe pin Counter function included Easy to use Failure rate minimized Specification Bill Of Material: A bill of materials (sometimes bill of material or BOM) is a list of the raw materials. The structure of the NAAMS BOM is System. the BOM represents the list of components used on the printed wiring board or printed circuit board.
Assembler. A software component in this context is not only software. By storing the global hashcode together with sufficient access methods on the device itself provides methods for device selfvalidation and component identification. nor a digital signature of valid component combination. system configuration parameters. like: digital reference images. In order being able to report and to identify any component combination a global hashcode will be calculated out of all components which do compose the final binary. 2. bootstrap loader. date and location depending information. Modular (planning) BOM A BOM can also be visually represented by a product structure tree. it also does not include pre-built components and not non real software components like VHDL code. system and component patch level (if applicable). it is anything which has a specific scope of operation and is exchangeable. . All version information is collapsed into one hashcode which includes – in addition to a CM reference – the component version id and name.). developer id and also time.A BOM can be displayed in the following formats: 1. The idea is to include automatic generated version information in the final binary which enables the unique idenitification which components had been used to generate the final binary. icons. however then usual compile time information is not included.abbreviated with “BOM” describes a solution for keeping track of generated software components and valid software component combinations. but then it is coupled with the CM system itself. Thus it displays the components directly needed to make the assembly or subassembly. application code (Java. etc. Also Known As Somtimes referenced as a “Manifest” file. A single-level BOM that displays the assembly or sub-assembly with only one level of children. C. programmable hardware (VHDL code). Some configuration management (CM) systems (like ClearCase©/Rational© and CM Synergy©/Telelogic©) do have a similiar concept under the same name “BOM”. An indented BOM that displays the highest-level item closest to the left margin and the components used in that item indented more to the right. especially in the case of distributed embedded system development. although they are rarely used in the workplace The “Bill of Material” pattern . etc. which are mission critical to have in the same scope as “real” software components. system diagnostic application. or digital filter coefficients.
site. 2. 10. 7. information provided inside the component and the CM object where the component is hosted. even in the case 4. patch-level.Benefits 1. The BOM provides removable glue between the otherwise complete decoupled build and CM system. 6. change. The BOM pattern supports a device. The BOM pattern provides a solution concerning individual component versioning. that different components had to be clustered into one CM object (due to CM performance and constraints given by the required administration). location. 11. etc. with the version 6. It links the build process in time. without the need that a user has to control the version by pushing a “check version button”. The pattern provides an effective method for device version identification even in the case that the software components (which are composing the embedded device) are still subject to significant 2. or product self-validation concerning its versioning information 3. etc. take advantage of extensive comments and descriptive notes areas import ASCII files handle scrap percentages . It supports an agile embedded system development by including cross-cutting concerns for the 8. 5. 9. 5. 8. 3. configuration parameters. 7. developer. 4.) which are a significant part in embedded system developments Bill of Materials Features: 1. version identification and calculation and this even over non software components (VHDL. use stock or non-stock components perform global replacement of components create user-defined cost groupings apply optional routing definition create user-defined fields for each assembly setup new bills easily with copy-from functionality track engineering change orders (ECO) use unique configuration of labor and machine time for each bill.
LIFO. man would still be trying to produce cylindrical components . machine and manufacture many precision cylindrical components made of various types of metal. plastics. choose standard. wooden lead screw. The operator rotated the workpiece by drawing a bow back and forth. or average costing handle lot-tracked and serialized inventory interface Lathe Lathes were developed as early as the 15th century and were known as "bow" lathes. Without the lathe. either by hand or with the use of a foot treadle. process overlap enabled (if interfaced to MR application) 13. and other materials. use multiple units of measure 15. The screw cutting lathe originates in the 17th century. This in turn drove two other pulleys on the same shaft which rotated the workpiece and a crude. Lathes have allowed man to reshape. perform advanced online inquires 14. use comprehensive standard cost management with General Ledger 16.12. Development and advancements have continued and today we have sophisticated computerized controlled lathes. wood. FIFO. which was driven by a cord passing over a pulley above the machine. which in turn allowed the operator to remove metal from the piece being machined. Next came Bessons lathe in 1568.
