Elements or The

Language
For The
Developing
Improvisor
by
Jerry
(Joker
PERSONNEL FOR TAPING
MARK BOLING. Engineer for all MIDI and acoustic recording,
guitarist for all solo excerpts for guitar and bass.
*DONALD BROWN. Performer for all piano solo excerpts, and
pianist and midi bassist on exercise tracks (ADD) and the three
play-along tunes.
KEITH BROWN. Midi drum set on exercise tracks and play-along
tunes.
JERRY COKER. Tenor saxophonist for all trombone, tenor
saxophone, and alto saxophone solo excerpts. Also pianist and midi
bassist on accompaniment for solo excerpts.
VANCE THOMPSON. Trumpet on trumpet solo excerpts.
* - Mr. Brown's appearance on this recording is through the courtesy of
Muse Records.
Cover Design: Frank Milone
Editor: Jack Bullock
Autography: S f a ~ Webb
Production Coordinator: Sonja Poorman
Copyright © 1991 Studio 224, clo CPP/Belwin, Inc., Miami, FL 33014
International Copyright Secured Made in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved
DEDICATION
This book is lovingly dedicated to my wife, Patricia, who has not
merely endured or supported my activities in playing, composing,
teaching, and authoring during the thirty-five years we've been married,
but who has often instigated and contributed substantially to the
realization of those activities. Without her belief and confidence in me,
whatever I have accomplished might never have happened.
CO TRACKING 8HEET
1.8010 Excepts #4-11
2.8010 Excerpts #38-65
3.8010 Excerpts #93-103
4.8010 Excerpts #120-134
5.8010 Excerpts #139-153
6.8010 Excerpts #164-177
7.8010 Excerpts #185-193
8.8010 Excerpts #196-212
9.8010 Excerpts #219-238
10.8010 Excerpts #249-267
11.8010 Excerpts #273-291
12.8010 Excerpts #294-303
13.8010 Excerpts #306-315
14.Tuning Tones
15.Homesick Hoosier
16.Urbane Blues
17.8tellar
18.Tuning Notes
19.Exercise A
20.Exercise B
21.Exercise C
22.Exercise 0
23.Exercise E
24.Exercise F
25.Exercise G
26.Exercise H
27. Exercise I
28.Exercise J
29.Exercise K
30.Exercise L
31 . Exercise M
32. Exercise N
33.Exercise 0
34.Exercise P
35.Exercise Q
36. Exercise R
37.Exercise 8
38. Exercise T
39. Exercise U
40.Exercise V
41 . Exercise W
42.Exercise X
43. Exercise Y
44. Exercise Z
45.Exercise M
46.Exercise BB
47. Exercise CC
48.Exercise DO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION " .............................................................. " ............................................................ i
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING THIS BOOK .............................. iv
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING THE AUDIO CASSETTE ............................. iv
ILLUSTRATIONS OF USED CHORD MOTIONS .................................... v
CHAPTER 1 - CHANGE RUNNING .............................................. 1
CHAPTER 2 - DIGITAL PATTERNS AND SCALAR PATTERNS ...................... 8
CHAPTER 3 - 7-3 RESOLUTION ................................................. 19
CHAPTER 4 - 3- b9.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 26
CHAPTER 5 - BEBOP SCALE ................................................................... . ," .............................. .. 33
CHAPTER 6 - BEBOP LICK ............................................................................................................ 40
CHAPTER 7 - HARMONIC GENERALIZATION .................................... 45
CHAPTER 8 - ENCLOSURE ..................................................... 50
CHAPTER 9 - SEQUENCE ............................................................................................................ 55
CHAPTER 10 - CESH ...................................................................................................................... 61
CHAPTER 11 - QUOTES ............................................................................................................... 68
CHAPTER 12 -"CRY ME A RIVER" LICK .......................................... 74
CHAPTER 13 -"GONE BUT NOT FORGOTTEN" LICK ............................. 77
CHAPTER 14 - OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ....................................... 80
LINEAR CHROMATICISM ............................................................. 81
TRI-TONE SUBSTITUTION/ALTERED DOMINANT .............................. 81
BACK DOOR PROGRESSION AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR V7 ....................... 82
# 11°7 AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR V7 .............................................. 82
BAR-UNE SHIFTS ............................................................ 83
SIDE SLIPPING/OUTSIDE PLAYING ........................................... 83
ERRORS .................................................................... 83
SAMPLE ANALYSES OF TWO TRANSCRIBED SOLOS .......................... 84
APPENDIX A - CHORD PROGRESSIONS FOR ALL PLAY-ALONG TRACKS (Side 2)
CONCERT KEY ............................................................ 94
B b INSTRUMENTS .................................................... ~ . . .. 101
E b INSTRUMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 108
APPENDIX B - APPLYING ELEMENTS OF THE JAZZ LANGUAGE
TO TUNE PROGRESSIONS ................................................... 116
HOMESICK HOOSIER ....................................................... 118
URBANE BLUES ............................................................ 124
STELLAR .................................................................. 130
BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................. 142
INTRODUCTION
Though the arts of music, dance, visual arts, and drama have existed for
many centuries, even millenia, individual and collective styles within those art
forms stay in a state of perpetual change and development. When a relatively
new style comes into being and survives the scrutiny of practicing artists,
critics, and the general populace, a reasonable amount of time must pass
before we can deal with what might be termed "common practice" within that
style. This is not to say that new elements will not be introduced by leading
practitioners of the craft. Artists are individuals, and as such they will always
be pressing at the established parameters of the established order of things as
well as their, own personal practices. But a certain grouping of ideas and
approaches will remain relatively constant, giving an identity to the style. This
is partially due to the fact that even artists who strive to be different and/or
innovative will generally know that it is ill-advised, even impossible to create in
a vacuum. Models and examples of their craft have been programmed into
their memories since birth and so are relatively inescapable. Furthermore, they
understand that one of the fastest means by which artists become trained,
artistically literate, and inspired is to study the past work of the masters.
Discoveries are made which might never have transpired without such study.
Jazz music has now been in existence for about a century, and its validity is
no longer questioned by anyone who is relatively wise and informed. The
common practices of the style are fast becoming evident. My first book,
IMPROVISING JAZZ (1964), contained items such as common chord
progression tendencies of standard songs used by jazz artists for their
improvisations, a number of chord substitution principles in common usage for
the blues and "I Got Rhythm," a citing of common bridges (B sections) and
their chord substitution practices, the prevalence of the U-V-I progression, the
growing tendency of pianists to utilize new chord voicings which do not contain
chord roots, and an analysis of what causes the 'swing' effect of eighth-notes in
jazz. Others were making similar discoveries of common practices in the jazz
style. My learned colleague and friend, David Baker, was making new
observations, coupled with the terminology with which we would refer to those
tendencies, such as digital patterns, the bebop scale, the bebop lick, and
enclosures. He even coined the term, "jazz language", spoke of its syntax, and
pointed to the need for students to absorb that language. Another highly-
esteemed colleague, Jamey Aebersold was including patterns in his play-along
records/books that utilized many of the elements of the jazz language. Despite
our efforts, a complete list of the vocabulary for the jazz language remained
mysterious, elusive, and incomplete.
As is usually the case, the more complete identity and nature of the jazz
language was discovered quite by accident. And even when the pieces of the
puzzle fell into place, I virtually had to be bludgeoned into realizing the
significance of the discovery. It came about as a result of teaching a course
called "The Analysis of Jazz Styles", in which solos by leading jazz artists were

1
· .
11
,
listened to and analyzed in class. I kept searching for ways to describe and
define elements that seemed to be common to all artists. I utilized what my
colleagues and I had already found, especially Baker's contributions, and kept
adding to the list until about 18 elements were on it. I typed them, with
definitions into a hand-out for my students, called "Devices Commonly Found
In Improvised Solos." Though the list was very helpful to us, I didn't have a
system for marking the solos we studied, so I couldn't see what was taking
shape. Each time I taught the course, the selected solos were analyzed all over
again, as though for the first time. I felt remiss, because I knew I was probably
missing some items we'd discovered the preceding year. It seemed haphazard
to me. At least my copy of the solos should be marked, so we wouldn't miss
anything. About this time I was scheduled to go to a Canadian hospital for
double-hernia surgery. Not wanting to be bored or in pain with nowhere to put
my concentration, I took my copy of Ken Slone's book, 28 MODERN JAZZ
TRUMPET SOLOS and about 15-20 colors of felt-tipped pens, and worked out
a coded, color bracket system for marking the solos. For example, a green
bracket indicated the use of a digital pattern, a purple one signified the use of
the bebop scale, and a pink bracket indicated a melodic quote from another
tune. The result was a real eye-opener! Prior to marking them in this way, I
was unconscious of the concluding totals, and I wasn't fully aware that the
"Common Devices" list was so uniformly shared by all fifteen players whose
solos were contained in the book, ranging from the likes of Fats Navarro and
Dizzy Gillespie to Tom Harrell and Randy Brecker! The color coding made it
effortless to see in a glance that all players were using the devices.
Furthermore, there was virtually nothing left unmarked in the solos, though
there were only 18 devices on the list. The only significance I attached to all
this was that it was going to be an improved Analysis of Jazz Styles course
from now on.
Then, because my students don't always assimilate everything I teach them, I
began summing up what we'd learned when we approached the end of the
term. I pointed out to them that all the players studied shared the 18 devices,
and that there was very little left unmarked after citing those events (though
sometimes what remained was really the best part of the solo, or at least the
freshest). Then I would ask them how many of those devices they'd ingrained
into their own playing. If they were devices that their 'heroes' found useful
and/or needed, why weren't they using them? The stuqents would hang their
heads in shame. But Iwas the real dummy! I had collected the "Common .
Devices" list, I could find them in solos with enviable speed, I could recognize
them quickly by ear, and they were a part of my own playing ... yet it was
several years of chiding my students for lack of assimilating the devices into
their playing before it dawned on me that the elusive 'jazz language' was now in
place! It wasn't merely a collection of things to notice about other peoples'
solos. It was a concise list of what every jazz student should learn first, in order
to speak the language of jazz and communicate with others in that language!
Now let us understand the true value of the jazz language at this point. It
should not be used for cloning purposes (as in analyzing the solos of your
favorite players, collecting their devices and personal cliches, then
programming your own playing to be as close to identical as possible). Each of
us has a worthwhile musical identity and enough originality and creativity to
carry us through. Nor should the list be used so that we all sound the same.
Finally, the list should not be used to the exclusion of many other worthwhile,
new, or original thoughts in musical expression.
On the other hand, it should not surprise or discourage us to learn that
much of jazz improvisation is clever re-editing of learned elements, many of
which are shared by all the great players. All artists (classical composers, great
choreographers, playwriters, painters, sculptors, architects, etc.) have personal
cliches, as well as elements they share with others in the same field.
Furthermore, there are innovative, fresh, inspired moments in the solos of all
great players. If you can, pigeon-hole a phrase you hear, study it especially
hard and long. It could be the creative heart of the solo.
The jazz language is a logical starting point (at least), providing us with the
less-important, but needed aspects of the language, as words like "the",
"and", "is", "by", "for", "a", "an", etc., are to the spoken language. They may
seem relatively unimportant words, but without them, language is
unintelligible and uncommunicative! Let us focus, then, on the connective .
tissue in the giant body of a great art form.
J.e.
...
111
·
IV
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING THIS BOOK
Each chapter will embody one element of the jazz language. Within each chapter, the
designated element will be defined and illustrated; examples will be given of its use in
outstanding recorded solos, each written in the key of the instrument that played it;
suggestions will be made with regard to ingraining the element, and specific exercises
provided for practicing the element. Since there are many notated examples throughout the
book, each requiring an identification number for easy reference, all examples are integrated
into one numbering sequence, regardless of their purpose. For example, #163 might be an
illustration, or an example from a recorded solo or an exercise, but there will be only one
#163. The same number will identify each example as it is demonstrated on Side 1 of the
cassette. Note: All examples from recorded solos are notated in the key and clef of the
instrument that played them.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USING THE AUDIO CASSETTE
Side 1: As previously stated, Side 1 contains simulations of all examples excerpted from
recorded solos, identified by the number assigned to them in the book, plus three play-along
tunes. Side 1 does not include the accompaniment tracks for practicing the exercises.
Because the accompaniment tracks are on Side 2, it is easier to locate the appropriate
exercise track/ s for practicing each of the elements. So Side 1 is essentially for listening (ear
training, etc.), except for the three play-along tunes, and Side 2 provides the opportunity to
roll up your sleeves and play (and sing!).
Side 2: The accompaniment tracks on Side 2 are identified by letters (A, B, C, etc.), rather
than by numbers that agree with the exercise numbers in the book. The reason for using a
different identification system for the accompaniment tracks is simply because a small
number of tracks can service a much greater number of exercises. The book will direct you
to the appropriate play-a long track/s for each exercise. For example, the book might state:"
practice this exercise with tracks E, F, G, and H."
All exercises should be practiced in 12 keys and with the appropriate accompaniment
track/so By playing them in 12 keys, you will be prepared to use the element in whatever key
you might need, during improvisation. Practicing with the accompaniment tracks ensures
that you will be continually strengthening the relationship between the sound of the exercise
and the sound of the appropriate harmony implied by the exercise, which is an indispensable
form of ear-training. It is also important, whenever possible, to learn to slightly alter an
exercise in such a way as to enable it to fit other chord-types. Hence the book will sometimes
instruct you to practice some of the exercises, after minor alterations, with accompaniment
tracks that use other chord-types.
The key sequences on the accompaniment tracks are deliberately sequenced to resemble
the motions most frequently encountered in segments of tunes. Chord roots most often
move around the circle of keys (commonly referred to as the cycle of fifths) and
chromatically (especially chromatically downward). These are the motions included in the
accompaniment tracks. In this way, you are not only learning each exercise in 12 keys, but
you are also practicing them in sequences that you will most frequently encounter in real
tunes.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF USED CHORD MOTIONS
Cycle Of Fifths
c
E ~
G
Chromatic
ascending: C, Db, 0, Eb, E, F, Gb, G, Ab, A, Bb, B, C.
descending: C, B, Bb, A, Ab, G, Gb, F, E, Eb, 0, Db, C.
(Classical theory cycle motion illustrations notwithstanding, this is the logical and useful way
to learn the cycle for our purposes.)
All accompaniment tracks for the exercises begin on CONCERT C. "Concert key" is the
key of piano, bass, guitar, vibraphones, flute, trombone, etc. If you play a B b-pitched
instrument (trumpet, tenor or soprano saxophone, for example), you must begin on ° in
order to be in the same place with the accompaniment. Your sequence on the cycle would
be 0, G, C, F, Bb ,etc., and your chromatic sequence will become 0, Eb, E, F, Gb ,etc.
(ascending). If you play an Eb-pitched instrument (alto or baritone saxophone, for example),
your cycle begins on A (then 0, G, C, etc.) and your chromatic sequence will be A, Bb, B, C,
Db, etc.)
All exercises are notated in treble clef and in concert key, therefore bass clef instruments
and Bb and Eb instruments will need to transpose those notations into the proper clef or key.
For awhile, you may find it necessary to keep these pages handy, so you can re-read the
instructions, review the organization of the book and tape, read the cycle and/or chromatic
sequences (until they are memorized), and review your possible need to transpose the

exerCIses.
If you've never practiced exercises, patterns, licks, scales, etc. in 12 keys without reading
them in a notated form, you may be tempted to write them out, instead of figuring them in
your head. This is acceptable at the outset, but wean yourself away from both the notated
form and the cycle or chromatic illustrations shown here as soon as possible. Remember,
you want to learn to improvise, and all great recorded improvisers have learned to execute
their phrases by mental and aural skills, not by reading them. It will take time to develop
those skills, however.
To help you get under way, the first exercise in Chapter 1 will be notated in the first few
keys and the remainder of the sequences will be given in chord symbols. After that you will
simply be given the notated form of the exercise in the starting chord/key and told to
practice them in the sequences, along with the appropriate play-along's identifying letter (A,
B, C, etc.) Always analyze each given exercise in terms of its digital relationship to the chord.
That is, if the notated form of the exercise is:
... - -
v
.
VI
then think of it as 1-3-5-1, not C-E-G-C. In this way the exercise becomes universal to all
keys, so that if you are confronted with aGo (major) chord, instead of C, you can quickly find
the 1-3-5-1 of Go (Go-Bo-Do-Go) by simply thinking in another key (in this case, the keyofG 0
major).
NOTE: FOR THE READER'S CONVENIENCE, ALL EXERCISE PROGRESSIONS (A, B,
C, etc.) ARE COMPLETELY WRITTEN OUT IN THE APPENDIX, FOR CONCERT, Bo,
AND Eo INSTRUMENTS.
.
(:
Definition
CHAPTER 1
CHANGE-RUNNING
Change is a synonym for chord. Running is a synonym for arpeggiating. Hence change-
running is a jazz colloquialism for chord-arpeggiating. In terms of creative musical
expression, change-running is somewhat superfluous when it occurs in an improvised
solo, since the chord is already being sounded and/or implied by members of the rhythm
section (piano, guitar, and bass). Nevertheless, change-running frequently occurs in
improvised solos, and sometimes in interesting ways. It has at least several possible
functions: (1) as a phrase which helps to place the ear of the improviser into the exact
structure and sound of a chord, which sometimes insures the effectiveness and accuracy
of a more melodic phrase to follow; (2) as a means to learn, during practice, the sound of
each chord in a sequence or progression of chords; (3) as pick-up notes into a melodic
phrase; (4) as a means to make the sound of a chord clear to an audience; and (5) as a
means of communication or reinforcement for other members of the group, in the event
that one or more members lose their place in the progression or the form of the tune.
Illustrations
Because of the nature of improvisation, being based upon chord progressions to a
large extent, nearly all improvised phrases could be more or less regarded as change-
running. However, the purpose of its introduction here is to focus upon phrases which
do little more than to arpeggiate the notes of the chord, and even with that restriction
the possibilities are endless. Note in the following examples that a change-running phrase
does not necessarily begin on the root of the chord, it may omit one or more chord
members, and its direction can be ascending or descending or both.
1
2
"'., I!"/
.J.I 35"
I 3
1.
z.
C"1
I'

+!+.
"

t
I
-
Examples From Recorded Solos
J.J. Johnson, trombone ("Now's The Time")
I
3
4.
Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("Clarence's Place")
/I
7 II
1 5
5.
Blue Mitchell, trumpet ("Silver's Serenade")
6.
3
5
'7
ilL? 5" 3


.....
1-

Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Ceora")
C-
7
'1 ..
7.
George Coleman, tenor saxophone ("Maiden Voyage")

8.
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Trane's Slo Blues")
9.
n-'
5 7
• 3 .. .....
'i
-
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("Nica's Dream")
1 /I 3
3 7 5
10.
Michael Brecker, tenor saxophone ("Freight Trane")
e
b
-
1
I
5 b ,:'
....
n .,
,
11.
c.-'
{
Il I
3

.1-
1
I- Is.
5
3
IIii;;
+5'
3
4
Ways to Practice/Ingrain
We have begun our study with one of the most general aspects of improvisation
(Change-Running). The foregoing examples from recorded solos will show some similar
tendencies, with regard to the manner in which prominent players utilize change-running.
However, it is also easy to see that there are a multitude of ways in which change-
running can be realized, with very few common guidelines. Most of the remaining devices
taken up in this book will have a considerably higher degree of uniformity, with respect
to the manner in which players use them and, consequently, more specific ways for the
reader to practice and ingrain those devices.
Any form of arpeggiation of chords in practice will lead to feeling more comfortable
with using change-running as a part of one's solo. In fact, utilizing change-running
phrases on each and every chord, in practice, is an excellent way to learn a new
progression. Practice every known chord-type, in arpeggiation, in all 12 keys. Practice
one chord-type at a time, modulating up and down in half-steps (chromatic sequence),
around the cycle of fifths, up and down in minor thirds, and up and down in major
seconds (whole-steps). Practice arpeggiation with triads, seventh chords, ninth chords,
elevenths, and thirteenths, whenever the chord-type permits such chord extensions.
All of the items taken up in this book should first be practiced alone, then with an
exercise track
1
on a play-along that accommodates the item being practiced, finally with
a play-along tune whose progression offers numerous opportunities to apply the device
being practiced. Although recorded examples of each device of the jazz language
contained in this book will be provided, the author had to be very selective. Therefore,
the reader should acquire some books of transcribed solos (there are many)2, searching
for examples of each device, and studying the particular manner in which they were used
by various players. Find the recordings
3
, whenever possible, from which the transcribed
solo was taken, so that you will eventually be able to recognize each of the devices by
ear alone. You will find this sort of study to be the most valuable skill you can acquire in
behalf of your development as an improvisor!
L an exercise track is a play-along track in which the accompaniment focuses on a single chord-type or progression cell
(i_e_, II-V-I) in all 12 keys. In other words, it is primarily designed for practice, as opposed to playing a tune. Aebersold's
Volumes 1,3, 16,21 and 24 are devoted to exercise tracks.
2 - see the Aebersold catalog, JAZZ AIDS.
3 - see the Aebersold record catalog, DOUBLE-TIME JAZZ.
1
I
,
i
r Exercises
,
,
i 12.
,
..
Ab
.
,
,
II
..
r
E
I
..
po
c

...,
..
A
..
r

r
..
..

..
"
..
",

"
C.

+-
I
...,
.... JiH
!P ! C. !

r
..
"
,..
",

",
I
,..
r
..
r

"

:Db
C
g
I
,.. ,.. ,..

I
r .. 0- r ,
F !P
....

.,
,
-
G
c

. fF ..
r jF Y'"
r ': I ()
c.
eb
c.
E
-

A

a

r
I

0-
,..
0-

r

0-
I

"
,..
po

po
..
r
I
,..
r

r

"

r
I
Con.rinuQ. c.hroma:Haal u o.nd down.
Pra.d'ic.t UJifh 1"rtz.ek
c.
ulrth
f)
o I nut Ql oLIn

e WI

c.
11.

