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Saturated liquid water contained in a closed rigid tank is cooled to a final state where the temperature is 55oC and the masses of saturated vapor and liquid present are 0.05 and 1999.95 kg, respectively. Determine the heat transfer for the process, in kJ SOLUTION : System : A Rigid tank contain water Process : Constant Volume Table Properties : Steam Assumption : ∆EK = ∆EP = 0 Diagram :

Sat. liq

T 1

M ix. Phase T2

T2

2 v

Final state : T2 = 55oC, mg2 = 0.05 kg and mf2 = 1999.95 kg mtotal = 2000 kg, x2 = mg2/mtotal = 0.05 kg/ 2000kg = 0.000025 From Steam Table for Tsat = T2 = 55oC, vf2 = 0.001015 m3/kg, vg2 = 9.56 m3/kg, uf2 = 230.24 kJ/kg, ufg2 = 2219.10 kJ/kg, so that : v2 = vf2 + x2(vg2-vf2) = 0.001015 m3/kg + 0.000025(9.56-0.001015) m3/kg = 0.001254 m3/kg u2 = uf2 + x2*ufg2 = 230.24 kJ/kg + 0.000025*2219.10 kJ/kg = 230.30 kJ/kg Process took place at constant volume, so that v1 = v2 = 0.001254 m3/kg Initial state is saturated liquid. from interpolation of steam table for vf = v1 = 0.001254 m3/kg, we got u1 = uf = 1085.22 kJ/kg, From energy conservation law : ∑Ein - ∑Eout =∆Esys or Qnet - Wnet = ∆Esys for closed system Qnet - Wnet = ∆Usys + ∆EKsys + ∆EPsys Wnet = 0, and ∆EK = ∆EP = 0 so that Qnet = ∆Usys = mtot(u2 -u1) Qnet = 2000kg(230.30-1085.22)kJ/kg = -1709851.05 kJ 1709851.05 kJ heat transferred by the system to surrounding.

in kJ. area A = 0. Determine the total amount of heat transfer.A two-phase liquid–vapor mixture of H2O with an initial quality of 30% is contained in a piston–cylinder assembly as shown.000218kg Process 1-2 is a constant pressure process with P2 = P1 = 144.826kJ Total amount of heat transfer to the system is 0.00-1079.46m3/kg because v3 > vg.00)kJ/kg + 0.826 kJ 3 2 3 .008m2 = 0.045kJ = 0.56kPa Process 2-3 is a constant volume process.000393-0.008m2 = 0. we got u3 = 4668. Friction between the piston and the cylinder wall is negligible. The mass of the piston is 35 kg.Wnet = ∆Esys for closed system Qnet . Heat transfer to the water continues until its pressure is 400 kPa. from steam table of superheated for Psat = 400kPa and v3 = 1. (use g = 10 m/s2) SOLUTION: System : Piston cylinder with upper stopper contain water Process : combination of constant pressure and constant volume Table properties : steam Assumption : ∆EK = ∆EP = 0 Diagram : P 3 1 2 v x1 = 0. final condition of water is in superheated phase.∑Eout =∆Esys or Qnet . As the water is heated. From energy conservation law : ∑Ein . so that v3 = v2 = 1. the pressure inside the cylinder remains constant until the piston hits the stops.0/100 m*0.3611m3/kg.3611m3/kg = 0.Wnet = ∆Usys + ∆EKsys + ∆EPsys ∆EK = ∆EP = 0 so that Qnet . The initial positions of the piston h 1 is 1 cm and the final positions of the piston h2 is 5.000393m3 From steam table with using interpolation. The atmospheric pressure of the surroundings is 100 kPa.00kJ/kg.000079)m3/kg = 0.000079m3/0.56kPa V1 = h1*A = 1/100 m*0. we got v1 = 0.0 cm.30 h1 = 1cm and h2 = 5.008m2 Pressure from piston = P1 = Wpiston/A + Patm = (35kg*10m/s2)/0.045kJ and Qnet = ∆Usy + Wnet = mtot(u3 -u1) + Wnet = kg(4668.0cm piston : mass = 35kg and dimeter = 10cm.000079m3 V2 = h2*A = 5. and its diameter is 10 cm.8055 m3/kg P3 = 400kPa.00kJ/kg m = V1/v1 = 0.8055m3/kg. from steam table for Psat = 400kPa we got vg = 0.Wnet = ∆Usys W net =∫1 PdV =∫1 Pdv∫1 pdV =P V 2−V 10 Wnet = 400kPa(0.008m2 (1kPa/1000Pa) + 100kPa = 144. and u1 = 1079.

Wnet = ∆Usys + ∆EKsys + ∆EPsys ∆EK = ∆EP = 0 so that Qnet . Diagram : Initial State : Tank : mass = 4 kg.K mP1 = 200kPa*0.K*290K ln (400kPa/200kPa) = 108. T = 290K.05kg = 4. PT1 = 400 kPa.A rigid tank initially contains 4 kg of air at 400kPa. Ptank 400 kPa < Pcr so that air can be treated as an ideal gas. T = 290K. so that ∆Usys = 0 Q net =W net =∫1 PdV from an ideal gas relation : 2 P= 2 2 mRT mRT P --> Q net =W net =∫ PdV =∫ dV =mRTln 2 1 1 V T P1 Qnet = Wnet = 4. we can assume the condition of air in cylinder-piston will be the same as the condition of air in tank just after the valve is opened. P = 400kPa Final state : mass of air = 4.05kg. 290 K.02 m3. for air R = 0.Wnet = ∆Esys for closed system Qnet .35kJ the total amount of energy transfer by work and by heat is the same.35 kJ .05kg*0. 290 K.Wnet = ∆Usys Because air can be treated as an ideal gas and the process take place at constant temperature. and owing to heat transfer.05kg Total mass of air = 4kg + 0.K*K290) = 0. PP1 = 200 kPa. TP1 = 290 K from ideal gas relation m = PV/RT.287kJ/kg.05kg Initial condition of tank and cylinder-piston is different.02m3 of air initially at 200 kPa.∑Eout =∆Esys or Qnet . So the initial condition become : mass of air = 4.05kg. but because the mass of air in cylinder-piston << the mass of air in tank. that is 108. each in kJ SOLUTION: System : An Air is contained in rigid tank air connected by a valve to a vertical piston–cylinder which containing air too. The tank is connected by a valve to a piston–cylinder assembly oriented vertically and containing 0. For the air.02m3/(0. determine the total amount of energy transfer by work and by heat. Process : constant temperature Table properties : for Air Pcr = 3.287kJ/kg. The weight of the piston and the pressure of the atmosphere maintain a constant pressure of 200 kPa in the cylinder. the temperature stays constant at 290 K. P= 200kPa From energy conservation law : ∑Ein . TT1 = 290 K Cylinder-Piston : VP1 = 0. now the valve is opened so that a slow leak allows air to flow into the cylinder until the tank pressure falls to 200 kPa.287 kJ/kg.77MPa.

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