The typical lathe provides a variety of rotating speeds and suitable manual andautomatic controls for moving the cutting tool. turret lathes. All engine lathes andmost turret and special purpose lathes have horizontal spindles and. wood. cuttingscrew threads. The cutter bit is held eitherBy hand or by a mechanical holder.2. General. for that reason. PrincipalCapabilities of the lathe are forming straight. or other material. then applied to the workpiece. tapered. except the vertical Turret type. are sometimes referred to as horizontal lathes. The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping Articles of metal. and boring or enlarging internal diameters. The workpiece is held and rotated around a horizontal axis while beingFormed to size and shape by a cutting tool. Lathes Types and Uses. All lathes. The smaller lathes in all classes . or irregularly Outlined cylinders. Types of Lathes. and special purpose lathes. A. b. Lathes can be conveniently classified as enginelathes. facing or radial turning cylindrical sections. have one thing in common for all usual machining operations.
and (c) the length of the bed. (a) The bench-type engine lathe . It has a lead screw with gears to provide various controlled feeds for cutting LATHE OPERATIONS threads. The usual engine lathe has longitudinal power and crossfeeds for moving the carriage. the size is determined by the manufacturer. which is required for machining large diameter workpieces and taking heavy cuts. the size is determined by the following measurements: either (a) the diameter of the workpiece will swing over the bed. The engine lathe is intended for general purpose lathe workand is the usual lathe found in the machine shop. The engine lathe consists mainly of a headstock. using method (a) and (c). For example. in inches. or (b) it will swing over the cross-slide. The maximum distance between centers indicates the dimension. It commonly has an 8 to 12 inch swing and a 3 to 5 foot bed length. mounted to the bench behind the lathe headstock. of the longest length of material that can be placed in the lathe (2) Bench-Type Engine Lathe. Most engine lathes are back-geared and high torque. or (d) the maximum distance between centers. The engine lathe may be bench or floor mounted. and a bed upon which the tailstock and carriage move. Engine Lathes. is the most common general purpose screw cutting lathe normally found in a smallshop. the reference in this case being to the means of support. The bench upon which the lathe is mounted may be a standard wood-topped shop bench ora special metal lathe bench with drawers for storing the lathe accessories. a tailstock. or a sliding-gap or extension-type lathe. it may be referred to as a toolroom-type lathe. Some bench lathes use an underneath motor . (1) General. the size being limited by the practicality of bench mounting. a carriage. a 14 inch x 6-foot lathe has a bed that is 6 feet long and will swing work (over the bed) up to 14 inches in diameter. and is driven by means of a flat leather belt. c. Engine lathes are made in various sizes. (b) The bench-type engine lathe is generally powered by an electric motor. Generally.may be classified as bench lathes or floor or pedestallathes.
BENCH-TYPE ENGINE LATHE. (3) Floor-Mounted Engine Lathe. A tension release mechanism for loosening the drive belt is usually provided so that the drive belt may be quickly changed to different pulley combinations for speed changes. . This arrangement is convenient where space in the shop is limited. lathe dogs. The toolroom lathe is an engine lathe equipped with more precision accessories and built to greater standards of accuracy than standard engine lathes. It may be either floor-mounted or a bench-mounted. FLOOR-MOUNTED ENGINE LATHE. The floor-mounted engine lathe (figure 2 on the following page) or pedestal-type engine lathe. The headstock spindle is back-geared to provide slow spindle speeds. The lathe may have a quickchange gearbox for rapid change of threading feeds. The benchtype engine lathe is generally equipped with the necessary tools. Therefore. The drive motor is located in the pedestal beneath the lathe headstock. with 105 inches between centers. The bench lathe may or may not have a power-operated crossfeed drive. and centers for normal operation. The toolroom-type lathe is usually supplied with a very LATHE OPERATIONS precise lead screw for threading operations. It comes equipped with precision accessories such as a collet. chuck attachment.drive where the drive belt passes through a hole in the bench. is inherently more rigid than the bench-type lathe and may have a swing as great as 16 or 20 inches and a bed length as great as 12 feet. LATHE OPERATIONS FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. The floor-mounted engine lathe usually has a power-operated crossfeed mechanism. a taper attachment. work of a better class and of a more complete nature may be accomplished on a toolroom-type engine lathe. (4) Toolroom Lathe. and a quick-change gearbox for controlling the lead screw is installed on all currently manufactured floor-mounted lathes. chucks. and a micrometer stop. or gears may have to be installed singly or in combination to achieve the proper threading feeds.