..,
II
..J
-11
..
Now pra.dice. 12-11 in minor (loUJer 3
rd
"oead1) with 1rdCi<6 C (c.hromakir.) a.nd n (tgcle.)
II
c.
A
1r I P('cl.(! • .ti Cl wo,+h
ra.ck.s J a.nd F J c..!jc. e:
is.
.

... .. - ......
5
6
cl
c.-
-
?rc.c-l'ic.t with r"a.cks G (chroml1fic.) c.nd H ~ _ ~ ~ L).
~
!!J!I
19.
..
.. ,..
....
..
(ra.cks :I: chromtl.+ic. a.nd. j' Co clL .
fJ

A

22.

~
--
" -.I
~ .
1fc.c.ks ! a.nd. 1
fI
Q.C. Q.n

24,
~
..
") ... ~ .
+-
I'J
r:--=
I1C an

25,
~
.. .-

.... -
-
+-
1 I"'"
-
fr"a..cks Q a.od. 1=?

f6.
=1'J .-
--4" ~ .
...
The rhythms of anyone of the last four (#24-27) could be used with the other three. The
various rhythms used are merely to indicate some of the possibilities.

I
q
~
rae an
If!!!

~
elf
1
+-
..,..
-,'
I 29.
,
~
~

"'t
-Ii
.... 1-
-: (#28 and 29 could also be played with the rhythms of 25,26, & 27)
,
When practicing chord arpeggiation, it is important to understand that Exercises 12-29
• are all tertian (constructed with successive third intervals), presented here from the
chord roots (Le., 1-3-5-1, 1-3-5-7-5-3-1, or 1-3-5-7-9-7-5-3-1, therefore other possibilities
exist if we don't begin them from the root. For example, the first four notes of #12 (C-E-
G-C) are taken to be 1-3-5-1 in C major, to be practiced with Track A, yet if we think of
those four notes as being 3-5-7-3 of an A-7, or 5-7-9-5 of an Ft:. chord, the exercise works
for those as well, though we'd have to use a different accompaniment track to
accommodate the different chord-type. #21 would work against an Ab7 chord, #25 could
-, become an F7 (+4) chord or an A¢ chord, and so on. .
-
Also, this list of exercises on change-running is only a starter list. Other chord-types,
other note sequences, and other rhythms should also be investigated.
7
8
Definitions
Digital Patterns (term originated with David Baker) are cells of notes, usually
numbering 4-8 notes per cell, that are structured according to the numerical value of
each note to the root of a chord or scale. That is, 1 would be the root, 2 is the second
degree of the scale (or 9th of the chord), 3 is the third, and so on. Hence a digital pattern
of 1-2-3-5 for a C major chord (or scale) would be C-D-E-G. Some of the most
commonly used digital patterns are:
4-note cells
1-2-3-1
1-2-3-5
1-3-5-3
8-note cells
1-2-3-4-5-3-2-1
1-2-3-4-5-7-6-5
1-5-3-2-1-2-3-5
Of course there are many other possibilities, and improvisers often invent their own
digital patterns. A beginning improviser, for example, might wish to use an even simpler
4-note cell, such as 1-2-1-2. All of the above examples can also be used in their
retrograde (backward) form to good effect (Le., 1-3-2-1 instead of 1-2-3-1, or 5-6-7-5-4-3-2-
1 instead of 1-2-3-4-5-7-6-5). Many of the above examples also sound well when placed on
another note of the chord, especially the fifth, as in 5-6-7-9, which is the same as 1-2-3-5
but placed on the fifth of the chord. All digital patterns may be altered to accommodate
any needed scale/chord-type. For example, a 1-3-5-3 pattern can be adjusted to 1-b3-5-b3
to accommodate a minor chord. Generally speaking, digital patterns usually occur at one
rhythmic level for the entire cell (as opposed to a mixture of rhythmic values), and that
level is most often the eighth-note level. However, they will also appear, though less
frequently, in mixed rhythmic values and at, say, the sixteenth-note level (double-time) or
the quarter-note level (as in the walking bass line). In their most common usage, then, at
the steady eighth-note level, a 4-note digital pattern would accommodate a chord
duration of two beats, and an 8-note cell will accommodate a chord duration of four
beats. Though digital patterns have been in use since the early days of jazz (probably at a
relatively unconscious, instinctive level),the device was brought suddenly and sharply
into notice by John Coltrane, whose brilliant solos on "Giant Steps" and "Countdown"
made use of a number of digital patterns, each pattern occurring literally dozens of times.
Although the solos are improvised, the nature of the tune progressions and tempos, both
tunes being made up of quickly-modulating chords of short duration (mostly two-beat
durations) at a very fast tempo, encouraged a more mechanistic approach, to say the
least. Transcriptions of the solos quickly revealed the stunning number of digital patterns
contained in them. Perhaps the greatest lesson we learned from examining Trane's
efforts on those solos was not that a mechanistic approach was sensible, needed, or
used, but that it revealed a portion of a master's practice habits. In other words,
Coltrane practiced digital patterns apart from, preceding, and in preparation for tunes
like "Giant Steps" and "Countdown"!
Scalar Patterns are simply patterns which are based on a single scale. They are usually
longer than digital patterns, accommodating chords of long duration (two or more
measures) or chord progressions that are made up of closely-related chords (i.e., II-V-I in
major, in which the major scale of I is used to accommodate all 3 chords). Often such
patterns are, or can be, continuous in nature. This author refers to continuous scalar
patterns as non-terminal patterns in his other books. David Baker calls them perpetual
motion patterns. Scalar patterns have been in existence for centuries, often appearing in
classical compositions and in instrumental method books (scales in thirds, broken scales,
etc.). Scalar patterns make use of all scale tones, on a more or less equal basis, as
opposed to favoring fundamental chord tones in the fashion so prevalent in digital patterns.
,
'-
';,'
,
,

f Illustrations

( 4-NOTE DIGITAL PATTERNS
; 1-3-5-3 applied to the bebop turnaround progression
L .. ....
I: • C



.t. 111\
) .;A./,
J -
• I
Alternating 5-3-2-1 and 1-2-3-5 over the first 4 measures
of "Countdown"

S 1
'1. ,
I
I '1. 3
.. 1" 5 I 2. 3 t
31.
]13
I

..

I
8-NOTE DIGITAL PATTERNS
fi "

1-2-3-4-5-7 -6-5 applied to the first 4 measures of "All The Things You Are"
I
2. 3 S
• •
oJ?
F-' eb'7 RpA
32,

---4
I:



c l]l
:J

Alternating 1-5-3-2-1-2-3-5 and 1-2-3-4-5-3-2-1 over the first 4 measures of
"Moments Notice"
(A")
F-"
(1Jb")
/I
I
,
I
33.
::b:J

]I
J
.. •
SCALAR PATTERNS
1)
Co IS sWe.)

"
· .. 7C
etc
It": I:
I:
t ]

J
.
..... ::JC


I
I Z. 3415'32. t
l
s: ,;
(ltc..
9
10
36.

+5
(l&1holt.-I'ont scalf.)
Examples From Recorded Solos
DIGITAL PATTERNS
Paul Chambers, bass ("This Can't Be Love")
s
3 2. I
38.
Chick Corea, piano ("What Was")
GoW-'
39.
Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("Clarence's Place")
_ ,.b


4 _ Pattern 37 is a 3/4 over 4/4 pattern, based on the C major scale, but also utilizing chromatic, non-harmonic notes (indicated
by "+"). This pattern starts as a descending one, but changes to an ascending direction in the 4th bar. The change
of direction could have taken place earlier or later than the 4th bar. #37 is merely an illustration of the possibilities.
I
,
t ,


,
:, Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("This I Dig Of You")
l
.:0-' (fA) (S) G"
0) (2.) 'I
l2-i
S
3
4
,
= r Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone ("Eternal Triangle")
-'
,
!
,
!
I
!
!

i
,
i
!
'I
i..
,
,
i
,
,
!

_ j'
,
- ,
-i
-I
!-'7

5
42.
"';jf-
$ 1. I

3 2. I

1C=
:p
Fats Navarro, trumpet ("Ladybird II")
I
Slide Hampton, trombone ("Moontrane")
c.,i-
Fats Navarro, trumpet ("Ladybird I")

c.-
7
(F')
4 5 7 5 c.nd 16 bats I a.ftr
45.
Slide Hampton, trombone ("Confirmation")
(F')
'1
"
11
2
3 2
I


Jlt
,
12
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Ceora")
41.
The author was extremely selective in regard to presenting examples of digital
patterns, looking for variety and representation in personalities and instruments. Very
often an example cited was merely one of many occurrences in the same solo, as well as
only one solo by an individual who was/is prone to using the device in other, perhaps
even all, of his solos. Since it is of vital importance that the reader comprehend the
extent of the use of digital patterns by the jazz greats, so that he/she will simultaneously
realize the importance of the study and acquisition of such patterns, let's examine the
numbers and percentages on one significant solo by a highly-regarded performer:John
Coltrane on "Giant Steps". Coltrane plays 13 solo choruses in all, each chorus being 16
measures in length. However, the figures presented here are based on the first 4
choruses only, which is sufficient for gleaning percentages. The digital pattern 'read-out'
is as follows:
pattern
1-2-3-5
5-6-7-9 (same as 1-2-3-5, but built on 5th)
5-3-2-1
9-7-6-5 (same as 5-3-2-1, but starts on 9th)
5-6-7-5 (same as 1-2-3-1, but begins on 5th)
7-9-8(1}-7 (same as 1-3-2-1, but begins on 7th)
3-1-2-3
1-2-3-4-5-6-7-9
no. of occurrences
15
2
3
3
2
1
1
3
sub-total 30 (161/2 measures)
Though a little awkward to show digitally, the following 8-note pattern occurs 2 times,
adding 2 more measures to the above total:
The following 2-measure pattern occurs twice:
,: ;.',
,
This brings the total number of measures that are taken up with digital patterns to 22 12,
which, when divided by 64 total measures ( 4 X 16), yields 35%! If we subtract the 512
measures worth of rests (to take breaths) from the total number of measures, the figure
becomes nearly 40%. Either figure should be enough to convince the reader. It is also
interesting to note that much of the remaining 60-65% is taken up with change-running
substance (chord arpeggiation and scale fragments) and material closely-resembling
digital patterns.
SCALAR PATTERNS
McCoy Tyner, piano ("I'm So Excited By You")
Fi4
Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, alto saxophone ("The Way You Look Tonight")
49.
4 ..
(j
..
I

(earlier in same solo)
J:lA
Jimmy Blanton, bass ("Sophisticated Lady")

.51.
Miles Davis, trumpet ("So What")
F-'

13
14
George Benson, guitar ("Billie's Bounce")
~ . , !b'
J.J. Johnson, trombone ("Out Of Nowhere")
GA (BbO) A..'I} (l)'J)
Art Farmer, trumpet ("Blue Bossa")
Jim Hall,.guitar ("You'd Be So Nice To Come Home To")
G-
fit
56.
~ : ~ ~ . I .
/II
- ~

II.

• ..- •
'll
~
I[
- - -
J.J. Johnson, trombone ("I'll Remember April")
.51.
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Milestones")
A-
I

j
f

I
I
,'
,

Ii
t
Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, alto saxophone ("Milestones")
I
it::·
{"
r
i-
t
i
"
I 59.
i'
Ii

i
! J.J. Johnson, trombone ("Aquarius")
,
,
,
Chick Corea, piano ("Windows")
6t
Clifford Brown, trumpet ("The Blues Walk")
(:h-'1)
Michael Brecker, tenor saxophone ("What Is This Thing Called Love")
( )
M I d,minished seale.
Chick Corea, piano ("What Was")
15
16
Michael Brecker, tenor saxophone ("Spidit")
(c.hroma.+ic. scale.)
Ways To Practice/Ingrain
Study and practice the illustrations (30-37) in all keys. Search for and/or invent more
possibilities. Study, analyze and learn the examples from recorded solos (38-65), noticing
the various ways the patterns are used (rhythmic variations, placing patterns on different
notes of the scale or chord, metric shifts, polymetric variations, chromatic enhancement,
series of same or similar patterns, different patterns woven together, accommodation of
several successive chords with a single pattern, 'outside' or chromatic uses, etc.). As is
the case with all items taken up in this book, practice the patterns in all keys, learn to
alter them to fit different types of chords, play them with exercise tracks, and apply them
to tunes.
Exercises
Digital Patterns
61.
68.

69.
I • :1 '. 111
100]1
!J:::Jt::
5 - Play-along Tracks I and J use chord durations of 4 beats, so in order to use those tracks with Exercises 68,69, 72 and 73,
which are all 2-beat examples, the player will have to leave the 3rd and 4th beats of each measure vacant, counting
two beats of rest.
r
,
. 17
5
c.-AOr' e·'7 F .. A ., 1fa.ds ] CU\Q f l.fcart1o+!.).
1fa.cl<s (ahromo.1ic.)
74.
18
Scalar Patterns
18.
Co
C. -'1
c.-?

l C Jiminished. WhQ\e
B3.

84.
+9
Convert 84 and 85 to C-7 (C dorian) and C (C dim. whole tone) using
+9
Tracks Q & R (for C-7) and Tracks W & X (for C )
CA 4cks M C1l1d
Convert 86 to C-7 (dorian) and C-l:. (C ascending melodic minor), using Tracks Q & R
(C-7) and 0 & P (C-l:. )

,
,
c
f
t
J
1
- .,
I,
I:
-i-
t
(
I'
I
" ,
l
t
l
,
,
-'
Definition
CHAPTER 3
7-3 RESOLUTION
(b7 of 11-7 to 3 of V7)
A resolution in music generally refers to smooth, graceful connections of successive
chords in a progression. The term also implies that harmonic tension is being relieved.
For example, the music of the renowned composer, J. S. Bach, frequently contains
temporary dissonances (usually in the form of suspensions or appoggiaturas) which are
relieved by moving (resolving) the dissonant note(s) to a nearby consonant position,
thereby removing the tension. The most common formulae to evolve, out of such
practice are what were referred to as the 4-3 and 9-8 suspensions or appoggiaturas,
which should sound very familiar to the reader, though the theoretical reasons/formulae
may not be understood.
~
I


P--S---R
p--.... 'S-R
4 3 4 3
I

~
:: ::
:s
P = preparation (consonant)
S = suspension (dissonant)
R = resolution (consonant)
,
The above example contains two 4-3 suspensions. The chord at the beginning is a C
major chord with the fifth of the chord (G) on the bottom. On the third beat of the first
measure, when the E moves to F, the chord is transformed to a G 7 chord, except for the
top note (C), which creates a suspension on that beat, relieved on the next beat when
the C resolves down to B (the 3rd of the G7). Since C is a 4th interval above G, we call
this a 4-3 suspension. Note that the preparation and resolution (P and R) both need to be
consonant, with the point of suspension being the only dissonance. The first resolution,
then, in the above example, could also function as the preparation for another
suspension (Bach sometimes built long chains of suspensions and appoggiaturas in this
manner}.6 On the first two beats of the second measure, all notes are members of a C
chord except the F, which is sustained against the C chord, then resolves on the third
beat to E, resolving the suspension. Since F is a fourth interval above C, the second
suspension is also a 4-3 suspension. The note 0 that appears briefly on the fourth beat
(called a neighboring tone or returning tone) is merely a decoration added to make the
example even more familiar to the ear, often used to parody the musical style of J. S.
Bach.
Though a roundabout way to approach the definition of the 7-3 resolution, at least
some light has been shed on the nature of a "resolution" and the notion that they are
, sometimes categorized in a numerical fashion (i.e., 4-3 or 9-8). In jazz, the setting for the
7-3 resolution is most often a harmonic progression of 11-7 to V7, though the setting is
sometimes V7 to I. Unlike the Bach example, we are now simply concerned with the
smooth connection (voice-leading) of two chords, especially with respect to melodic,
rather than harmonic, implications.
6 _ The only difference between the suspension and the appoggiatura is that the latter doesn't require the preparation or 'tied'
entrance of the former.
19
20
G" G'
-
~ ~ ...
i
~
J
II
In the above examples, the 7-3 resolution is shown in both the II-7 to V7 setting and the
V7 to I setting. In both situations the seventh (b7) of the first chord resolves to the third
(3) of the second chord, hence the 7-3 designation. In our study we will be focusing more
on the II7-V7 melodic realizations than on the V7-1 possibilities. Note that both the Bach-
type example and the 7-3 examples have resolutions of a half-step down, yet Bach's were
called 4-3 instead of 7-3. This is because there is no suspension or appoggiatura, where
the 4-3 takes place against a single chord.
Our primary reason for utilizing the 7-3 resolution (besides the fact that it sounds
logical and good) in improvised melodies is to increase our change-running efficiency. In
change-running we saw that it was frequently the case that 4-7 notes were used to sound
a single chord (arpeggiation). In the 7-3 resolution, we can use only 2 notes, yet imply
two chords (1 note per chord)!
Illustrations
.. ~
.,
3
~
12
81.
(tla.ssitt)


-:I.
..
Play this example on keyboard or with another player (one on each part). Notice how
complete and functional it sounds. Play it in various chord/key sequences, such as:
... II
~
~
A ~
~
J
&8.
-

"*
t

~
i;:t.
=ii
"I
l ,
, ~ , :
~ I '
t

i
f··
!f
"
i S9
,
U
bi
cl
rr


Ir
Vi
T
p
c
s
c

11
a
F
(

,
"Even without the bass notes, which provide chord roots, the principle continues to work,
, ••, because we are so accustomed to hearing the device with the bass notes that our ear
, ,i memory supplies the root sounds even when the roots are not being sounded by a
•• ; player. Consider, for example, the melody of "Round Midnight" (Thelonious Monk),
, ',' which uses 7-3 resolutions six times in the first eight bars. Five of them are shown in the
'.,.' following excerpt:
!
,
I
r
f
I
,
EP-7
r----
r---' = 1-.3 rtsolUl"ion
I Unquestionably the melody sounds more complete with the accompanying chords and
! bass notes, but if the melody is played without accompaniment, the listener will sense the
~ chord-types and chord sequences, as they are strongly implied by the structure of the
'. melody, which utilizes both change-running (bars 3 and 5) and 7-3 resolutions (bars 4 and
i 5-6) Baritone saxophonist Gerry Mulligan led a quartet in the 50's and 60's that did not
, include piano or guitar. Instead it consisted of baritone saxophone, trumpet (replaced by
" valve trombone when Bob Brookmeyer was a member of the group), bass, and drums.
This keyboard-less instrumentation was fresh and unencumbered in sound, but it also
presented a problem, one that Mulligan was well-equipped to solve (being a
composer/arranger didn't hurt). The trumpet could play the melody, the bassist could
supply a bass line (mostly roots and fifths, but also scalar at times), and the drummer
could function in his normal way. But what was Mulligan to play on a 'single-line'
instrument that would close the harmonic gap between melody and bass line? A glance
at the following example, the first six bars of the bridge (8 section) of Mulligan's "Line
For Lyons", will reveal that Mulligan made exclusive use of 7-3 resolutions.
~
!iii
j
~
"1F# .. "'_+

-"
~ l
r - - - --;, r - - - - ~
'1 !
r------ll
'1 .3
,.,.
i"I1
I
I
I 9 ~ . bcti.
ii
1 ~
,
~
I[ •
ij'tj
's:-
j.
~
"
I
J
,
i
I bo.ss
1-
1-
c.-.'
F.'
~
KU
!-,
~ ,
A-' 'b"
11:
,
,
21
~
·1':"
22
Notice that Mulligan melodicaly embellishes the 7-3 resolutions in the third and fifth ,Geo
measures. Our task, then, is to explore the variety of ways in which the 7-3 resolution
can be enhanced by melodic embellishment. Often the 3rd of the minor seventh chord
will be pulled into the embellishment (along with the 7th, of course), since both the 3rd
and 7th are crucial notes for determining or establishing chord-types. The following \95.
examples both use the 3rd of the minor seventh chord to embellish the 7-3 resolutions:
"Dansero"
Art
~
'7
~ i""'"
.,
~
i"""'
3 3
3
91.
"
~
:J :J
""
...
-
"1_c:i -
fi
- "1_"
96.

Counter-melody/ostinato to "The Continental"
. -Cli
Q
5
3 ~
.., 3
92.
t.4
$
P.
.. -.
....
I
'7.
Examples From Recorded Solos CI
Because the 7-3 resolution is such a natural, commonplace device, examples abound
and they are very easy to recognize, especially if you are willing to search out the ones
which are earlier or later than the exact point where the 11-7 arrives at the V7 chord
(there are many of those), the ones which are created by a soloist who changes the 91
dominant seventh (V7) into a 11-7 to V7 cell, and the ones that are highly-decorated.
When searching for examples, start by checking all points in the progression where a II-V
progression exists (those are the easiest to locate).
Sam Jones, bass ("It Could Happen To You")
G-'f
c." and Ia.+er in the .solo: G-'
c'
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Stardust")
s
I
1
, 'r
,':
(
•. George Benson, guitar ("Billie's Bounce")
m
i
1
t Art Farmer, trumpet ("Blue Bossa")
::1
1
. t!1. " +q
~ r ~ ~ ~ ?
J 9
1 6.
! .
,
,
~
,
~
:
,
,
~
D4 ..
J

rl:
...
J 'Clifford Brown, trumpet ("Confirmation")
(
.
,
,
::31 .
31 97.
~
-
I[
"
~ .
c
,
Clifford Brown, trumpet ("The Blues Walk")
Kenny Dorham, trumpet ("Recordame")
Horace Silver, piano ("Gregory Is Here")
23
r
24
Charles (Charlie, "Yardbird," "Bird") Parker, alto saxophone ("Confirmatiori")

Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("Yardbird Suite")
,8_'1 AA
Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone ("Airegin")
F'
-- ..

.

103.
-AI
I
Numbers can be convincing, so it should be of interest to learn that Parker used fifteen
7-3 resolutions in his two solo choruses on "Confirmation". On "Eternal Triangle", Sonny
Rollins used thirty-one 7-3 resolutions in his five choruses, and Sonny Stitt played
sixteen 7-3 resolutions in his eight choruses.
Ways to Practice/Ingrain
Study the preceding examples given here (93-103). Learn to play them in all keys, then
practice them with exercise tracks and tunes on play-alongs that contain a large number
of II-V cells. When using play-alongs that are in stereo, with bass on one channel and
piano on the other, try turning off the piano channel, giving you the opportunity to test
your effectiveness with· using 7-3 resolutions without chordal accompaniment. Try
improvising with no accompaniment, also, using the 7-3 resolutions to help you to hear
the progression.
"
Exercises
Use Track Z for all of the following.
.;
1Q4.
l.
i
,

I

I
!
!
t

!
,
I
f
[
!
i 105. ,
1
"
f
,
I
(-
,
,
I'
: 106.
,
[
,
,
,
k
1

!
I

! 106.
I
J
/I
1
-,
c.-"
tf

c.-?

I
A"
I
Ab'

I I
b
1
G-'

F"
tlJI


r
I
-


I
I

1
!
r c.-' f!''1 ab-
7
! 109.
!
I
!
f
,
,
"
(
,

I
25


l
.
:D-'
G'7
I II

1-'

I
I I
F_7
:sb
1
'



l

!1
=-

I
..
J-
26
Definition
CHAPTER 4

3- b9 refers to melodic motion from the 3rd of a dominant seventh chord to the flatted
9th of the same chord, an extremely common occurrence in improvised solos.
Sometimes the soloist will move from the 3rd up to the b9, sometimes from the 3rd down
to the b9.
Illustrations
3
Sometimes the soloist will leap (skip) from the 3rd to the b9, other times he/she will 'fill-
in' the gap with other notes from the chord or scale:
111.
(;'1
3
01":
G'J
3

GIf
1-,.. ......
or:
3 H

Some of the devices presented in this book connect easily to one or more other
devices, so that in analysis, we frequently encounter very brief phrases that will contain
several devices that are in quick succession, interlocking/overlapping, or simultaneous.
The 7--3 resolution and 3-b9 present our first opportunity to observe that potential (there
will be other combinations discussed and observed later in the study). The 7-3 resolution,
by definition, ends on the 3rd of the dominant chord. Therefore that 3rd could now
proceed to the b9, causing the two devices to overlap, with the 3rd serving as both the
resolution tone of the 7-3 and the beginning of the 3- b9:
1- '3
111.

I
".
I •
or:
7
6'1
-lo'f
!!!
-
" ,
,
..

!
Ii
..
{
-;;
"
'!
,
"'1-
,
t
,
I
i
'i
,
j
I
I
,
,
,
,
,
!
"
\
..
,
,
i:
1,
;
Experience has taught this author that the most effective illustrations we encounter in
the learning process are those which are the most familiar, so that we can associate the
definition with something already known. For example, a major triad's structure and
sound can be quickly communicated by relating it to the first five notes of our national
anthem, and the 1-2-3-5 pattern can be related tq the first four notes of
"The Tennessee Waltz" (especially in this author's neck of the woods!):
G 3
I I 2. 3
~
I
+
Therefore the best illustrations of the 3- b9 device, for the learning jazz musician, are
more likely to be contained in melodies to widely-known jazz compositions, which we
hear and play more often than the content of recorded solos, though both are needed.
Hence the following examples should prove useful.
Measure #8 of "Billie's Bounce" (Charles Parker)
Measures #14-16 of "Ornithology" (Charles Parker)
114.
3
-
3 ~ ~ r - r
,..
5 _ fI
JIg
oJ. ¢
;
-

27
28
Measure #7 of "Thriving From A Riff"/"Anthropology" (Charles Parker)
r
Measures #2-3, 12, 16, and 29 of "Donna Lee" (Charles Parker)

If J .. ...
jI[
~
J
~
Measures #8 and 10 of "Mayreh" (Horace Silver)
malQ
111.
Measure #26 of "Dig" (Miles Davis)
C"
118.
-
Measure #3 of "Doxy" (Sonny Rollins)
C" H
119.
m£4.11. F'
"
f
; ~
,
!
,
,
).
Examples From Recorded Solos
Ray Brown, bass ("Blues For Basie")


Scott LaFaro, bass ("Nardis")
3
1
, ~
~ ~ .,.

121.
-=1[


.,
-
.
Jim Hall, guitar ("You'd Be So Nice To Come Home To")
Af D'p ~ ' i
3
121.
Slide Hampton, trombone ("Moontrane")
'"
11!.
. ~ r
;....,..
~
_ ~ 3


Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("Moose The Mooche")
29
30
Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("K.C. Blues")
E"
Phil Woods, alto saxophone ("Airegin")
A"
McCoy Tyner, piano ("Birdlike")
F" ll"
3 171
Bill Evans: piano ("Israel", 1970 recording)
C'
Bill Evans, piano ("I Hear A Rhapsody")
G' e" f'
I1If 3 blf
Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("Up Jumped Spring")
j)"
1So.
I
.:
,
,"
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Most Like Lee")
e.' A ~
3
~ ~ 3
1S1.
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("Nica's Dream")
Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone ("I Know That You Know")
1)"
3
135.
Sonny Stitt, tenor saxophone ("By Accident")
Also review examples 97, 101, and 102 in the 7-3 resolution section of this book, as
they are examples of 7-3 resolutions that connect with 3-b9 patterns.
Ways to Practice/Ingrain
Study the foregoing examples. Play them in all keys. Practice them in logical
sequences, especially the cycle of fifths. The harmonic settings that are most appropriate
are dominant seventh chords, dominant seventh chords moving around the cycle of
fifths, 11-7 to V7 cells moving downward in whole steps, and UIZ to V7 (alt.) movi!1g
downward in whole steps. Find play-along tunes and exercise tracks with which to
practice the 3- b9 device.
31
32

ClSeS Exer

c·' (or Co') F"
e.
b
'
con+inut Qno
Ab-'

Ft-'
!"
b.
..
..
,

R
II
t:J[
.

e .,
-
-'7
.,
"
Co"
(8)
can-t'tnu£. 1'ra.ck Ba.
13&.
e '


II

!:JI


-4 tZ1 ..
... pt
7

b
7 - the letters of the root sequence for Track M is the same as that for Track Y (C, F, Bb, Eb, Ab, etc.). The only
difference is that M uses half-diminished chords(¢') in place of minor seventh chords (-7) and altered dominants in place
of the unaltered dominants (7).
8 - since it will probably be necessary for the player to change registers rather frequently on #138, the change can occur on
the last 8th note (C# in this example) or wait until the 2nd note of the next bar, dropping down to the F (in this
particular key). The latter would make for a smaller interval to execute, but the former causes the arpeggiation of the
dominant (B b) to be entirely ascending. Either can be used, effectively.
" j
"
N"
r
,
C ..
f;'
'. ,
" .,',
,.
,
,
i
.
,
,
,
,
,
I
,

I
. f

i
,
!
,
i
I
,
!
I
t
r
i
r
t

:,

"

"
" !
1
!
,
,
I

1:-
,
,
,
r
,
,
i ,
,
,
,
r
I
t
,
J
Definition
CHAPTER 5
BEBOP SCALE
A common scale (major, dorian, or mixolydian, usually) that has one specific
chromatic tone (non-harmonic) added, causing the scale to have eight notes, rather than
the usual seven. The discovery of the scale's existence in improvised solos, as well as the
designated term for the scale, are credited to David Baker, who has written much about
the scale and its use in HOW TO PLAY BEBOP.9 The development of the scale,
historically, came about as a result of the need to use an eight-nqte scale, instead of a
seven-note scale, in order to fit a 4/4 time signature (which can be consumed by 8 eighth-
notes). In other words, the bebop scale will equal four beats, instead of the three and
one-half beats that result from using a seven-note scale.'
The added chromatic note in the major scale is the half-step between the fifth and sixth
degrees of the scale. In the dorian scale, the added note is the half-step between the
third and fourth degree, and in the mixolydian scale it's the half-step between the seventh
degree and the octave of the first degree.
+

::J
I[

:t

.... - - .
-6-
II + +

i-po
::q
-11- 11-
-""'''''
""
beb C C. +
1'1 +

1L
1I1==i=I
:1 _ •
I
g

Two surprising facts emerge when studying the bebop scale: (1) the added chromatic
note, with respect its specificity, is consistent with what we find in analyzing
transcribed solos; and (2) the added note, in the case of the dorian and mixolydian, is the
perfect anachronism to the chord quality with which it is used; that is, a major third
against a minor seventh chord or a major seventh against a dominant seventh are
precisely the notes we generally consider to be contrary to the chord quality.
Though Baker claims the scale originates with bebop players of the likes of Charles
Parker and Dizzy Gillespie in the mid-forties, there were, to be certain, much earlier
precedents. To cite one well-known example, consider the typical introduction of the
march:
C"
+
i!

.
:1
....
.... ..
9 _ see Bibliography, page 142
33
34
To cite another example, Louis Armstrong played the following phrase in 1927 on
"Hotter Than That":
~ ~ .
..
~ +
Ii
d
~
Nonetheless, Baker is perfectly accurate in saying that the intensified use of the bebop
scale begins in the Bebop Era (1940-1950) of jazz. It is important to understand that a
player's use of the bebop scale need not include only those phrases in which the entire
scale is played. A very brief phrase, say 3-4 notes, which includes the designated
chromatic note is already implying bebop scale use.
Because of the nature of the scale and the examples used to define the scale here, we
will dispense with the customary illustrations and move on to recorded examples.
Examples From Recorded Solos
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Giant Steps")
139.
McCoy Tyner, piano ("Birdlike")
J)tf +
140.
., .'
Bill Evans, piano ("I Love You")
FA
141.
+
,
,
" ,
I
i
\
~

\
r
r
,
i
i
I
,
,
1
"
t
1

I
1
I
!
t
i
!
!

,
,

John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Countdown")
(in all this bebop scale pattern occurs 21 times during Coltrane's 8-chorus solo on this
16-bar tune)
142.
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Countdown")
G"
+
143.
Michael Brecker, tenor saxophone ("Freight Trane")
Gtf
+
144.
Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone ("I Know That You Know")
F.'
145.
Sonny Stitt, tenor saxophone ("Eternal Triangle")
Jr" +
146.
35
36
Randy Brecker, trumpet ("Gregory Is Here")
:D-
If
141.
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Hot House")

Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("It's You Or No One")
F'7
+

Blue Mitchell, trumpet ("Silver's Serenade")

150.

J.J. Johnson, trombone ("Tune Up")

151.


+
1:
,
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
(
i
,;
I
,
,
Ray Brown, bass ("Blues For Basie")
152,


Paul Chambers, bass ("This Can't Be Love")
+
37
38
Exercises
corrtinut .
154.
,
,


155.
Also p(Qc.+ice. \n c9c.le. ot ti+-ths (1(o..cl< N)
,( fc.ck M(
Also around (1ro..ek N)
151.
(1(CLJnd de (1ra.ck 1\\)
c.
rJ
(or
IORemember, when practicing 158-163 with Tracks Q and R, that those tracks will begin on C-7, not G-7 (as shown here), so the
first note of 158, for example, will be F, rather than C.
:'.
,
,
i:
,', 11
C' (or G-")
n
iifi!!!!


-111..

!1i
Now prQ.C'hce.. a.roLlnd (1ra.cks \I. R)
:,.

:it

: -(J
Iii
New Q.roond (1r-a.ckS V t e)
!lb' (or
"

·161.

I:


. 162.
n
k. " II


jI
Now pY"Clc:hce as (-1Y-a..c.I<s V Q)
c." or
Now pr'a..c:fice. o..s c.jc.\e. V e)

. ' ..
r
nt
2Jt::
J


8-
1ra.cks -
e,an,f'lnut.

Con-rinul2.
1ra.cks -


{ra.cks -
COn1'\nUL
39
40
Definition
CHAPTER 6
BEBOP LICK
The bebop lick is a specific melodic phrase, generally taking place on dominant
seventh and minor seventh chords, and closely related to the bebop scale, using a
portion of that scale in its structure. As in the case of most of the devices contained in
this book, the bebop lick evolved naturally, in the historical sense, not being studied or
taught until recent years. Once again, David Baker was responsible for its discovery,
name, and use, through his careful analysis of many improvised solos from the Bebop
Era forward. The most typical form of the bebop lick is:
~ +
J
,
Other, nearly related forms, of the melody are:
C ~ (or G-')
+ + +
+
- ~ -
I[
;:

Once again, because of the specific nature of the bebop lick, we will dispense with
theoretically created illustrations and move on to recorded examples.
Examples From Recorded Solos
McCoy Tyner, piano ("Birdlike")
I
I
,
~ ' ,
,
-
-
1
i.
i
I
I
Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("Au Privave")
l:)'1
Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, alto saxophone ("Green Dolphin Street")
Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, alto saxophone ("Straight, No Chaser")
F-' !b'1
Phil Woods, alto saxophone ("Airegin")
n - ~
~
~
I
~ ..
168.
~
Chet Baker, trumpet ("Autumn Leaves")
C-, F ~
I 1
169.
41
42
Randy Brecker, trumpet ("Gregory Is Here")

Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Hot House")
,
I
111.
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Speed Ball")
F-' .sb'7
I I
112..
-
Clark Terry, flugelhorn/trumpet ("Straight, No Chaser")
:b-'
,,.-.-------.,
17.3.
Clifford Brown, trumpet ("Pent -Up House")
A'1
174.
t'
,
1 ~ B .
George Coleman, tenor saxophone ("Maiden Voyage")
:87,
1 ~ 5 .
Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone ("Eternal Triangle")
1 ~ 6 .
Sonny Stitt, tenor saxophone ("By Accident")
Gtt
,
I
1 ~ 7 .
---
~ .. ~
,
Ways to Practice/Ingrain
I
The bebop lick is an easily acquired item, due to its brevity and simplicity of structure.
It is nonetheless a valuable addition to the player's style. Be sure to learn ways to
integrate the lick into linear substance as well. Note that many of the examples given
here weave the bebop lick into an ongoing line, preceded and left by non-bebop lick
substance. Begin, however, by learning the lick (motive) in its isolated form, against
exercise tracks and tunes which have a preponderance of minor seventh chords and
dominant seventh chords. Another interesting way to apply the bebop lick against
dominant seventh chords is to use it as a means of playing tri-tone substitutions (or
altered dominants), an element that will be taken up later in this book:
43
44
Exercises
119.
181.

I

,,+1
(impliu CtS fX" G )
"
1&Z.
-"



e"
+4
('Implies or
/I
1B!.
I!
:1

v·,'
c.'
F'
- '---

,
+,

fls or :5')
'-
-="" ....
11=



I
r-

+If
:Db' (implies or r:/')
I


,.

I
cottl'inUl1ra.ck
,
-i-'
I

,
"
I
i
,
com-inl1& {fDt.k V J
,
,
,
continu .. 1'rnclc U ,,'
,
,
,
.' ;,

"
,
,
"
,
I
,
i,
f
l) ...
Definition
CHAPTER 7
HARMONIC GENERALIZATION
Harmonic generalization occurs when an improviser chooses one scale to
accommodate two or more chords of a progression.
Illustrations
The simplest illustration of harmonic generalization is the use of the tonic (I) major
scale against chords which call for a derivative of that major scale. For example, a D-7
chord (II of C) is usually interpreted with a D dorian scale, which is a C major scale that
is re-circulated from D (D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D). A G7 chord uses, among other
possibilities, a G mixolydian scale, which again, is a C major scale beginning on G. Hence
a progression of D-7, G7, could be realized by simply playing a C major scale or a
pattern on that scale (especially non-terminal patterns). There won't be any 'wrong'
notes, though the emphasis of particular scale degrees may not always be in accordance
with the particular chord of the moment. This same principle could be used to
accommodate other chords in the key of C, such as E-7, A-7, and B¢.
Another approach to harmonic generalization would be to use a pentatonic scale,
which by definition has only five notes. This reduces the risk of colliding pitches and
opens up the possibility of searching for notes that are common to several successive
chords. For example, a C pentatonic scale (C, D, E, G, A) will fit
A-7, D-7, G-7, C7, G7(sus. 4), D7(sus. 4), and a Gb7 (+5, b9) with not one
colliding ('wrong') note! Therefore, if the improviser encounters two or more adjacent
chords in a progression that are from the foregoing list of ten chords, one pentatonic
will accommodate them.
Still another means of achieving harmonic generalization is to use the blues scale over
a section of a tune. Because we are accustomed to hearing a single blues scale over the .
various chords of a blues, that phenomenon can be transferred to other, non-blues
progressions. Charles Parker favored using the blues scale over the last four measures of
the 'A' sections of "I Got Rhythm" ("Rhythm Changes"), though there are 4-8 different
chords transpiring during those four measures (depending upon the particular variation
of progression that is being used). Other types of harmonic generation are engendered
by fast tempos, short chord durations, and complex chord structures. The most
common of these is the improviser's use of the harmonic minor scale of the tonic (I) to
accommodate the II-V-I progression in a minor key. Now we have encountered a form of
harmonic generalization in which there are colliding notes. All three of the chords of the
. II-V-I in a minor key require different scales (unlike the II-V-I in major):
II¢
locrian, or
locrian #2, or
lydian augmented
from the b5
V7 (+5, +9)
diminished-whole tone, or
lydian augmented from the
major 3rd
J-
ascending melodic
minor, or harmonic
minor, or dorian, or
lydian augmented from the b3
45
46
Hence a comparison between a single harmonic minor scale and what has been
rendered in the above listing would yield the following results (collision tones are
symbolized by +)
correct'
.sca.les
Charm.
minor
+ +
+1
G ~ 5
c.-
+ +
-+
Now before the reader jumps to the conclusion that this sort of harmonic
generalization is ill-advised, understand that it does work, though less than ideal and
risky to use, for a certainty. The three considerations that make it a modified success
are: (1) most II-V-J progressions in minor transpire about twice as quickly (shorter chord
durations) as their major counterpart; (2) although each of the three chords requires a
different scale, the sum total of the effect on the hearer is a minor key; and (3) most
players instinctively avoid the collision tones, perhaps because their ears warn them in
advance of the potential danger.
Closely related to the foregoing type of harmonic generalization, still another variation
comes about when an improviser combines the II and V chords in a minor key (but not
the I chord) under a single diminished scale. Again, there are collision tones present, but
it can and does work, especially in the hands of the more capable improviser.
correct
.5ca..Jes
dim.
Sca.le.
+ +
+ +
,
.
,
"
..
:3 ...•
:3 ..
Examples From Recorded Solos
Chet Baker, trumpet ("Autumn Leaves")
A+ (G harm. min.)
1BS.
Art Farmer, trumpet ("Blue Bossa")
• f\,+q
e. (D harm. min.) n+S
Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("Clarence's Place")
lI+
q
]+5 (G ha.rm. min.) G -
181.
A ~ (G harm. min.
Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("Anthropology")
Joe Henderson, tenor saxophone ("Song For My Father")
(G blues scale.) D" I"!-
G- F1 Eb" \::I
189.
47
48
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("Remember")
,,' "I\,+q
M (A dim. .JJ+I
190.
Sonny Stitt, tenor saxophone ("Eternal Triangle")
(A dim. scale)
C
l1
A' lr' G'
191.
Sonny Stitt, tenor saxophone ("By Accident")
(A dim. scale)
19l.
Keith Jarrett, piano ("Forest Flower")

EpA (Bb r t:li')
open Q; onlc.
193.
I[

I[

A'
t--
Q.
3
Though too lengthy to reprint in this study, the reader is encouraged to investigate
transcriptions of Randy Brecker (trumpet) on Horace Silver's recording of "Liberated
Brother", and Stanley Turrentine (tenor saxophone) on his recording of "Sugar." Both
are excellent examples of harmonic generalizations that use the blues scale almost
exclusively over their entire solo lengths.
Ways to Practice/Ingrain
It's difficult for this author to suggest the seeming 'cop-out' of learning to play harmonic
generalizations. Most students have the opposite problem, namely that of learning to be
thorough with working up the 'correct' scales for every situation. Nonetheless, it's also
important to learn 'fudging' short cuts for those times when it is truly unreasonable to do
" ".
f,
f

I
r
t
I
!:
(:

<,
f;

\
I
\
194.
195.
otherwise. In time, harmonic generalization may become, rather than a 'cop-out', an
effective option to smooth out a solo, or break the monotony of 'making all the· changes',
especially in long solos on fast-moving chord progressions. In using play-alongs, while
practicing harmonic generalization, it will be noticed that one has to play against the
grain; that is, the play-along rhythm section can't hear you, can't accommodate the way
you're playing, and will continue to play the regular progression, of course. This can be
very distracting, in the case of the student who is trying to learn to use harmonic
generalization. A good, live rhythm section would probably change their approach as
they become aware of what you're attempting, which makes it easier for you. Yet it is
good training for the young improviser to learn to play against the grain, being a
challenge for the ears. Furthermore a less-than-good live rhyth
ITl
section may not
understand what you're attempting, so that you may have to play against the grain even
more strenuously than what was necessary with the play-alongs!
Learn to recognize particular chord successions in which a change of scale is
unnecessary. Chords which simply move diatonically (i.e., C, 0-7, E-7, F, etc.), are easy
to spot and are prime targets for harmonic generalization. The progression of G-7 to Bb
major (as in the second and third chords of Chick Corea's "500 Miles High") use the
same scale. A- to F # ¢ (also in "500 Miles High") doesn't require a change of scale, nor
does C- to B7(+5, +9), the last two chords of the same tune. The two-chord
vamp/ostinato of C- to Db maj. (+4), or Db maj. (+4) to C-, can both be realized with an
Eb major pentatonic scale. That combination of chords is used at the beginning of Wayne
Shorter's "Speak No Evil" and the beginning of Chick Corea's "What Was." Re-read the
,.
illustrations of this section for more examples of opportunities for harmonic
generalization.
Exercises
Using Track CC, improvise over the II¢ -V7(+5, +9) - 1-.0.
notes from the scales shown in Exercises 194-195.
+1 l
progression, using only
C' f!! !b-
41
B'"
f
(ruckCC
I
tJ
con
-(J

IJ
.,

-j
:t!
• •

b-z,- +- '" r ... •
Lew Harmonic. minor-) __ ----II L lAb Ha.rmonic. tninor) __ --JI
n
(J



'1-8

.au '+ '" .... +" ....
I -6- 'v
• .DD .-
L (c. diminished)--.J [ (fib Q.sc. L (13
b
diminished).-J
... continuo.. 1ra.ck C C
L (AP me.\odic. minor) J
49
50
Definition
CHAPTERS
ENCLOSURE
An enclosure is a linear or melodic device in which an object note is approached by
both the upper and lower leading tones. The object note is the eventual note aimed for
by the improviser. An upper leading tone is one-half step above that object note and the
lower leading tone is one-half step below the object note. An enclosure is, then:
UPPER LEADING TONE - LOWER LEADING TONE - OBJECT TONE
Illustrations
In notation, the classic enclosure would be:
upptr l:t.
lawe\" \.t. obj£C.1' note. (no1'£. of chord.)
In the strictest sense, the following are close to being an enclosure, but are not, though
the person who analyzes solos will frequently encounter them:
,
"
Enclosures, however, are often decorated/embellished, causing the device to be of a
length greater than three notes, especially the following example:
upper \:1".