this lathe is similar to the floor-mounted engine lathe. The turret lathe is so named because it has a hexagonal turret. The sliding gap-type floor-mounted lathe or extension gap lathe contains two lathe beds. By extending the sliding bed. Most turret lathes are equipped with a pump and basin for the automatic application of a coolant or cutting oil to the workpiece. or multiple tool holder. in place of the tailstock found on the engine lathe. and the bottom bed (figure 3 on the following page). The floor-mounted horizontal .(5) Sliding Gap-Type Floor-Mounted Engine Lathe. the top bed or sliding bed. (1) General. Except for the LATHE OPERATIONS sliding gap feature. d. (2) Floor-Mounted Horizontal Turret Lathe. SLIDING GAP-TYPE FLOOR-MOUNTED ENGINE LATHE. The sliding bed mounts the carriage and the tailstock and can be moved outward. away from the headstock as desired. The turret lathe is a lathe used extensively for the highspeed production of duplicate parts. material up to 28 inches in diameter may be swung on this lathe. The sliding bed may also be extended to accept between centers workpieces that would not normally fit in a standard lathe of the same size. Turret Lathes. FIGURE 3.
Some lathes have characteristics that enable them to do certain work well. Some of these lathes are of the heavy-production type where large numbers of identical parts must be produced to make the operation more economical. It contains an indexing mechanism for bringing the tools (held on its six faces) against the workpiece in a preselected order. The bench-type jeweler's lathe is . or may use a universal scroll chuck for swinging the workpiece. Separate feed stops are provided for each face of the turret. A quick handindexing four-sided turret is commonly mounted on the front of the crossslide. Other special purpose lathes are specialized for machining specific items and cannot be adapted to the common types of lathe operations. The size can also be classified by the swing. The cross-slide may be either hand or power operated. The turret of the turret lathe is usually power operated. and a holder for one or more tools often is mounted on the rear. The size of the horizontal turret lathe is usually given as the diameter of bar stock that can be fed into the lathe through the headstock spindle. e. (1) General. The lathe uses a collet chuck LATHE OPERATIONS and a hollow headstock spindle for feeding bar stock into the machine. Special Purpose Lathes.turret lathe is intended for quick turning of bar stock and chucked workpieces with a minimum amount of adjustments between operations. (2) Bench-type Jeweler's Lathe.
Figure 4 on the following page provides a general illustration of the parts normally found on a lathe. change gears for threading operations. Other special purpose lathes include the production lathe. The bed is the base for the working parts of the lathe. The main feature of the bed is the ways which are formed on the bed's upper . For specific details on a given lathe. the automatic lathe. and a precise manual crossfeed. and lathes designed for turning car axles or forming sheet metal. LATHE OPERATIONS – f. the multispindle lathe. the automatic screw machine. the duplicating lathe. (3) Other Special Purpose Lathes. lead screw. the brakedrum lathe. refer to the manufacturer's technical manual for that machine. The usual jeweler's lathe contains a collet-type chuck. Essential Features of The Lathe. as a result. The jeweler's lathe is belt driven by an independent motor which can be mounted above or behind the lathe. remember that all lathes provide the same general function even though the design may differ among manufacturers. To learn the operation of the lathe. (1) General. Controls and feeds are calibrated in smaller increments than with the engine lathe and. In studying the principal parts in detail. the crankshaft lathe.actually a miniature engine lathe designed for the precision machining of small parts. workpieces of small dimensions can be machined to a great degree of accuracy. (2) Bed and Ways. one must first be familiar with the names and functions of the principal parts.
The flat way takes most of the downward thrust. Keep them free of chips. The tailstock and carriage slide on the ways in alignment with the headstock. GEAR-HEAD ENGINE LATHE. keep the carriage in alignment with the headstock and tailstock at all times. (a) The headstock carries the head spindle and the mechanism for driving it. The headstock is normally permanently bolted at one end (at the operator's left). Wipe them off daily with an oiled cloth to help preserve their polished surface. it rotates the cone pulley. (b) For satisfactory performance of a lathe. the driving mechanism consists merely of a cone pulley that drives the spindle LATHE OPERATIONS . When the spindle is driven directly.surface and which run the full length of the lathe. Some lathe beds have two V-ways and two flat ways. and chucks. This is an absolute necessity if accurate lathe work is to be done. while others have four V-ways. (a) The ways are accurately machined parallel to the axis of the spindle and to each other. directly or through the back gears. When the spindle is driven through the back gears. the ways must be kept in good condition. In the belt-driven type headstock. which in this case turns freely . because they are parallel to the V-ways. (3) Headstock.LESSON 1/TASK 1 FIGURE 4. it rotates more slowly than the cone pulley. The V-ways are guides that allow the carriage and the tailstock to move over them only in their longitudinal direction. A common fault of careless machinists is to use the bed as an anvil for driving arbors or as a shelf for hammers. The carriage slides on the outboard V-ways which.OD1645 . wrenches. Never allow anything to strike the ways or damage their finished surfaces in any way.
Thus two speeds are available with each position of the belt on the cone. because the speed is changed by changing or by shifting the gears. Use the speed-change levers to shift the sliding gears on the drive shaft and the intermediate shaft to line up the gears in different combinations. eight spindle speeds are available. Various combinations of gears in the LATHE OPERATIONS headstock transmit power from the drive shaft to the spindle through an intermediate shaft.on the LATHE OPERATIONS . indicates the lever positions for the different spindle speeds. A speed index plate. This produces the gear ratios needed to obtain the .LESSON 1/TASK 1 spindle. This headstock is similar to an automobile transmission except that it has more gear-shift combinations and. To avoid damage to the gear teeth. (c) Figure 5 shows the interior of a typical geared headstock that has 16 different spindle speeds. FIGURE 5. (b) The geared headstock shown in figure 5 is more complicated but more convenient to operate. The driving pulley at the left is driven at a constant speed by a motor located under the headstock. has a greater number of speed changes.OD1645 . the lathe is always stopped before the gears are shifted. attached to the headstock. if the cone pulley has four steps. SLIDING GEAR TYPE HEADSTOCK. therefore.
or a chuck. At the other end of the spindle is the gear by which the spindle drives the feed and the screw-cutting mechanism through a gear train located on the left end of the lathe. The section of the spindle between the bearings carries the pulleys or gears that turn the spindle.various spindle speeds. The spindle is supported in bearings at each end of the headstock through which it projects. and drain and replace the oil when it becomes dirty or gummy. Be sure to keep the oil to the full level as indicated on the oil gage. The hollow spindle also permits the use of the draw-in collet chuck (to be discussed later in this lesson). as well as driving the carriage that feeds the tool into the work. The nose of the spindle holds the driving plate. (f) The spindle is subjected to considerable torque because it drives the work against the resistance of the cutting tool. A collar is used to adjust the end play of the spindle. the faceplate. Note that the back gear lever has a high and low speed for each combination of the other gears. (e) The headstock spindle is the main rotating element of the lathe and is directly connected to the workpiece which revolves with it. Because of the torque and pressure applied to the spindle. The parts not immersed in the oil are lubricated by either the splash produced by the revolving gears or by an oil pump. The chuck end of the spindle is bored to a Morse taper to receive the solid center. adequate lubrication and accurately . (d) The headstock casing is filled with oil to lubricate the gears and the shifting mechanism contained within it. The spindle is hollow throughout its length so that bars or rods can be passed through it from the left and held in a chuck at the nose.