I
objed noie.
\:t. J.
f) e
It was mentioned earlier in the book that sometimes elements of the jazz language
carry the potential for being quickly successive, overlapping, and/or interlocking. The
following example combines six elements in one 2-measure phrase! (The element
"CESH" will be taken up a little later in the book.)
E'
B-? CESt-t
r bebop sc.ale /liC.'l
""1'1"3UI"e. I
I
I
-:,c::::. 1f. IJ-' '*"



;J
L..-.
-
'j .

i
i
I
I

,
,
l
!.
I
,
,
j"

[
I •
,
"
!
51
Examples From Recorded Solos
George Benson, guitar ("Billie's Bounce")

I
" .
Louis Armstrong, trumpet ("Hotter Than That")
Flc.
I
I
197.

I
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Hot House")
+4
:b\s
Tom Harrell, trumpet ("Adjustment")

I
I
"
199.

Jit

Booker Little, trumpet ("You Stepped Out of a Dream")
j I
52
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Sidewinder")
G-'7
r--_
lO1.
Fats Navarro, trumpet ("Ladybird")
20Z.
Wayne Shorter, tenor saxophone ("Gingerbread Boy")
G ~ ?
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("This I Dig Of You")
G ~
Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone ("Airegin")
Stanley Turrentine, tenor saxophone ("Sugar")
£1+1
~
I'
i ,
,
I
I
I
,
r
~
i
,
,
f
,
"
,
'.-
Oscar Pettiford, bass ("T ricotism")

I
Paul Chambers, bass ("Blue Spring")

208.

1
• I:

Chick Corea, piano ("Matrix")
c."
1L
Bill Evans, piano ("I Love You")

,
I I

I
Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("Confirmation")

Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("Yardbird Suite")
AA
53
I
I
54
213.
Z14.
215.
216.

To give the reader a better notion, with respect to the frequency of enclosures, Sonny
Rollins used the example shown here (205) a total of five times in his solo on "Airegin".
Clifford Brown used thirty-five enclosures in his four-chorus solo on "Confirmation", and
Clark Terry used seventeen enclosures in his seven blues choruses on "Straight, No
Chaser", four of them transpiring in the first chorus.
Ways to Practice/Ingrain
As was the case with the bebop scale, the best way to learn the enclosure would be to
study Baker's HOW TO PLAY BEBOP, which has many examples and suggestions for
practice.
Exercises
Then convert 213 to minor chords, practicing with Tracks G & I. Convert 214 to minor
and with Tracks H & J.
/I
I
+P "' ....
fi
+-
Ji ;;r'" 1_ ::I:
UJ

:Jt:

-+-
"
I
218.
- ....
'i
l-
+-
Now convert 217 to minor and practice with Tracks 0 & Q. Convert 218 to minor and
practice with Tracks P & R.
i'
e
r
I
i
!
f
I
I ,
!
,


,

,
<\
"
,
r.,
fig.
Definition
CHAPTER 9
SEQUENCE
A sequence occurs when a melodic fragment is immediately followed by one or more
variations on that same fragment. The practice of using sequences in music, be it written
or improvised, is both natural and learned. It is natural in the sense that once the ear has
experienced a new motive, we tend to want to hear it again, either in a precise repetition
or in a variation. Improvisers, songwriters, and classical composers study the
multifarious techniques of variation, which generally leads to sequences, as a means of
providing cohesion to their creative outpourings. Even if they dort't study those
techniques, however, sequences are a natural tendency.
Perhaps more than any other element taken up in this book, the sequence is
appropriate to the definition of the jazz language. Items such as digital patterns, 7-3
resolutions, 3-b9, enclosures, etc., are like letters and words of the language, whereas
sequences are more like complete thoughts, sentences, and chains of thought. And
sequences consume more space in music, as some sort of repetition is employed. It is
the practice of using sequences that also lends much-needed communication with the
listener, who perceives, even predicts, such occurrences.
The motives used for sequences may be long or short, and they may be melodic,
rhythmic, harmonic, or based on a provocative interval. Sometimes the sequential
occurrence of the motive is simple and transparent. Other times it may be heavily-
decorated and disguised, perhaps escaping the conscious awareness of the listener, but it
is nevertheless sensed in some subtle way.
Examples From Recorded Solos
J.J. Johnson, trombone ("Out Of Nowhere")






55
56
J ,J, Johnson, trombone ("I'll Remember April")
G4
220.

:_";!' :!
-"-

It-
..
_I
G-
.,
t

:!'"


-- ..
J
Slide Hampton, trombone ("Moontrane")
c.-'I
221.
Jimmy Blanton, bass ("Body and Soul")
C., 'Btt
222.
Slam Stewart, bass ("Just You, Just Me")
L G. e"
V b-
223.
,-

I[b.
_L .,.....-
, .

,
Scott LaFaro, bass ("Nardis")
A-' F=A
224.
+ .. -
11-1.



Stanley Clarke, bass ("500 Miles High")
E-

---
#I
••
..
FfI.'
.-.
I,.

..
--
L
iiiiiii

---

.. t.:--
.. - ..
!
!
I
!
!
;
!
I
t
I
l
,
I
I
i
i
,
I
I
f
t
I
, '\ Miles Davis, trumpet ("So What")
E-'
226.
t4
i-
-4'
7
±" Clifford Brown, trumpet ("Pent -up House")
f .', E.
1f
-



- 'I
-
227.
Woody Shaw, trumpet ("Child's Dance")
,
Kenny Dorham, trumpet ("Recordame")
c.-'7



,
-
-
,q,



-- . ,
57
58
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Hot House")
e:+
3
Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("Sky Dive")
231.
Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("An Oscar For Treadwell")
Joe Zawinul, piano ("Eurydice")
Horace Silver, piano ("Gregory Is Here")
c·"
c.-"
,
r
,
,
:;
,
,
(
59
Chick Corea, piano ("What Was")
~ .. 235.
.. ~
~
..
I.
.. 1'1
~
~
~
J
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Trane's 510 Blues")
Joe Henderson, tenor saxophone("Song For My Father")
~ ...

Joe Henderson, tenor saxophone ("No Me Esqueca/"Recordame")
ell c.-? F" 1 J ~ A
,
-L -.-
a
,.
"
I
r
-
~ ~ Fl
:Q
J r
,
60

Though virtually all improvisers employ sequences in their solos, some players are
inclined toward using them very consistently throughout all of their solos. Players to be
investigated from the latter category should include J. J. Johnson, Joe Henderson,
Kenny Dorham, Horace Silver, Randy Brecker, Wes Montgomery, and Bill Evans,
among others.
Ways To Practice/Ingrain
The first and 'most crucial need to be met is the acquired ability to play any motive or
short melody in any key and with any chord-type. The successful realization of melodies
in sequences is absolutely dependent upon that ability to spontaneously adapt melodies
to fit any situation. Practice playing melodies to jazz tunes in all twelve keys. Play all
learned, borrowed, or invented motives in all keys. Learn to slightly alter them to fit
different chord-types. Practice playing a single motive and its variations throughout
complete chord progressions to tunes. Try to vary the rhythms somewhat and add or
delete notes here and there, to maintain a balance between the expected and the
unexpected. Study the examples from recorded solos given here, noticing the various
ways in which the sequences are handled. Sometimes you'll notice that the soloist simply
transposed the motive to a different key (see 222,223,231, and 238), other times the
motive remained the same (same notes) but against a different chord that had those
notes in common with the first chord (see 235), and some remained unchanged with
respect to pitches but were rhythmically altered (see 233). In example 232, Parker
retained the basic shape of the phrase, began each of the sequences on the same note
(G ;1:), though the chords were changing and began each successive G;I: a half-beat
earlier. In #219, J.J. Johnson uses a very short motive (two notes) and astutely alters the
motive to fit the sharply contrasting chords (G major - B b minor - G major). This
author's favorite examples are 229 and 230. Dorham's poigniant note choices for the
motive and the rhythmic variety contained in the sequences make it a superbly artistic
example. Gillespie's motive (based on the given melody of "Hot House") is highly
chromatic and complex, yet he weaves it masterfully through contrasting and rather
difficult chord-types. There are many other lessons to be learned from studying all of the
examples, and the reader should seek many more examples in transcribed solos.
Exercises
Because of the unspecific nature of the motives that might be used for sequences
(such motives might be based on patterns, intervals, melodies, etc.) and because
sequences often lie at the creative heart of improvised solos, it would be inappropriate to
assign specific motives for practice. In a sense, all exercises given up to this point have
been presented as sequences, in that they have been placed into sequential, repetitive
sequences (chromatic and cycle motions), which has unquestionably caused the reader
to be confronted with placing a given motive into all 12 keys, even transforming them to
become another chord-type (i.e., changing a pattern that was first presented as a major
chord idea into a minor chord version).
Nevertheless, it would be helpful at this point to begin collecting original motives,
examining each for its potential flexibility to fit various chord-types, learning to play them
in 12 keys, practicing them with appropriate play-along exercise tracks that
accommodate the various chord-types and durations, and then try using each in actual
tunes (perhaps on published play-along tunes at first) as sequences. Review the examples
from recorded solos (219-238), noting the melodic and rhythmic variations employed in
those examples of sequences.
,
·
·
i'
·
·
;.
I
Definition
I
CHAPTER 10
CESH
(pronounced "Kesh")
The word comes from the initials of Contrapuntal Elaboration of Static Harmony.
Though the term sounds like an unlikely prospect for the jazz language, it is a very
widely-used device.
"Static harmony" indicates that a single chord remains in place throughout the CESH.
"Contrapuntal elaboration" indicates that one member of the chord is in motion. There
are four varieties of CESH, illustrated below:
Illustrations
IN MINOR, WITH THE ROOT IN MOTION
G(
"
239.
~
*
.-
I
I
1 '1
IN MINOR, WITH THE FIFTH IN MOTION
G-
~
6
S +s 6 +5 b'1
or
Z40.
IN MAJOR, WITH THE ROOT IN MOTION
1 6
IN MAJOR, WITH THE FIFTH IN MOTION
G
5 ... S +5 b7
242.

61
62
If the reader will play these on a keyboard instrument, each example should sound
extremely familiar, bringing to mind a multitude of songs and improvised solo
fragments that have made use of CESH. Of the four varieties, the most common one
by far is #239 (in minor, with the root in motion), and that is the type upon which we
will focus for this segment. Sometimes an improviser will render an incomplete CESH;
that is, playa CESH, but not to the full extension shown in the illustration. At other
times the player will decorate or embellish a CESH to the point that the novice may
have difficulty recognizing it as such. Since the melodies to jazz tunes may be even
more familiar to the reader than the examples taken from solos, here are a few
excerpts from the jazz repertoire.
l1
"Groovin' High" (Gillespie), 3rd measure (also occurs in the 7th and 11th bars):
1 '1
243.
"Tenor Madness" (Rollins), 9th measure:
1 '1 6
fi l
244. :
~
,
..
--.
.,.. ~
r ...
~
"Bee-Bop" (Gillespie),. beginning of introduction:
1 b1 6
245.
11 _ a lengthy listing of standard tunes and jazz tunes which use CESH as part of their chord progressions is given on pp. 43-44 of
JAZZ KEYBOARD (Coker)
,
,
.
,','
"Confirmation" (Parker), beginning of bridge/B section:
c.-'
1
"Billie's Bounce" (Parker), 9th measure:
1 '1
247.
( c.")
p7
"Ornithology" (Parker), 7th measure (this same melodic fragment also appears in the
last two measures of the bridge of Parker's "Thriving From A Riff'/"Anthropology").
1 ..,
The supposed harmonic setting for a CESH to take place is a minor chord of long
duration. However, the examples from recorded solos will reveal that improvisers will
also use.CESH on 11-7 chords, V7 chords (the minor CESH will actually be built on the
fifth of the V7, as in G - on a C7), or the II-V in combination.
63
64
Examples From Recorded Solos
Bill Evans, piano ("Israel")
1
George Coleman, tenor saxophone ("Maiden Voyage")
HanK Mobley, tenor saxophone ("Remember")
251.
J
Sonny Stitt, tenor saxophone ("After Hours")

252.
Stanley Turrentine, tenor saxophone ("Cherry Point")
:::D-
If
i
.
,
,
,
..
.
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Blue Train")
A·' c,-'
b ., 1
254.
Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, alto saxophone ("The Way You Look Tonight")
(,If)
(l-" 1 '1 6
.. ...
..
..
255.

I)f- -
-
Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("K.C. Blues")
!-,
1 1 n 6
Clifford Brown, trumpet ("Pent -Up House")
25?
(G")
6
Kenny Dorham, trumpet ("Blue Bossa")
F-'
1 1 b7 6
Kenny Dorham, trumpet ("Woody n' You")
!b-"
1
/I

...
259.
::pl
\:.
...
I



65
66
Tom Harrell, trumpet ("Adjustment")


1 '1
__ ... I
0
""'
260.
I
Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("It's You Or No One")
1 '1
(GIJ)
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Sidewinder")

1
Fats Navarro, trumpet ("Barry's Bop")
"
,
263.
#


..
..
I
J.J. Johnson, trombone ("I'll Remember April")
t:D")
6
Paul Chambers, bass ("This Can't Be Love")
C."(G"")
" '1
6
265.
":j. "::JI:
..
"1£=-=:

6
I
Pi
-
G
, ,
,
, '
Z69.
! 210.
Paul Chambers, bass {"The Theme"}
(G"')
1 '1 6
Z66.
John Scofield, guitar {"Fresh Out"}
C-'
" b, 6
261.
Ways To Practice/Ingrain
CESH is a harmonic element and therefore has no specific way to be realized
melodically. Studying the examples from solos will show that there are some specific
melodic tendencies that are shared by various improvisers, and those should,be learned.
However, there is also quite a variety of ways to express a CESH device included in the
examples, and those should suffice to stimulate the reader's imagination as to the endless
possibilities. A starter list of CESH patterns to be practiced in all keys with play-along
exercises and tunes follows.
Exercises
c-
1
e,-
1
-f). :,ctt

c.-
1


I


b1 6
--'
I
'1
6
6
1i-
I
6
continue. .. Use (ra.cks 0 f Q.
confinut
l' 'R. ('9c:1t) for
2.6! - 2.t'f1
67
68
Definition
CHAPTER 11
QUOTES
Quote is a term used to label a phrase which comes from a known tune. It can take
place at any moment when the chord or progression cell of the tune being improvised
agrees with the harmonic setting in which the phrase originally occurred. Most often a
quote is a humorous interjection in an improvised solo, bordering on the ridiculous, but
nonetheless very communicative, as the hearer usually knows the tune being quoted and
the humorous implications are appreciated. At other times the quote happens somewhat
by accident, when in the middle of an improvised solo the player plays several successive
notes which coincide with the notes of a familiar melody. The improviser's mind/ear is
then reminded of the familiar tune that uses the same notes and proceeds to complete
the melody as a quote. Nearly all improvisers use quotes in their solos, but some players
use them to an exaggerated degree. One such player is Horace Silver, who not only uses
quotes in his solos, but even works them into his compositions.
Illustration
Composed melody of "Quicksilver" (Horace Silver) in the 13th measure (quote comes
from the old standard tune, "Oh You Beautiful Doll")
212.
~
1 C - ~ .,
II:
. . ~ .
~
~
.'
When analyzing solos, one can also expect to encounter a number of partial or implied
quotes, in which the analyzer cannot be entirely certain that the improviser intended or
stumbled into a quote. Even if we were to have the rare opportunity to interview the
player to confirm or deny a possible quote, it is doubtful that the moment in time could
be recreated substantially enough for the player to render the answer.
Examples From Recorded Solos
The examples given here will focus on quotes which come from other known melodies.
However, the reader should be advised that there are two other varieties of quotes
extant in recorded improvised solos; (I) quotes from the melody of the tune being played
at the moment; and (2) quotes from well-known solos by influential jazz artists.
Horace Silver, piano ("Silver's Serenade")
quote from: "I Love You"
f I
Z11
~ ~ ~
I
:It
,
(
(
!'
(later in same solo)
,. quote from: "Honeysuckle Rose"
274.
I L
l
I
Horace Silver, piano ("Nica's Dream")
quote from: "Down By The Riverside"
"
215.


7 (;;J •
:pi
is
po.
i1
""
Horace Silver, piano ("Gregory Is Here")

..,
quote from: Prelude in A Major, Op. 28, No.7 (Chopin)

Bill Evans, piano ("I Love You")
quote from: "March Of The Grenadiers"

FA
Sal a fI",&A.k - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ii\ G'
I'J I
Ii
..

+
69
1-
li=F*

It:=
J.

r;j'l •
-


70
Charles Parker, alto saxophone ("Anthropology")
quote from: "Honey"
(later in same solo)
quote from:"Tenderly"12.
2 ~ 9 .
Julian "Cannonball"Adderley, alto saxophone {"The Weaver"}
quote from: "Sippin' At Bells"
Julian "Cannonball" Adderley, alto saxophone {"Milestones"}
quote from: "Fascinatin' Rhythm"
e.-'
ZB1.
e."
Clifford Brown, trumpet ("Blues Walk") quote from: "Reuben, Reuben"
c."
282.
12 _ ten measures before the end of this same solo, Parker plays a six-measure quote from "Temptation."
,
'-.
r
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Hot House")
quote from: "Carmen" (opera by Bizet)

Freddie Hubbard, trumpet ("Up Jumped Spring")
quote from: "Carmen" (Bizet)
C}
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Perdido")
quote from: "Laura"
J.J. Johnson, trombone ("I'll Remember April")
quote from:-"Ivy"
C-'7
.Ie" -

286.

Jimmy Blanton, bass ("Body and Soul")
quote from: "The Man I Love"
eb-" ~ "
28t
-h
71
b .
, I
C. .'1

.JiL
ll
• ...... : ~
L
72
Paul Chambers, bass ("This Can't Be Love")
quote from:" Air Mail Special"
2ea.
~ l - I . l ~ h . ~
~

-
..
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("Nica's Dream")
quote from: "Hot House"
(later in solo) quote from: "Donna Lee"
~
~ h
t
Sonny Rollins, tenor saxophone ("Eternal Triangle") quote from: "Taps Miller"
.
R"
G" e.-'
1\ ,.,
....
..,..
.. : ~ :
:
!. .... ~
291.
~
Ways To Practice/Ingrain
Of all the elements of the jazz language, quotes are among the most difficult to learn.
It's easy enough to find the harmonic settings that will allow a quote to be inserted in a
solo, even to transpose and play the quote in some other key than the original (in order
to fit the key of the moment). The difficulty is in knowing tunes from which quotes may
be taken! Amidst the young, growing musicians of today there is a deplorable lack of
tune repertoire, a common complaint from contractors of musical engagements who hire
them (once, but never again). Without launching into a lengthy tirade with respect to the
plummeting level of musical quality in the musical venues, one has to wonder why Dizzy
Gillespie and Freddie Hubbard are familiar with the music of Bizet, why Horace Silver
can quote a Chopin Prelude, why Charles Parker should know a commercial standard
like "Honey", or why an egg head like Bill Evans should know "March of the
Grenadiers", to say nothing of the quotes which come from a wide variety of jazz
originals, as well as revered jazz solos on record. Has rock and roll music truly
electrocuted 2-3 generations of Americans to the point that they no longer know any
,I _,-
, k

" i
'.-
classical music, jazz, or blues? Has the economic 'crunch' on our school systems ended
all familiarity with our musical heritage forever? Are all of the future musicians on
commercial engagements of the future going to be 100% reliant upon the contents of
"The Real Book" and others like it? Only time will tell. But this author finds that his
students don't even know a quote when they hear one, simply because they have no
knowledge of jazz repertoire. Perhaps their quotes will have to emanate from Steely Dan,
Pink Floyd, or whoever is at the top of the charts at any particular point in time. The
whole point is, how is a student supposed to practice using quotes if he/she has nothing
from which to quote?
Exercises
As was the case in Chapter 9 (sequences), it would be inappropriate to assign specific
materials for practicing quotes, as the possibilities or sources are seemingly endless. A
quote might come from a standard tune, a jazz tune, someone's improvised solo on a
tune, an anthem, a hymn, a folk tune, a march,a children's song, a classical piece, a
theme or jingle from television, etc. However, players who use quotes well generally have
three important traits/skills in their personalities and performance abilities:
(1) a farcical, yet poetic, sense of humor;
(2) quick-witted reactions to events of the moment, along with the grace and
presence of mind to utilize those reactions in an imaginative way; and
(3) recognition of the harmonic setting that will accommodate the quote
being used.
Every possible interval has been used in the opening two notes of at least one familiar
tune, if not many. Hence the first two notes of an improvised phrase already shares that
opening interval with one or more known tunes. Even longer series of notes (3 or more)
are often shared by several known tunes. So when an improviser happens upon 2 or
more notes which occur in some other song(s), and he/she is familiar with the song,
quick-wittedness will enable the improviser to recognize the allusion and, perhaps, decide
to complete the allusion by executing the remainder of the phrase. The player may even
be moved to use the quote in a sequence, as was done by Horace Silver in example 274
(Chapter 10), for example.
Often the initial "allusion", whether planned or accidental, is made more obvious and
recognizable by playing it over the same harmonic setting in which the idea originally
occurred. For example, the first phrase of the standard tune, "Laura", utilized the
harmonic setting of II-V-I (in major). Therefore, any time a II-V-I progression occurs (and
there are many), the opening phrase of "Laura" becomes one of many possibilities for a
quote when playing another tune which uses the same progression. Dizzy Gillespie used
a quote from "Laura" in the bridge of "Hot House" (from the Jazz at Massey Hall
recording), and again in "Perdido" (see example 285) at the beginning of an A section,
both times at a point in which the progression was II-V-1. Obviously an improviser, in
order to become skilled at using quotes, must be (or become) observant enough to have
noticed the correlation between melodies and their harmonic settings.
The student who lacks an abundant repertoire could begin studying and borrowing
from the many examples provided in this chapter.
73
74
Definition
CHAPTER 12
"CRY ME A RIVER" LICK
The "Cry Me A River" Lick is a specific melodic fragment, named after the tune from
which it comes. The lick is the opening melodic statement of the tune, "Cry Me A River"
(see illustration below).
Illustrations
First 2 measures of "Cry Me A River"


The reader might wonder why the "Cry Me A River" lick merits its own segment of our
study, instead of simply being included along with the quotes of the previous segment.
There are two reasons: (1) the frequency of its use (and by all players); and (2) its
extraordinary versatility, capable of accommodating five different chord-types without
being altered!
..,'
-
,.. a
293,
I
".
Examples From Recorded Solos
accommodates: G-, C7, E¢,
F #7(+5,+9), and Bb ~ (+5)
Lick starts on the:
ninth of the -7 chord
thirteenth of the 7 chord
fourth of the ¢ chord
augmented ninth of the 7 (+5, +9) chord
major seventh of the ~ (+5) chord
George Benson, guitar ("Stella By Starlight")
George Benson, guitar ("Billie's Bounce")
+q
f ~ 5
295.
Randy Brecker, trumpet ("Gregory Is Here")13
' ! : J ~
Kenny Dorham, trumpet ("Woody en' You")13
+q
Jj".,
1
.. '
-
297.
~
:,,;
!:::1t
J
'.
3
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Most Like Lee")
.,+q
A+s
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Stardust")
299.
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("Ecaroh")
! ' ~ ~
13 _ the "Cry Me A River" lick is used three times in this solo.
75
76
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone ("Remember")14
301.
Bill Evans, piano ("I Hear A Rhapsody")
G - ~
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Straight, No Chaser")
"",tq
.I.I.!
Ways To Practice/Ingrain
The approach is simple. Practice the lick in all twelve keys. Then study the possible
harmonic applications as shown in #293. Practice the lick with Tracks G, H, I, J, K, L,
W
15
, X
15
, and BB, and tune play-alongs which have those harmonic settings.
14 - the "Cry Me A River" lick is used twice in this solo.
15 - since Wand X use 2-measure durations, instead of the 1 measure consumed by the "Cry Me A River" lick, insert 1 measure of
rest between each key.
, ,
,
CHAPTER 13
"GONE BUT NOT FORGOTTEN" LICK
Definition
The "Gone But Not Forgotten" lick is a specific melodic fragment, named after the
tune from which it comes. It is the opening melodic statement of the tune (see illustration
below).
Illustration
Pick-up notes and the first measure of "Gone But Not Forgotten".
As in the case of the "Cry Me A River" lick, the "Gone But Not Forgotten" lick has
earned its own segment in the book, as opposed to simply citing it as an example of a
quote, because it is widely used by virtually all jazz improvisers on record. By virtue of its
structure, it too can be played with any of the five chord-types given for the "Cry Me A
River" lick, without being altered.
accommodates: G-, C7, E.e; F #7 (+5, +9), and
Examples From Recorded Solos
Chet Baker, trumpet ("Autumn Leaves")
G-
Lick starts on the:
ninth of the -7 chord
thirteenth of the 7 chord
fourth of the flJ chord
augmented ninth of the 7 (+5, +9) chord
major seventh of the chord
77
78
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Most Like Lee")16
Lee Morgan, trumpet ("Speed Ball")
SO-, £ b ~
Louis Armstrong, trumpet ("Hotter Than That")

Clifford Brown, trumpet ("Pent-up House")
.!-,
/I
310.
.,.
~
~
~ P t
1
r
George Benson, guitar ("Stella By Starlight")
A-
311.
16 • Morgan uses a total of seven complete or partial "Gone But Not Forgotten" licks in this solo!
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Blue Train")
John Coltrane, tenor saxophone ("Trane's Slo Blues")
c."
Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone {"Remember"}
c-
IJ
Ways To Practice/Ingrain
Re-read the suggestions made at the end of Chapter 12 ("Cry Me A River" lick),
applying them to the "Gone But Not Forgotten" lick.
79
80
CHAPTER 14
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
This book is not a book on analytical techniques, but rather it is a collection of
elements resuitingfrom analysis. Furthermore, it will probably stimulate the reader
toward analytical activity, as he/she searches for still more useful elements contained in
transcribed solos, and he/she may want to make personal discoveries that might
reinforce the thirteen elements discussed thus far in this book. It is important, then, to
briefly discuss some of the other elements or traits of improvised solos. The elements to
be discussed in this segment are no less important, though grouped together here as
though they are considered 'miscellaneous' items. The brevity of their discussion here
owes to one or more of the following reasons: (1) though interesting to notice, the
element appears too inconsistently, or only among certain players; (2) the element, for
one reason or another, is inappropriate for practice by the reader; or (3) the element is
too general in nature, having no particular or specific way of being utilized.
Analytical activity, indeed the very word analysis, has always been viewed with a
certain amount of suspicion, distrust, and impatience by the average jazz fan. Even the
practitioners of the craft have sensitivities about being transcribed, analyzed, studied,
and imitated. Freddie Keppard, an important trumpet player/improviser of the 1920's,
refused to be recorded for a number of years, because he feared that other jazz
musicians, especially white ones, would steal his musical ideas and style (partly from fear
of losing the uniqueness that assured him of being in demand). When another early jazz
trumpet player, Bunk Johnson, was presented with a transcription of one of his solos, he
denied that it could be what he had played. More than once this author has received
suspicious glances from gifted jazz musicians who resented being complimented in a
manner that was too specific and/or analytical. Novices and masters alike are subject to
feeling uncomfortable when playing for someone who knows and remembers, by
instantaneous transcription and analysis, exactly what the performer has just played,
even though the subsequent assessment by the hearer is constructive and helpful (for
the novice) or complimentary (for the master). Whether a practitioner of the craft or
simply a fan of the music, there is often the desire to perpetuate the notion that the
source of the content of improvised solos is a mystery, and therefore should not be
scrutinized under the microscope, but simply received as the outpourings of the
moment. In time such attitudes of resistance and resentment will probably disappear to a
large extent. The age of growing technology has created an ever-expanding availability of
recordings of all players, even including the novices, and the computer is now providing
the means to transcribe, analyze, even create examples of the music for performance
and study. Nonetheless, technology cannot replace the warm, creative body and mind of
the live performer, and the magic of improvisation will, to some extent, continue to be a
joyous mystery. In the meantime, many young musicians have quickened their learning
t h r o ~ g h formal study, analysis, listening, and imitation of the jazz greats. And at least
some of the jazz greats have replaced an attitude of suspicion and resentment with a
feeling of being deeply appreciated. The knowledge that their creative outpourings have
an even better chance of being a permanent legacy of their musical gifts, rather than
disappearing when their recordings are out-of-print, has given them encouragement.
Many great jazz recordings have been re-issued as a result of the demands for intense
study.
i: !
! :
i "
~ ,
The elements to be discussed in this segment will fill some of the gaps of an analyzed
solo that remain after citing all incidents of the thirteen elements discussed thus far. But
more importantly, perhaps, the elements of this segment share one common
characteristic of improvised solos that is crucial to the more complete understanding of
any given solo: chromaticism, in one form or another. Improvisation, for all the studied
and acquired skills, represented largely by the thirteen elements taken up thus far,
remains a relatively spontaneous craft. Therefore, it is only natural that even the greatest
players will, though infrequently, commit errors in their solos. As in the case of
sermonizing or making a speech, if a script is absent, the sermon or speech will probably
have a more impassioned delivery, but there will also be a greater risk of error. In the
case of jazz improvisation, the risk is worth the taking, in the hands of a master. The
novice to analysis, however, also runs a risk in attempting to cite such errors, unless
he/she comes to know and experience the following elements.
Linear Chromaticism
All improvised lines, even melodic fragments, will include non-harmonic, chromatic
notes. Similar to the principle of the bebop scale, chromatic notes are often the result of
a metric problem that results in adding one or more notes to cause the phrase to agree
with the number of beats in a measure. At other times the player may simply want to use
a chromatic scale, or at least a considerable portion of it. The following example is only
one of seven instances in which Gillespie played 6-14 consecutive notes of the chromatic
scale in a single solo: .
Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet ("Hot House")
D ~ G-
~ - - . ; " • q
See the transcribed solos/analyses at the end of this chapter for more examples of linear
chromaticism.
Tri-T one Substitution/Altered Dominant
Tri-tone substitution is the substituting, especially of dominant seventh chords, with a
chord of the same type whose root is a tri-tone (diminished fifth or augmented fourth
interval, or simply three whole-steps)away from the given chord, as in substituting an
F #7 for a C7. The altered dominant is a dominant seventh chord which contains; in its
complete realization, an augmented fifth (+5), a flatted ninth (b9), an augmented ninth
(+9), and an augmented eleventh (+11, or +4). Tri-tone substitutions and altered
dominants are nearly identical, as shown below:
c:
rt
(given chord)
~ . ~ (-t"ri.fone. sub.)
-I-
81
82
Good improvisers wil11iberally sprinkle their solos with both devices. A simple
comparison of the notes generally used with the given chord and the notes used in either
tri-tone substitution or altered dominants will reveal a rather stunning contrast, and
could cause the unknowledgeable analyzer to suspect errors. Re-read the examples
given for the segment on the "Cry Me A River" lick (Chapter 12), comparing the notes
with the given chord, and it will be noted that many of the examples are really examples
of tri-tone substitution or the altered dominant (the distinction between the two is usually
a moot point). See the solo analyses at the end of this chapter for examples of tri-tone
substitutions/ altered dominants.
Back Door Progression As A Substitute For V7
The I chord, in a given progression, is often preceded by IV-7 to bV1I7, instead of the
usual V7 chord. This common practice has led to improvisers using that progression
(called the back door progression) even when the given chord is V7. The following
example is commonly found in improvised solos:
~ H l 0 7 As A Substitute For V7
Like the back door progression, the #11°7 is often used to precede the I chord (or III-7,
a substitute for I) in a given progression, leading to the improvised use of #11°7 in place of
a given V7 chord. The following examples are very common in solos:

(This example often occurs when the given chord is simply a one or two measure
duration of a single major chord or a single dominant seventh chord)
Note that both the back door progression and #11°7, when substituted for V7,
introduce notes that seem wrong or anachronistic to the V7 chord. (such as the fourth
and the major seventh). They work only because the given instances of those chords are
familiar to the ear; hence when an improviser uses them against the V7, the listener's ear
hears the given precedents for the event, instead of the conflict·with the V7.
;". ,
..
. "
Bar-Line Sh fts
Bar-line shi s occur when an improviser, by virtue of his/her note choices, arrives at a
given chord 1 te, sometimes even a whole measure late, or earlier than the given
placement. ough not intentional, necessarily, they are not errors, either, as they might
be in the cas of the novice who momentarily loses his/her place in the progression.
Most of the t me such an event is attributable to one of two causes:(l) the player is using
harmonic ge eralization, as in the case of playing a to V7 (+5, +9) progression as
only a V7 (+ , +9); or (2) the player wanted to play the previous chord (though it has
already trans ired), but was either pausing momentarily (as in taking a breath), and
decides to a pt the "better late than never" attitude. At other times a bar-line shift may
be very inte ional, as in Cannonball Adderley's solo on "So What", in which he
deliberately nters and exits the bridge early, causing considerable tension, since the
chord of the section (0-) is one-half step lower than the chord of the bridge (Eb-) At
any rate, the person who analyzes should always look at the chotds both before and
after a point here an error is suspected, before jumping to a wrong conclusion (or
simply learn 0 understand and appreciate deliberate bar-line shifts). For many examples
of bar-line s fts, see the solos at the end of this chapter.
Side-Slippi gfOutside Playing
Having es ntially the same meaning, these terms refer to events in a solo where the
improviser i deliberately playing 'out-of-the-key' for the sake of creating tension, similar
to the Adde ey example just mentioned, except that his tension-creating was at
least based n chords which are part of the given progression (though in a different,
adjacent me sure). Side-slipping and outside playing derive their note content simply by
focusing on he only 'wrong' notes of a chord. Most chords are accommodated by a
seven-note ale. Since there are twelve notes in the chromatic scale, simple subtraction
reveals that here are five 'wrong' notes possible with the average chord. The improviser
who wants t side-slip or play outside needs to know what notes are 'wrong' with any
given chord, using those notes in convincing groups of 'wrong' notes, as well as learning
to use them ingly in a mildly dissonant, but smooth manner. The experienced analyzer
has very littl difficulty distinguishing between errors and side-slipping or outside playing.
For exampl s of side-slipping and outside playing, see the transcription/analysis of the
Michael Bre ker solo on "What Is This Thing Called Love" at the end of this chapter.
Errors
We can b reasonably certain that an error has occurred if the note(s) cannot be
reconciled t any of the foregoing types of chromatic devices. Some will understandably
question an one's efforts, especially an inexperienced player/analyzer, to uncover errors
in the solos f great jazz improvisers. They might feel that it is presumptuous and
disrespectf . It might be presumptuous, if the analyzer is incorrect, or if the attitude is
wrong. But ven errors teach us that some things work and others don't, and disrespect
is not the n tural conclusion of learning that all of us are imperfect and capable of
making err s. Nor do we want to underestimate the difficulty of the craft. If a master
like John C ltrane can make an error, then the rest of us are on notice to be doubly
careful abo t presuming our preparedness to be perfect! Furthermore, no great player
wants us to ·mitate, unknowingly, his imperfections. He'd rather we focused on his best
efforts. If w don't know an error when confronted with one, then how can we ignore
that event d concentrate on the finest points?
83
84
Single-note errors can often be spotted by the appearance of inexplicable space after a
wrong note, as it is a natural reaction of any improviser to balk after unintentional errors.
The other type of error about which we can be reasonably certain is the instance in
which a known, 'right' phrase is applied incorrectly. For example, the "Cry Me A River"
lick is a familiar, well-established phrase, capable of sounding correctly with at least five
different chords. But if the application analyzed doesn't agree with any of the five
applications, and the harmonic setting causes several of the notes of the lick to be in
conflict with the chord, it is reasonable to assume that the lick was placed in the wrong
'key'. Always try to understand the reason for the error, if you can, so that you may
learn from it, rather than imitate and repeat the error. As Clarence Darrow once said,
"History repeats itself. That's one of the things wrong with history!"
Exercises
Practice 316, 317, and 318 with Track DO. Also practice 318 with Tracks M, N, U, and V.
SAMPLE ANALYSES OF TWO TRANSCRIBED SOLOS
If the elements put forth in this book are truly the major elements of the jazz language,
then the analysis of a solo will reveal that many of those elements will appear in the solo.
No single solo is likely to contain examples of every element presented in the book, but
we should expect to find a considerable number of them. The following pages present
analyses of Clifford Brown's solo on "Split Kick", a song composed by Horace Silver,
based on the chord progression to "There'll Never Be Another You" and Michael
Brecker's solo on "What Is This Thing Called Love."
The ardent student should be advised that certain players emphasize certain of the
elements in their solos, each player being anywhere from slightly to dramatically different
with respect to the inclusion, exclusion, frequency, and manner of use of the elements.
Therefore, a student who wishes to understand an individual improviser's style should
learn to recognize those differences and emphases as part of his/her study.
In closing, the author should like to make it clear that the elements of the jazz language
taken up here, primarily represent the connective tissue of the language. They can and
are handled creatively much of the time, but the most creative, original, and inspired
portions of a given solo are often what remains after you've tagged all the elements.
Therefore, "what remains" must be carefully studied, perhaps more than the elements of
the language.
I
n-
224

sco.le..
I I
CLIFFORD BROWN improvised solo on
SPLIT KICK (Another You)
2nd.
j

A Night at Birdland BLP1521
c.-
anc.l.
'1-3 i and.

G-
lic.K
i
F"
,
c:
bebop licK
i
I
4I1c.1.
.
Qrld.
'1-1
I!.nc.l.
85
86
!b
bat·linf ShJ-t
r I
1
(

,
A- 1)11
Q.oel. j I

G.B.N.r
I
s-
e
b17
hQ,t"monic. gen,entllza:l1on (blues Sl!.aJes)
I
digi+dl
(3. IS - 2 - I -h'DrnSi1.)
r-r ...... _ j I
bQ.('·\ioe shift
j '5-H
1 ,
j I
c,"
r

c' ,_

Ir
I
:rr
. '
c ." .. /.
G-)
....

e:rf'or
,
r
"""I

...
r4l<lO
'1-

I
incl.
-
.A-
])')
--

iiii!!!
I

"
c.;
41 -..(I.
..
-:

e+
and.
r
c-
ce.Sti
• •
G.a.N.F. I,ck

lineAr' chrol'l1o.fieiJm
.. ack d ... L
I
!=
:t· ... hjl..+
A
'
c.'"
oJtJo/'rJ.
r-...;;;:;:.:.: tl'ltl.
tLrId. 7-3
,-. ,
I
f' (4"
Mrmonic. gtnera.litat,ol1 (n hann. min.)
c.-

:1-

1\
-
ha.rTl'lonic f(P", ... lI'tIlizoiilln (f alues Stale.)
J
-
c.t!
87
88
.tn'
, 1
ce.
c.
-
i
G
__ ..---
n-
swe..
scnle.
r-r _....:0.1=.{:..:...
-.. .,
-
1
e.-
and.
antl.
c-
- zzJ
n-
hotm.fn. sloes sCGle.)
I I
I
1

r
II @ J
I
ANAL YSIS SUMMARY
(Clifford Brown on "Split Kick")
ELEMENT NO. OF OCCURRENCES
Change-Running ............................................................ .
Digital Patterns/Scalar Patterns ............................................... .
7-3 Resolution .............................................................. .
3- b9 ....................................................................... .
Bebop Scale
Bebop Lick
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Harmonic Generalization
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Enclosures ................................................................ .
Sequences ............................................... ',' ................ .
CESH ..................................................................... .
Quotes .................................................................... .
"Cry Me A River" Lick ....... .
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
"Gone But Not Forgotten" Lick
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Linear Chromaticism ........................................................ .
T ri-T one Substitution/Altered Dominant ....................................... .
Back Door Progression as Substitute for V7 .................................... .
#11
0
7 as Substitute for V7
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Bar-Line Shifts
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . .
Side-Slipping/Outside Playing ................................................. .
Errors .................... .
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Total number of element occurrences •...•..••.•••.•....•................• o· ...
7
3
7
10
6
1
4
24
9
2
1
o
3
1
4
2
1
5
o
2
92
89
90
s
q
1'1
21
@ J'30Q
. A·'
8
.,
MICHAEL BRECKER improvised solo on
WHAT IS THIS THING CALLED LOVE
You Can't Live Without It (Jack Wilkins)
Chiaroscuro CRISS
:b" (Alt.)


..
.. F-: ':= •
;tit
(A" 41t.)
bAr. /;nt jh;{f A'{ Air.)
hArm. . . scale.)
G-
1
t" nCll'm. gen. (A" alt.)
I I
::b-

• a.Jt. d om
c.
tl
q-f-
.,.. .
. ...
:J[

bebop
f I

I.

iii
'''alnnini
I I
side-slip
.. rg Me A
Ick
1
-

lie
-
33
37
At1
bQ(".line ShjJt(1)4)
45
erfol"
J I
.
r-

5'1
"
dim. sca.le.
bar. J in£ shift (A' aJt)
r .
.,..L.,.
Jig. Pdff-ull I
r
i 1
G-
chlll1G£ I'lInnini
iii ,
side.slip
r
.,
IIn£Q('chi'om.
'T''f' Suo
r= •
G," (c.lt.)
.....
:1)'1 lintQ(' chrom.
,
I.

I:
I(
,
j
anel.
ou-tside pla..Ying
; d .. :1 .. 1
' I I •
.. ' - . t: + ": t • f-
A'(a.lt.)
I
'"i
b

..
1 ..• _1
t"'"-= .,
r
,
l. I. iL-
hCl.t"m. - _
to
pc
l)", .... ,.::b:::U'-,:"::;,i '11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
91
92

aJ/'. darn.
(A
lf
alt.)
(Alt.)
G
...
-

"
:;: .,..'
-

=t:.