(b) The dead center is held in a tapered hole (bored to a Morse taper) in the tailstock spindle. It can be clamped in the desired position by the tailstock clamping nut. (c) The tailstock body is made in two parts. The bottom. the top can move laterally on its base. The spindle is moved back and forth in the tailstock barrel for longitudinal adjustment. (a) The primary purpose of the tailstock is to hold the dead center to support one end of the work LATHE OPERATIONS being machined between centers. (d) Before inserting a dead center. The lateral movement can be closely adjusted by setscrews. Zero marks inscribed on the base and top indicate the center position and provide a way to measure setover for taper turning. tapered shank drills. However. and drill chucks.adjusted bearings are absolutely necessary. cut along the bottom of the spindle. or a reamer into the . is fitted to the ways. The tailstock moves on the ways along the length of the bed to accommodate work of varying lengths. it can also be used to hold live centers. a drill. The handwheel is turned which turns the spindle-adjusting screw in a tapped hole in the spindle. reamers. The spindle is kept from revolving by a key that fits a spline. or base. or keyway. (4) Tailstock.
After a drill or reamer is placed into the tapered hole of the spindle. the dial may be graduated so that each division . If the tool is allowed to revolve. The micrometer dial on the crossfeed handle is graduated to permit accurate feed. carefully clean the tapered shank and wipe out the tapered hole of the spindle. make sure that the tool will not turn or revolve. it will score the tapered hole and destroy its accuracy. The wings of the H-shaped saddle contain the bearing surfaces which are fitted to the Vways of the bed. The spindle of the tailstock is engraved with graduations which help in determining the depth of a cut when a piece is drilled or reamed. (a) The carriage carries the crossfeed slide and the compound rest which in turn carries the cutting tool in the toolpost. The slide is securely bolted to the crossfeed nut which moves back and forth when the crossfeed screw is turned by the handle. The gib permits small adjustments to remove any looseness between the two parts.spindle. view B. (b) Figure 6. Depending on the manufacturer of the lathe. The crossfeed slide is closely fitted to the dovetail and has a tapered gib which fits between the carriage LATHE OPERATIONS dovetail and the matching dovetail of the crossfeed slide. The cross piece is machined to form a dovetail for the crossfeed slide. shows a top view of the carriage. (5) Carriage. The carriage slides on the ways along the bed (figure 6 on page 14).
(c) The carriage has T-slots or tapped holes for clamping work for boring or milling operations. The compound rest is mounted on top of the crossfeed slide. a lathe apron contains the following mechanical parts: (a) A longitudinal feed handwheel for moving the carriage by hand along the bed. When the lathe is used in this manner. (d) The carriage can be locked in any position on the bed by tightening the carriage clamp screw. the carriage clamp is kept in the released position. the carriage movement feeds the work to the cutting tool which is revolved by the headstock spindle. thus providing powered longitudinal feed and crossfeed. The carriage is always moved by hand to make sure that it is free before the automatic feed is applied. The clamp screw is to be used only when doing work for which longitudinal feed is not required. One should thoroughly understand the construction and operation of the apron before attempting to operate the lathe. These gear trains transmit power from the feed rod to move the carriage along the ways and to move the cross-slide across the ways.represents a 1 to 1 ratio. In general. The apron (figure 2 on page 5) is attached to the front of the carriage. (b) Gear trains driven by the feed rod. such as facing or cuttingoff stock. It contains the mechanism that controls the movement of the carriage for longitudinal feed and thread cutting. This handwheel turns a pinion that meshes with a rack gear that is secured to the lathe bed. Normally. (6) Apron. . It controls the lateral movement of the cross-slide.
This permits the table to swing up to 45° in either direction for angular and helical milling operations. (c) Friction clutches operated by knobs on the apron are used to engage or disengage the power-feed mechanism. and various special fixtures GRINDING MACHINE After the milling Machine‟s job is done. The grinding head can be controlled to travel across a fixed work piece or the workpiece can be moved whilst the grind head stays in a . UNIVERSAL HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE The basic difference between a universal horizontal milling machine and a plain horizontal milling machine is the addition of a table swivel housing between the table and the saddle of the universal machine. The milling machine gave the rough cutting for the parts.LATHE OPERATIONS . grinding machine is used to impart precise surface finish. The universal machine can be fitted with various attachments such as the indexing fixture. rotary table. others have a single clutch for both. (Some lathes have a separate clutch for longitudinal feed and crossfeed. The grinding machine consists of a power driven grinding wheel spinning at the required speed (which is determined by the wheel‟s diameter and manufacturer‟s rating. slotting and rack cutting attachments. usually by a formula) and a bed with a fixture to guide and hold the work-piece.) Milling Machine Used For Preparing the Parts Of the Needle Bending Machine Horizontal milling Machine was used in preparing the mild steel and other parts of the machine.
Diagrams of the operation of grinding machines: (a) cylindrical grinder. (b) internal grinder. Drilling machines may be used to perform other . (g) surface grinder using the end of the wheel. Very fine control of the grinding head or tables position is possible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel. Drilling machines use a drilling tool that has cutting edges at its point. They can perform operations other than drilling. and tapping large or USES A drilling machine. (3) workpiece. (f) surface grinder using the periphery of the wheel. (e) centerless internal grinder. is used to cut holes into or through metal.this generates so little heat that even with no coolant. which can generate substantial amounts of heat. reaming. (1) grinding wheel.fixed position. the temperature rise is negligible. wood. The coolant also benefits the machinist as the heat generated may cause burns in some cases. or other materials (Figure 6-1). they therefore incorporate a coolant to cool the workpiece so that it does not overheat and go outside its tolerance. (2) clamp. A drilling machine comes in many Shapes and sizes. (d) centerless grinder. called a drill press. (4) chuck. (5) regulating wheel. counterboring. In very high-precision grinding machines (most cylindrical and surface grinders) the final grinding stages are usually set up so that they remove about 200 nm (less than 1/100000 in) per pass . or using the features of numerical controls. (6) workrest blade Drilling Machines PURPOSE This chapter contains basic information pertaining to drilling machines. Figure 1. from small hand-held power drills to bench mounted and finally floor-mounted models. Grinding machines remove material from the workpiece by abrasion. such as countersinking. This cutting tool is held in the drill press by a chuck or Morse taper and is rotated and fed into the work at variable speeds. (c) internal grinder with planetary motion.
. set speed and feed. boring. yourself. reaming.small holes. and work holding devices to get the job done safely without causing damage to the equipment. operations. Because the drilling machines can perform all of these operations. counterboring. and provide for coolant to get an acceptable finished product. Safety plays a critical part in any operation involving power equipment. Drill press operators must know how to set up the work. maintaining. and shop formulas for setting up each operation. Other ways to determine the size of the drill press are by the largest hole that can be drilled. took. or someone nearby. the distance between the spindle and column. spot facing. a 15-inch drilling machine can center-drill a 30inch-diameter piece of stock. and tapping (Figure 6-2). For instance. This chapter will cover procedures for servicing. this chapter will also cover the types of drill bits. The size or capacity of the drilling machine is usually determined by the largest piece of stock that can be center-drilled (Figure 6-3). proper methods of selecting tools. They can perform countersinking. and setting up the work. and the vertical distance between the worktable and spindle.
Upright drilling machine. . Figure 6-2.Figure 6-1. Operations of the upright drilling machine.
The column of most drill presses is circular and built rugged and solid. The worktable Figure 6-4. sleeve or quill. The sleeve or quill assembly does not revolve but may slide in its bearing in a direction parallel to its axis. Clean each machine after use. spindle. CARE OF DRILLING MACHINES Lubrication Lubrication is important because of the heat and friction generated by the moving parts. The column supports the head and the sleeve or quill assembly. Construction of an upright drilling machine. When the sleeve carrying the spindle with a cutting tool is lowered. Wipe all spindles and sleeves free of grit to avoid damaging the precision fit. The head of the drill press is composed of the sleeve. The head is bolted to the column. Remove chips to avoid damage to moving parts. head. The worktable is supported on an arm mounted to the column. the cutting tool is fed into the work: and when it is moved upward. the spindle is vertical and the work is supported on a horizontal table. Follow the manufacturer's manual for proper lubrication methods. and base. Special Care Operations under adverse conditions require . The spindle holds the drill or cutting tools and revolves in a fixed position in a sleeve. Put a light coat of oil on all unpainted surfaces to prevent rust. and dirt from belts and pulleys. grooves. CHARACTERISTICS All drilling machines have the following construction characteristics (Figure 6-4): a spindle. worktable.Figure 6-3. Operate all machines with care to avoid overworking the electric motor. electric motor. Feed pressure applied to the sleeve by hand or power causes the revolving drill to cut its way into the work a few thousandths of an inch per revolution. column. the cutting tool is withdrawn from the work. Determining the size of upright drillign machines. In most drilling machines. Clean T-slots. and feed mechanism.