+ ..
• I-
+'
73
77
G"
bebop sccJe.
se.ale.
81
"'llIi",n
l1' (alt.)
. scale..)
(4.1+.) scale.
,,(.-(
ANALYSIS SUMMARY
(Michael Brecker on "What Is This Thing Called Love")
ELEMENT NO. OF OCCURRENCES
Change .. Running ........................................................... .
Digital Patterns/Scalar Patterns .............................................. .
7 -3 Resolution .............................................................. .
3-b9 ....... .
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Bebop Scale
Bebop Lick
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Harmonic Generalization
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Enclosures ................................................................. .
Sequences ................................................................. .
CESH ..................................................................... .
"Cry Me A River" Lick ....... .
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
"Gone But Not Forgotten" Lick
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Linear Chromaticism ........................................................ .
Tri-T one Substitution/Altered Dominant ....................................... .
Back Door Progression as Substitute for V7 .................................... .
#11
0
7 as Substitute for V7 .................................................... .
Bar-Line Shifts
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Side-Slipping/Outside Playing ................................................. .
Errors ............... .
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Total number of element occurrences
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
11
12
2
5
6
o
5
4
o
o
1
o
8
4
o
o
10
4
1
73
93
94
APPENDIX A
CHORD PROGRESSIONS FOR ALL PLAY ·ALONG TRACKS
(Side 2)
Concert Key
9x
C A b
A
EpA e
A
FA Gb
A
G
A
AA !p4!A
A.

t
\


"'
J'
c.
D.
E.

.1
,
H.
f.
'"
,
3X .,
c.-
c.+ :ob+ A' Ab. Gf
I I I I I I

'I
F' c
bt

I I , , I
95
ti
... r.-l
,
,.



I II
r
96
C
A
l)pA

EPA
e
A

M. I
I

n
I
I
Yo
I I

...
I I

,..
I I
M
I I

r.
I
Gb
A
Gi
A
AbA AA
Bb
A
!A
I I
V-
I I
y.
I I
y.
I
,

r.
I I
Yo
I I

...
"
'BA
Sb
4
AA AP4
G
A
II I

r.
I I

r.
I I

,..
I I

..
I I
y.
I I
,.
I
r."
• •
• • • • •
N.

• •

• • • •
,

o. I
=Ji
Gb-
A


A-A

A
I I
V-
I
I
;.2
,.
I I

r.
I I
;;
,.
I I
;if
I I
k
II
,
i j
c.-A

A_A

G-
A
II I
M
I I
V-
I I
',i
I I

I I

I I

I
r.
,..
...
,.
- -
Go-
A

e-
A
Eb-
A l)_4
J)b-
A C-A

I I I
I
I
I I
I I I I I
0
II
97
c-,


c.-'

'.',
Q.
,
Q-'
Ab·"
!b-'1
3-
1
I
I
Yo
I I

...
I I
fi.J
r.
I
U
I I

r.
I I

,.
"
c..'
gb·'1
A-"
Ab-'
G·"
I

I I

I I
7-
I
r.
,
I I
iJ
,.

\.. ' .
c..'

\

,
Co'
I

I X I
98
c.'"
ll.
t
ab'
I I

,
I
Co'
II I
2

G'
s"
I
AP"
I H I
I

h
I

,.
I
.JIi
....
If
A'7
Bb'
!"
I
I

,.
I I

r.
I I
i1
I
A"
Ab'7 G'
I I

....
I I I I
C'
;;
V.
ab' E"
c!:
... 4
+4
11\5 b'+S
W. II
I

r.
I I

,.
I I
+q
... q
+4
G!P'-t-S Ab\s 10S
I I
>1
I I
.,
r.
I I

r.
t4
c'?+S
,+4
B+s
+q
!b'.r5
II I
V-
I I
K
I I
,.
• • •

A'
I)'
+4
e
b
+$
,
I I
X
+q
A '-1'5
I I
OX
I
-1"4

I I



;-4

I
I ;it I
H
'!b"+;
I x I


I
I % I

...
,
+4

t4



c'
('!'\
)
I :1 I
I Yo I

5;
;'
,
,
,
,
x.

I
I
2.
AA.
I

"'
3X c..-
7
F"
)
e-'J
A'

121"
111
"
..


..

..
I
..

..

..
,
..

B-
1
e"
A-"
l::J"
G-'7
..
..

..
..
..
..
,
I
..
..
..


F
..

I
..
..
"
c..-

e)' Ab-' :l)b'

,
c.
+q
y.
b?+4
e1-5
"\

:'
ll'

A+5
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
I
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
B+
:r'1

A+
+4
'b"'+5
Gf
99


ti
eb-?
AD" "Db-' Gb
1
II
..
,
..
.. -
,
..
..
I
..
l-
..

..
I-
..
,
I
c,"

BP"
eb-'7


.. .. ..
I
.. .. .. ..
0
II
0- .. I- .. ..
"
..

B' E·"
A1 b-'7 G?
\.


,
AD.
+q

+q

'B"+$
Eb+
+4




II
..
..
..
,
..
,
..
..
I
..
..
..
..
,..
I-
..
..
I
tq

=14

C"+5
BP\5

\.

100
G'
'" .•
I

r

+q
e-
A
e+
+,
A'+5
n-
A
n'

6'+5

I
.. .. ..
I I
..
iI
I I
.. .. ..
I
.. l- I .. .. l-

.. l- I
'"
,
e
b
+

Jj_A


a+
,.q
A-A


e'+S
r..s
II
.. .. ..
I I
..
I I
.. .. .. ..
I I
r

r

.. .. ..

r .. .. ..
,

+q
G-
A
(;,
+1
F-
4

;q
e
b
-
4
:D"+5 C."+5 9+5

I
..
..

I-
..
,
..
..
I I


..
r
..



I I
..
..


...
r


I
Q
II
B1 e-'7
A"
n
A
b-'
L-J?
c.
A
I
..
;
..
I
I
.. .. ..
.. ..
, , ,
..
..

I I
..
, iI


r


I II
Eb·'7
Ab"
c.t-? SA
!-"
AA
II
..
..
..
..
..
r
..
..
I I
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
I I
..
..
..
..
..
..
...
..
I
I
A-"
'1)"
G
A
G·"
C,1 FA
!b"
ebA
(.'I
I
..
,
..
..
..
..
..
..
I I
..
..
..
..
..
I-
..
..
I I

..
..
..
..
..

..
I <> II
,
.j
101
"

1.
Bb Instruments
A,
:0.
c.
J)_A ct-
A
c._A !_A !b-
A
A-A G-
A
r.-A e-
A
eb-4 :I)_A
r
LtX
lJ
_
A
G-
A
c._A F-
A
gb-
A
Ab-
A
c.
t
-
A
Ft_A !_A e-
A
A_4 j)_A
ll.
,
Il
A
c.t:.
I I I I I I

102
~ .
f
'I (.I
,
r
G.
j@
H.
:t.
1
..
~
. ,.
./
, r •
:1.
~
,
.
,
e.
bf
E'· Ff Ft. G'
AP. ~ . !b
f
3. C.f
ct'
K. II
I II I I I I I I I I I
c ~ . C. f !+
J)+
~
Sbf A' Ab+ G'
~ i + ~ , £. eb+
I I I I I , I
I I I I
I D II
L.
l
~
~
~
"
'\
:' ,;
:,y
"
103
!
i
b
A
EA FA (JJA
,

H
I I
I I I I I

I I I I I
,



M
L ,.
Iv.
,.
b
r.
,
,
,
AbA RA
,
!pA

C
A
CJA , ,
I
I

,.
I I
u
I I

,.
I I

,.
I I
IX
I
" I H
1/

,.-,

c.
4
:sA
!b
A

, II
I

..
I I

,.
I I
.,6
,.
I I
V-
I I
.,6
,.
I I

,.
I

G
A
FA
e
A
Eb
A J)A

I
I
u
I I
"
I I
ItS
I I
-1
I I
>?
I I
51
I
D
II
,
:b
A
GA
c.
A



:J,
'\
AbA
c.
tA
.sA
e
A
AA
1)A
...
;il

"

..


.. .. ..
,
!
,h_A
e.
b
-
4
e-
A
r-
A

G-
4
O.

I
,
I I
..
,.
I I

,.
I I

r.;
I I

I
I
.,6
r.
I
Ab-
4
A-A
!I_A
c. .A c.t_A
I
,
I
V-
I I

r.
I I
y,
I I

r.:
I I
y.
I
I
H
II
:b-
A


A
B-"
:Bp_A A_A
II I
y,
I I

,.
I I
Yo
I
I
;;
r.
I I

r-
I I
51
I
AP-A
(a_A


Eb-
A


I I
X
I
I
g
I I

I
I
:;.
I I
X
I I
Yo
I
<>
II
r.
104
p.


.. .. -"
,.
,
*
-,-

e-'7
.J
Q.

Ab-" A-"
:ab-'7 ,B-'1
c.-'"

I
I
S;S
I I
K
I
iii
I I
j4
I I

n
I I

,.
II

c.-."
C. -'7 !-, !b·'1 A-'7
II I

I I
v.
!"'JIO
I I

,.
I I
z
I
I
."
:?
I
I X I
G·"
,


r

,
R.
,


ti
1"_
r
lJ'


&.
S. 11
I
X-
I
I 8 r
I
;:
I I
V-
I I
'!
I
,
y.
I


A"

!P'
:sf
I : I :
p{
I
:
I
t1
I
I

r.
I I

? I I

J I
-2
? II
c+ !f
l3
b
,
Af
II I

r,
"'
I
x
I I

r.
I
I
x
I
I
;"
? I
I
;;1
r.
I

G+
f'

1)'

I:
I
if!'
I I
x
! I

I I Y: I =I Y: I I
y.
I <> II
,.
105

r

e)'

F"
r:t7
G"
u.
I
'.
,
Ab'
!b'
B"
c?
I I

r.
I I

r-
I I

Ye
I I

r,
I I

,.
I I
%
II

c.." C"
S?

A'7
II
--:
,.
I
I

,.
I I
;-c
I I
iA
I I
;.< .,
I #! I


v.
I

"'

,
+q :+-1



.,.q

E,D'4s
r"+5
a, '+s +s +5
w. II
I
K
I I
,
I
I
,.
I
I

,.
I
I
.7
,.
I I

,.
I
b,,+4
+q

!,,+4
+4 +4
A?+5
c."+s

R +5 H
I
I
z
I I

,.
I
;.z
,.
I I
v-
I I

r-
I I

Ye
II

-1'4 -1'4


+4
C.\"fS
c.'+! B'+5

R"+s +5
II
M
I I

r.
I I

r.
I I

,...
I
I

....
I I
,



F,+4 E?+4

-+'4

'b"+5
+5 +5 +5

I I I I I I I
I
I I I I
.
I II
• ..l
X

"
D
,.
,.
"
106
'd
LO.
r
c-'7 F"


!p'1
£b·'1 AP1
I

!':



l-

I-
I

I
J


r

r
II

l-
111
I-

I

l-
I
-oj!
I

I

..

I
I
Elf
G-" c."
3X ..
G"
=-" A"
Z.

,
:b'
G1+
4
c!
+4

-1-4

+1
e
p
'+5 -nb"+5 105
RA·I
.


,+4


rf
... ,

+,
Ab'.r5 S+5
I
;
I II
=:;
I
..
;J
...

'"
J
...
... .. ...
p- I- r-
,. ,.
I
:-
,. ,.
..
,.
I- p- p-
"
107


t-
A

+4
F?+5 ,.5

!b+

E +5

ee. II


..
:

'" I I

,

'"

'"


I I
.
y,



..
I I


Gib-
A
Ft+
1'-q
E-
A

+q

!"+5
A'+5
0+05

"

..

..

'"
I I

,

"

...

,
I I
..
..

'"

..
.2
'"
I
F'
+4
e
b
-
A

b? -+'4
:Db-A

-+,
?l!rs

:s-A
A +5
II

I I

I I


I I '"
" '"

..

..
• •
"
..

,.4
A_A

1'4


+4

ll".,.S C. '1.,.s
r."
I
I I I I I
I
II
4.


¢ ..

.. .. F. ..
'"
,
'"
ll-'

c.
A
c.-' F"
&-7
!lb. II






• ,
I I

..


...
..
.-
F
I I
... ,

,

...

,
I I
Ab-"
;nb?
a
bA

!'1 £A E-1
A'

I
..
..






I I
..



-

-

I I
- ,

..


..
I
"
Bb?
Ab
7

c.i-'
Fi?
gA
II
..


I"




I



..
I"


I
I
-

..
.. - I"

..
I
I
fl·"

AA
G,A
121·"
c.'
rA

I I I I

,
.. ..
I
..

.. ..
I
II
• •
,
• •
,

,
"
108
E b Instruments
A.
r r .. r. r .r r.
,
,
::i
::§
,
!.
Co.
: ~
:tI.
E.
~ ~ ~ G4 AbA AA A ~ ~ GA
a
bA
I I I
I I '
I I
I I
~ ~
109
gx
nA. GA CA FA !p4 e:bA Ab
4
:rlofj e
A

r.
J
If ,

1
,

H.

"'
7
...
A' !b+ !' C.
Ci+ F+ Gf
k. II I 1 ·1 1 I· I 1
I t I
A+ Gb+
F' l' nut c. a
f
gb'
Af

I I I I I I I I I I I I I <> II
L.
110
AA
sb
A
pl·
e
A
etA
:D
A
M. I
I

I
I ¥ I I

h
I I
...
,.
I I
Y!
I I

,
I
EDA FA
G
4

I I

,.
I I

,.
I I
Yo
I I
y,
I I
v.
I
' I
...
,.
II
AA AbA
G
A
Gb
4
FA
II I
y.
I I

,..
I I
y.
r I

I I
x
I I

, ,..
I
e
bA

c.
A
BA
!b
4
AA

,
I
I
;1
I I
Yt
I I

I I
x
I I
y,
I I
y.
I

II
,. ,
N.

Ie f:!I

*"
A_A
!b-
A
!_A
c-
A
c.i_A
:D-
4
I I I I I I I
,
I I I I I
o. I
;.l ....
u )f
n
,.
n
'!"
e
b
-
4
£_4 F_A

S_A
Ab-
A
I I

I I

I I

I I I I I I
V-
I
,

.....
,
,..
r. r. r.
,
A-A Ab-
A
G-A
£_A
II I I
:
I I
I
ij
I I I I I I
: I
' .
;;t

y.
M
."
i
r.
,
Eb-
A ]_4
J:)b-
A
c.- A
B-
4 sp_A
A-A
,
r.'\
,
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I I I I I I II
,
i) . ,
:
,
I
I
I
i
.J
L
Q.,
eb-'
L
A-1
II
5,
Ii

I
A'
[I
:


x
I

,..
A+
I
I H
I
H

,.
,
E-'
I ::I
Ab-'
I I
a
b


,...
I
et
I I
APf
" I
I
." ,.




,.
I I

,
G-"

? I I ? I
5+
I H
I I
id

a:;;
n
I
;
I
B
: I
G'
:?:
I I
51
'*
• •
111

--07
-r. --,-.
\

:


,
-.. ct-,
Ft-' G-' Ab-'
t
x :
I :
Ii : P- I I

n
II
GO·" 1-"
e-'7
I
,
I : :
:
I
.:
,.
I:
:
. ti

c.
C.·

I
:
I
x
I I
V-
I
, H
I
s+
Abf
I H I
:
I P:
I:
:
I II '!
GP+
I
:
I
X
I
:1
ij'
I
l ? I





112
1.
,

A'7
U.
l
E,b'1
e"
F"
G1
Ab"
I I
V-
I I
-.41
,.
I I
?!
I I
r:
I I
.....
.....
I I
M
I
A7
Ab;


F'
e?
II
g
I
I

,.
I I

r.
I I

r.
I I
..

I
c."
A'7
,

*

,.
A'1

,
(;'7
c,"
v.
Pi
,

w.
IF t! t!
.,q

+4

EbJ,





I I
V-
I
V-
I I
;It
I
v.
I

,..
I I
. ,.
II
+1
+q
+4
.,4
+Cf
+4
Ab;s
GZ5 Gb:
6


II

,.
I I

r.
I I
,..
I I

,.
I
I

,.
I I

,.
I
.,q
D:!
+4 +4
+q +4 ....

bb:
5
C!5 !Zs
,!pls

r.\
I I I I I II
X

I
Ix
I I
y.
I I
X
I
D
r r.
x.
,


B-? e:?
I

,.
..
,

,.
..
,.
I
..
""

,
..
,.
..
r
z.
,

..,q
9X

J

+4

AA.
,
cJ'
-1"1
!'
+4
e.?t.s
I
..
f

,.
..

..
,
I
..
,.
..
,.
..
r
..
r

+q

+1
€9
sls
c.-"

II
..
,
..
r

r
..
r
I


lJPJ$

... q
rZs
II
... ,
"'
,
..
""
;;
I
+q

A!s

..
r
..


Bb'
..
,.
..
,
+,

:5
,
eb
1

,
..


tM

,

AP!5
b+
1
e.l.s
.. ...
, ,
C+

-'

113
I
I
114
i.b? Ab
1
bb'
!?
A?



Af
+,
Gf
+q
F'
+q
. ep- A
D:5
G-
A
c.:!
F-
4
.

I

I

,
I I
ee. II
,
":; i

i .. .. .. ..
..
, , ,
..
,
.. .. .. ..

1-1

+,
+1
Ab!!

B-
4
!'


..
,

l-
..
I'
..
I-
I I

..
..
..
.. ..
..
,
I I
4.
..
..
l-
..
I-

.


+,
!b'
+1
Ab'



Ab-
4

.c;b-
A
II
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1 I
..
..
..
,.
..
..
..
..
I I
..
,.
...
..
..
I-
..
..
I I
Ft+
+q
E:-
A
e'
+,



c.-A
!ls

I
... ..
r.

,.
..
..
I I
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
I I

..
..
..
::;
"
..
,
I
<1
II

G
A
G-' C"

F-" Sb' e
b4
II
..
.. -
,.
..
,
..
..
1 I
... ,.
..
..
...
..
I:
I"
..
..
..
,
...
..
1 I
e
b
-'
Ao?
, .,.,

gA
,!-' e'7 A4
I
...
I-
..
..
..
.. -

I
I
..
..
..
.. - ..
..
..
I I
..
..
..
..
..
..
... 1
II
c.-'
F?
!b
A
Bb-"
e
b
'
AbA
t\b-'
:Db?
II
.. ...
.- ...
..
..
..
..
1 I
..
..
...
..
..
..
...

1
I .. .. pr •
.. ...
Vr-
I
I

:s'
e-'1
A'
J)A
1)_'7
G"
CA
t."
I
... .. .. ..
I I
... ... ..
I I I

II
"" .
... ...
ill
.. ..
I'
.. .. ..

.. I-
,
• • •
,.
-', ,t'
115
116
APPENDIXB
APPLYING ELEMENTS OF THE JAZZ LANGUAGE
TO TUNE PROGRESSIONS
If the elements of the jazz language, as presented in this book, are to become useful to
the developing improviser, they must be ingrained into the mind, ears, and hands. Merely
reading the book, even with the deepest understanding, will not reap the necessary
benefits of this sort of study. Indeed it is even unlikely that they will remain, for very long,
in the memory. Improvisation is a performer's art. Hence it becomes imperative for the
serious student of improvisation that the first step, that of mentally comprehending each
element, be followed by diligent study and practice, in order that it become assimilated
by, and subsequently useful to, the developing improviser. One can mentally decide that
an element of the jazz language ought to become part of his/her improvisation, even plan
to use it soon, but the mind and ears still need to establish the habit of considering the
element's use, and the hands need to feel comfortable with the execution of the element
before it will materialize in the 'heat of battle' as part of an improvised solo.
The absorption of an element happens in stages. First it must be mentally understood
through definitions and illustrations. Then motivational fires need to be fueled by
observing (and hopefully hearing) the element as it has been used in seemingly endless
variations by masters of the craft. In the next stage, the 'hands on' approach begins, with
the student practicing the execution of the element, including its variations, at different
tempos, and in all keys and registers of the instrument. Then a strong association needs
to be established and developed in the ear, connecting the sound of the element with the
sound of its accompanying harmony. This is accomplished through playing the element
with exercise play-alongs, like those found in Appendix A. Finally, and now we come to
the function of Appendix B, each element should be applied to 'real' chord progressions
of tunes. In this last stage of assimilation the student learns to discern locations within
the progression which accommodate the playing of certain elements (unlike exercise
play-alongs, tunes usually have a generous mixture of various chord-types, durations,
etc.; therefore, one has to search out opportunities within the progression where,
potentially anyway, a certain element becomes possible).
Presently there are over 600 published play-along tunes. The space allocations of this
book and its accompanying cassette do not permit us to compete with that figure. Rather
the 3 progressions presented here have as their purpose the opportunity to illustrate
potential locations in a few well-known progressions where elements could take place.
Each of the 3 progressions is presented in two versions. In the first version only the
chord symbols and recommended scales are given. The student should practice
improvising with this first version for awhile without considering the use of elements, until
the chords and scales are familiar and comfortable to the player. The second written
version (to be used with the same cassette track as the first version) gives the chord
symbols and indicates where certain elements can be used, so the student can practice
working them into an improvisation. Eventually, of course, the process will become more
natural, rather than a contrivance, and the improviser learns to recognize potential
locations for various elements in any progression, whether or not he/she chooses to
execute the thought. In the first version of each of the three progressions, the ones
which show the recommended scales for each chord, some of the scales and their
spellings may look strange or wrong to the reader, but they are indeed wholly accurate.
Sometimes the given scales do not begin on the roots of the chords, but this author
believes that when all scales are thought of as beginning on the roots of the chords, the
player is more subject to over-using the root, which is a questionable practice, since the
root is generally the weakest note of a chord, sounding simplistic and redundant. At
!
other times the given scale may be written enharmonically (i.e., Db instead of C #),
sometimes confusing the reader at first, but the rationale for writing, say, a Db lydian
augmented scale on an altered A7 chord instead of a C# lydian augmented scale, is that
the one selected has fewer accidentals, though it may appear to be a 'flat' scale on a
'sharp' chord.
Whenever a II-V progression occurs in one measure (2 beats for each chord), only one
scale is given for the whole measure, since both chords are accommodated by the same
pitches. For example, the notes of a Bb dorian scale (for a Bb-7) are identical to the notes
of the Eb mixolydian or dominant scale (for an Eb7). The reader may wish to regard this
practice as a form of harmonic generalization (see Chapter 7).
Whenever two chords occur in the same measure (2 beats each) that do not use the
same scale content, the note heads are filled-in (black) to bring the player's attention to
the fact that the chords are of shorter duration than 4 beats each.
"Urbane Blues" has 2 'built-in' examples of tri-tone substitution (see Chapter 12), one
occurring in the fourth measure, the other in the 10th measure.
In the second version of each of the three progressions, the ones in which the locations
for possible use of certain elements are denoted, the following abbreviations were used
to save space:
7 -3 = 7-3 resolution
BBL = Bebop Lick
HG = Harmonic Generalization (area will also be bracketed)
CMAR = Cry Me A River lick
GBNF = Gone But Not Forgotten lick
IT/AD = Tri-Tone substitution! Altered Dominant
BD = Back Door substitution
#110 = #11° substitution
Of course 3- b9 and CESH are already abbreviated terms, needing no explanation.
When a letter, chord symbol, scale abbreviation (i.e. hm for harmonic minor), or key
area (i.e. Ab major) appears in parenthesis after the element abbreviation, it is to help the
student to find starting notes, substitute chords or scales, etc. BBL(C), for example,
would indicate that a bebop lick may be played, starting on the note C. 3-b9 (A-Gb)
would help the student to know that a 3- b9 is possible, based on the notes A (3rd) and
G b (b9), if the given chord was F7. H G (F hm) would indicate an opportunity to use
harmonic generalization, using an F harmonic minor scale. BD(F-7) would tell the player
that he/she could use a back door substitution, starting on an F-7.
The following elements do not appear in the second versions of the progressions
because their use is so general, with respect to location within the progressions, that
they might occur anywhere (and everywhere):
sequences
change-running
digital patterns
scalar patterns
bebop scale
enclosures
quotes
linear chromaticism
bar-line shifts
side-slipping! outside playing
The fact that these elements are not shown in the second versions of the progressions
should in no way diminish their importance to the developing improviser, and should
most certainly be practiced along with the other elements.
117
118
Concert Key
184
6
n
Abb
I

,J1.



J
-s- .t2.
"

;i

HOMESICK HOOSIER
'" tJ
'"

,
8-




-6

F-
A
'1::."1-
p:,W+ r/ ...
tf
5:j

0


IJ

G'7


0


,
i
-(
\
,
I
119
Concert Key
J= 184
HOMESICK HOOSIER
6 Choruses
CESH(C-)
3-179(A-GI7)
BBL(F or B) CESH(F -) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
CMAR(O or G#) BBL(BP) 3-179(0-0)'
GBNF(G#) CMAR(G) BBL(B17 or E)
GBNF(C)* - - - - - - - -. CMAR(G or C#)
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
,
CESH(BH - - - - - - - - - -
7 -3(A17-G) - - - - - - - - - -
BBL(ED)
CMAR(G) IT / AO(A lyd.aug.) GBNF(G) GBNF(G or C#)
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C)
A17A F7 B177+4 Yo B/7-7
- - HG(A/7maj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - --"- - - - -,
---------------------------:
- -: 3-/79(G-H)
,
BBL(ED or A)
CMAR(C or F#)
GBNF(C or F#)
IT / AD(G lyd.aug.)
BO(m-7)**
3-/79(C-A)
BBL(A/7 or 0)
CMAR(F or B)
GBNF(F or B)
CESH(EH IT/AO(C lyd.aug.)
BO(GD-7) CMAR(C)
CESH(DH
3-/79(B/7-G)
BBL(GD)
CMAR(D#)
GBNF(O#)
#UO(B07)
E/77
CMAR(G)
ADA
- - - - - - -- - - - ,
,
CMAR(G)
A/7A
CESH(C-)
I E/7-7
#IIO(E07)
AD7
3-/79(A-GD) CESH(F-)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
BBL(F or B) 3-179(D-O) ,
CMAR(D or G#) BBL(BP) BBL(BD or E)
GBNF(D or G#) CMAR(G) CMAR(G or C#)
IT / AD(A lyd.aug.) GBNF(G) GBNF(G or C#)
I F7 I BD7+4 Yo
CESH(C-)
3-D9(A-GD)
#UO(BO)
II DDA
I G/77+4
, - - - - - - - - •• - - - - •. HG(A/7maj.)· - - - -
, 7.:3(A/7-G) - - - - -: 3-/79(G-H)
. BBL(ED or A)
CESH(BH - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
CMAR(C or F#) ,
GBNF(C or F#)
BBL(ED) IT/AO(G lyd.aug.)
CMAR(C) BO(m-7)
GBNF(C) #II°(BO)
I B/7-7 I ED7 II
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
BBL(F or B) CESH(F-)--------------------, 7-3(F-E) ------,
CMAR(O or G#) BBL(BP) 3-b9(O-C/7): : 3-179(E-m)
GBNF(G#) CMAR(G) BBL(BI7 or E) BBL(E17) BBL(F#)
GBNF(C)- - - - - - - - - -: CMAR(G or C#) CMAR(C) CMAR(D#)
CMAR(G) IT / AD(A lyd.aug.) GBNF(G) GBNF(G or C#) GBNF(C) GBNF(O#)
A/7
A
I F7 I B/77 +4 Yo I G16 I
- - HG(F h.m.)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --,
CESH(F-) 3-/79(E-m) CESH(F-) 3-/79(E-m) CESH(F-)'
BBL(B/7) BBL(F#) BBL(BD) BBL(F#) BBL(BD)
CMAR(G) CMAR(D#) CMAR(G) CMAR(D#) CMAR(G)
GBNF(G) GBNF(O#) GBNF(G) GBNF(O#) GBNF(G)
F_A I II F-A I I F-A
" - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - HG(A17maj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
, CESH(BH - - - -. - - - - - - - CESH(B/7-)IT/AO(G
CESH(C-) - - - - - - - - -, 7-3(Ab-G) 7-3(AD-G)
7 -3(BI7-A) . 3-/79(G-H) 3-D9(G-H)
3-/79(A-GD) BBL(E/7 or A) BBL(ED or A)
BBL(F) CMAR(C) GBNF(B17) - - - - - - - - - - - -, CMAR(C)
CMAR(D) GBNF(C) IT / AO(G lyd.aug.)' GBNF(C)
GBDN(D) GBNF(C)- - - - - - -. - - -, BD(m-7) BD(m-7)
IT / AO(A lyd.aug.) , #IIO(BO) IT / AD(A lyd.aug.) #UO(BO)
1 C-7 F7 1 B17-7 ED7 1 A17A F7 1 B/7-7 E/77 :11
* A different use of GBNF than what was recommended in Chapter 13, but because of the resolution to the next chord,
it works.
** Whenever a BO is chosen, CMAR or GBNF may be played, starting on 9th of BO substitute, or a BBL on the 4th.
120
B b Instruments
1M

fl
Bb
A


Ij:


p.s.
r;I ,.""

H


:2
• .;-::g

.... t:J


HOMESICK HOOSIER
A IJ
"" t:J
-e
d
-6
-f}- r; +
F'7
-
S
-(J
-(JIJ

,.
(J


A tJ + !.Q.
'8


0: :f
,.
,
Pi




':f.
-+
iJ.
t!:J

. .,.,- S
r:7 - .
,', -t-4
1l"+5


J
j
j!!



-(;-
Ail
-6-

I
'I
,

;1
!
i
,
,
,

,
I
,
"
i
,
,
I
I
I
!
i
,
1
1
,
,
l
l
,

I
I
,
I
B b Instruments
121
HOMESICK HOOSIER
J= 184
6 Choruses
CMAR(A)
II: BbL\
CESH(O-)
3-b9(B-Ab)
BBL(G or
CMAR(E or M)
GBNF(M)

BBL(C) 3-b9(E-Db)'
CMAR(A) BBL(C or F#)
GBNF(O)* - - - - - - - -, CMAR(A or Eb)
IT/AO(B lyd.aug.) GBNF(A) GBNF(A or Eb)
I G7 I C7+4 '/.
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
,
CESH(C-) - - - - - - - - --
7-3(Ab-G) - - - - - - - - --
BBL(F)
CMAR(O)
GBNF(D)
I C-7
- - - HG(Bbmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -: HG(Ebmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
7-3(Eb-O)
---------------------1
- -: 3-b9(A-Gb)
,
3-b9(0-B)
BBL(F or B)
CMAR(D or G#)
GBNF(D or
IT I AD(A Iyd.aug.)
BO(Eb-7)**
BBL(Bb or E)
CMAR(G or Db)
GBNF(G or Db)
CESH(F-) IT/AD(O Iyd.aug.)
BO(Ab-7) CMAR(D)
CESH(Eb-)
3-b9(C-A)
BBL(Ab)
CMAR(F)
GBNF(F)
#UO(C#07)
F7
CMAR(A)
BbL\
- - - - - - - - - - - ,
CMAR(A)
I BbL\
CESH(O-)

Bb7
3-b9(B-Ab) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
BBL(G or C#) 3-b9(E-Db) ,
CMAR(E or BBL(C) BBL(C or
GBNF(E or A#) CMAR(A) CMAR(A or 0#)
IT I AD(B Iyd.aug.) GBNF(A) GBNF(A or D#)
I G7 I C7+4 '/.
#UO(DbO)
II EbL\ I Ab7+4
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . HG(Bbmaj.) - - - - -
, 7 -3(Bb-A)- - - - - - 3-b9(A-Gb)
BBL(F or B)
CESH(C-) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
CMAR(D or ,
GBNF(D or G#)
BBL(F) IT I AD(A Iyd.aug.)
CMAR(O) BD(Eb-7)
GBNF(D) #IIO(C#O)
I C-7 I F711
, CESH(O-)
3-b9(B-Ab) ; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
,
BBL(G or C#) CESH(G-} - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -, 7 -3(G-F#) - - - - - - ,
CMAR(E or BBL(C) 3-b9(E-Db) : ' 3-b9(F#-Eb)
GBNF(A#) CMAR(A) BBL(C or F#) BBL(F)
GBNF(D)- - - - - - - - - - CMAR(A or CMAR(D) CMAR(F)
CMAR(A) IT I AD(B Iyd.aug.) GBNF(A) GBNF(A or GBNF(D) GBNF(F)
BbL\ I G7 I C7+4 '/. I A9i I
- - HG(G h.m.)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
CESH(G-) 3-b9(F#-Eb) CESH(G-) 3-b9(F#-Eb) CESH(G-)'
BBL(C) BBL{G#) BBL(C) BBL{G#) BBL(C).
CMAR{A) CMAR(F) CMAR{A) CMAR{F) CMAR(A)
GBNF(A) GBNF{F) GBNF(A) GBNF(F) GBNF(A)
G-L\ I 07!g If G-L\ I I G-L\
3-b9(C#-Bb)
BO(Eb-7)

A7 p9
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - HG(Bbmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
, CESH(C-) - - - - - - - - - -, CESH(C-)IT/AD(A Iyd.aug.)
CESH(D-)---------, 7-3(Bb-A) 7-3(Bb-A)
7 -3(C-B) 3-b9(A-Gb) 3-b9(A-Gb)
3-b9(B-Ab) BBL(F or B) BBL(F or B)
BBL(G) CMAR(D) GBNF(C) - - - - - - - - - - - - -, CMAR(D)
CMAR(E) GBNF(D) IT/AD(A Iyd.aug.) , GBNF(D)
GBDN(E) GBNF(O)- - - - - - - - - - - 1 BD(Eb-7) BO(Eb-7)
IT I AD(B lyd.aug.) , #IIO(C#O) IT I AO(B lyd.aug.) #IIO(C#O)
1 0-7 G7 1 C-7 F7 1 BbL\ G7 1 C-7 F7 :11
* A different use of GBNF than what was recommended in Chapter 13, but because of the resolution to the next chord,
it works.
** Whenever a BO is chosen, CMAR or GBNF may be played, starting on 9th of BD substitute, or a BBL on the 4th.
122
E b Instruments
HOMESICK HOOSIER

A
* f-

::!

6"

ti


,
{J
6
" .....
:j:j
6


(I




A

-6
6-
(;

r;=i=i


.A

(;


.....
r,;-fJ
i=l
If

E'7
:!!

-1
;,
{J

E b Instruments
123
J= 184
HOMESICK HOOSIER
6 Choruses
CESH(A-)
3-fJ9(F#-ED)
BBL(D or G#)
CMAR(B or F)
GBNF(F)
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CESH(D -r -------------------------,
BBL(G) 3-fJ9(B-AfJ)'
CMAR(E) BBL(G or C#))
,
CESH(G-) - - - - - - - - --
7-3(AfJ-G) - - - - - - - - --
BBL(C)
GBNF(A)* - - - - - - - - r CMAR(E or BfJ)
CMAR(A)
CMAR(E)
II: FLl
IT/AD(GfJ lyd.aug.) GBNF(E) GBNF(E or BD) GBNF(A)
I 07 I G7+4 "/. 1 G-7
- - - HG(Fmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --,
- - -: 3-D9(E-OD)
BBL(C or F#)
CMAR(A or D#)
GBNF(A or D#)
IT/AD(E Iyd.aug.)
BD(BD-7)*·
#UO(AD07)
C7
,
CMAR(E)
1 FLl
HG(BDmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - r
7-3(BfJ-A) .
3-fJ9(A-F#)
BBL(F or B)
CMAR(D or G#)
GBNF(D or G#)
CESH(C-) IT/AD(A Iyd.aug.)
BD(ED-7)
#IIO(C#07)
F7
CMAR(A)
II BDLl
CESH(BfJ-)
3-fJ9(G-E)
BBL(ED)
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C)
#UO(ADO)
1 ED7+4
CESH(A-)
3-D9(F#-ED) CESH(D-r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . HG(Fmaj.) - - - - -
7-3(F-E) ------, 3-D9(E-OD)
CESH(G-) - - - - :- _ HL ___ ,
CMAR(A or ED) ,
BBL(D or G#) 3-D9(B-AD) ,
CMAR(B or F) BBL(G) BBL(G or C#)
GBNF(B or F) CMAR(E) CMAR(E or BD)
BBL(C)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
GBNF(A or ED)
IT / AD(E Iyd.aug.)
BD(BD-7)
CMAR(E)
FLl
- - - - - - - - - - - ,
IT/AD(GD Iyd.aug.) GBNF(E) GBNF(E or BD)
1 07 1 G7+4 "/.
, CESH(A-)
#UO(ADO)
1 G-7
1 C7
II
3-D9(F#-ED) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -.
,
BBL(D or G#) CESH(D-}-------------------, 7-3(D-C#) -----,
CMAR(B or F) BBL(G) 3-D9(B-AD) : ' 3-D9(C#-BD)
GBNF(F) CMAR(E) BBL(G or C#) BBL(C) BBL(ED)
GBNF(A) - - - - - - - - - -: CMAR(E or BD) CMAR(A) CMAR(C)
CMAR(E) IT/AD(GD lyd.aug.) GBNF(E) GBNF(E or BD) GBNF(A) GBNF(C)
FLl 1 07 1 G7+4 "/. 1 p 1
- - HG(D h.m.)- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
CESH(D-) 3-D9(C#-BD) CESH(D-) 3-D9(C#-BD) CESH(D-) ,
BBL(G) BBL(ED) BBL(G) BBL(ED) BBL(G)
CMAR(E) CMAR(C) CMAR(E) CMAR(C) CMAR(E)
GBNF(E) GBNF(C) GBNF(E) GBNF(C) GBNF(E)
O-Ll 1 II O-Ll 1 1 O-Ll
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - HG(Fmaj.} - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
r CESH(G-) CESH(G-) IT/AD(E lyd.img.)
3-D9(G#-F)
BD(BD-7)


CESH(A-} - - - - - - - - T 7 -3(F-E) 7 -3(F-E)
7-3(G-F#) '3-D9(E-OD} 3-D9(E-OD)
3-D9(F#-ED} BBL(C or F#) BBL(C or F#)
BBL(D} CMAR(A) GBNF(G) - - - - - - - - - - - - , CMAR(A}
CMAR(B} GBNF(A) IT / AD(E Iyd.aug.)' GBNF(A}
GBDN(B) GBNF(A) - - - - - - - - - - -, BD(BD-7)
IT / AD(GD lyd.aug.} r #IIO(ADO)
1 A-7 07 1 G-7 C7
BD(BD-7)
IT / AD(GD lyd.aug.) #IIO(Ab 0)
07 1 G-7 C7
:11
* A different use of GBNF than what was recommended in Chapter 13, but because of the resolution to the next chord,
it works .
• * Whenever a BD is chosen, CMAR or GBNF may be played, starting on 9th of BD substitute, or a BBL on the 4th.
124
Concert Key
:160


6-
:0

URBANE BLUES
iA
f:i:

{tI
-s
:i
II '" -I-1/ '"
-N7+
q
.
"u"+5
125
Concert Key
URBANE BLUES
J = 160 -
12 Choruses
3-b9(A-Gb) 7
BBL(F) BBL(Bb) BBL(F) BBL(B)
CESH(C-) CESH(F-) CESH(C-)
CMAR(D) CMAR(G) BD(Bb-7) CMAR(D)
GBNF(D) GBNF(G) #UO(G#O) GBNF(D) GBNF(m) #IIO(C#O)
F7 Bb7 F7 F#-7 B7
7-3(Ab-G)
3-b9(G-H) 3-b9(F#-Eb)
BBL(Bb) BBL(Eb) BBL(F) BBL(Ab)
CESH(F-) CESH(Bb-) CESH(C-) CESH(Eb-)
CMAR(G) CMAR(C)
#lIO(G#O)
CMAR(D) CMAR(F)
GBNF(G) GBNF(C) GBNF(D) GBNF(F)
Bb7
I Bb-7
Eb7
I F7
I
7-3(F-E) 7-3(B-M)
3-b9(E-Db) 3-b9(A#-G)
BBL(C) BBL(F#) 7 -3(F-E)
CESH(G-) CESH(C#-) 3-b9(E-Db)
CMAR(A) BD(Bb-7) CMAR(D#)
BBL(F) - - - - - - - - - - ,
BD(Bb-7)
GBNF(A)
#IIO(G#O) GBNF(D#)
CMAR(D) - - - - - - --, CMAR(D#)
G-7 C7 C#-7 F#7 F7 G-7
126
B b Instruments
URBANE BLUES
:160

OJ?

-fJ
-6""

-t;
H
-1

(}-t:

c.-'
(F")
"1
,+

p:j
'1

-:f.
...
r;I ....
-I-
" -
"1
-e-
tJ
H
#I!J


Pi
::!

"6
.,.
p-dl'
B b Instruments
J= 160
12 Choruses
BBL(G}
CESH(D-}
CMAR(E}
GBNF(E}
II: G7
BBL(C)
CESH(G-}
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
C7

7-3(G-F#)
3-b9(F#-EP)
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B) BD(C- 7}
GBNF(B} #IIO(BpO)
A-7 07
URBANE BLUES
BBL(C}
CESH(G-}
CMAR(A} BD(C-7)
GBNF(A) #IIO(BpO)
I C7
7-3(Bp-A)
3-p9(A-Gp)
BBL(F}
CESH(C-}
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
#IIO(BPO)
I C-7
F7
7-3(Db-C)
3-p9(C-A)
BBL(Ap)
CESH(Eb-)
CMAR(F}
GBNF(F}
I Ep-7

BBL(G}
CESH(D-}
CMAR(E}
GBNF(E}
I G7
BBL(G)
CESH(D-)
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E)
I G7
3-p9(G#-F}
BBL(G)- - - - - - - - - - ,
CMAR(E} - - - - - - - -,
G7 E7:§
7-3(Gb-F}
BBL(Db}
CESH(AH
CMAR(Bb)
GBNF(Bp) #IIO(EbO)
I Ab-7
Op7
3-p9(G#-F}
BBL(Bp}
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
I E7:§
7 -3(G-F#}
3-p9(F#-EP}
BD(C-7}
CMAR(F}
A-7 07:§
127
128
E b Instruments
URBANE BLUES
:160

"
:0"

A tJ
1l'1
I
,,-fJ-'
"

...
'-(J



-t;
j!!
;a:
N
tf
( c.." )
e:-'
.,
-S

..,.