the head can be moved up and down on the column by loosening the locking bolts. Hand-Feed The hand-feed drilling machines (Figure 6-5) are the simplest and most common type of drilling machines in use today. operate at the slowest speeds to avoid rapid abrasive wear on the moving parts and lubricate the machines more often. gang drilling machine. They are designed for high-speed production and industrial shops. are all variations of the basic hand and power-feed drilling machines. such as the radial drill press. The operator must pay attention and be alert. Drilling depth is controlled by a depth-stop mechanism located on the side of the spindle. special care. start the machines at a slow speed and allow the parts and lubricants to warm up before increasing the speeds. and counter-sinking may require slower speeds than drilling and may not be able to be performed for all materials on these machines. multiple spindle drilling machine. Normally. They are driven by an electric motor that turns a drive belt on a motor pulley that connects to the spindle pulley. so that the operator is able to "feel" the action of the cutting tool as it cuts through the workpiece. operations to keep the motor running cool. Other types of drilling machines. The operator of the machine must use a sense of feel while feeding the cutting tool into the work. . TYPES OF DRILLING MACHINES There are two types of drilling machines used by maintenance personnel for repairing and fabricating needed parts: hand-feed or power-feed. If machines are operated under extremely dusty conditions. provides for vibration-free operation and best machining accuracy. The top of the base is similar to a worktable and maybe equipped with T-slots for mounting work too large for the table. or on and off. The base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and when bolted to the floor. counterboring. Hand-feed machines are essentially high-speed machines and are used on small workplaces that require holes 1/2 inch or smaller. to allow for long pieces to be end or angled drilled. because of the tendency of the drill to grab or snag the workpiece. numerically controlled drilling machine. operations that require drilling speeds less than 450 revolutions per minute cannot be performed. so do not strike the machines with hard tools. These drilling machines can be bench or floor-mounted. wrenching it free of its holding device. Due to the high speed of these machines. can be adjusted vertically to accommodate different heights of work. to when the drill breaks through the work. or it may be swung completely out of the way. It may be tilted up to 90° in either direction. so use intermittent. using a feed handle. Reaming. and turret drill press. Metal becomes very brittle in extreme cold. Under extreme cold conditions. These are light duty machines that are hand-fed by the operator. which allows the drilling machine to drill different heights of work. Extreme heat may cause the motor to overheat.
Hand feed drilling machine.Figure 6-5. .
which mount into tapered Morse sockets. near the spindle. to aid in drilling to a precise depth. Power-feed drilling machine. counter. The slower speeds allow for special operations. The speeds available on power-feed machines can vary from about 50 RPM to about 1. or work that uses large drills that require power feeds. Figure 6-6. Larger workplaces are usually clamped directly to the table or base using T-bolts and clamps. while small workplaces are held in a vise. and are usually floor mounted. The sizes of these machines generally range from 17-inch to a 22-inch center-drilling capacity. .sinking. They are equipped with the ability to feed the cutting tool into the work automatically. These machines are used in maintenance shops for mediumduty work. usually in thousandths of an inch per revolution.800 RPM. The power-feed capability is needed for drills or cutting took that are over 1/2 inch in diameter. A depth-stop mechanism is located on the head. such as counterboring. and reaming. at a preset depth of cut per revolution of the spindle. because they require more force to cut than that which can be provided by using hand pressure.Power-Feed The power-feed drilling machines (Figure 6-6) are usually larger and heavier than the hand-feed. They can handle drills up to 2 inches in diameter.
creation. It provides a wide variety of product which satisfy customers demand. It will most likely to be used where quality is as much of a concern. It provides product with a modification in design.CONCLUSION The future of new product development is very promising. many advances in new product development technology are still to be made for guiding all the processes involved in product development. . However. It not only provides quality product but also maintains the delievery schedule.
com www.com .bing.com www.wikipedia.REFRENCES Machining fundamentals instructors resource book www.google.
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