-:I. '/1

-f
P .... (;I .... ..
E b Instruments
J= 160
12 Choruses
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
07
BBL(G)
CESH(D-)
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E)
G7
3-b9(F#-H)
7-3(D-C#)
3-b9(C#-Bb)
BBL(A)
CESH(E-J
CMAR(F) BD(G-7)
GBNF(F#)
#UO(FO)
E-7 A7
URBANE BLUES
BBL(G)
CESH(D-)
CMAR(E) BD(G-7)
GBNF(E) #II°(F°)
G7
7 -3(F-E)
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
07
3-b9(E-0fJ)
BBL(C) BBL(D)
CESH(G-) CESH(A-)
CMAR(A) CMAR(B)
GBNF(A)
#IIO(FO)
GBNF(B)
1 G-7
C7
-+ 07
7-3(Ab-G)
3-b9(G-E)
BBL(Eb)
CESH(Bb-) 3-b9(D#-C)
CMAR(C) BBL(D)- - - - - - - - - - ,
GBNF(C) CMAR(B) - - - - - - - -,
1 Bb-7
H7
~
B 7 : ~
7-3(Db-C)
BBL(Ab)
CESH(Eb-)
CMAR(F)
GBNF(F) #UO(Bb 0)
Eb-7 Ab7
3-b9(D#-C)
BBL(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
1 B 7 : ~
7-3(O-C#)
3-b9(C#-Bb)
CMAR(C)
BO(G-7)
#IIO(P)
1 E-7
A 7 : ~
129
:11
130
Concert Key
't+vr; II'
J*--=;:j


'*
fJ
~
~ 7t'l
STELLAR
c.-?
c : ~
~


-+ rI ~ ...
~

~


)7r+ (J ~
::!!
• •

Concert Key
131
STELLAR
J= 132
4 Choruses
7-3(BI1-A)
3-v9(A-GV)
BBl(F)
i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .
(Choruses 1 & 2)
BBl(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
II: Et6
7-3(D-C#)
3-119(C#-BI1)
BBl(ED)
CESH(BI1-)
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C)
I A 7 ! ~
BBl(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
I C-7
- - - - - HG(El1maj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
7-3ED-D)
3-119(D-B) 3-119(C-A)
CMAR(C#) BBl(AI1)
I
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D) BBL(BI1)
IT/AD(A Iyd.aug.) CESH(F-)
BD(ED-7) CMAR(G)
#IIO(C#O) GBNF(G)
I F-7
IT / AD(D Iyd.aug.) CESH(EH
BBl(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
BD(AI1.: 7) CMAR(F)
#IIO(F#O) CMAR(D) GBNF(F) CMAR(A)
I EI1t. I A117+4
II mt.
I
Et6
7-3(AI1-G)
3-119(G-E) BBl(C) 7 -3(G-F#)
BBl(ED) CESH(G-) 3-119(F#-ED)
BBl(G) CESH(BI1-) CMAR(A) BBl(AI1)
CESH(D-) CMAR(C) GBNF(A) CESH(C-) CESH(EH
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E)
D-7
BBl(DD)
CESH(AH
CMAR(BD)
GBNF(BI1)
G 7 ! ~
3-119(C-A)
BBl(AI1)
CESH(EH
CMAR(F)
GBNF(F)
"/.
BBl(BI1)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
016
GBNF(C)
#UO(G#O)
I BI1-7
EI17
3-119(B-AI1)
BBl(DD)
CESH(AH
CMAR(BI1)
GBNF(BD)
"/.
CMAR(A)
I BI1t.
7-3(C-B)
3-119(B-AI1)
BBl(DD)
CESH(AH
CMAR(BD)
GBNF(BI1)
I G7!g
I
CMAR(E)
BD(BD-7) CMAR(D)
#IIO(G#O) GBNF(D)
I Ft. I G-7
(Et6)
I
At6
BBl(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
I C-7
BBl(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
"/.
BBl(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A) CMAR(A)
"/.
II Et6
7-3(BD-A)
3-119(A-GV)
BBl(B)
BBl(AI1) CESH(F#-)
CESH(EH CMAR(G#)
CMAR(F) GBNF(G#)
GBNF(F) BD(EI1-7) CMAR(A)
Ct6
I F7!g I Bbt.
CMAR(F)
GBNF(F)
I D7!g
BBl(AI1)
CESH(EH
CMAR(F)
GBNF(F)
I A117+4
7-3(D-C#)
3-119(C#-BD)
BBl(EI1)
CESH(BD-)
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C)
I A7!g
CMAR(A)
'/.
"
:11
132




-e
Ji
.... I7Cl 'v
..,
+

+r;-fr
;c
-(J


'or
rJ"
I'"
....
" ,
&
t
U)
..

,

fI(,I 'W'
1
#
.g b",


'-
f.
t


:f.

+ r-
+
h!
-fJ
r.I ...
=F-
7(} fI(,I + {/
,.
'1:::::.

'or
(,I -
133
7-3(BI1-A) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
(Choruses 3 & 4) 3-119(A-GP)
,
7-3(D-C#) BBL(F)
3-119(C#-BI1) CMAR(D)
BBL(C) BBL(EP) BBL(F) GBNF(D) BBL(BI1)
CESH(G-) CESH(BH CESH(C-) IT/AD(A lyd.aug.) CESH(F-)
CMAR(A) CMAR(C) CMAR(D) BD(EI1-7) CMAR(G)
GBNF(A) GBNF(C) GBNF(D)
GBNF(G)
II: I A7!§ I C-7
I F7
I Bl17sus.4
- - - - - HG(EPmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
7-3EI1-D) ,
3-119(D-B) 3-119(C-A)
CMAR(C#) BBL(AI1)
IT / AD(D lyd.aug.) CESH(EH
BBL(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
BD(AI1-7) CMAR(F)
#UO(F#O) CMAR(D) GBNF(F)
I I Ab7+4
7-3(AI1-G)
3-119(G-E)
BBL(EI1)
BBL(G) CESH(Bb-)
CESH(D-) CMAR(C)
CMAR(E) GBNF(C)
GBNF(E)
#IIO(G#O) CMAR(E)
0-7
I BI1-7
Eb7
I
I
3-119(B-Ab)
BBL(DP) BBL(DI1) BBL(F)
CESH(AI1-) CESH(AI1-) CESH(C-)
CMAR(Bb) CMAR(BI1) CMAR(D)
GBNF(BI1) GBNF(BI1) GBNF(D)
Bd+5/B11 "/.
I C-7
3-119(C-A)
BBL(Ab)
CESH(Eb-)
CMAR(F)
GBNF(F) GBNF(E) CMAR(E)
"/.
I A/Bb I
7-3(DP-C) 7-3(C-B) 7-3(B-Bb)
3-b9(C-A) 3-b9(B-Ab) 3-b9(m-G)
BBL(Ab) BBL(G) BBL(F#)
CESH(Eb-) CESH(D-) CESH(Db-)
CMAR(F) CMAR(E) CMAR(D#)
GBNF(F) GBNF(E) GBNF(D#)
EI1-7 Ab7·
1
0
-
7 G7
IOb-7
GI17
1
BBL(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
CMAR(A)
II
I
EJ1I
7 -3(G-F#)
3-119(F#-EP)
BBL(AI1)
GBNF(A) CESH(C-) CESH(Eb-)
BD(Bb-7) CMAR(D) CMAR(F)
#UO(G#O) GBNF(D) GBNF(F)
EJ1I
I
107!§
BBL(F) BBL(AI1)
CESH(C-) CESH(Eb-)
CMAR(D) CMAR(F)
GBNF(D) GBNF(F)
"/.
I
7-3(D-C#)
3-119(C#-BI1)
BBL(C) BBL(EP)
CESH(G-) CESH(Bb-)
CMAR(A) CMAR(C)
GBNF(A) GBNF(C)
II EJ1I I A7!§
7-3(Bb-A)
3-b9(A-GI1)
BBL(Ab)
CMAR(F)
BD(EP - 7) CMAR(A) CMAR(A)
CJ1I
F7!§
I
"/.
II
:11
134
1!.
B b Instruments

4
<J
<J
rI -

,..,



..J.



STELLAR
"# -IT
. w •
;,r,L-S-
-


...
..



..

.,
.,
.. ::PuN
+" ...

-(I
+" ...
ff!

+s
.,
1.



...


• •

B b Instruments
STELLAR
J= 132
4 Choruses 7-3(C-B)
3-b9(B-Ab)
(Choruses 1 & 2)
7-3(E-D#) BBL(G)
3-b9(D#-C) CMAR(E)
BBL(D) BBL(F) BBL(G) GBNF(E)
CESH(A-) CESH(C-) CESH(D-) IT / AD(B lyd.aug.)
CMAR(B) CMAR(D) CMAR(E) BD(F-7)
GBNF(B) GBNF(D) GBNF(E) #I10(EbO)
II: F#IIS
I
1
0
-
7
I G7
- - - - - HG(FTTlaj.) - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
7-3(F-E) ,
3-b9(E-C#)
CMAR(Eb)
IT / AD(E lyd.aug.)
BD(Bb-7)

CMAR(E)

I Ft.
7-3(Bb-AJ
3-b9(A-F )
BBL(F)
BBL(A) CESH(C-)
CESH(E-J
CMAR(O)
CMAR(F) GBNF(D)
GBNF(F#)
#IIO(BbO)
E-7
I C-7
F7
3-b9(C#-Bb)
BBL(Eb) BBL(Eb)
CESH(BH CESH(Bb-)
CMAR(C) CMAR(C)
GBNF(C) GBNF(C)
A7+
9
+5
"/.
3-b9(D-B)
BBL(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G) CMAR(B)
I Bb7+4
II ct.
BBL(O)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B) CESH(O-)
BD(C-7) CMAR(E)
CMAR(F#)
#IIO(BbO)
GBNF(E)
I Gt. I A-7
(F#IIS)
I
BIIS
BBL(G) BBL(G)
CESH(O-) CESH(O-)
CMAR(E) CMAR(E)
GBNF(E) GBNF(E)
1
0
-
7
"/.
135
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
,
BBL(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
I G-7
I
BBL(O)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
I
F#IIS
I
7-3(A-G#)
3-b9(G#-F)
BBL(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
I
II
BBL(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
I Bb7+4
7-3(E-0#)
3-b9(D-B) 3-b9(0#-C)
BBL(Bb) BBL(D) BBL(F)
CESH(F-) CESH(A-) CESH(C-)
CMAR(G) CMAR(B) CMAR(D)
GBNF(G) CMAR(B) CMAR(B) GBNF(B) GBNF(D)
"/.
I Cli
"/.
II F#IIS I
I
7-3(C-B)
7-3(0-C#) 3-b9(B-Ab)
3-b9(C#-Bb) BBL(C#)
BBL(C) BBL(Eb) BBL(Bb) CESH(AH
CESH(G-) CESH(BH CESH(F-) CMAR(Bb)
CMAR(A) CMAR(C) CMAR(G) GBNF(Bb)
GBNF(A) GBNF(C) GBNF(G) BD(F-7) CMAR(B) CMAR(B)
EllS

OIlS

eli
"/.
136
6 ~
-6t:J

4-
-(;
~
~ .
'rfJ -6 1S
1-6
" ...
{} v
E . - ~
. J
~


-S

-(J

-6

~ ~ ,-
rI ....
B/c.
~ ~
e
-1 ~

~
"'

. ~
:1i! -:I.
()" ;0 +" WI'
I
~
~ -tJ
~
-N
g.
~
t ....
.()
-:i
"+
;r. -{I
,,-I-i ~
-
(Choruses 3 & 4)
7 -3(E-0#)

BBL(D) BBL(F) BBL(G)
CESH(A-) CESH(C-) CESH(D-)
CMAR(B) CMAR(D) CMAR(E)
GBNF(B) GBNF(D) GBNF(E)
CL1+5jB D-7
- - - - - HG(FIl1aj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7 -3(F-E)
3-b9(D-B)
CMAR(Eb) BBL(m)
IT/AD(E lyd.aug.) CESH(F-)
BD(Bb-7) CMAR(G)
#IIO(AbO) CMAR(E) GBNF(G)
BBL(A)
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
GBNF(F#)
E-7
BBL(Eb)
CESH(Bb-)
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C)
C#L1+5jC
3-b9(D-B)
BBL(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
"/.
7-3(Eb-D)
3-b9(D-B)
BBL(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
F-7 Bb7
I FL1 I Bb7+4
7-3(Bb-A)
3-b9(A-F#)
BBL(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
#UO(BbO)
I C-7
F7
3-b9(C#-Bb)
BBL(Eb)
CESH(Bb-)
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C)
"/.
GBNF(F#)
I BjC
7-3(D-C#)
3-b9(C#-Bb)
BBL(A)
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
GBNF(F#)
I E-7
A7
CMAR(F#)
I GL1
I
BBL(G)
CESH(D-)
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E)
I D-7
CMAR(F#)
I CL1+4
7-3(Db-C)
3-b9(C-A)
BBL(Ab)
CESH(Eb-)
CMAR(F)
GBNF(F)
I Eb-7
Ab7
I
137
7-3(C-B) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . ,

,
BBL(G)
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E) BBL(C)
IT / AD(B \yd.aug.) CESH(G-)
BD(F-7) CMAR(A)

G7
CMAR(B)
II CL1
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
I
GBNF(A)
C7sus.4
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
F#¢
7-3(A-G#)
3-b9(G#-F)
BBL(Bb)
GBNF(B) CESH(D-) CESH(F-)
F#¢
BD(C-7) CMAR(E)
#UO(BbO) GBNF(E)
I FL1+5
BBL(G)
CESH(D-)
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E)
"/.
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
II F#¢
7-3(C-B)
3-b9(B-Ab)
BBL(m)
CMAR(G)
BD(F-7) CMAR(B)


I CL1
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
I
BBL(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
I AbL1+5
7-3(E-0#)
3-b9(D#-C)
BBL(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
I B7!g
CMAR(B)
"/.
II
:11
138
E b Instruments

401d
E
,Tq
+5




:j
.t; I'J
-()
STELLAR
.

F'"+S


.. .
-I-
• :!
....
'1




- "

-S

.,
139
E b Instruments
STELLAR
J= 132
4 Choruses
7-3(G-F#)
3-l19(F#-El1)
BBL(D)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
,
,
(Choruses 1 & 2)
BBL(A)
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
GBNF(n)
7-3(B-M)
3-l19(M-G)
BBL(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
IT / AD(F# Iyd.aug.)
BD(C-7)
#UO(BDO)
BBL(G)
CESH(D-)
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E)
A-7
- - - - - HG(Cmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
7-3(C-B) ,
3-l19(B-Al1) 3-l19(A-GD)
CMAR(M) BBL(F)
IT/AD(B Iyd.aug.) CESH(C-)
BD(F-7) CMAR(D)
#IIO(EDO) CMAR(B) GBNF(D)

I Cil I F7+4
7 -3(F-E)
3-l19(E-OD) BBL(A)
BBL(C)
CESH(E-J:
BBL(E) CESH(G-) CMAR(F)
07
CMAR(F#)
II Gil
I
0-7
BBL(A)
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
GBNF(F#)
C#J1I
7-3(E-D#)
3-l19(D#-C)
BBL(F)
CESH(B-J
CMAR(A) GBNF(n) CESH(A-) CESH(C-)
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C#)
B-7
3-l19(G#-F)
BBL(Bl1}
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)

3-l19(A-GD)
BBL(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
"/.
BBL(G)
CESH(D-)
CMAR(E)
GBNF(E)
BJ1I
GBNF(A)
#IIO(P)
I G-7
C7
3-l19(Al1-F)
BBL(Bl1)
CESH(F-}
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
"/.
7-3(A-G#)
3-b9(G#-F)
BBL(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
E7+
9
+5
CMAR(C#)
I Oil I E-7
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
I A-7
CMAR(F#)
"/.
7-3(G-n)
CMAR(B) BD(G-7)
#UO(FO) GBNF(B)
(C#J1I)
I
F#J1I
BBL(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
"/.
BBL(A)
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
GBNF(F#)
II C#J1I
3-b9(F#-ED)
BBL(G#)
BBL(F) CESH(ED-)
CESH(C-) CMAR(F)
CMAR(D) GBNF(F)
GBNF(D) BD(C-7) CMAR(F#)
AJ1I

Gil
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
I
BBL(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
I F7+4
7-3(B-A#)
3-l19(M-G)
BBL(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
I
CMAR(F#)
"/.
II
140
\




oS
OWl'
tj


oS """1'7 "

..
-6
.. t:J -I-


8-
IJ

t-e"

;s

..,
--S


I'J

... IIJ
-6-1




6-1
n t-s-
IIJ
12'
:s
1-6
:e:
r:J ...

A
c.+S





-8-
oS


i-s-

'1
t!

oS
-e-
.. IIJ
N




.. t:J
I)


141
7 -3(G-F#) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
(Choruses 3 & 4)
7-3(B-A#)
3- ED)
BBL(D)
CMAR(B)
BBL(A) BBL(C) BBl(D) GBNF(B) BBl(G)
CESH(E-) CESH(G-) CESH(A-) IT / AD(F# lyd.aug.) CESH(D-)
CMAR(F#) CMAR(A) CMAR(B) BD(C-7) CMAR(E)
GBNF(F#) GBNF(A) GBNF(B)
GBNF(E)
II: GL1+5/F#
I F#7!g I A-7
1
07
I G7sus.4
- - - - - HG(Cmaj.) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
7-3(C-B)

CMAR(A#) BBl(F)
IT/AD(B lyd.aug.) CESH(C-)
BD(F-7) CMAR(D)
CMAR(B) GBNF(D)
BBl(E)
CESH(B-J
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C#)
8-7
BBl(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)


BBl(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
"/.
7-3(Bb-A)

BBl(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
C-7 F7
I CL1 I F7+4
7 -3(F-E)

BBl(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
#UO(FO)
I G-7
C7
3-b9(G#-F)
BBl(Bb)
CESH(F-)
CMAR(G)
GBNF(G)
"/.
GBNF(C#)
I F#/G
7-3(A-G#)

BBl(E)
CESH(B-J
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C#)
1
8
-
7 E7
CMAR(C#)
I 0L1
I
BBl(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
I A-7
CMAR(C#)
I GL1+4
7-3(Ab-G)
3-b9(G-E)

CESH(BD"'")
CMAR(C)
GBNF(C)
1
8b
-
7 Eb7
1
CMAR(n)
II GL1
BBl(A)
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
j
BBl(B) .
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
GBNF(F#)
C#¢
7-3(E-D#)
3-b9(D#-C)
BBl(F)
GBNF(n) CESH(A-) CESH(C-)
C#¢
BD(G-7) CMAR(B)
#UO(FO) GBNF(B)
I CL1+5
BBl(D)
CESH(A-)
CMAR(B)
GBNF(B)
"/.
BBl(A)
CESH(E-)
CMAR(F#)
GBNF(F#)
II C#¢
7-3(G-F#)

BBl(F)
CMAR(D)
BD(F-7) CMAR(F#)

07!g
1 GL1
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
I. 87:g
BBl(F)
CESH(C-)
CMAR(D)
GBNF(D)
I Eb
L1
+5
7-3(B-A#)

BBL(C)
CESH(G-)
CMAR(A)
GBNF(A)
I F#7!g
CMAR(n)
"/.
II
:11
142
,
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Aebersold, Jamey. A New Approach To Jazz Improvisation, Vol. 1.
New Albany, Indiana: self-published, 1967.
Aebersold, Jamey. A New Approach To Jazz Improvisation, Vol. 3.
New Albany, Indiana: self-published, 1974.
Aebersold, Jamey. A New Approach To Jazz Improvisation, Vol. 21.
New Albany, Indiana: self-published 1979.
Baker, David N. How To Play Bebop, Vol. 1. Van Nuys, California:
Alfred's Music 1985.
Baker, David N. The Jazz Style Of Cannonball Adderley. Hialeah,
Florida: Columbia Pictures Publications, 1980.
Baker, David N. The Jazz Style Of John Coltrane. Hialeah,
Florida: Columbia Pictures Publications, 1980.
Baker, David N. Modern Concepts In Jazz Improvisation. Van Nuys,
California: Alfred's Music, 1989.
Butler, Hunt. Modern Jazz Tenor Solos. Brett Music, 1988.
Coker, Jerry. Complete Method For Improvisation. Hialeah,
Florida: Columbia Pictures Publications, 1980.
Coker, Jerry. Jazz Keyboard. Hialeah, Florida: Columbia
Pictures Publications, 1984.
Coker, Jerry; Casale, Jimmy; Campbell, Gary; Greene, Jerry.
Patterns For Jazz. Hialeah, Florida: Columbia Pictures Publications, 1970.
Coolman, Todd. The Bass Tradition. New Albany, Indiana:
Jamey Aebersold, 1985.
Dobbins, Bill. Chick Corea: Now He Sings, Now He Sobs.
Rottenburg, Germany: Advance Music, 1988.
Keller, Gary. Sonny Stitt. Hialeah, Florida:
Columbia Pictures Publications, 1985.
Kynaston, Trent. Michael Brecker. Hialeah, Florida: Columbia
Pictures Publications, 1982.
Kynaston, Trent. Phil Woods. Hialeah, Florida: Columbia
Pictures Publications, 1981.
Leisenring, John; Butler, Hunt. J.J. Johnson. New Albany,
Indiana: Jamey Aebersold, 1989.
Reeves, Scott D. Creative Jazz Improvisation. Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey:Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989.
Ricker, Ramon. Pentatonic Scales For Jazz Improvisation.
Hialeah, Florida: Columbia Pictures Publications, 1976.
Slone, Ken. 28 Modern Jazz Trumpet Solos, Book 1. Hialeah,
Florida: Columbia Pictures Publications, 1977.
Slone, Ken. 28 Modern Jazz Trumpet Solos, Book 2. Hialeah,
Florida: Columbia Pictures Publications, 1980.
Slone, Ken. Charlie Parker Omnibook. New York, New York:
Atlantic Music Corporation, 1978.
Jerry Coker followed an early calling to become a jazz tenor saxophonist, growing up
in a family of jazz musicians. He went on to Indiana University, where he received
training in composition and multiple woodwinds. Study was interrupted by a several-year
stint as featured soloist with Woody Herman, Stan Kenton, and Frank Sinatra, during
which time he discovered a love for teaching. Applying to Yale, he was given a full
scholarship in composition. After attending there, he later returned to Indiana University
for graduate study and a position as director of jazz studies. 1991 marks his 33rd year of
teaching at the college level.
Jerry Coker's output as an author of jazz texts and his work as a recording artist have
brought him international attention (his first book is now printed in Japanese, Spanish,
Italian, and German). He has taught in many countries abroad and in Canada through
hi"s association with the Jamey Aebersold clinics.
At the University of Miami, Coker developed the first program offering both a
Bachelor's and a Master's degree in jazz, and he has since created a similar program at
the University of Tennessee in Knoxville.
Recordings include "Extensions", (featured soloist with Clare Fischer) and more
recently, "Rebirth" and "Re-emergence", each being feature albums.
Jerry Coker has authored How to Listen to Jazz, Improvising Jazz, The Complete
Method for Improvisation, Drones for Improvisation, Jerry Coker's Jazz Keyboard for
Pianists and Non-Pianists, The Jerry Coker Figure Reading Series, The Teaching of
Jazz, Patterns for Jazz, The Jazz Idiom and How to Practice Jazz.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful